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-Ing Exercises

1. Translate the following sentences into English, considering types of participial structures
discussed:

Am să pun să fii arestat dacă mă mai deranjezi mult. / Nu după multă vreme, îl vrăji în aşa hal
încât îi mânca din palmă. / L-au descoperit aruncat intr-un colţ./ Cel care tocmai vorbeşte cu
Maria este fratele meu./ Lovitura l-a lăsat lat sub masă. / Nu-l mai ţine să aştepte./ Jim a pornit
motorul în doi timpi şi trei mişcări./ S-a dus să-şi extragă o măsea. / Vreţi să vă dăm unghiile cu
lac? / “Şi de unde ai găsit un şifonier atât de încăpător?” “L-am facut de comandă.” / De ce ai
uitat robinetul deschis? / O să pun casa la punct rapid./ L-a trimis la cumpărături./ Nimeni n-a
bănuit că la doar câteva zile după această discuţie, aveau să se trezească cu casa spartă. / A fost
descoperit întins în spatele unor lăzi, lovit şi plin de sânge. / Iar am găsit copilul neschimbat, ce-
ai făcut toată ziua? / Prefer să îţi ţii gura dacă nu poţi vorbi cuviincios!

2. Identify the participial structures in the following sentences:

Riding was something of a passion with her, so that it always made her restive to see someone
else riding a good horse. / We might possibly get the damages agreed at a comparatively nominal
sum, if you put in a defence and then didn’t appear. / And before her suddenly closed eyes came
Wilfrid’s face, with its lips drawn back, as she had seen it last passing her in the Green Park. /
She went into Adrian’s after leaving him, and was rather disconcerted to find her Uncle Lionel
waiting for her there./ I shall vow that towards the end of the voyage the correspondent was seen
coming out of the respondent’s stateroom. / Dinny, sitting taut between her father and her sister,
feeling in her whole being the vibration of her pride and her own, heard the slow rich voice
striking in behind her. / In any case, you gave instructions to have your wife watched. / My Lord,
before resuming my cross-examination of the respondent, I should be glad to recall the
petitioner. (John Galsworthy – Over the River)

3. Join each of the following pairs of sentences, using either a present participle, or a past
participle:

1.She didn’t want to hear the story again. She had heard it all before. 2. I turned on the light. I
was astonished at what I saw. 3. I have looked through the fashion magazine. I realize that my
clothes are hopelessly out of date. 4. In this chapter the characters have an unintelligible
conversation. They are lying face downwards in a sea of mud. 5. The tree had fallen across the
road. It had been uprooted by the gale. 6. People were sleeping in the next room. They were
wakened by the sound of breaking glass. 7. I knew that the murderer was still at large. I was
extremely reluctant to open the door. 8. Mother punished me for my mistake. I slammed the door
of my room. 9. He fed the dog. He sat down to his own dinner. 10. They found the treasure. They
began quarreling about how to divide it.

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4. The following sentences contain misrelated participles. Read the sentences and try to
correct them. How do you account for the term misrelated?

1. Running into the room, a rug caught her foot and she fell. 2. Riding in the first race, his horse
fell at the last jump. 3. Knowing me to be the fool of the family, the news that I had won
a scholarship astonished him. 4. Reading in bed, my hands often get very cold. 5. Leaving the
cinema, it seemed to him that the film had been exceptionally bad. 6. Climbing down the tree,
one of the eggs broke. 7. Barking furiously, I let the dog out of the room. 8. Getting out of bed, a
scorpion bit him. 9. Sitting in the dentist’s chair, an idea suddenly occurred to me. 10. Dropped
by parachute, the country seemed entirely unfamiliar. 11. Tied to the post, the sea was tossing the
post up and down. 12. Passing under a ladder, a pot of paint fell on my head.

5. Match a word in list (a) with a word in list (b) to form a compound word:
a) fair, broad, red (twice), bald, three, many, cloth, stony, narrow, open, fishy, empty, lion, sharp,
wooden, quick, dark, eagle, straight, open
b) Headed (5 times), haired (twice), eyed (3 times), shoulder, hearted (twice), cornered, coloured,
covered, minded (3 times), skinned, handed

6. Same instructions as before:


a) molten, drunken, lighted, mown, roast, shaven, stricken, sunken, shorn, hidden, shrunken,
bounden, ill-gotten, rotten, graven
b) grass, candle meat, deer, man, lead, eyes, head, meaning, stream, lamb, plank, image, duty,
wealth
7. In the following pairs of sentences, the same verb is missing twice, once used as a
present participle and once as a past participle. Insert the correct form in each gap:

1. Books ________ out of the library must be returned within three weeks. / People ______
books out which haven’t been stamped will be banned. (take) 2. The film, _______ by
S.Spielberg, is expected to be a great hit./ Power stations _______ enough energy to supply
several towns are soon to be built on the south coast. (produce) 3. Crops _______ under glass
mature more quickly than those in the open. / Farmers ________ such crops can therefore catch
the early markets. (grow) 4. I stared at the canvas for ages, ________ the artist’s skill and eye for
detail. / Swiss watches, _______ for their elegance and precision, are sold throughout the world.
(admire) 5. The escaped prisoner, ________ hiding in a barn, was today taken back to prison. /
Many old people ,_______that their savings have been eaten into by inflation, are having
difficulties in making both ends meet. (find) 6. I fell on the ice, _______ my arm. / Three people,
_____ when their car crashed on the M1, were taken to hospital. (injure). 7. Whales, _______ for
their valuable oil and meat, are in grave danger of extinction. / Thousands of people went
shopping in the sales today, _______ for a bargain. (hunt).

8. Translate into English:


1. Toate liniile ei erau pline şi rotunde: bucla de pe frunte şi de pe lângă urechile descoperite;
umerii abia ascunşi sub o dantelă; sânii chinuiţi în strânsori; şoldurile plesnind sub un corsaj
ascuţit care le tăia, lăsându-le să joace libere şi ghicite sub largile falduri. O umbreluţă, când
strânsă, când deschisă, plina şi ea de ape şi valuri, arunca pe faţa şi fiinţa femeii umbre şi culori
ce mişcau şi înviau neîncetat toate liniile.

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2. Deşi clipa îi era tulburata mai adânc, o plăcere nelămurită a trecut iute prin Bubi. S-a simţit
alături de tatăl său şi el stăpân la curtea lor, şi încă recunoscut de femeia pe care o dorea.
3. După câtva timp, stăruinţa acestei fraze risipi îmbătarea lui Bubi, silindu-l să-I cerceteze
înţelesul. Şi sufletul său, nesigur şi moale, biruit veşnic de o îndoială, trezit, destrăma în
şovăiri puterea din jurul său. I se păru că refrenul lui Dorodan sună ca o proorocire misterioasă.
Se simţi deodată încolţit de un necunoscut pe care îl uitase şi care venea înspre el din toate
părţile. Înălţimea de entuziasm unde stat o clipă se îneca în apa mare şi tulbure de şovăieli. Şi,
descleştându-şi braţele de pe umerii bătrânului, începu să privească neliniştit primprejur, ca şi
cum, deodată sufocat, ar fi căutat aer şi un liman.
4. Stătea în jurul ei tot ce avea să fie o masă îmbelşugată:carnea roşie, împănată cu vine galbene
de grăsime, peştii cu solzi săriţi sub cuţit, legume date prin mai multe ape, păsări tăiate, aruncate
în ligheane şi risipind un abur greţos de pene opărite, precum şi foile de plăcintă, întinse, şi moi,
cu praf de făină uşoară şi lipicioasă pe ele, toate trecând prin mâinile pricepute ale coanei Miţa,
care le rânduia, le fierbea, le cocea. (Ion Marin Sadoveanu – Sfârşit de veac în Bucureşti)

9. Translate into English, remembering that the gerund is always used of a preposition, a
prepositional verb or a phrasal verb:

Nu este nici o speranţă să se găseasca supravieţuitori dupa prăbuşirea avionului. / Te-ai scuzat
pentru că l-ai deranjat? / Am renunţat să joc / la jocul de fotbal când am terminat şcoala. / Teai
săturat probabil să faci acelaşi lucru zi de zi. / John a fost sever mustrat pentru că “teroriza”
băieţii mai mici decât el. / Publicul a fost avertizat de pericolul de a se plimba prin parc noaptea.
/ Nu-l interesează deloc să-şi crească copiii. / Se pare că-ţi place foarte mult să subliniezi
defectele altora. / Minerii sunt întotdeauna avertizaţi să nu ducă chibrituri în mine. / Cine
răspunde de încuiatul uşilor şi paza clădirii noaptea? / Ar trebui să te gândeşti să economiseşti
bani în loc să speri că vei câştiga la cărţi. / Răspunsul la problema locuinţelor pare să rezide în
construirea de noi blocuri. / Nu vedeau nici un motiv pentru ca ei să nu facă aşa cum plănuisera
iniţial. / Doctorul m-a sfătuit să renunţ la fumat şi grăsimi. / A trebuit să amânăm plecarea în
vacanţă. / Compania aceea este specializată în fabricarea mobilei de birou. /Ar trebui să se
impună tuturor şi să se abţină de la a fuma în restaurante şi alte locuri publice. / Trebuie să-mi
cer scuze că am întârziat aşa de mult. / Judecătorul a fost acuzat de a nu fi dat juriului obiective
clare. / Se mândreşte că e totdeauna bine îmbrăcat. / I-am spus să nu-şi bată capul să pună
lucrurile la loc. / A trebuit să suportam mojicia tot timpul călătoriei. / Am cerut sfatul unui
avocat înainte de a ne decide să acţionăm în justiţie. / După ce a hărţuit-o bine pe vânzătoare, a
plecat din magazin fără să cumpere nimic. / În ciuda faptului că a trebuit să lupte cu o mare
agitată, înotătoarea a reuşit să traverseze canalul în timp record.

10. Identify the gerundial and participial constructions and state their function:
1. A stranger sharing the trip with us was bad enough. 2. He smiled to hear her talking in that
way. 3. Gambling is his favourite pastime. 4. It was worth trying to continue the efforts. 5. What
I don’t understand is you suddenly turning against me. 6. The only reason for selling was the
owner’s getting a new car. 7. He said he favoured people having decent haircuts. 8. I can excuse
his being rude to me but I cannot forgive his being rude to my mother. 9. He admitted to driving
the lorry recklessly. 10. They were interested in a true vote being expressed by the people. 11.
The house is accustomed to reports being presented orally. 12. The ceremony ended with his
having to receive a trophy. 12. He was spotted talking to her. 13. I was afraid that my answer

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might lead to him being charged for the offence. 14. She’s looking forward to having lots of
children. 15. The idea of him/his going to Paris appalled her.

11. Discriminate between gerunds and participles by means of paraphrase:


Chewing cow/ chewing gum; shooting gallery / shooting star; boiling water is a job I hate / I
need some boiling water; crying game / crying woman; swimming duck / swimming trunks;
pressing needs/ pressing people to answer questions; eating habits/ eating people; paying guests /
paying guests to leave is wrong.

12. Identify the verbal nouns in the following:


Men have as much patience for cool philandering as they have for shopping. / Shopping can be a
nice activity but shopping there can only be a mistake. / His coming there puzzled her./ His
sudden coming puzzled her./ The massive cutting of funds shocked everybody in the company. /
Cutting funds so suddenly came down as a shock. / Their looting and ruthless murdering
was never forgotten./ All newspapers commented on John’s robbing the bank. / John’s robbing
of the bank was widely commented on. / The unexpected robbing of the bank didn’t pass
unnoticed.

13. Complete the following dialogue by putting the verbs in brackets into the correct form,
gerund or infinitive, as required:
a) ‘I remembered my husband (say) that I must look out for myself. And I realized how silly I
was in not (know) that I was being watched.’
‘Tell me, Lady Corven, why did you defend this action?’
‘Because I knew that, however appearances were against us, we had done nothing (be) ashamed
of.’
Dinny saw the Judge (look) towards Clare, (take) down her answer, (hold) up his pen and
(speak).
‘On that night in the car you were on a main road. What was to prevent you from (stop) another
car and (ask) them (give) you a lead into Henley?’
‘I don’t think we thought of it, my Lord; I did ask Mr. Croom (try) (follow) one, but they went
by too quickly.’
‘In any case, what was there to prevent you from (walk) into Henley and (leave) the car in the
wood?’
‘I suppose nothing really, only it would have been midnight before we got to Henley; and I
thought it would be more awkward than just (stay) in the car. And I always had wanted
(try) (sleep) in a car.’
‘And do you still want to?’
‘No, my Lord, it’s overrated.’
b) Your uncle has been very kind to me and I shall simply have (call) and (thank) him. So do
look out for me about six o’clock tomorrow. I spend all my time (hunt) a job, and am beginning
(realise) what it means to poor devils (turn down) day after day.
c) I think you’re splendid (want) to be independent. It’s quite impossible for me not (be) in love
with you and (long) (be) with you all day and all night too. But I’m going to be as good as I can
because the very last thing I want is (cause) you uneasiness of any sort.

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d) (look up) Sir Lawrence’s number in Mount Street, he addressed the note, licked the envelope
with passion, and went out (post) it himself. Then, suddenly, he did not feel inclined (return) to
the Coffee House.
e) ‘I thought you’d never forgive me for (ask) at such a moment.’
‘Always delighted for you (ask) anything at any moment. I must go back now, but I’ll hope (see)
you again very soon.
f) ‘The word ‘national’ is winning this election,’ said Clare.
‘Where I went (canvas) in the town they were all Liberals. I just used the word and they fell.’
(hear) that the new Member would be at his headquarters all the morning, the sisters started
about eleven o’clock. There wasso much (come) and (go) round the doors that they did not like
(enter).
‘I do hate (ask) for things,’ said Clare. ‘Especially when they go on (ignore) you like that.’
‘Then you shall simply have to go on (ask) and after (get) it you can go on (become) whatever
you wish.’

14. In the following texts, identify the ING forms and analyse them syntactically:

a) He remembered entering the village and then the ground, the very earth opening up. First the
crack snaking its jagged way along the concrete, then the noise and the cracking stone, and
then the incredible sound of the ground opening up, the enormous split in the earth. The two
sides were moving apart, their edges crashing inwards, down, down into God knows where. The
sight of the two children, the man and his bike disappearing in the hole. The collapsing shops –
he remembered seeing the shops on one side collapsing – and then the ragged mouth reaching
towards him. (James Herbert – The Fog)
b) The people above heard the cry for help coming from the huge hole that had wrecked the
burning village. He looked up towards the daylight, hoping he would see somebody up
there, someone looking for survivors. Then he saw movement at his feet. At first, he thought it
was dust caused by the disturbance, but then he saw it billowing up from below. It was like a
mist, slowly rising in a swirling motion, slightly yellowish although he couldn’t be sure in the
gloom. It seemed to be spreading along the length of the split, moving up towards his chest,
covering the girl’s head. She started coughing. (James Herbert – The Fog)
c) The importance attaching to the meeting of two young people depends on the importance
which others attach to their not meeting. (John Galsworthy – Over the River)
d) Spying on other people being, according to the books he read, the chief occupation of the
people of these islands, it had never occurred to him to look down on a profession
conscientiously pursued for seventeen years. (John Galsworthy – Over the River)
e) Accustomed to the shadowing of people on their guard, the open innocence they were
displaying excited him in a slightly amused if not contemptuous compassion.
(John Galsworthy – Over the River)
f) Mr. Chayne listened to their manly American voices saying to each other: ‘Gee! He’s on us!’
with an interest which never prevented his knowing that his two young people were listening too.
(John Galsworthy – Over the River)
g) ‘Nothing so tiring as picture-gazing. I’m sorry to emulate Em and suspect you of not eating
enough, my dear. That sort of sparrow-pecking we did before going in doesn’t really count.’
(John Galsworthy – Over the River)

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h) She might just as well have stayed on soaking in her bath, for Dornford was busy on an
important case. She finished what jobs there were, looking idly out over the Temple lawn,
whence fine-weather mist was vanishing, and sunlight, brightening to winter brilliance, slanted
on to her cheek. (John Galsworthy – Over the River)
i) Two little boys carrying toy aeroplanes stopped dead, examining her dark eye-lashes resting on
her cream-coloured cheeks, and the little twitchings of her just touched-up lips.
Having a French governess, they were ‘well-bred’ little boys without prospect of sticking pins
into her or uttering a sudden whoop. (John Galsworthy – Over the River)
j) Donford spent a quiet hour with Clare over her evidence, and then went riding with her in the
rain. Dinny’s morning went in arranging for spring cleaning and the chintzing of the
furniture while the family were up in town. (John Galsworthy – Over the River)

15.Translate into English:


1. Aşa că vrând-nevrând, eram toţi adunaţi în camera aceea, mama mea, cei doi Mamona,
Vaucher şi cu mine, şi aşteptând ca tot ce avea să se întâmple să se întâmple cu adevărat şi nu
numai în închipuirea mea sau a lor. Şi ca la un semnal care anunţa un început, se deschise o uşă
şi venind o slugă, totul se animă deodată. Ridicându-se, Mamona cel Tânăr părăsi încăperea fără
să spună un cuvânt, dar lăsând în urma lui câţiva stropi de sânge, înveselind privirea cu roşul
lor fierbinte şi prevestitor. În urma slugii, împiedicându-se de Mamona cel Tânăr plecând, veniră
alte două şi cărând fiecare câte un cufăr.
2. Intrând în casa noastră în anul 1812, într-o joi, Vaucher a început prin a-l bate pe Mamona cel
Tânăr sub privirile mele şi ale mamei mele nepăsătoare şi a sfirsit în anul 1821, (…) omorât fiind
de către Mamona cel Tânăr, ucenicul său necredincios. Numai că toate astea sunt departe şi încă
de neînchipuit. Dar nu atât de neînchipuit încât, ieşind din băltoaca lui şi apropiindu-se de
Mamona cel Tânăr pentru a-l lovi, să nu-mi inchipui că peste puţină vreme mă va lovi şi pe
mine şi atunci, închizând ochii, apăsându-mi pleoapele peste privirea din ei, frica şi nepăsarea m-
au cuprins precum şi gândul că într-o zi cineva îl va omorî pe Vaucher şi ştiind că nu eu o voi
face, am ştiut şi cine. Şi poate că stând în băltoaca lui, Vaucher a ştiut şi el, arăta în orice caz ca
cineva care ştie, dar sperând că totul va fi altfel pâna la urmă.
3. Aşa că atunci când a intrat Mamona cel Bătrân, cu un sac ud pe umeri şi mirosind tare a ploaie
şi a sudoare, ne-a găsit pe fiecare la locul lui, pe mama mea părând absentă, dar ştiutoare, aşezată
cu spatele la noi, la mine, care stăteam cu ochii aproape închişi, pe Vaucher, aşezat în băltoaca
pe care o făcuse apa scursă din hainele lui, şi pe Mamona cel Tânăr, stând cu capul în tavan şi cu
o mâna ridicată în sus, după cum îi spusese mama, părând însă că ne salută sau că vrea să-şi ia
rămas bun de la cineva. Ne-a privit o clipa şi, fără să-şi lepede sacul de pe umeri, neostenindu-se
să facă nici asta, nicidecum să ne salute sau să spună ceva, se duse lânga mama şi, aplecându-se
puţin, o sărută pe frunte. Neclintiţi, continuam să stăm şi să aşteptăm. (Ştefan Agopian – Tache
de catifea)