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IEEE-IAS Distinguished Lecture on

Electromagnetic
Compatibility in
Industrial Equipment
Giorgio Spiazzi - Paolo Tenti
Department of Electronics & Informatics
University of Padova - ITALY
&
C.R.E.I.Ven
Veneto Consortium for Research in Industrial Electronics
Padova - ITALY
1

Outline
1. Introduction to European Directive on EMC
2. High-frequency emission standards & case
studies
3. Origin of high-frequency pollution & Design
provisions to reduce EMI
4. Low-frequency emission standards: definition &
case studies
5. Origin of low-frequency pollution, definitions and
basic compensation techniques
6. PFC structures
7. Example of application (PFC)
8. Immunity standards & case studies
2

1
Basic Literature - 1
[1] Clayton R. Paul, Introduction to Electromagnetic
Compatibility, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1992
(ISBN 0-471-54927-4)
[2] Henry W. Ott, Noise Reduction Techniques in
Electronic Systems second edition, John Wiley
& Sons, Inc., 1988 (ISBN 0-471-85068-3)
[3] H. Johnson, M. Graham, High-Speed Digital
Design A Handbook of Black Magic, Prentice
Hall PTR, 1993 (ISBN 0-13-395724-1)
[4] L. Tihanyi, Electromagnetic Compatibility in
Power Electronics, Butterworth Heinemann, E &
C, IEEE Press, 1995 (ISBN 0-7506-2379-9)
3

Basic Literature - 2
[5] David A. Weston, Electromagnetic Compatibility:
Principles and Applications, Marcel Dekker, 1991
(ISBN 0-8247-8507-x)
[6] R. L. Ozenbaugh, EMI Filter Design, Marcel
Dekker, 1996, (ISBN 0-8247-9631-4)
[7] Hewlett Packard, Spectrum Analysis, Application
note n.150, Nov. 1989
[8] V.P. Kodali, Engineering Electromagnetic
Compatibility: Principles, Measurements,
Technologies, and Computer Models, IEEE Press

2
Speakers’ Address
Department of Electronics and Informatics
Via Gradenigo 6a - 35131 Padova - Italy
Fax +39 049 827 7699

Paolo Tenti (tenti@dei.unipd.it)


Phone +39 049 827 7503

Giorgio Spiazzi (spiazzi@dei.unipd.it)


Phone +39 049 827 7525

C.R.E.I. Ven - Research Consortium in Industrial Electronics


Corso Spagna 12 - 35127 Padova - Italy
Phone +39 049 806 1212
Fax +39 049 806 1230
creiven@iperv.it
5

Introduction to EMC
• Fundamental Definitions
• Examples of electromagnetic interference
• EMI Transmission paths
• Electromagnetic environment
• Regulations
• (Acceptance Tests)
• (History of EMC standard-making boards)
6

3
Fundamental Definitions

Electromagnetic Compatibility
The capability of electrical and electronic
systems, equipment, and devices to operate
in their intended electromagnetic
environment within a defined margin of
safety, at the specified level of performance,
without suffering or causing unacceptable
degradation as a result of electromagnetic
interference

Fundamental Definitions

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)


EMI is the process by which disturbing
electromagnetic energy is transmitted from
an electrical device to another via radiation
and/or conducting paths
In common terms, EMI refers particularly to
RF signals, but it can occur in any frequency
range starting from DC

4
Introduction

Environmental electromagnetic pollution


High-level electromagnetic disturbances can
prevent electrical and electronic devices
from operating properly

Aspects to be considered
• emission of electromagnetic noises, and
• susceptibility to electromagnetic noises

Fundamental Definitions

Susceptibility
A relative measure of a device or a system
propensity to be disturbed or damaged by
EMI exposure to an incident field of signal

Immunity
A relative measure of a device or system
ability to withstand EMI exposure while
maintaining a predefined performance level
10

5
Examples of Electromagnetic
Interference

Interference to TV and radio receivers, e.g.:


• Misbehavior due to ignition systems (sparks) of cars
(self-compatibility with the radio installed on board)
• TV disturbances due to household appliances operation
Loss of data in digital systems, e.g.:
• Reset of PC-based control systems due to industrial
disturbances
• Misbehavior of security doors of banks due to
electrostatic discharges
Misbehavior of medical electronic equipment, e.g.:
• Cardiac pacemakers
11

Examples of Electromagnetic
Interference (cont.)
Misbehavior of automotive electronic equipment, e.g.:
• ABS systems
• Direction indicators
Inadvertent detonation of explosive devices, e.g.:
• Automatic control systems for fire protection in
supermarkets
Misbehavior of control process, e.g.:
• Electronic control systems of airplanes
• Cooling systems for telecommunication applications
• Voltage regulation of synchronous generators
12

6
EMI Transmission Paths

Possible sources of ambient noise and


coupling into a receiver
13

EMI Transmission Paths

Source Channel Receiver

Interference can be reduced acting on:


• Source (layout, filtering, shielding)
• Channel (layout)
• Receiver (layout, filtering, shielding)

EMI is more conveniently suppressed at


the source level in the design phase
14

7
Fundamental Definitions
Radiated Immunity
The product ability to withstand incident
electromagnetic energy entering it via free-space
propagation while maintaining a specified
performance level

Conducted Immunity
The product ability to withstand electromagnetic
energy entering it through external cables, power
cords, and I/O interconnections while maintaining
a specified performance level
15

Fundamental Definitions

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)


A transfer of electric charge between bodies at
different electrostatic potential in proximity of
each other or through direct contact
Term ESD is generally applied to events that are
triggered by human beings

Equipment under test (EUT)


Definition used in all EMC standards to indicate
16 the apparatus object of the test procedure

8
Fundamental Definitions
Containment
A process whereby RF energy is prevented from
exiting an enclosure, generally by shielding the
product with a metal enclosure
Reciprocally, containment also prevents RF
energy to enter the enclosure
Suppression
The process of reducing or eliminating the RF
energy effects without relying on a secondary
method, such as a metal housing or chassis
17

Electromagnetic environment
Main sources of electromagnetic noises
• RF welders
• Induction heating equipment
• Industrial, Scientific and Medical RF-based
equipment (ISM)
• Telecommunication transmitters
• Microwave ovens
• Arc welders
• Power electronics equipment
• Automotive ignition systems
• Fluorescent lamps
18• …….

9
Electromagnetic environment
Radiated noise levels
RF-based equipment
• Broadcasting transmitters: hundreds of V/m
• Cellular telephones: from 10 to 100 V/m
• RF welders: tens of V/m
Non RF-based equipment
• Power electronics (30-100 MHz, at 3 meter): 40-
70dBµµV/m
• Automotive ignition (30-300 MHz, at 3 meter):
50-100 dBµ µV/m
• Digital PCB (30-1000 MHz, at 3 meter): 40-80
19
dBµµV/m (fundamental and harmonics)

Electromagnetic environment
Conducted noise levels
(LISN measurement 150 kHz-30MHz)

• Switching power electronics: 80-120 dBµ µV


µV (fundamental and
• Digital PCB: 40-80 dBµ
harmonics)
• Line-commutated power electronics: 60-80
dBµµV
µV
• Diode rectifiers: 40-70 dBµ

20

10
Regulations
• Several countries established regulations on
electromagnetic emission and immunity, based on
tests to be performed on apparatus and environment
• Regulations are generally related to the environment
where the apparatus is used
• To check conformity to regulations, an experimental
approach must be applied
• Computational methods, developed in recent years,
are applied only to support the design process and
are not suitable to predict the conformity of an
apparatus
• Legal validity of test reports requires a system of
21 accreditation of the test houses

Conformity to regulations
• During acceptance tests usually 60-70% of EUT’s
turn out not to comply with regulations
• Often the only solution is to add external devices
to reduce emission and increase immunity, e.g.,
ferrites, capacitors, filters, shields
• Such “ex post” solutions can dramatically
increase the cost of the apparatus and delay the
product development program
• It is much more effective to follow best practice
criteria during equipment design and
22
development phases

11
Acceptance tests
The goal of international regulations is to
define repeatable test procedures. This
requires:
• Use of instrumentation with specified
performances
• Application of standard test methods
• Accreditation and periodic verification of test
houses

23

Acceptance tests
Repeatability of results

In absence of special “quality” actions, it is


quite common to obtain different results if:
• Laboratories of different countries perform
the same test
• Laboratories of the same country perform
the same test
• The same laboratory performs the same test
with different operators
24

12
Acceptance tests
Uncertainties introduced by the operators
Problems
• EMC test results are often related to high-frequency
phenomena; parasitic effects may have a relevant impact
on the tests
• Different test results can be obtained when test
conditions and/or personnel are not the same
Solutions
• Intensive and continuous training effort is required for
personnel involved in test execution
• Each laboratory needs to implement a system of internal
procedures defining strictly the rules of test executions
• Each laboratory needs to implement a method to monitor
25 the correct application of the prescribed methods

Acceptance tests
Uncertainties introduced by instrumentation

Problems
• Sometimes, instrumentation does not comply with
standards requirements (even the newest one!)
• Customers (including test labs) often do not have the
capability to check conformity of the instrumentation
• Often calibration of the instrumentation is not performed
in the fields of interests
Solutions
• Choosing the proper characteristics to be calibrated,
with reference to the European metrological reference
system (SIT/NAMAS/…)
26

13
Acceptance tests
Uncertainties introduced by instrumentation
and standards interpretation
EMC Instrument Specifications
• Often requirements are not well defined in the standards
• The market is confusing, it is not easy to establish if the
instrumentation (i.e., receivers) complies with
standards.
EMC Test Methods
• Often in the standards some information is missed,
causing problems of repeatability of the tests (i.e.: cable
set-up, load set-up, finding the configuration with
maximum emission)
Solution
27• Adoption of internal (accredited) methods

History of EMC Standards


CISPR
• CISPR (Comitèe International Special des
Perturbations Radioelectriques) was the first
organization authorized to promulgate
international recommendations on EMC.
• CISPR was founded in Paris in 1933
• Primary job: document standard EMI
measurements / noise level limits
• The founding conference proposed to establish a
common commission in the IEC (International
Electrotechnical Commission) and UIR
(International Union of Broadcasting)
• After World War II CISPR became a special
committee of IEC
28

14
History of EMC Standards
CISPR
In 1973 a decision was made to reorganize CISPR:
• Subcommittee A: Interference measuring devices,
measurements methods (Pub. 16)
• Subcommittee B: EMI from industrial, scientific and
medical apparatus (ISM) (Pub. 11)
• Subcommittee C: Noise caused by high-power cables,
high-voltage equipment, and electrical traction (Publ. 18)
• Subcommittee D: Ignition interference from motor
vehicles, combustion engines, and related subjects (Pub.
12)
• Subcommittee E: EMS of radio and television receivers
(Pub. 13 - Pub. 20)
• Subcommittee F: EMI in domestic appliances,
29
fluorescent tubes and similar devices (Pub.14 - Pub.15)

History of EMC Standards


CENELEC
• Limits were first established only for the range 150 kHz –
30 MHz (broadcast requirements)
• Extended later to 1 GHz (18 GHz) and to 10 kHz
• For extended application of power electronics the
requirement for clean mains power have increased
• CENELCOM (Comitèe de Coordination Européen des
Normes Electriques pour le Marche Commun) decided to
establish a Common Standardization Committee (formed
in 1970)
• In 1973 CENELCOM was reorganized with the name
CENELEC (Comitée Europeen de Normalisation
Electrotechnique)
30

15
History of EMC Standards
TC 77 of IEC
For surveying the problem of semiconductor apparatus
connected to mains, IEC established a new subcommittee
named TC 77: "Electromagnetic Compatibility between
electrical equipment including networks“
• Working Committee #1: Terminology
• Working Committee #2: Mains impedances and LISNs
• Working Committee #3: Harmonic and non-harmonic
electrical noise produced by electrical household and other
similar equipment, included dc components
• Working Committee #4: Voltage fluctuations caused by
electrical household and other similar equipment
• Working Committee #5: Harmonic and non-harmonic
electrical noise produced by television sets
31

History of EMC Standards


TC 65 of IEC
IEC became the study of electromagnetic susceptibility in the early
1960s. The subject was first addressed by TC 65: "Industrial -
Process measurement and Control“, later TC 77 joined in the effort.
The result of TC 65 is the standard series IEC 1000:

• 1000-4-1: Overview of immunity test.


• 1000-4-2: Electrostatic discharge test.
• 1000-4-3: Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test.
• 1000-4-4: Electrical fast transient/burst immunity test.
• 1000-4-5: Surge immunity tests.
• 1000-4-6: Immunity to conducted disturbances, inducted by radio
frequency fields above 9 kHz.
• 1000-4-8: Frequency magnetic field immunity test.
• 1000-4-11: Voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variations
immunity test.
32

16
History of EMC Standards

Other subcommittees

IEC
• A.C.E.C.: Advisory Committee on
Electromagnetic Compatibility

CENELEC
• TC 210: Electromagnetic Compatibility

33

EMC Directive
Outline

• EU Directives
• New approach and global approach
• EMC Directive
• Application of EMC Directive
• (EMC Standards)

34

17
European Union (EU)
Internal Market
Since 1992 the EU internal market has no borders. Free
movements of persons, goods, services and capitals are
guaranteed
To eliminate the technical barriers hampering the trade
between Member States the following strategies were
implemented:
• Inclusion of EU directives into national laws of Member
States
• Harmonization of national standards with European
standards
• Establishment of an European accreditation, testing and
certification system (mutual recognition of test reports
and certificates in the different Member States)
35

Examples of EU Directives
(developed according to the New Approach)

• Safety of toys (88/378/EEC)


• Personal protective equipment
(89/686/EEC)
• Electromagnetic compatibility
(89/336/EEC, 92/31/EEC)
• Machinery (89/392/EEC, 91/368/EEC,
93/44/EEC)
• Low voltage (73/23/EEC, 93/68/EEC)

36

18
EU Directives
“New Approach”
With the “new approach” any technical contents have
been removed from the directives and entrusted to
Standardization European Bodies:
• CEN European Standards Committee
• CENELEC European Electrotechnical St. Cmt
• ETSI European Telecommunication St. Inst

When an EU Standard (EN) is approved, it is published


in the Official Journal of the European Community and
becomes an European harmonized standard
37

EU Directives
“Global Approach - CE Marking”
• The CE marking symbolizes the product conformity to all
EU Directives, developed according to the “New
Approach”, which apply to the product itself
• The CE marking must be affixed to all products put on the
European market
• The CE marking must be affixed by the manufacturer or
his agent established within the EU
• The CE marking symbolizes that the manufacturer or his
agent has undersigned an explicit declaration of
conformity
• The CE marking must be affixed to the product so as to be
visible, legible and permanent
38

19
EMC Directive

• Base: Directive 89/336/EEC


• Adds: Directive 92/31/EEC
[delays application from 1992 to 1996]
Directive 93/68/EEC
[Introduces CE Marking]
Directive 98/13/EC
[specific for TTE/SESE]
TTE = Telecommunication Terminal Equipment
SES = Satellite Earth Station Equipment

39

EMC Directive 89/336


The EMC directive applies to all electrical and
electronic appliances, installation and systems
Essential Protection Requirements
a) every equipment must be constructed so as to ensure
that any electromagnetic disturbance it generates allows
radio and telecommunication equipment and other
apparatus to function as intended
b) every equipment must be constructed within an inherent
level of immunity to externally generated
electromagnetic disturbances
Products complying with EU harmonized standards
are in conformity with the essential protection
requirements of the 89/336/EEC Directive
40

20
EMC Directive
Application to Components

Components not performing a direct function


– resistors, capacitors, coils
– diodes, transistors, SCR’s
– integrated circuits
– cables, plugs
– LED’s
– …..
The EMC directive does not apply (CE marking
not required)
41

EMC Directive
Application to Components
Components performing a direct function
Components which are available and fulfill the
intended use without further adjustments or
connections other than simple ones which can be
performed by any persons
1. If intended to be placed on the market for
distribution and final use: the EMC directive
applies (CE marking required)
2. If not intended to be placed on the market for
distribution and final use: the EMC directive
42
does not apply (CE marking not required)

21
EMC Directive
Application to Systems

System
A combination of several devices combined,
designed and/or put together by the same
manufacturer and intended to be placed on the
market for distribution as a single functional unit
for an end user and intended to be installed to
operate together to perform a specific task
• The system manufacturer takes responsibility
of compliance to the directive
43

EMC Directive
Application to Installations

Installation
A combination of apparatus, equipment
and/or components assembled and/or erected
by an assembler/installer at a given place to
operate together in an expected environment
to perform a specific task, but not intended to
be placed on the market as a single
commercial unit
• No need for CE marking nor declaration of
conformity
44

22
Assessment of Conformity
to EMC Directive

Conformity of products to the EMC directive


is self declared by the manufacturer or his
agent in Europe
Procedures to assess conformity of products
to the essential protection requirements of
the 89/336/EEC directive:
• Application of EU harmonized standards
• Certificate of conformity issued by a
“Competent Body”
45

Technical File Structure

Part 1: General
Part 2: Environment (Description and
classification of environment,
compatibility levels)
Part 3: Limits (Emission and Immunity)
Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques
Part 5: Installation and mitigation guidelines
Part 6: Results
46
Part 7: Miscellaneous

23
Categories of
European Standards
• Basic Standards
Define basic phenomenon-related requirements and
testing procedures; do not contain limit values, either
for emission or immunity, nor assessment criteria
• Generic Standards
Specify the requirements for the use of products in
specific electromagnetic environments (e.g., residential
or light industry, industrial)
• Product Standards
Specify the requirements for certain products or
product families

47

Main Tests required by


EMC Standards
• Emission
– Low-frequency current harmonics
– Voltage fluctuation & flicker
– Conducted EMI
– Radiated EMI
• Immunity
– Electrostatic discharge
– Surge voltage
– Burst voltage
– Conducted noise
– Radiated noise
– Supply voltage variations
48

24
Product / Family / Generic
Standards
• Emission:
prescription of tests, basic standards and limits
• Immunity:
prescription of tests, basic standards, levels of
disturbance and acceptance criteria

• List of harmonized standards:


http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/
standardization/harmstds/reflist/emc.html
(last publication in the Official Journal of the
European Communities : C99 of 2000-04-07)
49

Examples of Product Standards


• EN 60601-1-2 (93): Medical electrical equipment
– Part 1: general requirements for safety
– Part 2: Collateral standard: electromagnetic compatibility -
Requirements and tests

• EN 61800-3 (97): Adjustable speed electrical power drive


systems
– Part 3: EMC product standard including specific test methods

• EN 50091-2 (95): Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS)


– Part 2: EMC requirements

• EN 50199 (95): EMC product standard for arc welding


equipment
50

25
Harmonized Standards for
Specific Product Families
Families of products Examples Emission Immunity
harmonics voltage fluct. RF disturbances all the phenomena
household appliances and similar cooking ovens EN 60555-2 EN 60555-3 EN 55014 EN 50082-1
portable tools and similar dish-washing machines EN 61000-3-2 EN 61000-3-3
air-conditioning equipment
ITE: data processing equipment EN 60555-2 (*) EN 60555-3 (*) EN 55022 EN 50082-1
information technology equipment office machines EN 61000-3-2 (*) EN 61000-3-3 (*) EN 55024
telecommunication equipment
ISM: spectrum analyzer EN 61000-3-2 (*) EN 60555-3 (*) EN 55011 EN 50082-2
industrial, scientific and medical induction heating equipment EN 61000-3-3 (*)
radio-frequency equipment microwaves ovens
Generic light industrial equipment power supply for ind. equipment EN 60555-2 (*) EN 60555-3 (*) EN 50081-1 EN 50082-1
fire-pump EN 61000-3-2 (*) EN 61000-3-3 (*)
syncronous generator
Generic industrial equipment machines for marble processing - - EN 50081-2 EN 50082-2
mach. for power-loom weaving
cropper machines

(*) Applicable to apparatus covered within the scope of these standards


51

Harmonized Standards (1)


Reference and title of the standard Reference of Date of cessation
the superseded of presumption of conformity
standard of the superseded standard
Note 1
EN 50081-1:1992 NONE
Electromagnetic compatibility - Generic emission standard -- -
Part 1: Residential, commercial and light industry
EN 50081-2:1993 NONE
Electromagnetic compatibility - Generic emission standard -- -
Part 2: Industrial environment
EN 50082-1:1992 NONE
Electromagnetic compatibility - Generic immunity standard -- -
Part 1: Residential, commercial and light industry
EN 50082-1:1997
Electromagnetic compatibility - Generic immunity standard -- EN 50082-1:1992 01.07.2001
Part 1: Residential, commercial and light industry
Note 2.1
EN 50082-2:1995 NONE
Electromagnetic compatibility - Generic immunity standard -- -
Part 2: Industrial environment
EN 50091-2:1995
Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) -- Part 2: EMC Relevant generic standard(s) Date expired (01.03.1999)
requirements
Note 2.3
EN 50199:1995
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Product standard for arc Relevant generic standard(s) Date expired (01.07.1996)
welding equipment
Note 2.3
52

26
Harmonized Standards (2)
Reference and title of the standard Reference document Reference of Date of cessation
the superseded of presumption of conformity
standard of the superseded standard
Note 1
EN 55011:1991 CISPR 11:1990 (Modified) NONE
Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance -
characteristics of industrial, scientific and medical (ISM)
radio-frequency equipment
Amendment A2:1996 to EN 55011:1991 CISPR 11:1990 Note 3 Date expired (01.01.1998)
/A2:1996
Amendment A1:1997 to EN 55011:1991 CISPR 11:1990 Note 3 Date expired (01.01.1998)
/A1:1996 (Modified)
EN 55011:1998 CISPR 11:1997 (Modified)
Industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio-frequency EN 55011:1991 01.01.2001
equipment - Radio disturbance characteristics - Limits and
methods of measurement
and its amendments
Note 2.1
Amendment A1:1999 to EN 55011:1998 CISPR 11:1997 Note 3 01.08.2002
/A1:1999
EN 55013:1990 CISPR 13:1975 NONE
Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance -
characteristics of broadcast receivers and associated
equipment + A1:1983 (Modified)
Amendment A12:1994 to EN 55013:1990 Note 3 Date expired (31.12.1998)
Amendment A13:1996 to EN 55013:1990 Note 3 Date expired (01.06.1999)
Amendment A14:1999 to EN 55013:1990 Note 3 01.08.2001
53

Harmonized Standards (3)

Reference and title of the standard Reference document Reference of Date of cessation
the superseded of presumption of conformity
standard of the superseded standard
Note 1
EN 55014-1:1993 CISPR 14-1:1993
Electromagnetic compatibility - Requirements for household EN 55014:1987 Date expired (31.12.1995)
appliances, electric tools and similar apparatus -- Part 1:
Emission - Product family standard
+A2:1990
Note 2.1
Amendment A1:1997 to EN 55014-1:1993 CISPR 14-1:1993 Note 3 Date expired (01.01.1998)
/A1:1996
Amendment A2:1999 to EN 55014-1:1993 CISPR 14-1:1993 Note 3 01.10.2001
/A2:1998
EN 55014-2:1997 CISPR 14-2:1997
Electromagnetic compatibility - Requirements for household EN 55104:1995 01.01.2001
appliances, electric tools and similar apparatus -- Part 2:
Immunity - Product family standard
Note 2.1
EN 55015:1993 CISPR 15:1992
Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance EN 55015:1987 Date expired (01.01.1998)
characteristics of electrical lighting and similar equipment
+A1:1990
Note 2.1

54

27
Harmonized Standards (4)

Reference and title of the standard Reference document Reference of Date of cessation
the superseded of presumption of conformity
standard of the superseded standard
Note 1
EN 55015:1996 CISPR 15:1996
Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance EN 55015:1993 Date expired (01.01.2000)
characteristics of electrical lighting and similar equipment
Note 2.1
Amendment A1:1997 to EN 55015:1996 CISPR 15:1996 Note 3 Date expired (01.01.2000)
/A1:1997
Amendment A2:1999 to EN 55015:1996 CISPR 15:1996 Note 3 01.10.2001
/A2:1998
EN 55020:1988 NONE
Immunity from radio interference of broadcast receivers and -
associated equipment
EN 55020:1994
Electromagnetic immunity of broadcast receivers and EN 55020:1988 Date expired (31.12.1998)
associated equipment
Note 2.1
Amendment A11:1996 to EN 55020:1994 Note 3 Date expired (01.06.1999)
Amendment A12:1999 to EN 55020:1994 Note 3 01.08.2001
Amendment A14:1999 to EN 55020:1994 Note 3 01.08.2001
Amendment A13:1999 to EN 55020:1994 Note 3 01.08.2001

55

Harmonized Standards (5)


Reference and title of the standard Reference document Reference of Date of cessation
the superseded of presumption of conformity
standard of the superseded standard
Note 1
EN 55022:1987 CISPR 22:1985 (Modified) NONE
Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance -
characteristics of information technology equipment
EN 55022:1994 CISPR 22:1993
Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance EN 55022:1987 Date expired (31.12.1998)
characteristics of information technology equipment
Note 2.1
Amendment A1:1995 to EN 55022:1994 CISPR 22:1993 Note 3 Date expired (31.12.1998)
/A1:1995
Amendment A2:1997 to EN 55022:1994 CISPR 22:1993 Note 3 Date expired (31.12.1998)
/A2:1996 (Modified)
EN 55022:1998 CISPR 22:1997 (Modified)
Information technology equipment - Radio disturbance EN 55022:1994 01.08.2001
characteristics - Limits and methods of measurement
and its amendments
Note 2.1
EN 55024:1998 CISPR 24:1997 (Modified) Relevant generic
Information technology equipment - Immunity characteristics - 01.07.2001
Limits and methods of measurement standard(s)
Note 2.3
EN 55103-1:1996 Relevant generic
Electromagnetic compatibility - Product family standard for Date expired (01.09.1999)
audio, video, audio-visual and entertainment lighting control
apparatus for professional use -- Part 1: Emission standard(s)
Note 2.3
56

28
Harmonized Standards (6)

Reference and title of the standard Reference document Reference of Date of cessation
the superseded of presumption of conformity
standard of the superseded standard
Note 1
EN 55103-2:1996 Relevant generic
Electromagnetic compatibility - Product family standard for Date expired (01.09.1999)
audio, video, audio-visual and entertainment lighting control
apparatus for professional use -- Part 2: Immunity standard(s)
Note 2.3
EN 55104:1995 Relevant generic
Electromagnetic compatibility - Immunity requirements for 01.01.2001
household appliances, tools and similar apparatus - Product
family standard standard(s)
Note 2.3
EN 60555-2:1987 IEC 60555-2:1982 NONE
Disturbances in supply systems caused by household -
appliances and similar electrical equipment -- Part 2:
Harmonics + A1:1985 (Modified)
EN 60555-3:1987 IEC 60555-3:1982 NONE
Disturbances in supply systems caused by household -
appliances and similar electrical equipment -- Part 3: Voltage
fluctuations
Amendment A1:1991 to EN 60555-3:1987 IEC 60555-3:1982 Note 3 Date expired (01.10.1992)
/A1:1990
57

Harmonized Standards (7)

Reference and title of the standard Reference document Reference of Date of cessation
the superseded of presumption of conformity
standard of the superseded standard
Note 1
EN 61000-3-2:1995 IEC 61000-3-2:1995 EN 60555-2:1987 1.1.2001
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-2: Limits -
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equiment input
current up to and including 16A per phase) Note 2.2
Note 4
Amendment A2:1998 to EN 61000-3-2:1995 IEC 61000-3-2:1995 Note 3 1.1.2001
/A2:1998
Amendment A1:1998 to EN 61000-3-2:1995 IEC 61000-3-2:1995 EN 61000-3-2:1995 1.1.2001
/A1:1997 /A13:1997
EN 61000-3-3:1995 IEC 61000-3-3:1994 EN 60555-3:1987 1.1.2001
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-3: Limits -
Limits for voltage fluctuations and flicker on low-voltage
supply systems for equipment with rated current up to 16 A
(equiment input current up to and including 16A per phase) Note 2.2
Note 5
EN 61000-6-2:1999 IEC 61000-6-2:1999 EN 50082-2:1995 1.4.2002
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 6-2: Generic
standards - Immunity for industrial environments Note 2.1

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Harmonized Standards (8)
Note 1: Generally the date of cessation of presumption of conformity will be
the date of withdrawal (‘DOW’), set by the European standards body

Note 2.1: The new (or amended) standard has the same scope as the superseded
standard. On the date stated, the superseded standard ceases to give
presumption of conformity with the essential requirements of the
Directive.

Note 2.2: The new standard has a broader scope than the superseded standard.
On the date stated the superseded standard ceases to give
presumption of conformity with the essential requirements of the
Directive

Note 2.3: The new standard has a narrower scope that the superseded standard.
On the date stated the (partially) superseded standard ceases to give
presumption of conformity with the essential requirements of the
directive for those products that fall within the scope of the new
standard. Presumption of conformity with the essential requirements of
the directive for products that still fall within the scope of the (partially)
superseded standard, but that do not fall within the scope of the new
standard, is unaffected
59

Harmonized Standards (9)


Note 3: In case of amendments, the referenced standard is EN CCCCC:YY, its
previous amendments, if any, and the new, quoted amendment. The
superseded standard (column 4) therefore consists of EN CCCCC:YY
And its previous amendments, if any, but without the new quoted
amendment. On the date stated, the superseded standard ceases to
give presumption of conformity with the essential requirements of the
Directive.

Note 4: For products that are not in the scope of EN 60555-2:1987 the generic
standards give presumption of conformity until 1.1.2001

Note 5: For products that are not in the scope of EN 60555-3:1987 the generic
standards give presumption of conformity until 1.1.2001

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Generic Standards

Generic standards: Generic standards:


residential, commercial industrial environment
and light industry

Emission EN 50081-1 (1992) EN 50081-2 (1993)

Immunity EN 50082-1 (1997) EN 50082-2 (1995)

* For apparatus directly connected to low-voltage public mains supplies


or to a dedicated DC source which is intended to interface between the
apparatus and the low-voltage public mains supply

** For apparatus connected to a power network supplied from a high- or


medium-voltage transformer dedicated for the supply of an installation
feeding manufacturing or similar plant
61

EN 50081-1 (1992)
Port Phenomenon Frequency range Limits Basic standard Applicability note
Enclosure radiated 30 - 230 MHz 30 dB (µV/m) at 10 m EN 55022 See Note 1
emission 230 - 1000 MHz 37 dB (µV/m) at 10 m Class B
AC main conducted 0 - 2 kHz EN 60555-2 See Note 2
emission EN 60555-3
0.15 - 0.5 MHz 66 - 56 dB(µV) quasi-peak EN 55022
56 - 46 dB(µV) average Class B
linearly decreased with
log of frequency
0.5 - 5 MHz 56 dB(µV) quasi-peak
46 dB(µV) average
5 - 30 MHz 60 dB(µV) quasi-peak
50 dB(µV) average
discontinuous 0.15 - 30 MHz ref. to EN 55014
interference basic standard
Notes: 1 - Applicable only for apparatus containing processing devices, e.g. microprocessor,
operating at frequency greater than 9 kHz
2 - Applicable to apparatus covered within the scope of EN 60555-2 and EN 60555-3.
Limits for apparatus not currently covered by EN 60555-2 and EN 60555-3
are under consideration

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EN 50082-1 (1997) (1)
Example of immunity test: Enclosure Port

Phenomenon Test specification Units Basic standard Test setup Remarks Performance criteria
Radio-frequency 80 - 1000 MHz IEC 1000-4-3 IEC 1000-4-3 The test level A
electromegnetic 3 V/m (unmodulated, rms) specified is the
field 80 %AM (1 kHz) rms value of the
unmodulated carrier
Radio-frequency 900 +/- 5 MHz ENV 50204 IEC 1000-4-3 The test shall be A
electromegnetic 3 V/m (unmodulated, rms) carried out at one
field 50 Duty cycle % frequency within the
200 Rep. frequency Hz indicated range
Power-frequency 50 Hz EN 61000-4-8 EN 61000-4-8 See note 1 & 2. A
magnetic field 3 A(rms)/m

Electrostatic 4 Contact kV (charge voltage) EN 61000-4-2 EN 61000-4-2 See basic B


discharge 8 Air discharge standard for
applicability of
contact and/or air
discharge test.
Notes: 1 - Applicable only to apparatus containing devices susceptible to magnetic fields,
e.g. Hall elements, electrodynamic microphones, etc.
2 - For CTRs the acceptable jitter depends upon the character size and is computed for a test level of 1 A/m as follows:
jitter (mm) = (3 . character size (mm) + 1)/40.
AS jitter is linearly proportional to the magnetic field strength tests can be carried out
at other test levels extrapolating the maximum jitter level appropriately.

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EN 50082-1 (1997) (2)

Example of immunity test:


Ports for signal lines and control lines

Phenomenon Test specification Units Basic standard Test setup Remarks


Radio-frequency 0.15 - 80 MHz EN 61000-4-6 EN 61000-4-6 See note 1 & 2
common mode. 3 V (unmodulated, rms) The test level
Amplitude 80 %AM (1 kHz) specified is prior
modulated. to modulation
Fast transient 0.5 kV (peak) EN 61000-4-4 EN 61000-4-4 See note 2.
5, 50 Tr, Th ns (capacitive
5 Rep. frequency kHz clamp)
Notes: 1 - The test level can also be defined as the equivalent current into a 150 Ω load.
2 - Applicable only to ports interfacing with cables whose total lenght
according to the manufacturers functional specification may exceed 3 m

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EN 50082-1 (1997) (3)
Example of immunity test:
input and output AC power ports

Phenomenon Test specification Units Basic standard Test setup Remarks Performance criteria
Radio-frequency 0.15 - 80 MHz EN 61000-4-6 EN 61000-4-6 See note 1. A
common mode. 3 V (unmodulated, rms) The test level
Amplitude 80 %AM (1 kHz) specified is prior
modulated. to modulation
Fast transient 1 kV (charge voltage) EN 61000-4-4 EN 61000-4-4 B
5, 50 Tr, Th ns
5 Rep. frequency kHz
Surges 1,2 / 50 (8/20) Tr/Th µs EN 61000-4-5 EN 61000-4-5 See note 2 B
line to earth 2 kV (charge voltage)
line to line 1 kV (charge voltage)
Voltage dips 30 % reduction EN 61000-4-11 EN 61000-4-11 Voltage shift at B
10 ms zero crossing
60 % reduction See note 2 C
100 ms
Voltage > 95% % reduction EN 61000-4-11 EN 61000-4-11 Voltage shift at C
interruptios 5.000 ms zero crossing
See note 2
Notes: 1 - The test level can also be defined as the equivalent current into a 150 Ω load.
2 - Applicable only to input port

65

EN 50082-1 (1992) (1)

Enclosure Port
Phenomenon Test specification Units Basic standard Test setup Remarks Performance criteria
Radio-frequency 27 - 500 MHz IEC 801-3 IEC 801-3 A
electromegnetic 3 V/m (unmodulated)
field
Electrostatic 8 Air discharge kV (charge voltage) IEC 801-2 IEC 801-2 B
discharge

Ports for signal lines and control lines


Phenomenon Test specification Units Basic standard Test setup Remarks Performance criteria
Fast transient 0.5 kV (peak) IEC 801-4 IEC 801-4 See note B
common mode 5, 50 Tr, Th ns (capacitive
5 Rep. frequency kHz clamp)
Note: Applicable only to ports interfacing with cables whose total lenght
according to the manufacturers functional specification may exceed 3 m

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33
EN 50082-1 (1992) (2)

input and output DC power ports


Phenomenon Test specification Units Basic standard Test setup Remarks Performance criteria
Fast transient 0.5 kV (peak) IEC 801-4 IEC 801-4 See note B
common mode 5, 50 Tr, Th ns (capacitive
5 Rep. frequency kHz clamp)
Note: Not applicable to input ports intended for connection to dedicated non-rechargeable power supplies

input and output AC power ports


Phenomenon Test specification Units Basic standard Test setup Remarks Performance criteria
Fast transient 1 kV (peak) IEC 801-4 IEC 801-4 B
common mode 5, 50 Tr, Th ns (capacitive
5 Rep. frequency kHz clamp)

67

EN 50081-2 (1993)

Port Phenomenon Frequency range Limits Basic standard Applicability note


Enclosure radiated 30 - 230 MHz 40 dB (µV/m) at 10 m EN 55011 See Note 1
emission 230 - 1000 MHz 47 dB (µV/m) at 10 m
AC main conducted 0.15 - 0.5 MHz 79 dB(µV) quasi-peak EN 55011 See Note 2
emission 66 dB(µV) average See Note 3
0.5 - 5 MHz 73 dB(µV) quasi-peak
60 dB(µV) average
5 - 30 MHz 73 dB(µV) quasi-peak
60 dB(µV) average
Notes: 1 - In situ measurements are excluded from this standard.
2 - Impulsive noise (clicks) which occurs less than 5 times per minute is not considered.
For clicks appearing more often than 30 times per minute the limits of item 1.2 apply.
For clicks appearing between 5 and 30 times per minute, a relaxation of the limits of item 1.2
is allowed of 20 log 30/N dB (where N is the number of clicks per minute).
Criteria for separated clicks may be found in EN 55014.
3 - Applies only to apparatus operating at less than 1000 Vrms AC.

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EN 50082-2 (1995) (1)
Enclosure Port
Phenomenon Test specification Units Basic standard Test setup Remarks Performance criteria
Radio-frequency 80 - 1000 MHz ENV 50140 ENV 50140 See note 1. A
electromegnetic 10 V/m (unmodulated, rms) The test level
field 80 %AM (1 kHz) specified is prior
to modulation
Radio-frequency 900 +/- 5 MHz ENV 50204 ENV 50140 Spot frequency A
electromegnetic 10 V/m (unmodulated, rms) within the
field 50 Duty cycle % indicated range
200 Rep. frequency Hz
Power-frequency 50 Hz EN 61000-4-8 EN 61000-4-8 See note 2. A
magnetic field 30 A(rms)/m CTR display
interference is
allowed above
3 A/m
Electrostatic 4 Contact kV (charge voltage) EN 61000-4-2 EN 61000-4-2 See basic B
discharge 8 Air discharge standard for
applicability of
contact and/or air
discharge test.
Notes: 1 - Except for the ITU broadcast frequency bands: 87 MHz - 108 MHz, 174 MHz - 230 MHz,
and 470 MHz - 790 MHz where the level shall be 3 V/m
2 - Applicable only to apparatus containing devices susceptible to magnetic fields,
e.g. Hall elements, electrodynamic microphones, etc.

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EN 50082-2 (1995) (2)


Ports for signal lines and data buses not involved in process control
Phenomenon Test specification Units Basic standard Test setup Remarks Performance criteria
Radio-frequency 0.15 - 80 MHz ENV 50141 ENV 50141 See note 1, 2 & 3 A
common mode. 10 V (unmodulated, rms) The test level
Amplitude 80 %AM (1 kHz) specified is prior
modulated. 150 Source impedance Ω to modulation
Fast transient 1 kV (peak) EN 61000-4-4 EN 61000-4-4 See note 3. B
5, 50 Tr, Th ns (capacitive
5 Rep. frequency kHz clamp)
Notes: 1 - The test level can be defined as the equivalent current into a 150 Ω load.
2 - Except for the ITU broadcast frequency band: 47 MHz - 68 MHz where the test shall be 3 V.
3 - Applicable only to ports interfacing with cables whose total lenght
according to the manufacturers functional specification may exceed 3 m

Ports for process (measurements and control) lines


Phenomenon Test specification Units Basic standard Test setup Remarks Performance criteria
Radio-frequency 0.15 - 80 MHz ENV 50141 ENV 50141 See note 1 & 2 A
common mode. 10 V (unmodulated, rms) The test level
Amplitude 80 %AM (1 kHz) specified is prior
modulated. 150 Source impedance Ω to modulation
Fast transient 2 kV (peak) EN 61000-4-4 EN 61000-4-4 B
5, 50 Tr, Th ns (capacitive
5 Rep. frequency kHz clamp)
Notes: 1 - The test level can be defined as the equivalent current into a 150 Ω load.
2 - Except for the ITU broadcast frequency band: 47 MHz - 68 MHz where the test shall be 3 V.
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35
EN 50082-2 (1995) (3)
DC input and DC output power ports
Phenomenon Test specification Units Basic standard Test setup Remarks Performance criteria
Radio-frequency 0.15 - 80 MHz ENV 50141 ENV 50141 See note 1, 2 & 3 A
common mode. 10 V (unmodulated, rms) The test level
Amplitude 80 %AM (1 kHz) specified is prior
modulated. 150 Source impedance Ω to modulation
Fast transient 2 kV (peak) EN 61000-4-4 EN 61000-4-4 See note 3. B
5, 50 Tr, Th ns (Direct
5 Rep. frequency kHz injection)
Notes: 1 - The test level can be defined as the equivalent current into a 150 Ω load.
2 - Except for the ITU broadcast frequency band: 47 MHz - 68 MHz where the test shall be 3 V.
3 - Not applicable to input ports intended for connection to a battery or a rechargeable battery
which must be removed or disconnected from the apparatus for recharging

AC input and AC output power ports


Phenomenon Test specification Units Basic standard Test setup Remarks Performance criteria
Radio-frequency 0.15 - 80 MHz ENV 50141 ENV 50141 See note 1 & 2 A
common mode. 10 V (unmodulated, rms) The test level
Amplitude 80 %AM (1 kHz) specified is prior
modulated. 150 Source impedance Ω to modulation
Fast transient 2 kV (peak) EN 61000-4-4 EN 61000-4-4 B
5, 50 Tr, Th ns (Direct
5 Rep. frequency kHz injection)
Notes: 1 - The test level can be defined as the equivalent current into a 150 Ω load.
2 - Except for the ITU broadcast frequency band: 47 MHz - 68 MHz where the test shall be 3 V.
71

EN 50082-2 (1995) (4)

Earth port
Phenomenon Test specification Units Basic standard Test setup Remarks Performance criteria
Radio-frequency 0.15 - 80 MHz ENV 50141 ENV 50141 See note 1 & 2 A
common mode. 10 V (unmodulated, rms) The test level
Amplitude 80 %AM (1 kHz) specified is prior
modulated. 150 Source impedance Ω to modulation
Notes: 1 - The test level can be defined as the equivalent current into a 150 Ω load.
2 - Except for the ITU broadcast frequency band: 47 MHz - 68 MHz where the test shall be 3 V.

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EN 61000-6-2:1999

New generic immunity standard for


heavy industrial environment

The following two tests have been added:


• IEC 1000-4-5 (Surge test on power lines and
signal lines)
• IEC 1000-4-11 (Voltage Dips and Short
Interruptions)

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Example of standards application


• Synchronous generator: three-phase, 400V, 6.5kVA, 50Hz, 2
poles, 3.000 r.p.m.
• Reference standards: EN 50081-1, EN 50082-1
• No electronic control, only diodes rectifying the field generating
current
Conducted Emission Test

a - without output EMI filter


b - with output EMI filter
f = 1,115 MHz, QP = 57.24 dBµV
74 Status: Pass
Status: Fail

37
Example of standards application
• Sincronous generator: single-phase, 230V, 4.5kVA, 50Hz, 2 poles,
3.000 r.p.m.
• Reference standards: EN 50081-1, EN 50082-1
• No electronic control, only diodes rectifying the field generating
current
Conducted Emission Test

a - normal diodes b - soft-recovery diodes


75

Remarks on Test Results


• Often the most critical test is conducted emission (for
residential environment)
• Reducing radiated emission requires much stronger
efforts than reducing conducted emission
• The cost penalty to achieve compliance with
harmonics/flicker requirements can be very high
• Immunity tests to radiated and conducted noises are
critical for analog electronics (i.e., A/D converters)
• Immunity test to voltage bursts is critical for
microprocessor systems
• In power electronics applications it is often difficult to
comply with light industry emission limits
• Preliminary in-factory tests are recommended;
otherwise, most EUT’s fail to pass acceptance tests
• Solving for compliance problems during final
acceptance tests can be much more difficult and
76 expensive than finding solutions in the design stage

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Go to Section 2

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