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SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PROCEDURE

08PR167C LOADING AND UNLOADING


PROCEDURE

Brierty Ltd ABN 65 095 459 448


72 Melville Parade South Perth WA 6151
Locked Bag 2001 South Perth WA 6951
Telephone (08) 9267 8000
Facsimile 1300 735 152
info@brierty.com.au
LOADING AND UNLOADING PROCEDURE
SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PROCEDURE

CONTENTS

1 Purpose ...................................................................................................................................................... 3
2 Responsibilities ........................................................................................................................................... 3
3 Definitions ................................................................................................................................................... 3
4 Legislation .................................................................................................................................................. 4
5 Procedure Details ....................................................................................................................................... 4
5.1 Risk Assessment ............................................................................................................................... 4
5.2 Manual handling ................................................................................................................................ 5
5.3 Operational Plant and Machinery ...................................................................................................... 5
5.4 Weather ............................................................................................................................................. 5
5.5 Lifting Equipment ............................................................................................................................... 5
5.6 Designated Loading and Unloading Areas ........................................................................................ 6
5.7 Communications ................................................................................................................................ 6
5.8 Unloading Equipment ........................................................................................................................ 6
5.9 Vehicle Speed .................................................................................................................................... 7
6 General Requirements ............................................................................................................................... 7
6.1 Site Induction ..................................................................................................................................... 7
6.2 Personal protective equipment .......................................................................................................... 7
6.3 Working at Heights ............................................................................................................................ 7
6.4 Exclusion zones ................................................................................................................................. 8
6.5 Risk and Hazard ID ............................................................................................................................ 9
6.5.1 Load Energy Sources .................................................................................................................. 10
6.5.2 Side slope loading and unloading ................................................................................................ 10
6.5.3 Load movement ........................................................................................................................... 10
6.5.4 Long slope ................................................................................................................................... 11
6.5.5 Truck drivers ................................................................................................................................ 11
6.5.6 Site based loading crews ............................................................................................................. 12
6.5.7 Loading crews in general ............................................................................................................. 13

DOCUMENT CONTROL
Document ID Document Name Comment
08PR167C Loading and Unloading Vehicles

Date Version Description Originator Reviewer Approver


27/06/11 1 Safe Works Procedure T Thompson S Hart S Hart
27/09/13 2 Updated Risk Assessment process T Thompson B Bryan B Bryan

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1 PURPOSE
The purpose of this Procedure is to reduce the risk of injury or incident during the loading or unloading of
material or equipment whilst on Brierty Projects. This Procedure describes the standards necessary to
ensure all employees fully understand their responsibilities and necessary actions required for safely loading
and unloading materials from vehicles, such as trucks.

2 RESPONSIBILITIES
It is the responsibility of all management and supervisory personnel to ensure that hazards and safety issues
are resolved as quickly as possible and the workplace is free from hazards.

Project Manager shall:

 Ensure a system for loading and unloading vehicles is established, implemented and regularly
audited;
 Approve any loads being dispatched from the supplier’s depot;
 Ensure the personnel loading and unloading vehicles are appropriately trained; and

Supervisors shall:

 Ensure that personnel loading and unloading vehicles are aware of and understand the associated
hazards and the controls to be put in place.

All Personnel shall:

 Conduct a Risk Assessment (e.g. Take 5 or JHA) before commencing works to identify any hazards
or risk;
 Conduct a “load assessment” prior to loosening or removing any devices securing loads, if the load
has “shifted” contact your Supervisor do not continue to unload.
 Ensure this Procedure is implemented.

3 DEFINITIONS
Shall: Indicates that a statement is mandatory.

Should: Indicates a recommendation.

Ensure: Reference to an obligation of a party or the parties to (i) ensure that an outcome is
achieved or (ii) that an obligation or task is performed; is to be undertaken by that
responsible party or parties exercising due care, skill and diligence and by taking all
reasonable steps.

Cradles: Purpose made equipment that is used to manage loads of equipment while being
transported or lifted. It allows the load to be lifted from the one level to another in its
entirety. All Cradles shall be tagged and certified.

Contractor: A person contracted to undertake a task.

Flat Rack: Purpose made unit, which is compatible with shipping containers and come in 20’ and
40’ configurations. All flat racks shall be capable of a capacity of no less than 20 tonne.
All racks shall be tagged and certified.

Operator: The employee trained in this procedure, familiarised with the vehicle / plant and is
authorised to operate a specific vehicle and or plant type etc. The employee shall have
completed an approved light vehicle operator course and be assessed as being

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competent by a suitably authorised person on site.

Palletised: Where materials and equipment have been stacked and restrained in pallet type
sections whether tied shrink-wrapped etc. A maximum weight for materials shall be set
at no more than 2.O Tone.

Crated: Materials loading into crates, which have tyne access for forklifts. Maximum weight for
all Project material shall be consistent with the availability and suitability (design and
capability) of the forklift used for unloading.

Boxed: Equipment, which has been packaged in, boxes, which have tyne access for forklifts.
Maximum weight for all Project material shall be consistent with the availability and
suitability (design and capability) of the forklift used for unloading.

Containerised: Material that can be transported in bulk or as mixed loads inside sea containers.
Container size to be no greater than the standardised norm as set out in the relevant
shipping and transport regulations.

Unitised: Single units of equipment or material that is unloaded onto trucks and transported in
singles or a minimal number. Unit size to be no greater than the standardised norm as
set out in the relevant shipping and transport regulations. Where practicable pre rigging
accompanied by certification should be utilised at all times.

Journey Log: A document detailing the journey type, purpose, vehicle, duration, personnel involved
and routes etc.

Risk A documented risk assessment completed by personnel at both the individual and team
Assessment level prior to commencement of a task. Take 5’s, Safe Work Method Statement (SWMS)
or JHA’s are completed in order to identify relevant hazards and establish / implement
suitable control measures.

Pre Start A document, which requires vehicle operators to inspect a vehicle prior to operation or at
Checklist: the time of handing over of the vehicle to another operator.

Load A document, which requires vehicle operators to inspect a vehicle’s load prior to
Assessment: loosening or removing any devices securing loads or conducting any tasks involved with
loading or unloading a vehicle

4 LEGISLATION
Mines Safety and Inspection Act, 1994;

Mines Safety and Inspection Regulations, 1995;

Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996;

Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984;

AS 1742.3 Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices

5 PROCEDURE DETAILS
5.1 RISK ASSESSMENT
All personnel involved with loading and unloading material and equipment shall participate in and complete a
Risk Assessment (i.e. Safe Work Method Statement (SWMS), JHA or Take 5).

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After the relevant documentation has been checked, a risk assessment shall be undertaken and should take
the following into consideration:

 Load composition: Describing load characteristics, individual material and equipment weights (were
applicable);
 Transport instructions;
 Relevant dangerous goods and hazardous material certificates. This includes the manufacturers
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) and other appropriate / associated information;
 Rigging and lifting point certification (i.e. lugs and chains tagged and accompanied by certification),
and vehicle operators journey log;
 Conduct a “load assessment” prior to loosening or removing any devices securing loads, if the load
has “shifted” contact your Supervisor do not continue to unload.

5.2 MANUAL HANDLING


All activities, which require individuals to use any form of manual handling, shall be conducted in accordance
with procedure 08PR058C_Manual Handling.

Individual personnel should not attempt repetitive, frequent or heavy lifting. Mechanical lifting equipment
shall be made available for identified specific tasks as required. Mechanical lifting devices include, but are
not limited to:

 Trolleys;
 Hydraulic lifts;
 Forklifts;
 Cranes; and
 Vehicle mounted ‘Hiabs’ and / or similarly mounted lifting arms.

5.3 OPERATIONAL PLANT AND MACHINERY


All load shifting machinery and plant shall be authorised by the Project Manager to be used on site.
Authorisation shall only be given after the relevant machinery and plant has undergone an inspection prior to
use on site. Once on site all machinery and plant shall be inspected.

Cranes and other lifting machinery / plant shall be regulated in accordance with the Australian Standards.

Personnel assessed as being competent machinery and plant operators shall be designated as competent
operators only after provision of relevant licences, qualifications, competency assessment and plant
familirisation on site.

Personnel with the relevant and applicable qualifications and licence shall then undergo a competency
assessment, at the completion of which they shall either be approved / not approved as designated
operators in accordance with their licence restrictions.

5.4 WEATHER
Weather patterns for both regional and local conditions have the potential to impact upon loading and
unloading operations conducted throughout the project. Ensure adequate information is disseminated to
personnel.

5.5 LIFTING EQUIPMENT


All lifting equipment shall meet the following requirements;

 All lifting equipment shall be tagged and certified on arrival at site and prior to use;

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 All lifting equipment must be inspected and tagged by a competent person every three months and
entered into the appropriate lifting register;
 Equipment or material, with have designated lifting points, shall be accompanied with the correct
certifications and testing documentation;
 Materials with designated lifting points, which are not accompanied with the correct tags, certification
and testing documentation, must not be removed using the lifting points. Should this occur the crane
superintendent is to be notified and called to inspect the suspect lifting points;
 The requirements for certification and testing documentation shall be applied to all purpose built
lifting equipment such as flat racks, containers, cradles and bolsters etc
All lifts shall be conducted in accordance with the procedure 08PR155C_Lifting Equipment and Suspended
Loads

5.6 DESIGNATED LOADING AND UNLOADING AREAS


To ensure loading and unloading operations are conducted without interference from adjacent activities,
mobile machinery, plant and personnel a designated area shall be established where possible.

Where practicable the designated area shall be clearly marked and sign posted as a restricted area. All
personnel operating within the confines of this area shall wear a high visibility vest or like clothing.

Mobile plant and equipment such as forklifts and lifting equipment shall be designated for use within the
confines of this area and shall therefore, be restricted to use within this area only. This will significantly
reduce the probability of unauthorised use of vehicles and mobile plant for tasks other than loading and
unloading materials and equipment.

5.7 COMMUNICATIONS
Communication channels during loading and unloading shall be cleared as much as possible to ensure
directions are not misinterpreted. To ensure messages and instructions are interpreted correctly, all
instructions issued over radios are to be repeated by the receiving party.
If hand signals are to be used, these must be agreed upon by both the person directing the load and the
operator prior to commencing the lift.
The loading and unloading of materials is not to progress unless all parties are sure of the job plan and
general work scope and have completed and signed a JHA or Take 5.

5.8 UNLOADING EQUIPMENT


Safe access to trucks shall be provided to ensure three points of contact for access or egress of any part of a
vehicle that is above ground height;

A fall prevention (guard rails) or restraint system (harness & lanyard) shall be put in place if any person
needs to access a load or tray above ground level.

Truck drivers are permitted to loosen load binders and secure equipment on the completion of unloading.
Drivers are not permitted to assist in any other loading or unloading activities and must remain either in the
cab of the truck / vehicle or in an agreed safe location.

When unloading materials the following shall occur:


 Unloading materials is to be directed from the ground, or another safe location, in the event of either
restricted view, the going out of view, or no view at all;
 No person is to be on the tray of the truck or trailer while the load is being removed or placed;
 If possible all loads shall be pre slung to prevent personnel from climbing over the loads;
 All loads shall be secured to the forklift pallet;

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 All loads shall be supervised;


 All operators shall be deemed competent to operate equipment

5.9 VEHICLE SPEED


Unless otherwise stated (i.e. by means of memo or signage) the speed restriction of walking speed (5kph)
shall apply at all times in any designated loading or unloading area.

Personnel operating a vehicle on any road within the boundary of the project and facilities, including access
roads, must always drive to the conditions, regardless of the posted speed limit signage.

6 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
6.1 SITE INDUCTION
 Every site has different risks, problems and procedures. The site requires that truck drivers and
loaders are to be site inducted for that site;
 Ask about a site induction, BEFORE you arrive at the site.

6.2 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT


 Have the right PPE for the site – e.g. Hard hat, Safety glasses, Gloves, Reflective vests etc.;
 PPE requirements for the site is summarised in the Induction

6.3 WORKING AT HEIGHTS


Be aware that every time you are up on the tray of the truck you are at risk of a fall; Falls off trucks are one of
the greatest sources of loading / unloading injuries:

The key issues are:

 Avoid climbing up on the trailer.

 If you must get on the trailer, use fall restraint or fall arrest equipment and get down off the trailer
when the load is being placed on the trailer.

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 Do not climb up without a safe way of getting down.

 Use mobile work platforms if available

 Use truck mounted ladders if fitted

 Never jump down from a truck

 Never use the forklift or it's tynes to get on and off the
trailer

 Tie down from ground level where ever possible, or


standing at the centre of the trailer if necessary, BUT
NEVER while standing near the trailers edge

 Watch out for trip hazards on trailers such as equipment, product stacks and other trip and slip
hazards on trailers

 Never walk backwards on a trailer or bend over near the edge.

6.4 EXCLUSION ZONES


 Truck drivers and loading staff / crew members should always reduce the risk of injury by standing
well clear of forklifts, cranes, moving loads and load stacks which may tip over
 It is recommended that an exclusion zones is adopted to suit the material and the situation.
 No one should be allowed in these exclusion zones during loading or unloading, (including truck
drivers chaining loads) unless there is no alternative e.g. removing chain slings. Crew members
removing slings or doing other essential actions should not enter exclusion zones until the crane,

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forklift or load has ceased all movement, and the loader has signaled that it is safe to enter the
exclusion zone.

Notes for the Above Diagram


 This Red Exclusion Zone should be at least as wide as the height of the load about the ground.
Minimum 2.0m.
 This distance from the trailer should be enough to allow the forklift to back away from the trailer
and turn in any direction.
 The Red Exclusion Zone should be as large as required to keep personnel at least 2.0 metres
from any forklift, crane, or moving load.
 If a crew member must go into the Amber – Caution Zone they should not go any closer than
2.0m clear of any moving load, i.e. for a full length load such as 12m long beams, the whole
trailer could become a red zone.
 If a crew member must get on the trailer, the size of the Caution Zone will be dependent on the
length of the load. The above diagram depicts a load positioned in the middle of the trailer; It is
recommended that drivers always stay at least 2.0m clear of any moving load. Only approach a
load, for operations like removing slings, after the load has stopped moving.

6.5 RISK AND HAZARD ID


Before you plan the Loading or Unloading, Take Five minutes to think about and check the risks of this task
and record on a take 5 sheet. If you have had a problem, it is essential you stop and Take Five, before trying
to correct the problem.

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6.5.1 Load Energy Sources


One way of doing this is to consider all the local energy sources.

Moving Energy (Called Kinetic):

 Moving vehicles – Forklifts cranes, trucks or other adjacent vehicles;


 Loads being brought to or from, the trailer;
 Slips and trips, on or off the truck;
 Loads moving in transit due to poor load restraint; and
 Chains thrown over the trailer.

Gravity Energy (Called Potential):

 Loads or objects falling off cranes or forklifts;


 Loads falling off the trailer to the ground;
 Packs falling off stacks; and
 Persons falling off the trailer.

Stored Energy:
 Tight chains being released suddenly, (“releasing dogs”); and
 Slipping during tightening of a binder (‘dogging down’).

Electric Energy:
 Overhead Power Lines or crane feed wires.

Chemical Energy:

 Batteries, oils or other chemicals being carried on the same load or stored nearby where they
might be impacted.

** During loading and unloading, the first two types of energy are usually the biggest fatality risks.

6.5.2 Side slope loading and unloading

Loading or Unloading when the trailer is on a side slope is always a significant risk. Any loading or unloading
with a side slope greater than 5% (i.e: 1 in 20 or 3 degrees) warrants extra precautions, e.g. side pins,
exclusion zone on downhill side etc

Do not stand on the downhill side

6.5.3 Load movement


Always be aware of load movements during loading or unloading and never stand in the path of the
product. Never place any part of your body under a suspended load.

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TYPICAL <5% or 3 degrees (E.g. Cross fall on typical road)

Level

6.5.4 Long slope


Loading or Unloading a load which may roll is a significant risk on sites with slope along the truck. Always
stand uphill and or away from the direction of any load movement

Don’t stand where a load could trap or crush you

6.5.5 Truck drivers


In most cases the truck driver has ultimate responsibility for the performance of the vehicle. So his or her
advice should be taken on vehicle related matters such as:

Even Weight Distribution

Axle Weight

A poorly planned load –This load requires unpacking and repacking at each delivery point

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A well planned load – Consider this load and how it maintains a rough pyramid even after the early deliveries
are unloaded. All bundles are always clamped and this greatly helps restraint!

6.5.6 Site based loading crews


In most cases, the site based loading crew are responsible for all matters of how to load the truck. In
particular they should plan the safe loading /unloading operation and explain it carefully to relevant persons,
such as the truck driver or other relevant loading crew.

Load Plans should clearly identify:

 The packs of product to be carried;


 Equipment and loading / unloading practices required;
 Special measures or procedures taken to address all of the identified risks.
Typical problems include:

 Ensuring the crane slings or forklift ratings is suitable for the weight;
 Ensuring that forklift ratings and tynes or prongs are adequate for loading to the centre of the vehicle
not just the minimum radius where the name plate rating is measured

One of the most common bad practices is trying to use forklifts at reaches outside their rated limits, or with
loads balancing on the ends of tynes

In order to safely handle a load at the centre of the trailer it may be necessary to use a larger forklift to
achieve the required reach and tyne length

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6.5.7 Loading crews in general


The ideal Loading Crew is considered to be 2 Persons only, usually this would be:

 A loader (such as a crane/forklift driver) who is trained, authorised and aware of the site risks
such as a crane or forklift lifting limits, special product pack types etc; and
 The truck driver, who understands the transport and delivery hazards like weight distribution on
the vehicle, load restraint, delivery order etc.

The more people in your loading crew, the more chance of misunderstandings or losing sight of each
other.

Three or more people in a crew is not recommended for normal situations because:

 It is much harder for there to be a common understanding of the task and risks; and
 It is more difficult for a crane / forklift driver to keep everyone in the clear line of sight

Working Alone

This is always a risk factor and should be avoided. Drivers should not load / unload a vehicle alone.

Clear Communications

Along with a clear plan for the Loading / Unloading comes the need for the crew to communicate simply and
very clearly at each step.

 Look directly at your partner when giving an instruction or coordinating actions.

 Work to the agreed plan, or stop and tell your crew mate(s) of the change.

 If a load shifts or changes – STOP work, reassess the work plan / contact your supervisor. Do
not continue if unsafe!

Can’t See? – Can’t Work!

If you can’t see your partner, you can’t be sure they are in a safe position. So stop work until they are visible
and safe.

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Loading crews should politely refuse to load or unload a truck until the driver is in the correct location

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