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# Hydraulic structures II

## Exercise from chapter I – River Morphology

1) How do you differentiate hydraulically smooth flow and hydraulically rough flow?
 Hydraulically smooth flow
ud
 Shear Reynolds Number is less than or equal to two. Re *  * n  2
v
 dn is much smaller than the thickness of viscous sub layer
 Grains are embedded in the viscous sub layer and hence, *c is independent of the
grain diameter
 By experiments it is found that *c = 0.1/ Re*
 Hydraulically rough flow
 Re *≥ 500
 Viscous sub-layer does not exist;
 *` = 0.056 (constant) is independent of the fluid viscosity
2) If a trapezoidal channel of B = 3m, Side slope 2H: 1V, S0 = 0.0002 carry water and develops a shear
stress of 5N/m2. Calculate the shear velocity. Take v = 0.001Stokes.
 v = 0.01 stokes = 0.01cm2/sec = 10-6m2/s

   RS o  R   2.55m
S o
 V*  gRS 0  9.81  2.55  0.0002  0.071m / s
0 5
 By definition V*    0.071m / s
 1000
3) Why and how alluvial streams are generally in temporary and precarious equilibrium?
 Alluvial streams are free to adjust their dimension and shape in response to the changing
hydraulic condition. The bed and bank materials are predominantly cohesion-less (Silt, Sand,
and Gravel) that is transported by the stream itself.
 Lack of consistency in cross section index, meandering index etc… alluvial streams are only in
temporarily and precarious equilibrium.
4) Design an unlined channel in alluvial soil by tractive force approach for a discharge of 50m 3/s, S0 =
0.0002, Side Slope 0.5H:1V, n=0.0225 and  C = 0.0025KN/m2

   RSo  R   1.27m
S o
1 2 / 3 1/ 2
 Using Manning’s Equation V  R S  V  0.74m / s
n
 Where B – Bed width of the channel, y – depth of flow, P – wetting perimeter, A – wetted area,
R – Hydraulic Radius, m – side slope (m=0.5)

1
A
Q
 67.82m 2  A  y  B  my   B 
 A  my 
V y
A A 68.72
R P   53.40m  P  B  2  y  m 2  1  B  P  2  y  m 2  1
 P R 1.27
B 
 A  my   P  2  y  m 2  1  68.72  0.5  y   53.40  2  y  0.52  1
y y
by trail and error method  y  1.33m and B  50m

5) Draw expected velocity profile, sediment concentration, and sediment load profile diagrams for a given
stream section.

6) Determine the concentration of suspended load at 1.3m above the channel bed if the concentration at
0.3m above the bed is 300ppm. Take R = 3m, w = 0.03m/s, S 0 = 0.0002 and d = 4m.
 V*  gRS 0  0.077 m / s
 Take Van Korman Constant k = 0.4 (Commonly referred from table)
 Where w is fall velocity

C  d  y a  kV*
  
C a  y d  a 
0.03
C1.3m  4  1.3 0.3  0.40.077
    0.176
300 ppm  1.3 4  0.3 
C1.3m  0.176  300 ppm  52.86 ppm

2
7) Write short notes on the following
a) Bottom Sills
 It is subsurface dams that are built across a stream bed to facilitate the bed slope to be
done by the river itself. It is used when small check dams are not acceptable.
b) Check dams
 It is a weir like structures/low dams that will be built across a stream bed to facilitate bed
slope reduction
c) Dominant discharge
 It is a discharge that govern the long term behavior of an alluvial channel. It is an average
discharge for which the channel to be in equilibrium. It is 1.5-2year return flood in humid
regions and 5-10years return flood in arid region
 It is a discharge used as a guideline to predict, design river channel & to design
protection works
d) Revetments
 It is a structures constructed on sloping soil bank to protect & stabilize their surface
against erosion by waves, currents & groundwater flows. Example riprap, mattress,
gabions, grouted lining, grouted rocks, etc…
e) Spur
 It is low dykes that are constructed more or less perpendicular to the channel banks with
a view to stabilize the channel alignment. They are river training works, and their main
purpose is to reduce the net width of the channel so that depth of next cross section
area will increase.
8) A rectangular channel with protected sides is carrying a discharge of 3m3/s. The channel is constructed
in coarse alluvium gravel of size 42mm and laid at a slope of 0.009m/m. What is the minimum width to
be provided? Compare critical shear stress using shield equation and Mittal & Swamee’s equation?
 As material is coarse, Strickler’s equation is used for computing Manning’s n
d 1/ 6 0.0421 / 6
 n   0.025
24 24
d 0.042
 From Shield’s Equation R    0.424
11  S 0 11  0.009
 Taking R equal to the depth of flow in a rectangular channel (i.e. wide channel)
Q
 Q  B  y V  B  R V  B 
R V
 From Manning’s Equation flow velocity will be
1 1/ 2 1
V  R 2 / 3 S0   0.424 2 / 3 0.009  2.14m / s
n 0.025

3
B  3.3m
0.424  2.14
 Shield’s Equation gives
  C  0.056d  S S  1  38 N / m 2
 Mittal & Swamee’s Equation gives
3
  c  0.155
 
0.409 422
 40.92N / m2
1 0.177 42 2

##  A difference of nearly 7.13%

9) A trapezoidal channel of bed width 10m, Side Slope 3H: 2V, S 0 = 0.0001, Vavg = 0.6m/s, and n = 0.025.
Find the average boundary shear stress on the wetted perimeter, Maximum boundary shear stress on
the bed. If d50 = 2mm, Sp = 0.05,  = 350. What is the maximum discharge (Qmax) when the channel
section is stable against scour?
 For trapezoidal channel
A  y  B  my   10 y  1.5 y 2

P  B  2 y m 2  1  10  3.61y
 From Manning’s Equation
2/3
1 1  10 y  1.5 y 2 

1/ 2
V  R 2 / 3 S 0  0.6    0.0001
n 0.025  10  3.61y 
 1.5 2  3.37 y  18.4  0
 By trial and error method y = 2.55m or you can say 2.60m
 A = 36.14m2 , P=19.39m and R = (A/P) = 1.86m
   RS0  9810  1.86  0.0001  1.82 N / m 2
2
  C  Spd S S  1  0.05  9810   2.65  1  1.62 N / m 2
1000
 By considering straight channel, k2=0.90
  b  k 2   C  0.90  1.62  1.46 N / m 2  b   max  1.46 N / m 2
 For the side condition
   tan 1 2 / 3  33.7 0   35 0
0.5
 sin 2  
 k1  1    0.253
 sin 2  
  S  k1   b  0.253  1.46  0.37 N / m 2
 For stable channel design
  S  0.75RS 0
 0.37= 0.75 x 9810 x 0.0001 x R
 R = 0.50m
A 10 y  1.5 y 2
 R  0 .5  
P 10  3.61y
 By rearranging and trial and error method, the value of y = 0.56m
 Hence, A  10 y  1.5 y 2  6m 2 and P  10 y  3.61 y  12
1  A5 / 3  1  65 / 3 
 Q  2 / 3  S 0    0.0001  1.51m 3 / s
nP  0.025  12 2 / 3 