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STUDY PACKAGE
Subject : Mathematics
Topic : COMPLEX NUMBER
Available Online : www.MathsBySuhag.com

Index
1. Theory
2. Short Revision
3. Exercise (Ex. 1 + 5 = 6)
4. Assertion & Reason
5. Que. from Compt. Exams
6. 39 Yrs. Que. from IIT-JEE(Advanced)
7. 15 Yrs. Que. from AIEEE (JEE Main)

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Complex Numbers
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1. The complex number system


There is no real number x which satisfies the polynomial equation x 2 + 1 = 0. To permit solutions of this
and similar equations, the set of complex numbers is introduced.
We can consider a complex number as having the form a + bi where a and b are real number and i,
which is called the imaginary unit, has the property that i 2 = – 1.

page 2 of 38
It is denoted by z i.e. z = a + ib. ‘a’ is called as real part of z which is denoted by (Re z) and ‘b’ is called
as imaginary part of z which is denoted by (Im z).
Any complex number is :
(i) Purely real, if b = 0 ; (ii) Purely imaginary, if a = 0
(iii) Imaginary, if b  0.
NOTE : (a) The set R of real numbers is a proper subset of the Complex Numbers. Hence the complete
number system is N  W  I  Q  R  C.

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(b) Zero is purely real as well as purely imaginary but not imaginary.
(c) i = 1 is called the imaginary unit.
Also i² =  1; i 3 =  i ; i 4 = 1 etc.
(d) a b = a b only if atleast one of a or b is non - negative.
(e) is z = a + ib, then a – ib is called complex conjugate of z and written as z = a – ib
Self Practice Problems
1. Write the following as complex number
(i)  16 (ii) x , (x > 0)
(iii) –b +  4ac , (a, c> 0)
Ans. (i) 0 + i 16 (ii) x + 0i (iii) –b + i 4ac
2. Write the following as complex number
(i) x (x < 0) (ii) roots of x 2 – (2 cos)x + 1 = 0
2. Algebraic Operations:
Fundamental operations with complex numbers
In performing operations with complex numbers we can proceed as in the algebra of real numbers,
replacing i 2 by – 1 when it occurs.
1. Addition (a + bi) + (c + di) = a + bi + c + di = (a + c) + (b + d) i
2. Subtraction (a + bi) – c + di) = a + bi – c – di = (a – c) + (b – d) i
3. Multiplication (a + bi) (c + di) = ac + adi + bci + bdi 2 = (ac – bd) + (ad+ bc)i
a  bi a  bi c  bi ac  adi  bci  bdi 2
4. Division = . =
c  di c  di c  di c 2  d2i2
ac  bd  (bc  ad)i ac  bd bc  ad
= 2 2 = 2 2 +
i
c d c d c 2  d2
Inequalities in complex numbers are not defined. There is no validity if we say that complex number is
positive or negative.
e.g. z > 0, 4 + 2i < 2 + 4 i are meaningless.
In real numbers if a2 + b2 = 0 then a = 0 = b however in complex numbers,
z12 + z22 = 0 does not imply z 1 = z2 = 0.
Example : Find multiplicative inverse of 3 + 2i.
Solution Let z be the multiplicative inverse of 3 + 2i. then
 z . (3 + 2i) = 1
1 3  2i
 z= = 
3  2i 3  2i 3  2i
3 2
 z= – i
13 13
 3 2 
  i Ans.
 13 13 
Self Practice Problem
1. Simplify i n+100 + i n+50 + i n+48 + i n+46 , n  .
Ans. 0

3. Equality In Complex Number:


Two complex numbers z1 = a1 + ib1 & z2 = a2 + ib2 are equal if and only if their real and imaginary parts
are equal respectively
i.e. z1 = z2  Re(z1) = Re(z2) and m (z1) = m (z2).

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Example: Find the value of x and y for which (2 + 3i) x 2 – (3 – 2i) y = 2x – 3y + 5i where x, y  R.
Solution (z + 3i)x 2 – (3 – 2i)y = 2x – 3y + 5i
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 2x 2 – 3y = 2x – 3y
 x2 – x = 0
 x = 0, 1 and 3x 2 + 2y = 5
5
 if x = 0,y = and if x = 1, y = 1
2
5
 x = 0, y = and x = 1, y = 1
2

page 3 of 38
 5
are two solutions of the given equation which can also be represented as  0,  & (1, 1)
 2
 5
 0,  , (1, 1) Ans.
 2
Example: Find the value of expression x 4 – 4x 3 + 3x 2 – 2x + 1 when x = 1 + i is a factor of expression.
Solution. x=1+i

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 x–1=i
 (x – 1)2 = –1
 x 2 – 2x + 2 = 0
Now x 4 – 4x 3 + 3x 2 – 2x + 1
= (x 2 – 2x + 2) (x 2 – 3x – 3) – 4x + 7
 when x = 1 + i i.e. x 2 – 2x + 2 = 0
x 4 – 4x 3 + 3x 2 – 2x + 1 = 0 – 4 (1 + i) + 7
= –4 + 7 – 4i
= 3 – 4i Ans.
Example: Solve for z if z 2 + |z| = 0
Solution. Let z= x + iy
 (x + iy)2 + x2  y2 = 0

 x 2 – y2 + x 2  y 2 = 0 and 2xy = 0
 x = 0 or y = 0
when x =0 – y2 + | y | = 0
 y = 0, 1, –1
 z = 0, i, –i
when y =0 x2 + | x | = 0
 x=0  z = 0 Ans. z = 0, z = i, z = – i
Example: Find square root of 9 + 40i
Solution. Let (x + iy) 2 = 9 + 40i
 x 2 – y2 = 9 ...............(i)
and xy = 20 ...............(ii)
squing (i) and adding with 4 times the square of (ii)
we get x 4 + y4 – 2x 2 y2 + 4x 2 y2 = 81 + 1600
 (x 2 + y2)2 = 168
 x 2 + y2 = 4 ...............(iii)
from (i) + (iii) we get x 2 = 25  x=±5
and y = 16  y=±4
from equation (ii) we can see that
x & y are of same sign
 x + iy = +(5 + 4i) or = (5 + 4i)
 sq. roots of a + 40i = ± (5 + 4i) Ans. ± (5 + 4i)
Self Practice Problem

3 1
1. Solve for z : z = i z2 Ans. ± – i, 0, i
2 2
4. Representation Of A Complex Number:
(a) Cartesian Form (Geometric Representation) :
Every complex number z = x + i y can be represented by a point on the Cartesian plane
known as complex plane (Argand diagram) by the ordered pair (x, y).

Length OP is called modulus of the complex number which is denoted by z &  is called the
argument or amplitude.
y
z = x 2  y 2 &  = tan1 (angle made by OP with positive x axis)
x
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NOTE : (i) Argument of a complex number is a many valued function. If  is the argument of a complex
number then 2 n+ ; n  I will also be the argument of that complex number. Any two arguments of
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a complex number differ by 2n
(ii) The unique value of  such that   <   is called the principal value of the argument.
Unless otherwise stated, amp z implies principal value of the argument.
(iii) By specifying the modulus & argument a complex number is defined completely. For the complex
number 0 + 0 i the argument is not defined and this is the only complex number which is only
given by its modulus.

page 4 of 38
(b) Trignometric/Polar Representation :
z = r (cos  + i sin ) where z = r; arg z = ; z = r (cos  i sin )

NOTE : cos  + i sin  is also written as CiS or ei .


eix e ix eix e ix
Also cos x = & sin x = are known as Euler's identities.
2 2

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(c) Euler's Representation :
z = rei ; z = r; arg z = ; z = re i 

(d) Vectorial Representation :


Every complex number can be considered as if it is the position vector of a point. If the point
 
P represents the complex number z then, OP = z &  OP  = z
Example: Express the complex number z = – 1 + 2 i in polar form.
Solution. z = –1 + i 2
|z|= ( 1)2   2 2
= 1 2 = 3
 2
 
Arg z =  – tan–1  1  =  – tan–1 2 =  (say)
 
 z = 3 (cos  + i sin  ) where  =  – tan–1 2
Self Practice Problems
1. Find the principal argument and |z|
1 (9  i)
z=
2i
17 82
Ans. – tan–1 ,
11 5
2. Find the |z| and principal argument of the complex number z = 6(cos 310º – i sin 310°)
Ans. 6, 50°
5. Modulus of a Complex Number :
If z = a + ib, then it's modulus is denoted and defined by |z| = a 2  b 2 . Infact |z| is the distance
of z from origin. Hence |z 1 – z2| is the distance between the points represented by z 1 and z2.
Properties of modulus
z1 z1
(i) |z1z2| = |z1| . |z2| (ii) z2 = z2 (provided z2  0)
(iii) |z1 + z2|  |z1| + |z2| (iv) |z1 – z2|  ||z1| – |z2||

(Equality in (iii) and (iv) holds if and only if origin, z1 and z2 are collinear with z1 and z2 on the same side
of origin).
Example: If |z – 5 – 7i| = 9, then find the greatest and least values of |z – 2 – 3i|.
Solution. We have 9 = |z – (5 + 7i)| = distance between z and 5 + 7i.
Thus locus of z is the circle of radius 9 and centre at 5 + 7i. For such a z (on the circle), we
have to find its greatest and least distance as from 2 + 3i, which obviously 14 and 4.
Example: Find the minimum value of |1 + z| + |1 – z|.
Solution |1 + z| + |1 – z|  |1 + z + 1 – z| (triangle inequality)
 |1 + z | + |1 – z|  2
 minimum value of (|1 + z| + |1 – z|) = 2
Geometrically |z + 1| + |1 – 2| = |z + 1| + |z – 1| which represents sum of distances of z from
1 and – 1
it can be seen easily that minimu (PA + PB) = AB = 2
 
1  n  
Ans. 21 / 4 e 8 

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2
Example: z = 1 then find the maximum and minimum value of |z|
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z
2 2 2 2
Solution. z =1 |z|  z |z|+ 
z z 2 z
Let | z | = r
2 2
 r 1  r+
r r

page 5 of 38
2
r+ 1  r  R+ ..............(i)
r
2 2
and r  1 –1  r – 1
r r
 r  (1, 2) ..............(ii)
 from (i) and (ii) r  (1, 2)

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Ans. r  (1, 2)
Self Practice Problem
1. |z – 3| < 1 and |z – 4i| > M then find the positive real value of M for which these exist at least one
complex number z satisfy both the equation.
Ans. M  (0, 6)

6. Agrument of a Complex Number :


Argument of a non-zero complex number P(z) is denoted and defined by arg(z) = angle which OP
makes with the positive direction of real axis.
If OP = |z| = r and arg(z) = , then obviously z = r(cos + isin), called the polar form of z. In what
follows, 'argument of z' would mean principal argument of z(i.e. argument lying in (–, ] unless the
context requires otherwise. Thus argument of a complex number z = a + ib = r(cos + isin) is the value
of  satisfying rcos = a and rsin = b.
b
Thus the argument of z = ,  – , –  + , – ,  = tan–1 , according as z = a + ib lies in , , 
a
or Vth quadrant.
Properties of arguments
(i) arg(z1z2) = arg(z1) + arg(z2) + 2m for some integer m.
(ii) arg(z1/z2) = arg (z1) – arg(z2) + 2m for some integer m.
(iii) arg (z2) = 2arg(z) + 2m for some integer m.
(iv) arg(z) = 0  z is real, for any complex number z  0
(v) arg(z) = ± /2  z is purely imaginary, for any complex number z  0
(vi) arg(z2 – z1) = angle of the line segment
PQ || PQ, where P lies on real axis, with the real axis.

 2
Example: Solve for z, which satisfy Arg (z – 3 – 2i) = and Arg (z – 3 – 4i) = .
6 3
Solution From the figure, it is clear that there is no z, which satisfy both ray

Example: Sketch the region given by


(i) Arg (z – 1 – i) /3
(ii) |z| =  5 & Arg (z – i – 1) >/3

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Solution (i) (ii)

page 6 of 38
Self Practice Problems
1. Sketch the region given by
(i) |Arg (z – i – 2)| < /4 (ii) Arg (z + 1 – i) /6
2. Consider the region |z – 15i|  10. Find the point in the region which has
(i) max |z| (ii) min |z|

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(iii) max arg (z) (iv) min arg (z)

7. Conjugate of a complex Number


Conjugate of a complex number z = a + b is denoted and defined by z = a – ib.
In a complex number if we replace i by – i, we get conjugate of the complex number. z is the mirror
image of z about real axis on Argand's Plane.

Properties of conjugate

(i) |z| = | z | (ii) z z = |z|2


(iii) ( z 1  z 2 ) = ( z1 ) + ( z 2 ) (iv) ( z 1  z 2 ) = ( z1 ) – ( z 2 )
 z1  ( z1 )
(v) ( z 1 z 2 ) = z1 z 2 (vi)   = (z  0)
z
 2 ( z2 ) 2
(vii) |z1 + z2|2 = (z1 + z2) (z1  z 2 ) = |z1|2 + |z2|2 + z1 z 2 + z1 z2
(viii) ( z1 ) = z (ix) If w = f(z), then w = f( z )
(x) arg(z) + arg( z ) = 0
z 1
Example: If is purely imaginary, then prove that | z | = 1
z 1
 z  1
Solution. Re   =0
 z  1
z 1  z  1 z 1 z 1
 +   =0
  + =0
z 1  z  1  z  1 z 1
 zz – z + z – 1 + zz – z + z – 1 = 0
 zz = 1  | z |2 = 1
 |z|=1 Hence proved
Self Practice Problem
z1  2z 2
1. If is unmodulus and z2 is not unimodulus then find |z 1|.
2  z1z 2
Ans. |z1| = 2
8. Rotation theorem
(i) If P(z1) and Q(zz) are two complex numbers such that |z 1| = |z2|, then z2 = z1 eiwhere  = POQ
(ii) If P(z1), Q(z2) and R(z3) are three complex numbers and PQR = , then

 z3  z2  z3  z2
  i
 z z  = z1  z 2 e
 1 2 

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(iii) If P(z1), Q(z2), R(z3) and S(z4) are four complex numbers and STQ = , then
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z3  z2 z3  z 4
= i
z1  z 2 z1  z 2 e

 z  1 
Example: If arg   = then interrupter the locus.

page 7 of 38
 zi  3
 z  1 
Solution arg   =
 z  i  3
 1 z  
 arg   =
  1  z  3

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 1 z 
Here arg   represents the angle between lines joining –1 and z and 1 + z. As this angle
  1 z 
is constant, the locus of z will be a of a circle segment. (angle in a segment is count). It can be
 1 z  2
seen that locus is not the complete side as in the major are arg   will be equal to – .
  1 z  3
Now try to geometrically find out radius and centre of this circle.
 1  2
centre   0, 
 Radius  Ans.
 3 3
Example: If A(z + 3i) and B(3 + 4i) are two vertices of a square ABCD (take in anticlock wise order) then
find C and D.
Solution. Let affix of C and D are z3 + z4 respectively
Considering DAB = 90º + AD = AB
z  (2  3 i) (3  4 i)  (2  3 i) i
we get 4 = e
AD AB 2
 z4 – (2 + 3i) = (1 + i) i
 Z4 = 2 + 3i+ i – 1 = 1 + zi
z 3  (3  4i) (z  3i)  (3  4i) i
and = e–
CB AB 2
 z3 = 3 + 4i – (1 + i) (–i)
z3 = 3 + 4i + i – 1 = z + 5i
Self Practice Problems
1. z1, z2, z3, z4 are the vertices of a square taken in anticlockwise order then prove that
2z2 = (1 + i) z 1 + (1 – i) z 3
Ans. (1 + i) z1 + (1 – i)z3
2. Check that z1z2 and z3z4 are parallel or, not
where, z1 = 1 + i z3 = 4 + 2i
z2 = 2 – i z4 = 1 – i
Ans. Hence, z1z2 and z3z4 are not parallel.
3. P is a point on the argand diagram on the circle with OP as diameter “two point Q and R are taken such
that POQ = QOR
If O is the origin and P, Q, R are represented by complex z 1, z2, z3 respectively then show that
z22 cos 2 = z1z3cos2
Ans. z1z3 cos2

9. Demoivre’s Theorem:
Case 
Statement :
If n is any integer then
(i) (cos  + i sin  )n = cos n + i sin n
(ii) (cos 1 + i sin 1) (cos 2) + i sin 2) (cos3 + i sin 2) (cos 3 + i sin 3) .....(cos n + i sin n)
= cos (1 + 2 + 3 + ......... n) + i sin (1 + 2 + 3 + ....... + n)
Case 
Statement : If p, q  Z and q  0 then
 2k  p   2k  p 
(cos  + i sin )p/q = cos   + i sin  
 q   q 
where k = 0, 1, 2, 3, ......, q – 1

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FREE Download Study Package from website: www.TekoClasses.com & www.MathsBySuhag.com NOTE : Continued product of the roots of a complex quantity should be determined using theory of equations.

1 0 . Cube Root Of Unity :


(i) The cube roots of unity are 1,  1  i 3 ,  1  i 3 .
2 2
(ii) If  is one of the imaginary cube roots of unity then 1 +  + ² = 0. In general 1 + r + 2r = 0;
where r  I but is not the multiple of 3.
(iii) In polar form the cube roots of unity are :

page 8 of 38
2 2 4 4
cos 0 + i sin 0; cos + i sin , cos + i sin
3 3 3 3
(iv) The three cube roots of unity when plotted on the argand plane constitute the verties of an
equilateral triangle.
(v) The following factorisation should be remembered :
(a, b, c  R &  is the cube root of unity)
a3  b3 = (a  b) (a  b) (a  ²b) ; x 2 + x + 1 = (x  ) (x  2) ;

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a + b = (a + b) (a + b) (a +  b)
3 3 2 ; a2 + ab + b2 = (a – bw) (a – bw2)
a + b + c  3abc = (a + b + c) (a + b + ²c) (a + ²b + c)
3 3 3

Example: Find the value of 192 + 194


Solution. 192 + 194
= 1 + 2 =–
Ans. – 
Example: If 1, , 2 are cube roots of unity prove
(i) (1 –  + 2) (1 +  – 2) = 4
(ii) (1 –  + 2)5 + (1 +  – 2)5 = 32
(iii) (1 – ) (1 – 2) (1 –4) (1 – 8) = 9
(iv) (1 –  + 2) (1 – 2 + 4) (1 – 4 + 8) .......... to 2n factors = 2 2n
Solution. (i) (1 –  + 2) (1 +  – 2)
= ( – 2) ( – 22)
=4
Self Practice Problem
10
r 2r
1. Find  (1     )
r 0
Ans. 12
11. nth Roots of Unity :
If 1, 1, 2, 3..... n  1 are the n, nth root of unity then :

(i) They are in G.P. with common ratio ei(2/n) &

p p p
(ii) 1p +  1 +  2 +.... +  n  1 = 0 if p is not an integral multiple of n
= n if p is an integral multiple of n
(iii) (1  1) (1  2)...... (1  n  1) = n &
(1 + 1) (1 + 2)....... (1 + n  1) = 0 if n is even and 1 if n is odd.
(iv) 1. 1. 2. 3......... n  1 = 1 or 1 according as n is odd or even.
Example: Find the roots of the equation z 6 + 64 = 0 where real part is positive.
Solution. z6 = – 64
z6 = z6 . e+ i(2n + 1) xz

i( 2n 1)
 z=z e 6

   5 7 3 11
i i i i i i i
6 2 6 6 2 2
 z=2 e , 2e , ze 2 , ze = e , ze , ze
i 11
i
 roots with +ve real part are = e 6 + e 6

 
i 
2e  6 Ans.

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6
 2k 2k 
Example: Find the value   sin  cos 
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k 1 7 7 
6 6
 2k   2k 
Solution.   sin
k 1
7 
 –   cos
k 1
7 

6 6
2k 2k
= 
k 0
sin
7 –  cos
k 0
7 +1

page 9 of 38
6

= 
k 0
(Sum of imaginary part of seven seventh roots of unity)

– 
k 0
(Sum of real part of seven seventh roots of unity) + 1
= 0–0+1=1

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i Ans.
Self Practice Problems
1. Resolve z7 – 1 into linear and quadratic factor with real coefficient.
 2 2   4   6 
Ans. (z – 1)  z  2 cos z  1 .  z 2  2 cos z  1 .  z 2  2 cos z  1
 7   7   7 
2 4 6
2. Find the value of cos + cos + cos .
7 7 7
1
Ans. –
2
1 2 . The Sum Of The Following Series Should Be Remembered :
sin  n / 2  n  1
(i) cos  + cos 2  + cos 3  +..... + cos n  = cos   
sin  / 2  2 

sin  n / 2  n  1
sin  + sin 2  + sin 3  +..... + sin n  =
(ii)
sin  / 2 sin  2  
NOTE : If  = (2 /n) then the sum of the above series vanishes.

1 3 . Logarithm Of A Complex Quantity :


1  1  
(i) Loge (+ i  ) = Loge (² +  ²) + i  2 n   tan  where n  .
2  
 
 2 n   
(ii) i i represents a set of positive real numbers given by e  2
, n  .

Example: Find the value of



(i) log (1 + 3 i) Ans. log2 + i(2n + )
3
(ii) log(–1) Ans. i
(iii) zi Ans. cos(ln2) + i sin(ln2) = ei(ln2)

( 4n1).
(iv) ii Ans. e 2


( 8n 1).
(v) |(1 + i)i | Ans. e 4

1
(vi) arg ((1 + i)i) Ans. n(2).
2
 i   2n  
 
Solution. (i) log (1 + 3 i) = log  2 e  3 

 
 
 
= log 2 + i   2n 
3 
(iii) 2i = ein 2 = cos (n 2) cos (n 2) + i sin ( n 2) ]

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1. Find the real part of cos (1 + i)
1  e2
Ans.
2ei

1 4 . Geometrical Properties :
Distance formula :

page 10 of 38
If z1 and z2 are affixies of the two points P and Q respectively then distance between P + Q is given
by |z1 – z2|.
Section formula
If z1 and z2 are affixes of the two points P and Q respectively and point C devides the line joining P and
Q internally in the ratio m : n then affix z of C is given by
mz 2  nz 1
z=

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mn
If C devides PQ in the ratio m : n externally then
mz 2  nz1
z=
m n
(b) If a, b, c are three real numbers such that az 1 + bz2 + cz3 = 0 ; where a + b + c = 0 and a,b,c
are not all simultaneously zero, then the complex numbers z 1, z2 & z3 are collinear.
(1) If the vertices A, B, C of a  represent the complex nos. z 1, z2, z3 respectively and
a, b, c are the length of sides then,
z1  z 2  z 3
(i) Centroid of the  ABC = :
3
(ii) Orthocentre of the  ABC =
asec A z1  b sec Bz 2  c secCz 3 z1 tan A  z 2 tanB  z 3 tan C
or
asec A  bsec B  csecC tanA  tan B  tanC
(iii) Incentre of the  ABC = (az1 + bz2 + cz3)  (a + b + c).
(iv) Circumcentre of the  ABC = :
(Z 1 sin 2A + Z 2 sin 2B + Z 3 sin 2C)  (sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C).
(2) amp(z) =  is a ray emanating from the origin inclined at an angle  to the x axis.
(3) z  a = z  b is the perpendicular bisector of the line joining a to b.
(4) The equation of a line joining z 1 & z2 is given by, z = z1 + t (z1  z2) where t is a real parameter.
(5) z = z1 (1 + it) where t is a real parameter is a line through the point z 1 & perpendicular to the
line joining z 1 to the origin.
(6) The equation of a line passing through z 1 & z2 can be expressed in the determinant form as
z z 1
z1 z1 1 = 0. This is also the condition for three complex numbers to be collinear.. The above
z2 z2 1
equation on manipulating, takes the form  z   z  r = 0 where r is real and  is a non zero
complex constant.

NOTE : If we replace z by zei and z by ze – i then we get equation of a straight line which. Passes through the
foot of the perpendicular from origin to given straight line and makes an angle with the given straightl
line.
(7) The equation of circle having centre z 0 & radius  is :
z  z0 =  or z z  z0 z  z0 z + z0 z0  ² = 0 which is of the form
z z   z   z + k = 0, k is real. Centre is  & radius =    k .
Circle will be real if    k  0..
(8) The equation of the circle described on the line segment joining z 1 & z2 as diameter is
z  z2 
arg =± or (z  z1) ( z  z 2) + (z  z2) ( z  z 1) = 0.
z  z1 2
(9) Condition for four given points z 1, z2, z3 & z4 to be concyclic is the number
z 3  z1 z 4  z 2
. should be real. Hence the equation of a circle through 3 non collinear
z 3  z 2 z 4  z1

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 z  z 2   z 3  z1 
points z1, z2 & z3 can be taken as is real
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 z  z1   z 3  z 2 
 z  z 2   z 3  z1   z  z 2   z 3  z1 
 = .
 z  z1   z 3  z 2   z  z1   z 3  z 2 
 z  z1 
(10) Arg  z  z  = represent (i) a line segment if  = 
 2

page 11 of 38
(ii) Pair of ray if  = 0 (iii) a part of circle, if 0 <  < 
z1 z1 1
1
(11) Area of triangle formed by the points z 1, z2 & z3 is z2 z2 1
4i
z3 z3 1
|  z 0  z 0  r |

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(12) Perpendicular distance of a point z 0 from the line  z  z  r  0 is
2||

(13) (i) Complex slope of a line  z  z  r  0 is  = – .

z1  z 2
(ii) Complex slope of a line joining by the points z 1 & z2 is  = z  z
1 2
(iii) Complex slope of a line making  angle with real axis = e2i
(14) 1 & 2 are the compelx slopes of two lines.
(i) If lines are parallel then 1 = 2
(ii) If lines are perpendicular then 1 + 2 = 0
(15) If |z – z1| + |z – z2| = K > |z1 – z2| then locus of z is an ellipse whose focii are z 1 & z2

 z  z  r
(16) If |z – z0| = 2|| then locus of z is parabola whose focus is z 0 and directrix is the

line  z 0 +  z 0 + r = 0
z  z1
(17) If z  z2 = k  1, 0, then locus of z is circle.

(18) If z – z1  – z – z2 = K < z1 – z2 then locus of z is a hyperbola, whose focii are
z1 & z2.
Match the following columns :
Column -  Column - 
(i) If | z – 3+2i | – | z + i | = 0, (i) circle
then locus of z represents ..........
 z  1 
(ii) If arg   = , (ii) Straight line
 z  1 4
then locus of z represents...
(iii) if | z – 8 – 2i | + | z – 5 – 6i | = 5 (iii) Ellipse
then locus of z represents .......
 z  3  4i  5
(iv) If arg  z  2  5i  = , (iv) Hyperbola
  6
then locus of z represents .......
(v) If | z – 1 | + | z + i | = 10 (v) Major Arc
then locus of z represents ........
(vi) |z–3+i|–|z+2–i|=1 (vi) Minor arc
then locus of z represents .....
(vii) | z – 3i | = 25 (vii) Perpendicular bisector of a line segment
 z  3  5i 
(viii) arg  z  i  =  (viii) Line segment
 
Ans.  (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii)
 (vii) (v) (viii) (vi) (iii) (iv) (i) (ii)

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15. (a) Reflection points for a straight line :
Two given points P & Q are the reflection points for a given straight line if the given line is the
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right bisector of the segment PQ. Note that the two points denoted by the complex
numbers z1 & z2 will be the reflection points for the straight line  z   z  r  0 if and only if;
 z1   z 2  r  0 , where r is real and is non zero complex constant.
(b) Inverse points w.r.t. a circle :
Two points P & Q are said to be inverse w.r.t. a circle with centre 'O' and radius , if:
(i) the point O, P, Q are collinear and P, Q are on the same side of O.

page 12 of 38
(ii) OP. OQ = 2.
Note : that the two points z1 & z2 will be the inverse points w.r.t. the circle z z   z   z  r  0 if and only
if z1 z 2   z1   z 2  r  0 .
1 6 . Ptolemy’s Theorem:
It states that the product of the lengths of the diagonals of a convex quadrilateral inscribed in a circle

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is equal to the sum of the products of lengths of the two pairs of its opposite sides.
i.e. z1  z3 z2  z4 = z1  z2 z3  z4 + z1  z4 z2  z3
Example: If cos  + cos  + cos  = 0 and also sin  + sin  + sin  = 0, then prove that
(i) cos 2 + cos2 + cos2 = sin 2 + sin 2 + sin 2 = 0
(ii) sin 3 + sin 3 + sin 3 = 3 sin ()
(iii) cos 3 + cos 3 + cos 3 = 3 cos ()
Solution. Let z1 = cos  + i sin , z2 = cos  + i sin ,
z3 = cos + i sin 
 z1 + z2 + z3 = (cos  + cos  + cos ) + i (sin  + sin  + sin )
=0+i.0=0 (1)
1
(i) Also = (cos  + i sin )–1 = cos  – i sin 
z1
1 1
= cos  – i sin , – cos  – sin 
z2 z3
1 1 1
 + z + z = (cos  + cos  + cos ) – i (sin  + sin  + sin ) (2)
z1 2 3
= 0–i.0=0
Now z12 + z22 + z33 = (z1 + z2 + z3)2 – 2 (z1z2 + z2z3 + z3z1 )
 1 1 1 
= 0 – 2z 1z2z3  z  z  z 
 3 1 2 
= 0 – 2z 1 z2 z3. 0 = 0, using (1) and (2)
or (cos  + i sin )2 + (cos  + i sin )2 + (cos  + i sin )2 = 0
or cos 2 + i sin 2)2 + cos 2 + i sin 2 + cos 2 + i sin 2 = 0 + i.0
Equation real and imaginary parts on both sides, cos 2 + cos 2 + cos 2 = 0 and
sin 2 + sin 2 + sin 2 = 0
(ii) z 13 + z 23 + z 33 = (z1 + z2)3 – 3z1z2(z1 + z2) + z33
= (–z3)3 – 3z1z2 (– z3) + z33, using (1)
= 3z1z2z3
 (cos  + i sin )3 + (cos  + i sin )3 + (cos  + i sin )3
= 3 (cos  + i sin ) (cos  + i sin ) (cos  + i sin )
or cos 3 + i sin 3 + cos 3 + i sin 3 + cos 3 + i sin 3
= 3{cos( +  + ) + i sin ( +  + )
Equation imaginary parts on both sides, sin 3 + sin 3 + sin 3 = 3 sin ( +  + )
Alternative method
Let C  cos  + cos  + cos  = 0
S  sin  + sin  + sin  = 0
C + iS = ei + ei + ei = 0 (1)
C – iS = e–i + e–i + e–i = 0 (2)
From (1)  (e–i)2 + (e–i )2 + (e–i)2 = (ei) (ei ) + (ei ) (ei) + (ei) (ei)
 ei2 + ei2 + ei2 = ei ei ei (e–2 + e–i + ei )
 ei(2) + ei2 + ei2 = 0 (from 2)
Comparing the real and imaginary parts we
cos 2 + cos 2 + cos 2 – sin 2 + sin 2 + sin 2 = 0
Also from (1) (ei)3 + (ei )3 + (ei)3 = 3ei ei ei
 ei3 + ei3 + ei3 = 3ei()
Comparing the real and imaginary parts we obtain the results.
Example: If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers and c > 0, then prove that

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|z1 + z2|2  (I + C) |z1|2 + (I +C–1) |z2|2
Solution. We have to prove :
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|z1 + z2|2  (1 + c) |z1|2 + (1 + c–1) |z2|2
i.e. |z1|3 + |z2|2 + z1 z 2 + z 2z2  (1 + c) |z1|2 + (1 +c–1) |z2|3
1
or z1 z 2 + z 2z2  c|z1|2 + c–1|z2|2 or c|z 1|2 + |z |2 – z1 z 2 – z 2 z2  0
c 2
(using Re (z1 z 2)  |z1 z 2|)
2
 1 

page 13 of 38
or  c z1  | z2 |   0 which is always true.
 c
 
Example: If ,  [/6, /3], i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and z4 cos 1 + z3 cos 2 + z3 cos 3. + z cos 4 + cos5 = 2 3 ,
3
then show that |z| >
4
Solution. Given that

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cos1 . z4 + cos2 . z3 + cos3 . z2 + cos4 . z + cos5 = 23
or |cos1 . z4 + cos2 . z3 + cos3 . z2 + cos4 . z + cos5| = 23
23  |cos1 . z4 | + |cos2 . z3 | + |cos3 . z2 | + cos4 . z| + |cos5 |
 i  [/6, /3]
1 3
  cosi 
2 2
3 3 3 3 3
2 3  |z|4 + |z|3 + |z|2 + |z| +
2 2 2 2 2
3  |z|4 + |z|3 + |z|2 + |z|
3 < |z| + |z| 2 + |z|3 + |z|4 +|z|5 + .........
|z|
3 < 1 | z | 3 – e |z| < |z|

3
4|z| > 3  |z| >
4
Example: Two different non parallel lines cut the circle |z| = r in point a, b, c, d respectively. Prove that
a 1  b 1  c 1  d1
these lines meet in the point z given by z =
a 1b 1  c 1d1
Solution. Since point P, A, B are collinear

z z 1
a a 1
 =0   
z a  b – z (a – b) + a b  a b = 0   (i)
b b 1
Similarlym, since points P, C, D are collinear
      
z a  b (c – d) – z c  d (a – b) = c d  cd (a – b) – a b  a b (c – d)   (iii)
k k k
 2
zz = r = k (say)  a = a , b = b , c = c etc.
From equation (iii) we get
k k k k   ck kd   ak bk 
z    (c – d) – z    (a – b) =    (a – b) –    (c – d)
 a b   c d   d c   b a 
a 1  b 1  c 1  d1
 z=
a 1b 1  c 1d1

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Short Revision
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1. DEFINITION :
Complex numbers are definited as expressions of the form a + ib where a, b R & i = 1 . It is
denoted by z i.e. z = a + ib. ‘a’ is called as real part of z (Re z) and ‘b’ is called as imaginary part of
z (Im z).
EVERY COMPLEX NUMBER CAN BE REGARDED AS

page 14 of 38
Purely real Purely imaginary Imaginary
if b = 0 if a = 0 if b  0
Note :
(a) The set R of real numbers is a proper subset of the Complex Numbers. Hence the Complete Number
system is N  W  I  Q  R  C.

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(b) Zero is both purely real as well as purely imaginary but not imaginary.
(c) i = 1 is called the imaginary unit. Also i² =  l ; i3 = i ; i4 = 1 etc.
(d) a b = a b only if atleast one of either a or b is non-negative.
2. CONJUGATE COMPLEX :
If z = a + ib then its conjugate complex is obtained by changing the sign of its imaginary part &
is denoted by z . i.e. z = a  ib.
Note that :
(i) z + z = 2 Re(z) (ii) z  z = 2i Im(z) (iii) z z = a² + b² which is real
(iv) If z lies in the 1st quadrant then z lies in the 4th quadrant and  z lies in the 2nd quadrant.
3. ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS :
The algebraic operations on complex numbers are similiar to those on real numbers treating i as a
polynomial. Inequalities in complex numbers are not defined. There is no validity if we say that complex
number is positive or negative.
e.g. z > 0, 4 + 2i < 2 + 4 i are meaningless .
However in real numbers if a2 + b2 = 0 then a = 0 = b but in complex numbers,
z12 + z22 = 0 does not imply z1 = z2 = 0.
4. EQUALITY IN COMPLEX NUMBER :
Two complex numbers z1 = a1 + ib1 & z2 = a2 + ib2 are equal if and only if their real & imaginary
parts coincide.
5. REPRESENTATION OF A COMPLEX NUMBER IN VARIOUS FORMS :
(a) Cartesian Form (Geometric Representation) :
Every complex number z = x + i y can be represented by a point on
the cartesian plane known as complex plane (Argand diagram) by the
ordered pair (x, y).
length OP is called modulus of the complex number denoted by z &
 is called the argument or amplitude .
eg. z = x 2  y 2 & 
y
 = tan1 (angle made by OP with positive xaxis)
x

 z if z  0
NOTE :(i) z is always non negative . Unlike real numbers z =  is not correct
  z if z  0
(ii) Argument of a complex number is a many valued function . If  is the argument of a complex number
then 2 n+  ; n  I will also be the argument of that complex number. Any two arguments of a
complex number differ by 2n.
(iii) The unique value of  such that –  <   is called the principal value of the argument.
(iv) Unless otherwise stated, amp z implies principal value of the argument.
(v) By specifying the modulus & argument a complex number is defined completely. For the complex number
0 + 0 i the argument is not defined and this is the only complex number which is given by its modulus.
(vi) There exists a one-one correspondence between the points of the plane and the members of the set of
complex numbers.

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(b) Trignometric / Polar Representation :
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z = r (cos  + i sin ) where | z | = r ; arg z =  ; z = r (cos  i sin )
Note: cos  + i sin  is also written as CiS .
eix  e  ix eix  e  ix
Also cos x = & sin x = are known as Euler's identities.
2 2
(c) Exponential Representation :
z = rei ; | z | = r ; arg z =  ; z = re i

page 15 of 38
6. IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF CONJUGATE / MODULI / AMPLITUDE :
If z , z1 , z2  C then ;
(a) z + z = 2 Re (z) ; z  z = 2 i Im (z) ; ( z ) = z ; z1  z 2 = z1 + z 2 ;
 z1 
  = z1

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z1  z 2 = z1  z 2 ; z1 z 2 = z1 . z 2 z  ; z2  0
 2 z2
2
(b) | z |  0 ; | z |  Re (z) ; | z |  Im (z) ; | z | = | z | = | – z | ; z z = | z | ;
z1 |z |
 z1 z2  =  z1 | .  z2  ; = 1 , z2  0 , | zn | = | z |n ;
z2 | z2 |
| z1 + z2 |2 + | z1 – z2 |2 = 2 [| z1 |2  | z 2 |2 ]
z1 z2  z1 + z2  z1+ z2 [ TRIANGLE INEQUALITY ]
(c) (i) amp (z1 . z2) = amp z1 + amp z2 + 2 k. kI
z 
(ii) amp  1  = amp z1  amp z2 + 2 k; k  I
 z2 
(iii) amp(zn) = n amp(z) + 2k .
where proper value of k must be chosen so that RHS lies in (, ].

(7) VECTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF A COMPLEX :


Every complex number can be considered as if it is the position vector of that point. If the point P
 
represents the complex number z then, OP = z &  OP  = z
NOTE :
   
(i) If OP = z = r ei  then OQ = z1 = r ei ( + ) = z . e i. If OP and OQ are
 
of unequal magnitude then OQ  OP ei
(ii) If A, B, C & D are four points representing the complex numbers
z1, z2 , z3 & z4 then
z z z4  z3
AB  CD if 4 3 is purely real ; AB  CD if z  z is purely imaginary ]
z  z1 2 1
(iii) If z1, z2, z3 are the2 vertices of an equilateral triangle where z0 is its circumcentre then
(a) z 12 + z 22 + z 23  z1 z2  z2 z3  z3 z1 = 0 (b) z 12 + z 22 + z 23 = 3 z 20
8. DEMOIVRE’S THEOREM : Statement : cos n  + i sin n  is the value or one of the values
of (cos + i sin )n ¥ n  Q. The theorem is very useful in determining the roots of any complex
quantity Note : Continued product of the roots of a complex quantity should be determined
using theory of equations.
 1 i 3  1 i 3
9. CUBE ROOT OF UNITY : (i) The cube roots of unity are 1 , , .
2 2
(ii) If w is one of the imaginary cube roots of unity then 1 + w + w² = 0. In general
1 + wr + w2r = 0 ; where r  I but is not the multiple of 3.
(iii) In polar form the cube roots of unity are :
2 2 4 4
cos 0 + i sin 0 ; cos + i sin , cos + i sin
3 3 3 3
(iv) The three cube roots of unity when plotted on the argand plane constitute the verties of an equilateral triangle.
(v) The following factorisation should be remembered :
(a, b, c  R &  is the cube root of unity)

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a3  b3 = (a  b) (a  b) (a  ²b) ; x2 + x + 1 = (x  ) (x  2) ;
3 3
a + b = (a + b) (a + b) (a +  b) ; 2
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a3 + b3 + c3  3abc = (a + b + c) (a + b + ²c) (a + ²b + c)
10. nth ROOTS OF UNITY :
If 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 ..... n  1 are the n , nth root of unity then :
(i) They are in G.P. with common ratio ei(2/n) &
(ii) 1p +  1p +  2p + .... + pn  1 = 0 if p is not an integral multiple of n
= n if p is an integral multiple of n

page 16 of 38
(iii) (1  1) (1  2) ...... (1  n  1) = n &
(1 + 1) (1 + 2) ....... (1 + n  1) = 0 if n is even and 1 if n is odd.
(iv) 1 . 1 . 2 . 3 ......... n  1 = 1 or 1 according as n is odd or even.
11. THE SUM OF THE FOLLOWING SERIES SHOULD BE REMEMBERED :
sin n 2   n 1
(i) cos  + cos 2  + cos 3  + ..... + cos n  = cos   
sin  2 

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 2 
sin n 2   n  1 
(ii) sin  + sin 2  + sin 3  + ..... + sin n  = sin   
sin  2   2 
Note : If  = (2/n) then the sum of the above series vanishes.
12. STRAIGHT LINES & CIRCLES IN TERMS OF COMPLEX NUMBERS :
nz  mz 2
(A) If z1 & z2 are two complex numbers then the complex number z = 1 divides the joins of z1
mn
& z2 in the ratio m : n.
Note:(i) If a , b , c are three real numbers such that az1 + bz2 + cz3 = 0 ;
where a + b + c = 0 and a,b,c are not all simultaneously zero, then the complex numbers z1 , z2 & z3
are collinear.
(ii) If the vertices A, B, C of a  represent the complex nos. z1, z2, z3 respectively, then :
z1  z 2  z 3
(a) Centroid of the  ABC = :
3
(b) Orthocentre of the  ABC =
a sec A z1  b sec Bz 2  c sec C z 3 z tan A  z 2 tan B  z 3 tan C
OR 1
a sec A  b sec B  c sec C tan A  tan B  tan C
(c) Incentre of the  ABC = (az1 + bz2 + cz3)  (a + b + c) .
(d) Circumcentre of the  ABC = :
(Z1 sin 2A + Z2 sin 2B + Z3 sin 2C)  (sin 2A + sin 2B + sin 2C) .
(B) amp(z) =  is a ray emanating from the origin inclined at an angle  to the x axis.
(C) z  a = z  b is the perpendicular bisector of the line joining a to b.
(D) The equation of a line joining z1 & z2 is given by ;
z = z1 + t (z1  z2) where t is a perameter.
(E) z = z1 (1 + it) where t is a real parameter is a line through the point z1 & perpendicular to oz1.
(F) The equation of a line passing through z1 & z2 can be expressed in the determinant form as
z z 1
z1 z1 1 = 0. This is also the condition for three complex numbers to be collinear..
z2 z2 1
(G) Complex equation of a straight line through two given points z1 & z2 can be written as
z z1  z 2   z z1  z 2   z1z 2  z1z 2  = 0, which on manipulating takes the form as  z   z  r = 0
where r is real and  is a non zero complex constant.
(H) The equation of circle having centre z0 & radius  is :
z  z0 =  or z z  z0 z  z 0 z + z 0 z0  ² = 0 which is of the form
zz  z z  r = 0 , r is real centre  & radius  r .
Circle will be real if    r  0 .
(I) The equation of the circle described on the line segment joining z1 & z2 as diameter is :
z  z2 
(i) arg = ± or (z  z1) ( z  z 2) + (z  z2) ( z  z 1) = 0
z  z1 2
(J) Condition for four given points z1 , z2 , z3 & z4 to be concyclic is, the number

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z 3  z1 z 4  z 2
. is real. Hence the equation of a circle through 3 non collinear points z1, z2 & z3 can be
z 3  z 2 z 4  z1
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z  z 2  z3  z1  z  z 2 z3  z1  z  z2 z3  z1 


taken as is real 
z  z1 z 3  z 2  z  z1 z3  z 2  = z  z1 z3  z 2 
13.(a) Reflection points for a straight line :
Two given points P & Q are the reflection points for a given straight line if the given line is the right
bisector of the segment PQ. Note that the two points denoted by the complex numbers z1 & z2 will be

page 17 of 38
the reflection points for the straight line  z   z  r  0 if and only if ;  z   z  r  0 , where r is
1 2
real and is non zero complex constant.
(b) Inverse points w.r.t. a circle :
Two points P & Q are said to be inverse w.r.t. a circle with centre 'O' and radius , if :
(i) the point O, P, Q are collinear and on the same side of O. (ii) OP . OQ = 2.
Note that the two points z1 & z2 will be the inverse points w.r.t. the circle

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zz  z z  r 0 if and only if z1z 2   z1 z 2  r 0 .
14. PTOLEMY’S THEOREM : It states that the product of the lengths of the diagonals of a
convex quadrilateral inscribed in a circle is equal to the sum of the lengths of the two pairs of
its opposite sides. i.e. z1  z3 z2  z4 = z1  z2 z3  z4 + z1  z4 z2  z3.
15. LOGARITHM OF A COMPLEX QUANTITY :
1  
(i) Loge (+ i ) = Loge (² + ²) + i  2n  tan 1  where n  I.
2  
 
  2 n  
 2
(ii) ii represents a set of positive real numbers given by e , n  I.
VERY ELEMENTARY EXERCISE
Q.1 Simplify and express the result in the form of a + bi
2 2
 1  2i  1

 4i 3
 i 
 3  2i 3  2i 2  i 2 2  i 2
(a)   (b) i (9 + 6 i) (2  i) (c)  
(d)  (e) 
 2i   2i  1  2  5i 2  5i 2i 2i
Q.2 Given that x , y  R, solve : (a) (x + 2y) + i (2x  3y) = 5  4i (b) (x + iy) + (7  5i) = 9 + 4i
(c) x²  y²  i (2x + y) = 2i (d) (2 + 3i) x²  (3  2i) y = 2x  3y + 5i
(e) 4x² + 3xy + (2xy  3x²)i = 4y²  (x2/2) + (3xy  2y²)i
Q.3 Find the square root of : (a) 9 + 40 i (b) 11  60 i (c) 50 i
Q.4 (a) If f (x) = x4 + 9x3 + 35x2  x + 4, find f ( – 5 + 4i)
(b) If g (x) = x4  x3 + x2 + 3x  5, find g(2 + 3i)
Q.5 Among the complex numbers z satisfying the condition z  3  3 i  3 , find the number having the
least positive argument.
Q.6 Solve the following equations over C and express the result in the form a + ib, a, b  R.
(a) ix2  3x  2i = 0 (b) 2 (1 + i) x2  4 (2  i) x  5  3 i = 0
Q.7 Locate the points representing the complex number z on the Argand plane:
2 2 z3
(a) z + 1  2i = 7 ; (b) z  1  z  1 = 4 ; (c) = 3 ; (d) z  3 = z  6
z3
Q.8 If a & b are real numbers between 0 & 1 such that the points z1 = a + i, z2 = 1 + bi & z3 = 0 form an
equilateral triangle, then find the values of 'a' and 'b'.
Q.9 For what real values of x & y are the numbers  3 + ix2 y & x2 + y + 4i conjugate complex?
Q.10 Find the modulus, argument and the principal argument of the complex numbers.
2i
(i) 6 (cos 310°  i sin 310°) (ii) 2 (cos 30° + i sin 30°) (iii)
4 i  (1  i) 2
x y
Q.11 If (x + iy)1/3 = a + bi ; prove that 4 (a2  b2) =  .
a b
a  ib a 2  b2
Q.12(a) If = p + qi , prove that p2 + q2 = 2 2 .
c  id c d
(b) Let z1, z2, z3 be the complex numbers such that
z1 + z2 + z3 = z1z2 + z2z3 + z3z1 = 0. Prove that | z1 | = | z2 | = | z3 |.
1  z  z2
Q.13 Let z be a complex number such that z  c\R and R, then prove that | z | =1.
1 z  z2
 
Q.14 Prove the identity, | 1  z1z 2 |  | z1  z 2 |  1 | z1 | 1 | z 2 |2
2 2 2

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2 2

Q.15 For any two complex numbers, prove that z1  z 2  z1  z 2 = 2 z1  z 2 . Also give the
2 2

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geometrical interpretation of this identity.
Q.16 (a) Find all nonzero complex numbers Z satisfying Z = i Z².
(b) If the complex numbers z1, z2, .................zn lie on the unit circle |z| = 1 then show that
|z1 + z2 + ..............+zn| = |z1–1+ z2–1+................+zn–1| .
Q.17 Find the Cartesian equation of the locus of 'z' in the complex plane satisfying, | z – 4 | + z + 4 | = 16.

page 18 of 38
Q.18 If  is an imaginary cube root of unity then prove that :
(a) (1 +   ²)3  (1  + ²)3 = 0 (b) (1   + ²)5 + (1+   ²)5 = 32
(c) If  is the cube root of unity, Find the value of, (1 + 52 + 4) (1 + 54 + 2) (53 +  + 2).
Q.19 If  is a cube root of unity, prove that ; (i) (1 +   2)3  (1   + 2)3
a  b  c  2
(ii) = 2 (iii) (1 ) (1 2) (1 4) (1 8) = 9
c  a  b 2
Q.20 If x = a + b ; y = a + b2 ; z = a2 + b, show that

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(i) xyz = a3 + b3 (ii) x2 + y2 + z2 = 6ab (iii) x3 + y3 + z3 = 3 (a3 + b3)

1 1 i  w2 w2
Q.21 If (w  1) is a cube root of unity then 1  i 1 w 2 1 =
 i  i  w 1 1
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) i (D) w
7
Q.22(a) (1 + w) = A + Bw where w is the imaginary cube root of a unity and A, B  R, find the ordered pair
(A, B).
(b) The value of the expression ;
1. (2  w) (2  w²) + 2. (3  w) (3  w²) + ............. + (n  1) . (n  w) (n  w²), where w is an
imaginary cube root of unity is ________.
n 1 n
Q.23 If n  N, prove that (1 + i)n + (1  i)n = 2 2 . cos .
2n
4
 2k 2k 
Q.24 Show that the sum   sin  i cos  simplifies to a pure imaginary number..
k 1  2n  1 2n  1
a n
Q.25 If x = cos  + i sin  & 1 + 1  a 2 = na, prove that 1 + a cos  = (1 + nx) 1   .
2n  x
Q.26 The number t is real and not an integral multiple of /2. The complex number x1 and x2 are the roots of
the equation, tan2(t) · x2 + tan (t) · x + 1 = 0
 2n 
Show that (x1)n + (x2)n = 2 cos  cotn(t).
 3 

EXERCISE-1
Q.1 Simplify and express the result in the form of a + bi :
2
 4i3  i  3  2i 3  2i
(a) i (9 + 6 i) (2  i)1 (b)  
 (c) 
 2 i  1  2  5i 2  5i
(d)
2  i 2 
2  i 2 (e) i   i
2i 2i
Q.2 Find the modulus , argument and the principal argument of the complex numbers.
 10   10 
(i) z = 1 + cos   + i sin  9  (ii) (tan1 – i)2
 9   
i 1
(iii) z = 5  12i  5  12i (iv)  2  2
5  12i  5  12i i 1  cos   sin
 5  5
Q.3 Given that x, y  R, solve :
x y 5  6i
(a) (x + 2y) + i (2x  3y) = 5  4i (b)  
1  2i 3  2i 8i  1
(c) x²  y²  i (2x + y) = 2i (d) (2 + 3i) x²  (3  2i) y = 2x  3y + 5i
(e) 4x² + 3xy + (2xy  3x²)i = 4y²  (x2/2) + (3xy  2y²)i
Q.4(a) Let Z is complex satisfying the equation, z2 – (3 + i)z + m + 2i = 0, where m  R.
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Suppose the equation has a real root, then find the value of m.
(b) a, b, c are real numbers in the polynomial, P(Z) = 2Z4 + aZ3 + bZ2 + cZ + 3
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If two roots of the equation P(Z) = 0 are 2 and i, then find the value of 'a'.
Q.5(a) Find the real values of x & y for which z1 = 9y2  4  10 i x and
z2 = 8y2  20 i are conjugate complex of each other.
(b) Find the value of x4  x3 + x2 + 3x  5 if x = 2 + 3i
Q . 6 S o l v e
t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r z : ( a ) z
2 – (3 – 2 i)z = (5i – 5) (b) z+ z = 2 + i
3 2

page 19 of 38
Q.7(a) If i Z + Z  Z + i = 0, then show that | Z | = 1.
z1  2z 2
(b) Let z1 and z2 be two complex numbers such that = 1 and | z2 |  1, find | z1 |.
2  z1z 2
z  z1 
(c) Let z1 = 10 + 6i & z2 = 4 + 6i. If z is any complex number such that the argument of, is , then
z  z2 4

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prove that z  7  9i= 3 2 .
Q.8 Show that the product,
22 2n
  1i    1i     1i     1i  
2
 
1 2  1 2   1 2  ......1 2   is equal to  1  1n  (1+ i) where n  2 .
       


 
 
  22 
Q.9 Let a & b be complex numbers (which may be real) and let,
Z = z3 + (a + b + 3i) z2 + (ab + 3 ia + 2 ib  2) z + 2 abi  2a.
(i) Show that Z is divisible by, z + b + i. (ii) Find all complex numbers z for which Z = 0.
(iii) Find all purely imaginary numbers a & b when z = 1 + i and Z is a real number.
Q.10 Interpret the following locii in z  C.
 z  2i 
(a) 1 < z  2i < 3 (b) Re    4 (z  2i)
iz 2
(c) Arg (z + i)  Arg (z  i) = /2 (d) Arg (z  a) = /3 where a = 3 + 4i.
Q.11 Prove that the complex numbers z1 and z2 and the origin form an isosceles triangle with vertical angle
2/3 if z12  z 22  z1 z 2  0 .
Q.12 P is a point on the Aragand diagram. On the circle with OP as diameter two points Q & R are taken such
that  POQ =  QOR = . If ‘O’ is the origin & P, Q & R are represented by the complex numbers
Z1 , Z2 & Z3 respectively, show that : Z22 . cos 2  = Z1 . Z3 cos².
Q.13 Let z1, z2, z3 are three pair wise distinct complex numbers and t1, t2, t3 are non-negative real numbers
such that t1 + t2 + t3 = 1. Prove that the complex number z = t1z1 + t2z2 + t3z3 lies inside a triangle with
vertices z1, z2, z3 or on its boundry.
Q.14 If a CiS  , b CiS  , c CiS  represent three distinct collinear points in an Argand's plane, then prove
the following :
(i)  ab sin () = 0.
(ii) b 2  c 2  2bc cos(   ) ± (b CiS ) a 2  c 2  2ac cos(   )
(a CiS )
 (c CiS ) a 2  b 2  2ab cos(  ) = 0.
Q.15 Find all real values of the parameter a for which the equation
(a  1)z4  4z2 + a + 2 = 0 has only pure imaginary roots.
Q.16 Let A  z1 ; B  z2; C  z3 are three complex numbers denoting the vertices of an acute angled triangle.
If the origin ‘O’ is the orthocentre of the triangle, then prove that
z1 z2 + z1 z2 = z2 z3 + z2 z3 = z3 z1 + z3 z1
hence show that the  ABC is a right angled triangle  z1 z2 + z1 z2 = z2 z3 + z2 z3 = z3 z1 + z3 z1 = 0
Q.17 If the complex number P(w) lies on the standard unit circle in an Argand's plane and
z = (aw+ b)(w – c)–1 then, find the locus of z and interpret it. Given a, b, c are real.
Q.18(a) Without expanding the determinant at any stage , find K R such that
4i 8  i 4  3i
 8  i 16i i has purely imaginary value.
 4  Ki i 8i
(b) If A, B and C are the angles of a triangle

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e 2iA eiC e iB
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iC  2iB
D= e e eiA where i = 1 then find the value of D.
eiB e iA e  2iC
Q.19 If w is an imaginary cube root of unity then prove that :
(a) (1  w + w2) (1  w2 + w4) (1  w4 + w8) ..... to 2n factors = 22n .
(b) If w is a complex cube root of unity, find the value of
(1 + w) (1 + w2) (1 + w4) (1 + w8) ..... to n factors .

page 20 of 38
n
 1  sin   i cos    n   n 
Q.20 Prove that   = cos  2  n  + i sin  2  n  . Hence deduce that
 1  sin   i cos      
5 5
     
 1  sin  i cos  + i 1  sin  i cos  = 0
 5 5  5 5
Q.21 If cos (  ) + cos (  ) + cos (  ) =  3/2 then prove that :

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(a)  cos 2 = 0 =  sin 2 (b)  sin (+ ) = 0 =  cos (+ ) (c)  sin2  =  cos2  = 3/2
(d)  sin 3 = 3 sin (+ + ) (e)  cos 3 = 3 cos (+ + )
(f) cos3 (+ ) + cos3 (+ ) + cos3 (+ ) = 3 cos (+ ) . cos (+ ) . cos (+ ) where R.

Q.22 Resolve Z5 + 1 into linear & quadratic factors with real coefficients. Deduce that : 4·sin  ·cos = 1.
10 5
Q.23 If x = 1+ i 3 ; y = 1  i 3 & z = 2 , then prove that xp + yp = zp for every prime p > 3.
Q.24 If the expression z5 – 32 can be factorised into linear and quadratic factors over real coefficients as
(z5 – 32) = (z – 2)(z2 – pz + 4)(z2 – qz + 4) then find the value of (p2 + 2p).
Q.25(a) Let z = x + iy be a complex number, where x and y are real numbers. Let A and B be the sets defined by
A = {z | | z |  2} and B = {z | (1 – i)z + (1 + i) z  4}. Find the area of the region A  B.
1
(b) For all real numbers x, let the mapping f (x) = , where i =  1 . If there exist real number
x i
a, b, c and d for which f (a), f (b), f (c) and f (d) form a square on the complex plane. Find the area of
the square.

EXERCISE-2
p q r
Q.1 If q r p  0 ; where p , q , r are the moduli of nonzero complex numbers u, v, w respectively,,
r p q
2
w  w u
prove that, arg = arg   .
v  v u 
Q.2 The equation x3 = 9 + 46i where i =  1 has a solution of the form a + bi where a and b are integers.
Find the value of (a3 + b3).
Q.3 Show that the locus formed by z in the equation z3 + iz = 1 never crosses the co-ordinate axes in the
 Im( z)
Argand’s plane. Further show that |z| =
2 Re(z) Im( z)  1
Q.4 If  is the fifth root of 2 and x =  +  , prove that x5 = 10x2 + 10x + 6.
2
Q.5 Prove that , with regard to the quadratic equation z2 + (p + ip) z + q + iq = 0
where p , p, q , q are all real.
(i) if the equation has one real root then q 2  pp  q + qp 2 = 0 .
(ii) if the equation has two equal roots then p2  p2 = 4q & pp = 2q .
State whether these equal roots are real or complex.
Q.6 If the equation (z + 1)7 + z7 = 0 has roots z1, z2, .... z7, find the value of
7 7
(a)  Re( Zr ) and (b)  Im( Zr )
r 1 r 1
Q.7 Find the roots of the equation Zn = (Z + 1)n and show that the points which represent them are collinear
on the complex plane. Hence show that these roots are also the roots of the equation
2 2
 m  2  m 
 2 sin  Z +  2 sin  Z + 1 = 0.
 n   n 
Q.8 Dividing f(z) by z  i, we get the remainder i and dividing it by z + i, we get the remainder

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1 + i. Find the remainder upon the division of f(z) by z² + 1.
Q.9 Let z1 & z2 be any two arbitrary complex numbers then prove that :
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z1 + z2 
1
 | z1 |  | z 2 |  z1  z 2 .
2 | z1 | | z 2 |
Q.10 If Zr, r = 1, 2, 3, ......... 2m, m  N are the roots of the equation
2m
1
Z2m + Z2m-1 + + ............. + Z + 1 = 0 then prove that r1 Z  1 =  m
Z2m-2

page 21 of 38
r
Q.11 If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x² + .... + Cn xn (n  N), prove that :
1  n 1 n 1  n 1 n
(a) C0 + C4 + C8 + .... = 2  2 n / 2 cos (b) C1 + C5 + C9 + .... = 2  2 n / 2 sin
2  4  2  4 

(c) C2 + C6 + C10 + ..... = 1 2 n 1  2 n / 2 cos n   (d) C3 + C7 + C11 + .... = 1 2 n 1  2 n / 2 sin n  
2  4  2  4 

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1  n n
(e) C0 + C3 + C6 + C9 + ........ = 2  2 cos 3 
3  
Q.12 Let z1 , z2 , z3 , z4 be the vertices A , B , C , D respectively of a square on the Argand diagram
taken in anticlockwise direction then prove that :
(i) 2z2 = (1 + i) z1 + (1 i)z3 & (ii) 2z4 = (1 i) z1 + (1 + i) z3
n

Q.13 Show that all the roots of the equation  1  i x   1  i a a  R are real and distinct.
1  ix 1  ia
Q.14 Prove that:
x  n  2
(a) cos x + nC1 cos 2x + nC2 cos 3x + ..... + nCn cos (n + 1) x = 2n . cosn . cos  x
2  2 
x  n  2
(b) sin x + nC1 sin 2x + nC2 sin 3x + ..... + nCn sin (n + 1) x = 2n . cosn . sin  x
2  2 
       2n 
(c) cos  2   + cos  4   + cos  6   + ..... + cos  1
 =  When n  N.
 2 n  1  2 n  1  2 n  1  2 n  1 2
Q.15 Show that all roots of the equation a0z + a1z n n – 1 + ...... + an – 1z + an = n,
n 1
where | ai |  1, i = 0, 1, 2, .... , n lie outside the circle with centre at the origin and radius .
n
Q.16 The points A, B, C depict the complex numbers z1 , z2 , z3 respectively on a complex plane & the angle
1
B & C of the triangle ABC are each equal to (  ) . Show that
2

(z2  z3)² = 4 (z3  z1) (z1  z2) sin2 .
2
2 2 2
A1 A2 An
Q.17 Show that the equation   ......  = k has no imaginary root, given that:
x  a1 x  a 2 x  an
a1 , a2 , a3 .... an & A1, A2, A3 ..... An, k are all real numbers.
a b c
Q.18 Let a, b, c be distinct complex numbers such that = = = k. Find the value of k.
1 b 1 c 1 a
Q.19 Let ,  be fixed complex numbers and z is a variable complex number such that,
2 2
z   + z   = k.
Find out the limits for 'k' such that the locus of z is a circle. Find also the centre and radius of the circle.
Q.20 C is the complex number. f : C  R is defined by f (z) = | z3 – z + 2|. What is the maximum value of f on
the unit circle | z | = 1?
Q.21 Let f (x) = log cos 3x (cos 2 i x ) if x  0 and f (0) = K (where i =  1 ) is continuous at x = 0 then find
the value of K. Use of L Hospital’s rule or series expansion not allowed.

Q.22 If z1 , z2 are the roots of the equation az2 + bz + c = 0, with a, b, c > 0 ; 2b2 > 4ac > b2 ;
z1  third quadrant ; z2  second quadrant in the argand's plane then, show that

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1/ 2
 z1   b2 
arg  z  = 2cos–1  
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4 ac 
 2  
Q.23 Find the set of points on the argand plane for which the real part of the complex number
(1 + i) z2 is positive where z = x + iy , x, y  R and i = 1 .
Q.24 If a and b are positive integer such that N = (a + ib)3 – 107i is a positive integer. Find N.

page 22 of 38
Q.25 If the biquadratic x4 + ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 (a, b, c, d  R) has 4 non real roots, two with sum
3 + 4i and the other two with product 13 + i. Find the value of 'b'.

EXERCISE-3

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
p
32  10  2q 2q  
Q.1 Evaluate:  (3 p  2)    sin 11  i cos 11   . [REE '97, 6]
p 1  q 1 
Q.2(a) Let z1 and z2 be roots of the equation z2 + pz + q = 0 , where the coefficients p and q may be
complex numbers. Let A and B represent z1 and z2 in the complex plane. If AOB =  0 and

OA = OB, where O is the origin . Prove that p2 = 4 q cos2   . [JEE '97 , 5]
 2
n 1
2k n
(b) Prove that  (n  k) cos
n
=
2
where n  3 is an integer . [JEE '97, 5]
k 1
Q.3(a) If  is an imaginary cube root of unity, then (1 +   2)7 equals
(A) 128 (B)  128 (C) 1282 (D)  1282
13
(b) The value of the sum  i n  i n 1  , where i = 1 , equals
n 1
(A) i (B) i  1 (C)  i (D) 0 [JEE' 98, 2 + 2 ]
Q.4 Find all the roots of the equation (3z  1)4 + (z  2)4 = 0 in the simplified form of a + ib.
[REE ’98, 6 ]
334 365
 1 i 3  1 i 3
Q.5(a) If i = 1 , then 4 + 5     +3     is equal to :
 2 2   2 2 
(A) 1  i 3 (B)  1 + i 3 (C) i 3 (D)  i 3
2 2
(b) For complex numbers z & , prove that, z   z = z  if and only if,
z =  or z  = 1 [JEE '99, 2 + 10 (out of 200)]
2i 20
Q.6 If  = e 7 and f(x) = A0 +  Ak xk, then find the value of,
k 1
f(x) + f(x) + ...... + f(6x) independent of  . [REE '99, 6]
 1 1 1 
Q.7(a) If z1 , z2 , z3 are complex numbers such that z1 = z2 = z3 =     = 1, then
 z1 z 2 z 3 
z1 + z2 + z3 is :
(A) equal to 1 (B) less than 1 (C) greater than 3 (D) equal to 3

(b) If arg (z) < 0 , then arg ( z)  arg (z) =


 
(A)  (B)  (C)  (D)
2 2
[ JEE 2000 (Screening) 1 + 1 out of 35 ]
2 2
Q.8 Given , z = cos 2 n  1 + i sin , 'n' a positive integer, find the equation whose roots are,
3 2n  1
2n  1 2
 = z + z + ...... + z &  = z + z4 + ...... + z2n .
[ REE 2000 (Mains) 3 out of 100 ]
z1  z 3 1  i 3
Q.9(a) The complex numbers z1, z2 and z3 satisfying  are the vertices of a triangle which is
z2  z3 2
(A) of area zero (B) right-angled isosceles
(C) equilateral (D) obtuse – angled isosceles
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(b) Let z1 and z2 be nth roots of unity which subtend a right angle at the origin. Then n must be of the form
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(A) 4k + 1 (B) 4k + 2 (C) 4k + 3 (D) 4k
[ JEE 2001 (Scr) 1 + 1 out of 35 ]
Q.10 Find all those roots of the equation z12 – 56z6 – 512 = 0 whose imaginary part is positive.
[ REE 2000, 3 out of 100 ]
1 1 1
1 3
. Then the value of the determinant 1 1    2 is
2
Q.11(a) Let     i

page 23 of 38
2 2
1 2 4
(A) 3 (B) 3 ( – 1) (C) 32 (D) 3(1 – )
(b) For all complex numbers z1, z2 satisfying |z1| = 12 and |z2 – 3 – 4i| = 5, the minimum value of
|z1 – z2| is
(A) 0 (B) 2 (C) 7 (D) 17

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[JEE 2002 (Scr) 3+3]
(c) Let a complex number  ,   1, be a root of the equation
zp+q – zp – zq + 1 = 0 where p, q are distinct primes.
Show that either 1 +  + 2 + ...... + p–1 = 0 or 1 +  + 2 + ...... + q–1 = 0 , but not both together.
[JEE 2002, (5) ]
1  z1 z 2
Q.12(a) If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers such that | z1 | < 1 < | z2 | then prove that  1.
z1  z 2
1 n
(b) Prove that there exists no complex number z such that | z | <
3
and  ar zr = 1 where | ar | < 2.
r 1
[JEE-03, 2 + 2 out of 60]
Q.13(a)  is an imaginary cube root of unity. If (1 + 2)m = (1 + 4)m , then least positive integral value of m is
(A) 6 (B) 5 (C) 4 (D) 3
[JEE 2004 (Scr)]
(z  )
(b) Find centre and radius of the circle determined by all complex numbers z = x + i y satisfying k,
(z   )
where   1  i 2 ,   1  i 2 are fixed complex and k  1. [JEE 2004, 2 out of 60 ]

Q.14(a) The locus of z which lies in shaded region is best represented by


(A) z : |z + 1| > 2, |arg(z + 1)| < /4
(B) z : |z - 1| > 2, |arg(z – 1)| < /4
(C) z : |z + 1| < 2, |arg(z + 1)| < /2
(D) z : |z - 1| < 2, |arg(z - 1)| < /2
(b) If a, b, c are integers not all equal and w is a cube root of unity (w  1), then the minimum value of
|a + bw + cw2| is
3 1
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) (D)
2 2
[JEE 2005 (Scr), 3 + 3]
(c) If one of the vertices of the square circumscribing the circle |z – 1| = 2 is 2  3 i . Find the other
vertices of square. [JEE 2005 (Mains), 4]
w  wz
Q.15 If w =  + i where   0 and z  1, satisfies the condition that is purely real, then the set of
1 z
values of z is
(A) {z : | z | = 1} (B) {z : z = z ) (C) {z : z  1} (D) {z : | z | = 1, z  1}
[JEE 2006, 3]
ANSWER KEY
VERY ELEMENTARY EXERCISE
7 24 21 12 22
Q.1 (a)  i; (b)  i; (c) 3 + 4i; (d)  8 + 0i; (e) i
25 25 5 5 29 5
 2 2  5 3K
Q.2 (a) x =1, y = 2; (b) (2, 9); (c) (2 , 2) or   3 ,  3  ; (d) (1 ,1)  0 ,  (e) x = K, y = , KR
 2 2

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Q.3 (a) ± (5 + 4i) ; (b) ± (5  6i) (c) ± 5(1 + i) Q.4 (a) 160 ; (b)  (77 +108 i)
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3 3 3 3  5i 1 i
Q.5 –  i Q.6 (a)  i ,  2i (b) or 
2 2 2 2
Q.7 (a) on a circle of radius 7 with centre (1, 2) ; (b) on a unit circle with centre at origin
(c) on a circle with centre (15/4, 0) & radius 9/4 ; (d) a straight line
Q.8 a = b = 2  3 ; Q.9 x = 1, y =  4 or x =  1, y =  4

page 24 of 38
5 5
Q.10 (i) Modulus = 6 , Arg = 2 k  + (K  I) , Principal Arg = (K  I)
18 18
7 5
(ii) Modulus = 2 , Arg = 2 k  + , Principal Arg = 
6 6
5
(iii) Modulus = , Arg = 2 k  tan1 2 (K  I) , Principal Arg =  tan12
6
x 2 y2

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3 i 3 i
Q.16 (a)  ,   ,i ; Q.17   1 ; Q.18 (c) 64 ; Q.21 A
2 2 2 2 64 48
2
 n  n  1 
Q.22 (a) (1, 1) ; (b)   n
 2 

EXERCISE-1
21 12 8 22
Q.1 (a)  i (b) 3 + 4 i (c)  +0i (d) i (e) + 2  0 i or 0 2 i
5 5 29 5
4 4 4
Q.2 (i) Principal Arg z =  ; z = 2 cos ; Arg z = 2 k  kI
2
9 9 9
(ii) Modulus = sec 1 , Arg = 2 n (2 –  ) , Principal Arg = (2 –  )
 3  2
(iii) Principal value of Agr z =  & z = ; Principal value of Arg z = & z =
2 2 2 3
1  11 11
(iv) Modulus = cos ec , Arg z = 2n  , Principal Arg =
2 5 20 20
 2 2  5 3K
Q.3(a) x = 1, y = 2; (b) x = 1 & y = 2 ; (c) (2 , 2) or   3 ,  3  ; (d) (1 ,1)  0 ,  ; (e) x =K, y = KR
 2 2
Q.4 (a) 2, (b) – 11/2 Q.5 (a) [( 2, 2) ; ( 2,  2)] (b)  (77 +108 i)
3  4i
Q.6 (a) z = (2 + i) or (1 – 3i); (b) z =
4
Q.7 (b) 2
 2ti   5
Q.9 (ii) z =  (b + i) ;  2 i ,  a 
(iii) , ti  where t  R   
 3t  5   3
Q.10 (a) The region between the co encentric circles with centre at (0 , 2) & radii 1 & 3 units
1 1
(b) region outside or on the circle with centre + 2i and radius .
2 2
(c) semi circle (in the 1st & 4th quadrant) x² + y² = 1 (d) a ray emanating from the point
(3 + 4i) directed away from the origin & having equation 3 x  y  4  3 3  0
Q.15 [3 , 2] Q.17 (1 – c2) | z |2 – 2(a + bc) (Re z) + a2 – b2 = 0
Q.18 (a) K = 3 , (b) – 4 Q.19 (b) one if n is even ;  w² if n is odd
Q.22 (Z + 1) (Z²  2Z cos 36° + 1) (Z²  2Z cos 108° + 1) Q.24 4
Q.25 (a)  – 2 ; (b) 1/2

EXERCISE-2
7 iz 1
Q.2 35 Q.6 (a) – , (b) zero Q.8  i Q.18 –  or – 2
2 2 2
1 2
Q.19 k >    Q.20 | f (z) | is maximum when z = , where  is the cube root unity and | f (z) | = 13
2
4
Q.21 K = –
9
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Q.23 required set is constituted by the angles without their boundaries, whose sides are the straight lines
y = ( 2 1) x and y + ( 2  1) x = 0 containing the x  axis
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Q.24 198 Q.25 51

EXERCISE-3
Q.1 48(1  i) Q.3 (a) D (b) B

page 25 of 38
(29  20 2 )  i(15  25 2 ) (29  20 2 )  i(15  25 2 )
Q.4 Z= , Q.5 (a) C
82 82
sin 2 n  2
Q.6 7 A0 + 7 A7 x7 + 7 A14 x14 Q.7 (a) A (b) A Q.8 z2 +z+ = 0, where  =
sin 2  2n  1

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
Q.9 (a) C, (b) D Q.10 +1 + i 3 ,
 3i , 2i Q.11 (a) B ; (b) B
2
k 2   1
Q.13 (a) D ; (b) Centre  2
k 1
, Radius = 2
(k  1)
|   k 2 |2  k 2 . |  |2  |  |2 . k 2  1   
Q.14 (a) A, (b) B, (c) z2 = – 3 i ; z3 = 1  3  i ; z4 = 1  3  i  Q.15 D  
EXERCISE-4
Part : (A) Only one correct option
z 1
1. If |z| = 1 and  = (where z  –1), the Re() is [IIT – 2003, 3]
z 1
1 z 1 2
(A) 0 (B)  2 (C) z  1 . 2 (D)
| z  1| | z  1| | z  1 |2
2. The locus of z which lies in shaded region (excluding the boundaries) is best represented by

[IIT – 2005, 3]

(A) z : |z + 1| > 2 and |arg (z + 1)| < /4 (B) z : |z – 1| > 2 and |arg (z – 1)| < /4
(C) z : |z + 1| < 2 and |arg (z + 1)| < /2 (D) z : |z – 1| < 2 and |arg (z + 1)| < /2
 w  wz 
3. If w = , + i, where   0 and z  1, satisfies the condition that   is purely real, then the set of
 1 z 
values of z is [IIT – 2006, (3, –1)]
(A) {z : |z| = 1} (B) {z : z = z } (C) {z : z 1} (D) {z : |z| = 1, z 1}
4. If ( 3 + i)100 = 299 (a + ib), then b is equal to
(A) 3 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) none of these
 z  8i 
5. If Re   = 0, then z lies on the curve
 z6 
(A) x2 + y2 + 6x – 8y = 0 (B) 4x – 3y + 24 = 0 (C) 4ab (D) none of these
n1 3 n1 5 n2 7 n2
6. If n1, n2 are positive integers then : (1  i) + (1  i ) + (1  i ) + (1  i ) is a real number if and only if
(A) n1 = n2 + 1 (B) n1 + 1 = n2
(C) n1 = n2 (D) n1, n2 are any two positive integers
7. The three vertices of a triangle are represented by the complex numbers, 0, z1 and z2. If the triangle is
equilateral, then
(A) z12 – z22 = z1z2 (B) z22 – z12 = z1 z2 (C) z12 + z22 = z1z2 (D) z12 + z22 + z1z2 = 0
5 2
 n 1 
8. 2
If x – x + 1 = 0 then the value of 
n 1
 x  n  is
 x 
(A) 8 (B) 10 (C) 12 (D) none of these
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5
9. If  is nonreal and  = 1 then the value of 2|1     2   2   1| is equal to
(A) 4 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) none of these
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x y
10. If z = x + iy and z 1/3 = a  ib then
a b
 
  k a 2  b 2 where k =
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
6 6 5 5
 1  i 3   1  i 3   1  i 3   1  i 3 
11.         is equal to :
 2   2   2   2 

page 26 of 38
(A) 1 (B)  1 (C) 2 (D) none
12. Expressed in the form r (cos  + i sin ),  2 + 2i becomes :
        3   3  
(A) 2 2  cos     i sin     (B) 2 2  cos    i sin   
   
4  4   4   4 
  3  3      
(C) 2 2  cos     i sin     (D) 2  cos     i sin    

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  4  4    4  4
13. The number of solutions of the equation in z, z z - (3 + i) z - (3 - i) z - 6 = 0 is :
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) infinite
14. If |z| = max {|z – 1|, |z + 1|} then
1
(A) |z + z | = (B) z + z = 1 (C) |z + z | = 1 (D) none of these
2
15. If P, P represent the complex number z1 and its additive inverse respectively then the complex equation of
the circle with PPas a diameter is
z  z1 
(A) z =   (B) z z + z1 z1 = 0 (C) z z1 + z z1 = 0 (D) none of these
1  z
16. The points z1 = 3 + 3 i and z2 = 2 3 + 6 i are given on a complex plane. The complex number lying
on the bisector of the angle formed by the vectors z 1 and z2 is :
(3  2 3 ) 3 2
(A) z =  i (B) z = 5 + 5 i
2 2
(C) z =  1  i (D) none
n
 1  i tan   1  i tan n 
17. The expression 
1  i tan    1  i tan n  when simplified reduces to :
 
(A) zero (B) 2 sin n  (C) 2 cos n  (D) none
18. All roots of the equation, (1 + + =0: z) 6 z6
(A) lie on a unit circle with centre at the origin (B)lie on a unit circle with centre at ( 1, 0)
(C) lie on the vertices of a regular polygon with centre at the origin (D) are collinear
19. Points z1 & z2 are adjacent vertices of a regular octagon. The vertex z 3 adjacent to z 2 (z3  z1) is
represented by :
1 1
(A) z2 + (1 ± i) (z1 + z2) (B) z2 + (1 ± i) (z1  z2)
2 2
1
(C) z2 + (1 ± i) (z2  z1) (D) none of these
2
20. If z = x + i y then the equation of a straight line Ax + By + C = 0 where A, B, C  R, can be written on
the complex plane in the form a z  a z  2 C = 0 where 'a' is equal to :
A  i B A  iB
(A) (B) (C) A + i B (D) none
2 2
21. The points of intersection of the two curves z  3 = 2 and z = 2 in an argand plane are:
1 1 3 7 7 3
(A)
2

7i 3  (B)
2

3i 7  (C)
2
±i
2
(D)
2
±i
2
22. The equation of the radical axis of the two circles represented by the equations,
z  2 = 3 and z  2  3 i = 4 on the complex plane is :
(A) 3iz – 3i z – 2 = 0 (B) 3iz – 3i z + 2 = 0 (C) iz – i z + 1 = 0 (D) 2iz – 2i z + 3 = 0
r
23. If  eip = 1 where  denotes the continued product, then the most general value of  is :
p1
2n  2n  4n  4n 
(A) (B) (C) (D)
r (r  1) r (r  1) r (r  1) r (r  1)
24. The set of values of a  R for which x2 + i(a – 1) x + 5 = 0 will have a pair of conjugate imaginary roots is
(A) R (B) {1} (C) |a| a2 – 2a + 21 > 0} (D) none of these

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25. If |z1 – 1| < 1, |z2 – 2| < 2, |z3 – 3| < 3 then |z1 + z2 + z3|
(A) is less than 6 (B) is more than 3
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(C) is less than 12 (D) lies between 6 and 12
26. If z1, z2, z3, ........., z n lie on the circle |z| = 2, then the value of
1 1 1
E = |z1 + z2 + ..... + zn| – 4 z  z  .......  z is
1 2 n
(A) 0 (B) n (C) –n (D) none of these
Part : (B) May have more than one options correct
27. If z1 lies on |z| = 1 and z 2 lies on |z| = 2, then

page 27 of 38
(A) 3  |z1 – 2z2|  5 (B) 1  |z1 + z2|  3
(C) |z1 – 3z2|  5 (D) |z1 – z2|  1
28. If z1, z2, z3, z4 are root of the equation a0z4 + z1z3 + z2z2 + z3z + z4 = 0, where a0, a1, a2, a3 and a4 are real,
then
(A) z1 , z 2 , z 3 , z 4 are also roots of the equation (B) z1 is equal to at least one of z1 , z 2 , z 3 , z 4
(C) – z1 ,– z 2 , – z 3 , – z 4 are also roots of the equation (D) none of these

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29. If a3 + b3 + 6 abc = 8 c3 &  is a cube root of unity then :
(A) a, c, b are in A.P. (B) a, c, b are in H.P.
(C) a + b  2 c2 = 0 (D) a + b2  2 c = 0
30. The points z1, z2, z3 on the complex plane are the vertices of an equilateral triangle if and only if :
(A)  (z1  z2) (z2  z3) = 0 (B) z12 + z22 + z32 = 2 (z1 z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1)
(C) z12 + z22 + z32 = z1 z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1 (D) 2 (z12 + z22 + z32) = z1 z2 + z2 z3 + z3 z1
31. If |z1 + z2| = |z1 – z2| then

(A) |amp z1 – amp z2| = (B) | amp z1 – amp2| = 
2
z1 z1
(C) z is purely real (D) z is purely imaginary
2 2

EXERCISE-5
1. Given that x, y  R, solve : 4x² + 3xy + (2xy  3x²)i = 4y²  (x 2/2) + (3xy  2y²)i
2. If  &  are any two complex numbers, prove that :
  2  2    2  2         
3. If ,  are the numbers between 0 and 1, such that the points z1 =  + i, z2 = 1 + i and z3 = 0 form an
equilateral triangle, then find  and .
4. ABCD is a rhombus. Its diagonals AC and BD intersect at the point M and satisfy BD = 2AC. If the points D
and M represent the complex numbers 1 + i and 2 - i respectively, then find the complex number corresponding
to A.
5. Show that the sum of the pth powers of nth roots of unity :
(a) is zero, when p is not a multiple of n. (b) is equal to n, when p is a multiple of n.
6. If (1 + x)n = p0 + p1 x + p2 x 2 + p3 x 3 +......., then prove that :
n n
(a) p0  p2 + p4 ....... = 2n/2 cos (b) p1  p3 + p5 ....... = 2n/2 sin
4 4
 1  1    
7. Prove that, loge   = loge  cosec  + i   
 2 2  2 2
 1  ei  
i ....... 
8. If i i = A + i B, principal values only being considered, prove that
1 B
(a) tan A = (b) A2 + B2 = e B
2 A
1  r 
9. Prove that the roots of the equation, (x - 1) n = x n are 1  i cot  , where
2  r 
r = 0, 1, 2,....... (n  1) & n  N.
10. If cos (   ) + cos (   ) + cos (  ) =  3/2 then prove that :
(a)  cos 2 = 0 =  sin 2 (b)  sin ( + ) = 0 =  cos ( + )
(c)  sin 3 = 3 sin ( +  + ) (d)  cos 3  = 3 cos ( +  + )
(e)  sin  =  cos  = 3/2
2 2

(f) cos3 () + cos3 ( ) + cos3 ( ) = 3 cos ( + ). cos ( +  ). cos ( +  )
where  R.

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11. If , ,  are roots of x 3  3 x 2 + 3 x + 7 = 0 (and  is imaginary cube root of unity), then find the value
 1  1  1
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of + + .
1  1  1
z2
12. Given that,  z  1 = 1, where ' z ' is a point on the argand plane. Show that = i tan (arg z).
z
13. P is a point on the Argand diagram. On the circle with OP as diameter two points Q & R are taken such
that  POQ =  QOR = . If ‘O’ is the origin & P, Q & R are represented by the complex numbers
Z 1, Z 2 & Z 3 respectively, show that : Z 22. cos 2  = Z 1. Z 3 cos²

page 28 of 38
14. Find an expression f or tan 7  in terms of tan  , using complex numbers. By considering
tan 7= 0, show that x = tan2 (3  /7) satisfies the cubic equation x 3  21x 2 + 35x  7 = 0.
1
 n 1 n
15. If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x² +.... + Cn x n (n  N), prove that : C2 + C6 + C10 +..... = 2  2 n / 2 cos
2 4 
 2   4   6   2n  1
16. Prove that : cos   + cos   + cos   +..... + cos   =  When n  N.

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 2 n  1  2 n  1  2 n  1  2 n  1 2
17. Show that all the roots of the equation a1z3 + a2z2 + a3z + a4 = 3, where |ai|  1, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 lie outside the
circle with centre origin and radius 2/3.
n1

18. Prove that  (n  k) cos 2nk = – n2 , where n  3 is an integer


k 1
2 2 2
A1 A2 An
19. Show that the equation   ......  = k has no imaginary root, given that :
x  a1 x  a 2 x  an
a1, a2, a3.... an & A1, A2, A3..... An, k are all real numbers.
20. Let z1, z2, z3 be three distinct complex numbers satisfying, ½z 1-1½ = ½z2-1½ = ½z3-1½. Let A, B & C
be the points represented in the Argand plane corresponding to z 1, z2 and z3 resp. Prove that z1 + z2 +
z3 = 3 if and only if D ABC is an equilateral triangle.
21. Let ,  be fixed complex numbers and z is a variable complex number such that,
2 2
z   + z   = k.
Find out the limits for 'k' such that the locus of z is a circle. Find also the centre and radius of the
circle.
22. If 1, 1, 2, 3,......., n  1 are the n, nth roots of unity, then prove that
(1 1) (1 2) (1 3)........ (1  n  1) = n.
 2 3 ( n  1)  n
Hence prove that sin . sin . sin ........ sin = n1 .
n n n n 2
23. Find the real values of the parameter ‘a’ for which at least one complex number
z = x + iy satisfies both the equality z  ai  = a + 4 and the inequality z  2 < 1.
24. Prove that, with regard to the quadratic equation z 2 + (p + ip ) z + q + iq = 0; where p, p , q, q are all
real.
(a) if the equation has one real root then q  2  pp  q + qp  2 = 0.
(b) if the equation has two equal roots then p 2  p 2 = 4q & pp = 2q  .
State whether these equal roots are real or complex.
25. The points A, B, C depict the complex numbers z 1, z2, z3 respectively on a complex plane & the angle
1
B & C of the triangle ABC are each equal to (  ) . Show that
2

(z2  z3)² = 4 (z3  z1) (z1  z2) sin2 .
2
26. If z 1, z 2 & z 3 are the affixes of three points A, B & C respectively and satisfy the condition
|z1 – z2| = |z1| + |z2| and |(2 - i) z1 + iz3 | = |z1| + |(1 – i) z1 + iz3| then prove that  ABC in a right angled.
27. If 1, 1, 2, 3, 4 be the roots of x 5  1 = 0, then prove that
  1 .    2 .    3 .    4 = .
2 2 2
2   1    2    3    4
28. If one the vertices of the square circumscribing the circle |z – 1| = 2 is 2 + 3 i. Find the other vertices of
the square. [IIT – 2005, 4]

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EXERCISE-4 EXERCISE-5
1. A 2. C 3. D 4. A

page 29 of 38
5. A 6. D 7. C 8. A 3K
1. x = K, y = KR 3. 2  3, 2  3
2
9. A 11. D 12. A 13. B
i 3
14. D 15. D 16. A 17. B 4. 3– or 1 – i 11. 3 2
2 2
18. A 19. D 20. C 21. C
1 2  21 5

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21. k>  23.  ,  
22. B 23. B 24. D 25. B 2  10 6
26. C 27. A 28. ABCD29. AB
28. –i 3,1– 3 + i, 1 + 3 –i
30. ACD 31. AC 10. AD

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COM PLEX NUMBERS
Some questions (Assertion–Reason type) are given below. Each question contains Statement – 1 (Assertion) and
Statement – 2 (Reason). Each question has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE is correct. So select
the correct choice :
Choices are :
(A) Statement – 1 is True, Statement – 2 is True; Statement – 2 is a correct explanation for Statement – 1.
(B)Statement – 1 is True, Statement – 2 is True; Statement – 2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement – 1.
(C) Statement – 1 is True, Statement – 2 is False.
(D) Statement – 1 is False, Statement – 2 is True.
344. Let z = ei = cos + isin
Statement 1: Value of eiA .eiB . eiC = –1 if A + B + C = . Statement 2: arg(z) =  and |z| = 1.
345 Let a1, a2, .... , an R+
a1 a 2 a a
Statement–1 : Minimum value of   ....  n 1  n
a 2 a3 a n a1
Statement–2 : For positive real numbers, A.M  G.M.
 5c   3b   a 
346. Let log   , log   and log   then A.P., where a, b, c are in G.P. If a, b, c represents the sides of a
 a   5c   3b 
triangle. Then : Statement–1 : Triangle represented by the sides a, b, c will be an isosceles triangle
Statement–2 : b + c < a
347. Let Z1, Z2 be two complex numbers represented by points on the curves |z| = 2 and |z – 3 – 3i| = 2 2 . Then
Statement–1 : min |z1–z2| = 0 and max |z1 – z2| = 6 2
Statement–2 : Two curves |z| = 2 and |z – 3 –3i| = 2 2 touch each other externally
348. Statement–1 : If |z – i|  2 and z0 = 5 + 3i, then the maximum value of |iz + z0| is 7
Statement–2 : For the complex numbers z1 and z2 |z1 + z2|  |z1| + |z2|
349. Let z1 and z2 be complex number such that z1  z 2 | z1 |  | z 2 |
z 
Statement–1 : arg  1   0
 z2 
Statement–2 : z1, z2 and origin are collinear and z1, z2 are on the same side of origin.
350. Let fourth roots of unity be z1, z2, z3 and z4 respectively
Statement–1 : z12  z 2 2  z 3 2  z 4 2  0 Statement–2 : z1 + z2 + z3 + z4 = 0.
n
351. Let z1, z2, . . . , zn be the roots of z = 1, n  N.
Statement–1 : z1. z2 . . . zn = (– 1)n Statement–2 : Product of the roots of the equation anxn + an – 1xn – 1
a0
+ an – 2 xn – 2 + . . . + a1x + a0 = 0, an  0, is (– 1)n. .
an
352. Let z1, z2, z3 and z4 be the complex numbers satisfying z1 – z2 = z4 – z3.
Statement–1 : z1, z2, z3, z4 are the vertices of a parallelogram
z1  z3 z2  z4
Statement–2 :  .
2 2
353. Statement–1 : The minimum value of | z |  | z  i | | is 0.
Statement–2 : For any two complex number z1 and z2, z1  z 2  z1  z 2 .
354. Statement–1 : Let z1 and z2 are two complex numbers such that | z1  z 2 || z1  z 2 | then the orthocenter
z1  z 2
of AOB is . (where O is the origin)
2
Statement–2 : In case of right angled triangle, orthocenter is that point at which triangle is right angled.
355. Statement–1 : If  is complex cube root of unity then (x – y) (x – y) (x2 – y) is equal to x3 + y2
Statement–2 : If  is complex cube root of unity then 1 +  + 2 = 0 and 3 = 1
356. Statement-1 : If |z|  4, then greatest value of |z + 3 – 4i| is 9.
Statement-2 : Z1, Z2 C, |Z 1 + Z 2|  |Z1| + |Z 2|

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2
357. Statement-1: The slope of line (2 – 3i) z + (2 + 3i) z  1 = 0 is
3
Re(a)
Statement-2:: The slope of line az  az  b  0 bR & a be any non-zero complex. Constant is 
Im(a)
6
 2k 2k 
358. Statement-1: The value of   sin
k 1 7
 i cos
7 
 is i
Statement-2: The roots of the equation zn = 1 are called the nth roots of unity where
 cos 2k   2k 
z=    i sin   where k = 0, 1, 2, ... (n  1)
 n   n 
359. Statement-1: |z1 – a| < a, |z2 – b| < b |z3 – c| < c, where a, b, c are +ve real nos, then |z1 + z2 + z3| is greater than 2|a
+ b + c| Statement-2: |z1  z2|  |z1| + |z2|
360. Statement-1: (cos2 + isin2) = 1
Statement-2: (cos +isin)n = cosn + isin n it is not true when n is irrational number.
361. Statement-1 : If 1, 2, 3 ….  8 be the 8th root of unity, then 116 + 216 + 316 + … + 816 = 8
Statement-2 : In case of sum of pth power of nth roots of unity sum = 0 if p  kn where p, k, n are integers sum =
n if p = kn.
362. Statement-1: Locus of z, satisfying the equation |z – 1| + |z – 8| = 16 is an ellipse of eccentricity 7/16
Statement-2:: Sum of focal distances of any point is constant for an ellipse
 z2  n 2 1
363. Statement-1: arg   = arg z2 – arg z1 & arg z = n(argz) Statement-2: If |z| = 1, then arg (z + z ) = arg z.
 z1  2
364. Statement-1: If |z  z + i|  2 then 5  2  | z |  5  2
Statement-2: If |z  2 + i|  2 the z lies inside or on the circle having centre (2, 1) & radius 2.
1 2
365. Statement-1: The area of the triangle on argand plane formed by the complex numbers z, iz and z + iz is |z|
2

Statement-2: The angle between the two complex numbers z and iz is .
2
zz1  z 2
366. Statement-1: If  k, (z1, z2  0), then locus of z is circle.
zz1  z 2
z  z1
Statement-2 : As,   represents a circle if, {0, 1}
z  z2
 z1 
367. Statement-1: If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers such that |z1| = |z2| + |z1 – z2|, then Im  0 .
 z2 
Statement-2: arg (z) = 0  z is purely real.
 2   2  2 4 3 5 6
368. Statement-1: If  = cos    i sin   , p =  +  +  , q =  +  +  , then the equation whose roots
 7  7
are p and q is x2 + x + 2 = 0
Statement-2: If  is a root of z7 = 1, then 1 +  + 2 + …. + 6 = 0.
369. Statement-1: If |z| < 2  1 then |z2 + 2z cos| is less than one.
Statement-2: |z1 + z2| < |z1| + |z2| . Also |cos|  1.
370. Statement-1: The number of complex number satisfying the equation |z|2 + P|z| + q = 0 (p, q,  R) is atmost 2.
Statement-2 : A quadratic equation in which all the co-efficients are non-zero real can have exactly two roots.
1 5 1
371. Statement-1: If    1(  0) is a complex number, then the maximum value of || is .
 2
1 5 1
Statement-2 :: On the locus    1 the farthest distance from origin is .
 2

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z2 
372. Statement-1: The locus of z moving in the Argand plane such that arg    is a circle.
z2 2
Statement-2: This is represent a circle, whose centre is origin and radius is 2.
ANSWER
344. B 345. A 346. D 347. A 348. A 349. A 350. B
351. D 352. A 353. D 354. D 355. D 356. A 357.. A
358. A 359. D 360. D 361. A 362. A 363. B 364. A
365. A 366. D 367. A 368. A 369. A 370. D 371. A
372. A
SOLUTION
1/ n
a a a a a a a  a1 a 2 a
345. Using AM  GM 1  2  ...  n 1  n  n  1 . 2 .... n     ...  n  n
a 2 a3 a n a1  a 2 a 3 a1  a 2 a3 a1
Hence (A) is correct option.
2
3b 5c a  3b  5c a
346. 2log  log  log     a . 3b  3b = 5c
5c a 3b  5c 
9a a b c
Also, b2 = ac  9ac = 25c2 or 9a = 25c   5c  3b    b +c<a
5 5 3 9/5
 (D) is the correct answer
347. From the diagram it is clear that both circles touch each other 
externally
 3)
(3,
 min |z1 – z2| = 0 (1, 1)
max |z1 – z2| = 36  36  6 2 ]
|z| = 2 2
Hence (A) is correct option.
|z| = 2

348. |iz + z0| = |i(z – i) – 1 + 5 + 3i| = |i (z–i) + 4 + 3i|


 |i| |z – i| + |4 + 3i|  7 Hence (A) is the correct option.
349. (A) arg (z1) = arg (z2)
 z1 
 arg    arg  z1   arg  z 2   0 .
 z2 
350. (B) Fourth roots of unity are – 1, 1, – i and i
 z12  z 2 2  z 3 2  z 4 2  0 and z1  z 2  z 3  z 4  0 .
351. Statement – II is true (a known fact).
 1 
Hence if z1, z2, . . . , zn are roots of zn – 1 = 0, then z1. z2 . . . zn = (– 1)n.  1n1 ,
1
which is never equal to (– 1)n Hence (d) is the correct answer.
352. Both statements – I and II are true and statement – II is the correct reasoning of statement – I, because
z1  z3 z2  z4
  mid point of join of z1, z3 and z2, z4 are same, which is the necessary and sufficient
2 2
condition for a quadrilateral ABCD, when A  A(z1), B  B(z2),
C  C(z3), D  D(z4) to be a parallelogram Hence (A) is the correct answer.
353. | z  i  z || z |  | i  z |  | z |  | z  i || i | 1
 Hence (d) is the correct answer.
354. | z1  z 2 |2 | z1  z 2 |2
2 2 2
 z1 z2  z1z 2  0  z1  z 2  z1  z 2
 AOB is right angled at O.
 orthocenter is the origin.  Hence (d) is the correct answer.
355. (D) (x – y) (x – y) (x2 – y)
= x3 2 – x2y – x2y2 + xy2 – x2 y + xy2 + xy22 – y3 = x3 – y3

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356. Option (A) is correct
Since
|z + 3 – 4i|  |z| + |3-4i| = 9 ( |z|  4).
357. Option (A) is correct.
6
 2k 2k 
358.  (i)  cos
k 1 7
 i sin
7 

6
 z  z7 
=  i)   z k  (i)   [ z = 1]
7

k 1  1  z 
= (-i) (-1) = i Ans. (A)
359. |z1 + z2 + z3| = |z1 – a + z2 – b + z3 – c + (a + b + c)
 |z1 – a| + |z2 – b| + |z3 – c| + |a + b + c|  2|a + b + c| Ans. (D)
360. (cos2 + i sin2) can not be evaluated because demoviers theorem does not hold for irrational index.
‘d’ is correct.
361. 1, , 2, … 7 are 8, 8 th root of unity then after raising 16th power, we get 1, 16, 32, 48 … 112
1 + 16 + 32 + 48 + … + 112
Now 8 = 1
So 16 = 1
1+1+1+…+1=8
‘A’ is correct.
365. (A) z + iz
1
| z | | iz |
2
| z |2

2
iz z2

366. (D)
z2
z
zz1  z 2 z1
k  k
z1z  z 2 z2
z
z1
Clearly, if k  0, 1; then z would lie on a circle. If k = 1, z would lie on the perpendicular bisector of line segment
z2 z 2
joining and and represents a point, if k = 0.
z1 z1
367. We have, arg (z) = 0  z is purely real. R is true
Also, |z1| = |z2| + |z1 – z2|
 (|z1|2 + |z2|2 – 2|z1| |z2| cos (1 - 2)
= |z1|2 + |z2|2 – 2|z1| |z2|
 cos(1 - 2) = 1  1 - 2 = 0
 z1  z1
 arg  0  is purely real.
 z2  z2
 z1 
Im  0 (A)
 z2 
368. (A)
 is seventh root of unity  1 +  + 2 + … + 6 = 0
 p + q = –1.
pq = 4 + 6 + 7 + 5 + 7 + 8 + 7 + 9 + 10 = 3 – 1 = 2.

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 x2 + x + 2 = 0 is the req. equation.
Both A and R are true and R is correct explanation of A.
369. (A)
|z2 + 2z cos| < |z2| + |2z cos| < |z2| + 2|z| |cos|
2
< ( 2  1)  2( 2  1)  1 .
( |cos|  1).

z  2 z  2 i / 2 z  2z  2
372.  e  i ... (i)
z2 z2
z2 z2 z2
therefore  (1)   i ... (ii)
z2 z2 z2
Then adding (i) & (ii)
z2 z2
 =0
z2 z2
i.e., (z – 2) z  2) + (z + 2) ( z - 2) = 0, 2z z - 8 = 0
|z|2 = 4  x2 + y2 = 4.
Ans. (a)
Imp. Que. From Competitive Exams
1. The number of real values of a satisfying the equation a 2  2a sin x  1  0 is
(a) Zero (b) One
(c) Two (d) Infinite
2. For positive integers n1 , n2 the value of the expression (1  i)n1  (1  i 3 )n1  (1  i 5 )n2  (1  i 7 )n2 where i   1 is a
real number if and only if [IIT 1996]
(a) n1  n 2  1 (b) n1  n2  1
(c) n1  n 2 (d) n1  0, n 2  0

3. Given that the equation z 2  (p  iq)z  r  i s  0, where p, q, r, s are real and non-zero has a real root, then

(a) pqr  r 2  p 2 s (b) prs  q 2  r 2 p


(c) qrs  p 2  s 2q (d) pqs  s 2  q 2r

4. If x  5  2  4 , then the value of the expression x 4  9 x 3  35 x 2  x  4 is [IIT 1972]


(a) 160 (b) 160
(c) 60 (d) 60
b d
5. If 3  i  (a  ib)(c  id) , then tan 1    tan 1   has the value
a c
 
(a)  2n , n  I (b) n  ,n I
3 6
 
(c) n  ,n  I (d) 2n  ,n  I
3 3
6. If a  cos   i sin  , b  cos   i sin  ,
b c a
c  cos   i sin  and    1, then cos(   )  cos(   )  cos(   ) is equal to [RPET 2001]
c a b
(a) 3/2 (b) – 3/2
(c) 0 (d) 1
7. If (1  i)(1  2i)(1  3i).....(1  ni)  a  ib , then 2.5.10.... (1  n2 ) is equal to
[Karnataka CET 2002; Kerala (Engg.) 2002]

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(a) a 2  b 2 (b) a 2  b 2

(c) a2  b2 (d) a2  b2
8. If z is a complex number, then the minimum value of | z |  | z  1| is [Roorkee 1992]
(a) 1 (b) 0
(c) 1/2 (d) None of these
9. For any two complex numbers z1 and z 2 and any real numbers a and b; | (az1  bz 2 )|2  |(bz1  az 2 )|2 
[IIT 1988]
(a) (a 2  b 2 )(| z1 |  | z 2 |) (b) (a 2  b 2 )(| z1 |2  | z 2 |2 )
(c) (a 2  b2 )(| z1 |2  | z 2 |2 ) (d) None of these
10. The locus of z satisfying the inequality log 1 / 3 | z  1| log 1 / 3 | z  1| is
(a) R (z)  0 (b) R (z)  0
(c) I (z)  0 (d) None of these
11. If z1  a  ib and z 2  c  id are complex numbers such that | z1 || z 2 | 1 and R(z1 z 2 )  0, then the pair of
complex numbers w1  a  ic and w2  b  id satisfies
[IIT 1985]
(a) |w1 | 1 (b) | w2 | 1
(c) R(w1 w2 )  0, (d) All the above
12. Let z and w be two complex numbers such that | z | 1, | w | 1 and | z  iw || z  iw | 2 . Then z is equal to
[IIT 1995]
(a) 1 or i (b) i or i
(c) 1 or – 1 (d) i or –1
1
13. The maximum distance from the origin of coordinates to the point z satisfying the equation z   a is
z
1 1
(a) ( a 2  1  a) (b) ( a 2  2  a)
2 2
1
(c) ( a 2  4  a) (d) None of these
2
z  12 5 z  4
14. Find the complex number z satisfying the equations  , 1 [Roorkee 1993]
z  8i 3 z8
(a) 6 (b) 6  8i
(c) 6  8i, 6  17i (d) None of these
1 1 1
15. If z 1 , z 2 , z 3 are complex numbers such that | z1 || z 2 | | z 3 |    1, then | z 1  z 2  z 3 | is
z1 z 2 z 3
[MP PET 2004; IIT Screening 2000]
(a) Equal to 1 (b) Less than 1
(c) Greater than 3 (d) Equal to 3
 z  z1  
16. If z1  10  6i, z 2  4  6i and z is a complex number such that amp   , then the value of | z  7  9i | is

 z  z2  4
equal to [IIT 1990]
(a) 2 (b) 2 2
(c) 3 2 (d) 2 3
17. If z 1 , z 2 , z 3 be three non-zero complex number, such that z 2  z 1 , a | z 1 |, b | z 2 | and c | z 3 | suppose that
a b c
z 
b c a  0 , then arg  3  is equal to

c a b  z2 

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2
z z  z z 
(a) arg  2 1  (b) arg  2 1 
 z 3  z1   z 3  z1 
2
z z  z z 
(c) arg  3 1  (d) arg  3 1 
 z 2  z1   z 2  z1 
18. Let z and w be the two non-zero complex numbers such that | z || w | and arg z  arg w   . Then z is equal
to
[IIT 1995; AIEEE 2002]
(a) w (b) w
(c) w (d)  w
19. If | z  25i | 15 , then | max .amp(z)  min .amp(z) |
3 3
(a) cos 1   (b)   2 cos 1  
5 5
 3 3 3
(c)  cos 1   (d) sin 1    cos 1  
2 5 5 5
z  z 
20. If z 1 , z 2 and z 3 , z 4 are two pairs of conjugate complex numbers, then arg  1   arg  2  equals
 z4   z3 

(a) 0 (b)
2
3
(c) (d) 
2
21. Let z, w be complex numbers such that z  iw  0 and arg zw   . Then arg z equals [AIEEE 2004]
(a) 5 / 4 (b)  / 2
(c) 3 / 4 (d)  / 4
22. If (1  x)n  C 0  C1 x  C 2 x 2  .....  C n x n , then the value of C0  C2  C4  C6  ..... is
n
(a) 2n (b) 2n cos
2
n n
(c) 2n sin (d) 2n / 2 cos
2 4
23. If x  cos   i sin  and y  cos   i sin  , then x m y n  x  m y  n is equal to
(a) cos(m  n )
(b) cos(m  n )
(c) 2 cos(m  n )
(d) 2 cos(m  n )
8
2r 2r 
24. The value of   sin
r 1
9
 i cos
9 
 is

(a) 1 (b) 1
(c) i (d) i
25. If a, b, c and u, v, w are complex numbers representing the vertices of two triangles such that c  (1  r)a  rb and
w  (1  r)u  rv , where r is a complex number, then the two triangles
(a) Have the same area (b) Are similar
(c) Are congruent (d) None of these
26. Suppose z1 , z 2 , z 3 are the vertices of an equilateral triangle inscribed in the circle | z | 2 . If z1  1  i 3 , then
values of z 3 and z 2 are respectively [IIT 1994]

(a)  2, 1  i 3 (b) 2, 1  i 3

(c) 1  i 3 ,2 (d) None of these

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27. If the complex number z1, z 2 the origin form an equilateral triangle then z12  z 22  [IIT
1983]
(a) z1 z 2 (b) z1 z 2

(c) z 2 z1 (d) | z1 |2 | z 2 |2

28. If at least one value of the complex number z  x  iy satisfy the condition | z  2 | a 2  3a  2 and the
inequality | z  i 2 | a 2 , then
(a) a  2 (b) a  2
(c) a  2 (d) None of these
29. If z, iz and z  iz are the vertices of a triangle whose area is 2 units, then the value of | z | is
[RPET 2000]
(a) – 2 (b) 2
(c) 4 (d) 8
30. If z 2  z | z |  | z |2  0 , then the locus of z is
(a) A circle (b) A straight line
(c) A pair of straight lines (d) None of these
31. If cos   cos   cos   sin   sin   sin   0 then cos 3  cos 3   cos 3 equals to [Kar. CET 2000]
(a) 0 (b) cos(     )
(c) 3 cos(     ) (d) 3 sin(     )
r r
32. If z r  cos  i sin , where r = 1, 2, 3,….,n, then lim z 1 z 2 z 3 ...z n is equal to
n2 n2 n

[UPSEAT 2001]
(a) cos   i sin  (b) cos( /2)  i sin( /2)

(c) e i / 2 (d) 3
e i
33. If the cube roots of unity be 1,  ,  2 , then the roots of the equation ( x  1)3  8  0 are
[IIT 1979; MNR 1986; DCE 2000; AIEEE 2005]
2
(a)  1, 1  2 , 1  2
(b)  1, 1  2 , 1  2 2
(c) 1,  1,  1
(d) None of these
34. If 1,  ,  2 ,  3 .......,  n1 are the n, nth roots of unity, then (1   )(1   2 ).....(1   n1 ) equals
[MNR 1992; IIT 1984; DCE 2001; MP PET 2004]
(a) 0 (b) 1
(c) n (d) n2
35. The value of the expression 1.(2   )(2   2 )  2.(3   )(3   2 )  .......
....  (n  1).(n   )(n   2 ),
where  is an imaginary cube root of unity, is[IIT 1996]
1
(a) (n  1)n(n 2  3n  4)
2
1
(b) (n  1)n(n 2  3n  4)
4
1
(c) (n  1)n(n 2  3n  4)
2
1
(d) (n  1)n(n 2  3n  4)
4

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334 365
 1 i 3  1 i 3
36. If i   1, then 4  5     3    is equal to [IIT 1999]
 2 2   2 2 
 
(a) 1  i 3 (b)  1  i 3
(c) i 3 (d)  i 3
37. If a  cos(2 / 7)  i sin(2 / 7), then the quadratic equation whose roots are   a  a 2  a 4 and   a 3  a 5  a 6 is
[RPET 2000]
2 2
(a) x  x  2  0 (b) x  x  2  0
2
(c) x  x  2  0 (d) x 2  x  2  0
th
38. Let z 1 and z 2 be n roots of unity which are ends of a line segment that subtend a right angle at the origin.
Then n must be of the form [IIT Screening 2001; Karnataka 2002]
(a) 4k + 1 (b) 4k + 2
(c) 4k + 3 (d) 4k
39. Let  is an imaginary cube roots of unity then the value of
2(  1)( 2  1)  3(2  1)(2 2  1)  .....  (n  1)(n  1)(n 2  1) is [Orissa JEE 2002]
2 2
 n(n  1)   n(n  1) 
(a)   n (b)  
 2   2 
2
 n(n  1) 
(c)   n (d) None of these
 2 
40.  is an imaginary cube root of unity. If (1   2 )m  (1   4 )m , then least positive integral value of m is
[IIT Screening 2004]
(a) 6 (b) 5
(c) 4 (d) 3
ANSWER
1 c 2 d 3 d 4 b 5 b
6 d 7 b 8 a 9 b 10 a
11 d 12 c 13 c 14 c 15 a
16 c 17 c 18 d 19 b 20 a
21 c 22 d 23 c 24 d 25 b
26 a 27 a 28 a 29 b 30 c
31 c 32 c 33 b 34 c 35 b
36 c 37 D 38 d 39 a 40 d

For 39 Years Que. from IIT-JEE(Advanced) & 15 Years Que. from


AIEEE (JEE Main) we distributed a book in class room

38 of 38
fo/u fopkjr Hkh# tu] ugha vkjEHks dke] foifr ns[k NksM+s rqjar e/;e eu dj ';keA
iq#"k flag ladYi dj] lgrs foifr vusd] ^cuk^ u NksM+s /;s; dks] j?kqcj jk[ks VsdAA
jfpr% ekuo /keZ iz.ksrk
ln~xq# Jh j.kNksM+nklth egkjkt

STUDY PACKAGE
Subject : Mathematics
Topic : QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Available Online : www.MathsBySuhag.com

Index
1. Theory
2. Short Revision
3. Exercise (Ex. 1 + 5 = 6)
4. Assertion & Reason
5. Que. from Compt. Exams
6. 39 Yrs. Que. from IIT-JEE(Advanced)
7. 15 Yrs. Que. from AIEEE (JEE Main)
Student’s Name :______________________
Class :______________________
Roll No. :______________________

Address : Plot No. 27, III- Floor, Near Patidar Studio,


Above Bond Classes, Zone-2, M.P. NAGAR, Bhopal
: 0 903 903 7779, 98930 58881, WhatsApp 9009 260 559
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1.
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Quadratic Equation
Equation v/s Identity:
A quadratic equation is satisfied by exactly two values of ' x ' which may be real or imaginary. The equation,
a x 2 + b x + c = 0 is:

page 2 of 23
 a quadratic equation if a  0 Two Roots
 a linear equation if a = 0, b  0 One Root
 a contradiction if a = b = 0, c  0 No Root
 an identity if a=b=c=0 Infinite Roots
If a quadratic equation is satisfied by three distinct values of ' x ', then it is an identity.
Solved Example # 1: (i) 3x 2 + 2x – 1 = 0 is a quadratic equation here a = 3.
(ii) (x + 1) 2 = x 2 + 2x + 1 is an identity in x.
Solution.:Here highest power of x in the given relation is 2 and this relation is satisfied by three different values x= 0, x

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881 .
= 1 and x = – 1 and hence it is an identity because a polynomial equation of n th degree cannot have more than n
distinct roots.
2. Relation Between Roots & Co-efficients:
(i) The solutions of quadratic equation, a x 2 + b x + c = 0, (a  0) is given by
 b  b2  4 a c
x=
2a
The expression, b2  4 a c  D is called discriminant of quadratic equation.
(ii) If ,  are the roots of quadratic equation, a x 2 + b x + c = 0, a  0. Then:
b c D
(a)  +  = (b)  = (c)  = a
a a
(iii) A quadratic equation whose roots are  & , is (x ) (x ) = 0 i.e.
x 2  (sum of roots) x + (product of roots) = 0
Solved Example # 2: If  and  are the roots of ax 2 + bx + c = 0, find the equation whose roots are +2 and +2.
Solution. Replacing x by x – 2 in the given equation, the required equation is
a(x – 2) 2 + b(x – 2) + c = 0 i.e., ax 2 – (4a – b)x + (4a – 2b + c) = 0.
Solved Example # 3 The coefficient of x in the quadratic equation x 2 + px + q = 0 was taken as 17 in place of 13, its
roots were found to be – 2 and – 15. Find the roots of the original equation.
Solution. Here q = (– 2) × (– 15) = 30, correct value of p = 13. Hence original equation is
x 2 + 13x + 30 = 0 as (x + 10) (x + 3) = 0  roots are – 10, – 3
Self Practice Problems : 1. If ,  are the roots of the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 then find the quadratic
equation whose roots are
1  1    
(i) 2, 2 (ii) 2, 2 (iii)  + 1,  + 1 (iv) , (v) ,
1  1    
(r  1)2
2
b
2. If r be the ratio of the roots of the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0, show that = .
r 2 ac 2
Ans.(1) (i) ax 2 + 2bx + 4c = 0 (ii) 2 2
a x + (2ac – b ) x + c = 0
(iii) ax 2 – (2a – b) x + a + c – b = 0 (iv) (a + b + c)x 2 – 2(a – c) x + a – b + c = 0
(v) ac x 2 – (b2 – 2ac) x + ac = 0
3. Nature of Roots:
Consider the quadratic equation, a x 2 + b x + c = 0 having ,  as its roots; D  b2  4 a c

D=0 D0
Roots are equal =  =  b/2a Roots are unequal

a, b, c  R & D > 0 a, b, c  R & D < 0


Roots are real Roots are imaginary  = p + i q,  = p  i q

a, b, c  Q & a, b, c  Q &
D is a perfect square D is not a perfect square
 Roots are rational  Roots are irrational
 i.e.  = p + q ,  = p  q
a = 1, b, c   & D is a perfect square
 Roots are integral.
Solved Example # 4: For what values of m the equation (1 + m) x 2 – 2(1 + 3m)x + (1 + 8m) = 0 has equal roots.
Solution.
Given equation is (1 + m) x 2 – 2(1 + 3m)x + (1 + 8m) = 0 ........(i)
Let D be the discriminant of equation (i).
Roots of equation (i) will be equal if D = 0.
or, 4(1 + 3m)2 – 4(1 + m) (1 + 8m) = 0
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2
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or, 4(1 + 9m + 6m – 1 – 9m – 8m ) = 0
or, m 2 – 3m = 0 or, m(m – 3) = 0  m = 0, 3.
Solved Example # 5: Find all the integral values of a for which the quadratic equation (x – a) (x – 10) + 1 = 0 has
integral roots.
Solution.: Here the equation is x 2 – (a + 10)x + 10a + 1 = 0. Since integral roots will always be rational it means D
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should be a perfect square.


From (i) D = a2 – 20a + 96.
 D = (a – 10) 2 – 4  4 = (a – 10) 2 – D

page 3 of 23
If D is a perfect square it means we want difference of two perfect square as 4 which is possible only when (a –
10)2 = 4 and D = 0.
 (a – 10) = ± 2  a = 12, 8
Solved Example # 6: If the roots of the equation (x – a) (x – b) – k = 0 be c and d, then prove that the roots of the
equation (x – c) (x – d) + k = 0, are a and b.
Solution. By given condition
(x – a) (x – b) – k  (x – c) (x – d) or (x – c) (x – d) + k  (x – a) (x – b)
Above shows that the roots of (x – c) (x – d) + k = 0 are a and b.

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Self Practice Problems :
3. Let 4x 2 – 4( – 2)x +  – 2 = 0 (  R) be a quadratic equation. Find the value of  for which
(i) Both roots are real and distinct. (ii) Both roots are equal.
(iii) Both roots are imaginary (iv) Both roots are opposite in sign.
(v) Both roots are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.
4. Find the values of a, if ax 2 – 4x + 9 = 0 has integral roots.
5. If P(x) = ax 2 + bx + c, and Q(x) = – ax 2 + dx + c, ac  0 then prove that P(x) . Q(x) = 0 has atleast two real roots.
Ans. (1) (i) (– , 2)  (3, ) (ii)  {2, 3}
(iii) (2, 3) (iv) (– , 2) (v) 
1 1
(2) a= , –
3 4
4. Common Roots:
Consider two quadratic equations, a 1 x 2 + b1 x + c1 = 0 & a2 x 2 + b2 x + c2 = 0.
(i) If two quadratic equations have both roots common, then the equation are identical and their
a1 b c
co-efficient are in proportion. i.e. = 1 = 1 .
a 2 b2 c2
c a  c2 a1 b c  b2 c1
(ii) If only one root is common, then the common root '  ' will be:  = 1 2 = 1 2
a1 b2  a 2 b1 c1 a 2  c2 a1
Hence the condition for one common root is:
2
 c1 a 2  c2 a1   c1 a 2  c2 a1 
a1   + b1   + c1 = 0
a
 1 2b  a b
2 1  a1 b2  a 2 b1 
 c1 a 2  c2 a1  = a1 b 2  a 2 b1  b1 c2  b 2 c1 
2
Note : If f(x) = 0 & g(x) = 0 are two polynomial equation having some common root(s) then those common root(s) is/are
also the root(s) of h(x) = a f(x) + bg (x) = 0.
Solved Example # 7: If x 2 – ax + b = 0 and x 2 – px + q = 0 have a root in common and the second equation has equal
ap
roots, show that b + q = .
2
Solution. Given equations are : x 2 – ax + b= 0 and x 2 – px + q = 0.
Let  be the common root. Then roots of equation (2) will be  and . Let  be the other root of equation (1). Thus
roots of equation (1) are ,  and those of equation (2) are , .
Now +=a ........ (iii)
 = b ........ (iv)
2 = p ........ (v)
 =q
2
........ (vi)
L.H.S. = b + q =  + 2 = ( + ) ........ (vii)
ap (  ) 2
and R.H.S. = = =  ( + ) ........ (viii)
2 2
from (7) and (8), L.H.S. = R.H.S.
Solved Example # 8: If a, b, c  R and equations ax 2 + bx + c = 0 and x 2 + 2x + 9 = 0 have a common root, show that
a : b : c = 1 : 2 : 9.
Solution. Given equations are : x 2 + 2x + 9 = 0 ........(i)
and ax 2 + bx + c = 0 ........(ii)
Clearly roots of equation (i) are imaginary since equation (i) and (ii) have a common root, therefore common root
must be imaginary and hence both roots will be common.
Therefore equations (i) and (ii) are identical
a b c
 = =  a:b:c=1:2:9
1 2 9
Self Practice Problems : 6. If the equation x 2 + bx + ac = 0 and x 2 + cx + ab = 0 have a common root then
prove that the equation containing other roots will be given by x 2 + ax + bc = 0.
7. If the equations ax 2 + bx + c = 0 and x 3 + 3x 2 + 3x + 2 = 0 have two common roots then show that
a = b = c.
a b c
8. If ax 2 + 2bx + c = 0 and a 1x 2 + 2b1x + c1 = 0 have a common root and , , are in A.P. show that
a1 b1 c 1
a1, b1, c1 are in G.P.

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5. Factorisation of Quadratic Expressions:
 The condition that a quadratic expression f (x) = a x 2 + b x + c a perfect square of a linear expression, is D b2
 4 a c = 0.
 The condition that a quadratic expressionf (x, y)= ax² +2 hxy + by² +2 gx+ 2 fy + c may be resolved into two linear
factors is that;
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a h g

page 4 of 23
 abc + 2 fgh  af²  bg²  ch² = 0 OR h b f = 0.
g f c
Solved Example # 9: Determine a such that x 2 – 11x + a and x 2 – 14x + 2a may have a common factor.
Solution. Let x –  be a common factor of x – 11x + a and x 2 – 14x + 2a.
2

Then x =  will satisfy the equations x 2 – 11x + a = 0 and x 2 – 14x + 2a = 0.


 2 – 11 + a = 0 and 2 – 14 + 2a = 0
Solving (i) and (ii) by cross multiplication method, we get a = 24.
Sol. Ex. 10: Show that the expression x 2 + 2(a + b + c)x + 3(bc + ca + ab) will be a perfect square if a = b = c.

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Solution. Given quadratic expression will be a perfect square if the discriminant of its corresponding equation is zero.
i.e. 4(a + b + c) 2 – 4.3 (bc + ca + ab) = 0
or (a + b + c) 2 – 3(bc + ca + ab) = 0
1
or ((a – b)2 + (b – c) 2 + (c – a)2) = 0
2
which is possible only when a = b = c.
Self Practice Problems :
9. For what values of k the expression (4 – k)x 2 + 2(k + 2)x + 8k + 1 will be a perfect square ?
10. If x –  be a factor common to a1x 2 + b1x + c and a2x 2 + b2x + c prove that (a1 – a2) = b2 – b1.
11. If 3x 2 + 2xy + 2y2 + 2ax – 4y + 1 can be resolved into two linear factors, Prove that  is a root of the equation
x 2 + 4ax + 2a2 + 6 = 0. Ans. (1) 0, 3
6. Graph of Quadratic Expression:
y = f (x) = a x 2 + b x + c

2
 D   b 
y   = a  x  
a 
or
 4a   2

 the graph between x, y is always a parabola.


 b D 
 the coordinate of vertex are   2 a ,  4 a 
 
 If a > 0 then the shape of the parabola is concave upwards & if a < 0 then the shape of the parabola is
concave downwards.
 the parabola intersect the yaxis at point (0, c).
 the xcoordinate of point of intersection of parabola with xaxis are the real roots of the quadratic
equation f (x) = 0. Hence the parabola may or may not intersect the xaxis at real points.
7. Range of Quadratic Expression f (x) = a x2 + b x + c.
(i) Absolute Range:
 D 
If a>0  f (x)   4 a ,  
 
 D
a<0  f (x)     ,  4 a 
 
D
Hence maximum and minimum values of the expression f (x) is  4 a in respective cases and it occurs

b
at x =  2 a (at vertex).
(ii) Range in restricted domain: Given x  [x 1, x 2]
b
(a) If   [x 1, x 2] then,
2a
 
f (x)  min f ( x1) , f ( x 2 ) ,  
max f ( x1) , f ( x 2 ) 
b
(b) If   [x 1, x 2] then,
2a
  D  D 
f (x)   min  f ( x1) , f ( x 2 ) ,  4 a  , max  f ( x1) , f ( x 2 ) ,  4 a  
     
Solved Example # 11 If c < 0 and ax 2 + bx + c = 0 does not have any real roots then prove that
(i) a–b+c<0 (ii) 9a + 3b + c < 0.
Solution.
c < 0 and D < 0  f(x) = ax 2 + bx + c < 0 for all x  R
 f(– 1) = a – b + c < 0
and f(3) = 9a + 3b + c < 0
Solved Example # 12 Find the maximum and minimum values of f(x) = x 2 – 5x + 6.
Solution.
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D b
minimum of f(x) = – at x = –
4a 2a
 25  24  5 1
=–   at x = =–
 4  2 4
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 1 
maximum of f(x) =  Hence range is  ,  .

page 5 of 23
 4 
x2  x  1
Solved Example # 13 : Find the range of rational expression y = if x is real.
x2  x  1
x2  x  1
Solution. y=
x2  x  1
 (y – 1)x 2 + (y + 1) x + y – 1 = 0

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 x is real  D0
1 
 (y + 1)2 – 4(y – 1)2  0  (y – 3) (3y – 1)  0  y   , 3 .
 3 
x2
Solved Example # 14:Find the range of y = , if x is real.
2x  3 x  6
2

x2
Solution.: y=
2x  3 x  6
2

 2yx 2 + 3yx + 6y = x + 2  2yx 2 + (3y – 1) x + 6y – 2 = 0


 x is real
D0
 (3y – 1) 2 – 8y (6y – 2)  0  (3y – 1) (13y + 1)  0
 1 1
y   ,  .
 13 3 
Self Practice Problems :
12. If c > 0 and ax 2 + 2bx + 3c = 0 does not have any real roots then prove that
(i) a – 2b + 3c > 0 (ii) a + 4b + 12c > 0
(a  b ) 2
13. If f(x) = (x – a) (x – b), then show that f(x)  – .
4
14. For what least integral value of k the quadratic polynomial (k – 2) x 2 + 8x + k + 4 > 0  x  R.
x 2  34 x  71
15. Find the range in which the value of function lies  x  R.
x 2  2x  7
mx 2  3 x  4
16. Find the interval in which 'm' lies so that the function y = can take all real values
 4x 2  3x  m
 x  R.
Ans. (14) k = 5. (15) (– , 5]  [9, ) (16) m  [1, 7]
8. Sign of Quadratic Expressions:
The value of expression, f (x) = a x 2 + b x + c at x = x 0 is equal to ycoordinate of a point on parabola
y = a x 2 + b x + c whose xcoordinate is x 0. Hence if the point lies above the xaxis for some x = x 0, then f (x 0)
> 0 and viceversa.
We get six different positions of the graph with respect to xaxis as shown.

NOTE:
(i)  x  R, y > 0 only if a > 0 & D  b²  4ac < 0 (figure 3).
(ii)  x  R, y < 0 only if a < 0 & D  b²  4ac < 0 (figure 6).
9. Solution of Quadratic Inequalities:
The values of ' x ' satisfying the inequality, ax 2 + bx + c > 0 (a  0) are:
(i) If D > 0, i.e. the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has two different roots  < .
Then a > 0  x  ( )  ( )
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a < 0  x  ( )
(ii) If D = 0, i.e. roots are equal, i.e.  = .
Then a > 0  x  (, )  ( )
a < 0  x 
(iii) If D < 0, i.e. the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has no real root.
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Then a > 0  x  R
a < 0  x  

page 6 of 23
P ( x ) Q ( x ) R ( x )......... 
(iv) Inequalities of the form A ( x ) B ( x ) C ( x ).........  0 can be quickly solved using the method of

intervals, where A, B, C........, P, Q, R......... are linear functions of ' x '.
x 2  6x  7
Solved Example # 15 Solve 2
x2  1
Solution.  x + 6x – 7  2x + 2
2 2

 x 2 – 6x + 9  0  (x – 3)2  0  xR

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x2  x  1
Solved Example # 16: Solve > 0.
| x  1|
Solution.  |x + 1| > 0
 x  R – {–1}
 2
x +x+1>0  D=1–4=–3<0
 x2 + x + 1 > 0  x  R  x  (– , – 1)  (– 1, )
x 2  3x  1
Solved Example # 17 < 3.
x2  x  1
| x 2  3x  1 |
Solution. < 3.
x2  x  1
 in x 2 + x + 1
D=1–4=–3<0
 x2 + x + 1 > 0  x  R  |x 2 – 3x – 1| < 3(x 2 + x + 1)
 (x 2 – 3x – 1)2 – {3(x 2 + x + 1)} 2 < 0
 (4x 2 + 2) (– 2x 2 – 6x – 4) < 0
 (2x 2 + 1) (x + 2) (x + 1) > 0  x  (– , – 2)  (– 1, )
Self Practice Problems :
17. (i) |x 2 + x | – 5 < 0 (ii) x 2 – 7x + 12 < |x – 4|
2x 1
18. Solve 
x 9
2
x2
19. Solve the inequation (x 2 + 3x + 1) (x 2 +3x – 3)  5
x 2  x  1
20. Find the value of parameter '' for which the inequality  3 is satisfied  x  R
x2  x  1
x 2  5x  4
21. Solve 1
x2  4
  1  21   21  1  
  ,  
Ans. (17) (i)   2   2  (ii) (2, 4)
    
(18) (– , – 3)  (– 2, 3) (19) (– , – 4]  [–2, –1]  [1, )
 8 5 
(20) (–1, 5) (21) 0, 5    2 ,  
   
1 0 . Location Of Roots:
Let f (x) = ax² + bx + c, where a > 0 & a , b, c  R.

(i) (ii) (iii)

(i) Conditions f or both the roots of f (x) = 0 to be greater than a specif i ed number‘x 0 ’ are
b²  4ac  0; f (x 0) > 0 & ( b/2a) > x 0.
(ii) Conditions f or both the roots of f (x) = 0 to be smaller than a specif ied number ‘x 0 ’ are
b²  4ac  0; f (x 0) > 0 & ( b/2a) < x 0.
(iii) Conditions for both roots of f (x) = 0 to lie on either side of the number ‘x 0’ (in other words the number ‘x 0’
lies between the roots of f (x) = 0), is f (x 0) < 0.

(iv) (v)

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(iv) Condi t i o ns t hat bot h roo t s of f (x ) = 0 t o be conf i ned bet ween t he nu m bers x 1 a nd
x 2, (x 1 < x 2) are b²  4ac  0; f (x 1) > 0 ; f (x 2) > 0 & x 1 < ( b/2a) < x 2.
(v)
Conditions for exactly one root of f (x) = 0 to lie in the interval (x 1, x 2) i.e.
x 1 < x < x 2 is f (x 1). f (x 2) < 0.
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Ex.10.1 x 2 – (m – 3) x + m = 0
(a) Find values of m so that both the roots are greater than 2.

page 7 of 23
Condition -  D0  (m – 3)2 – 4m  0  m 2 – 10m + 9  0
 (m – 1) (m – 9)  0  m  (– , 1]  [9, ) ......(i)
Condition -  f(2) > 0  4 – (m – 3)2 + m > 0 m < 10...(ii),

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b m3
Condition -  – >2  2  m > 7.....(iii)
2a 2
Intersection of (i), (ii) and (iii) gives m  [9, 10) Ans.
(b) Find the values of m so that both roots lie in the interval (1, 2)

Condition -  D  0  m  (– , 1]  [9, )


Condition -  f(1) > 0  1 – (m – 3) + m > 0  4>0  mR
Condition -  f(2) > 0  m < 10
b m3
Condition - V 1 < – <2  1< <2  5<m<7
2a 2
intersection gives m  Ans.
(c) One root is greater than 2 and other smaller than 1

Condition -  f(1) < 0  4<0  m  


Condition -  f(2) < 0  m > 10
Intersection gives m   Ans.
(d) Find the value of m for which both roots are positive.

Condition -  D  0  m  (– , 1] [9, )


Condition -  f(0) > 0  m>0
b m3
Condition -   >0  >0  m>3
2a 2
intersection gives m  [9, ) Ans.
(e) Find the values of m for which one root is (positive) and other is (negative).

Condition -  f(0) < 0  m < 0 Ans.


(f) Roots are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign.
sum of roots = 0  m=3
and f(0) < 0  m<0
 m   Ans.
Ex.10.2 Find all the values of 'a' for which both the roots of the equation
(a – 2)x 2 + 2ax + (a + 3) = 0 lies in the interval (– 2, 1).
Sol. Case - 

When a–2>0
 a>2
Condition -  f(–2) > 0  (a – 2)4 – 4a + a + 3 > 0  a–5>0a>5

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1
Condition -  f(1)> 0  4a + 1 > 0  a>–
4
Condition -  D  0  4a2 – 4(a + 3) (a – 2)  0  a6
b 2(a  1)
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Condition - V – <1  >0  a  (– , 1)  (4, )


2a a2
2a a4

page 8 of 23
b
Condition - V – 2< –  2 ( a  2) > – 2  >0
2a a2
Intersection gives a  (5, 6]. Ans.
Case- when a – 2 < 0
a<2
Condition -  f(–2) < 0  a<5
1
Condition -  f(1) < 0,  a<–

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4
b
Condition -  – 2 < – <1  a  (– , 1)  (4, )
2a
Condition - V D  0  a6
 1
intersection gives a    ,  
 4
 1
complete solution is a    ,    (5, 6] Ans.
 4
Self Practice Problems :
22. Let 4x 2 – 4( – 2)x +  – 2 = 0 (  R) be a quadratic equation find the value of  for which
(a) Both the roots are positive (b) Both the roots are negative
(c) Both the roots are opposite in sign. (d) Both the roots are greater than 1/2.
(e) Both the roots are smaller than 1/2.
(f) One root is small than 1/2 and the other root is greater than 1/2.
Ans. (a) [3, ) (b)  (c) (– , 2) (d)  (e) (– , 2] (f) (3, )
23. Find the values of the parameter a for which the roots of the quadratic equation
x 2 + 2(a – 1)x + a + 5 = 0 are
(i) positive (ii) negative (iii) opposite in sign.
Ans. (i) (–5, – 1] (ii) [4, ) (iii) (– , – 5)
24. Find the values of P for which both the roots of the equation
4x 2 – 20px + (25p2 + 15p – 66) = 0 are less than 2.
Ans. (– , –1)
25. Find the values of  for which 6 lies between the roots of the equation x 2 + 2( – 3)x + 9 = 0.
 3
Ans.   ,   .
 4
26. Let 4x 2 – 4( – 2)x +  – 2 = 0 ( R) be a quadratic equation find the value of  for which
 1  1
(i) Exactly one root lies in  0,  . (ii) Both roots lies in  0,  .
 2  2
 1
(iii) At least one root lies in  0,  . (iv) One root is greater than 1/2 and other root is smaller than 0.
 2
Ans. (i) (– , 2)  (3, ) (ii)  (iii) ( – , 2)  (3, ) (iv) 
27. In what interval must the number 'a' vary so that both roots of the equation
x 2 – 2ax + a2 – 1 = 0 lies between – 2 and 4. Ans. (– 1, 3)
28. Find the values of k, for which the quadratic expression ax 2 + (a – 2) x – 2 is negative for exactly two integral
values of x. Ans. [1, 2)
1 1 . Theory Of Equations:
If 1, 2, 3, ......n are the roots of the equation;
f (x) = a 0 x n + a 1 x n -1 + a 2 x n -2 + .. .. + a n -1 x + a n = 0 where a 0, a 1, .. .. a n are all real & a 0  0 then,
a1 a2 a3 an
 1 =  a ,  1 2 = + a , 1 2 3 =  a ,....., 1 2 3. .......n = (1)n a
0 0 0 0
NOTE :
(i) If  is a root of the equation f(x) = 0, then the polynomial f(x) is exactly divisible by (x ) or (x ) is a
factor of f(x) and conversely.
(ii) Every equation of nth degree (n 1) has exactly n roots & if the equation has more than n roots, it is an
identity.
(iii) If the coefficients of the equation f(x) = 0 are all real and  + i is its root, then   i is also a root. i.e.
imaginary roots occur in conjugate pairs.
(iv) An equation of odd degree will have odd number of real roots and an equation of even degree will have
even numbers of real roots.
(v) I f t he coef f i ci ent s i n t he equat i on are al l rat i onal &  +  i s one of i t s root s, t hen
  is also a root where ,   Q &  is not a perfect square.
(vi) If there be any two real numbers 'a' & 'b' such that f(a) & f(b) are of opposite signs, then
f(x) = 0 must have odd number of real roots (also atleast one real root) between ' a ' and ' b '.
(vii) Every equation f(x) = 0 of degree odd has atleast one real root of a sign opposite to that of its
last term. (If coefficient of highest degree term is positive).
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Ex.11.1 2x 3 + 3x 2 + 5x + 6 = 0 has roots , ,  then find  +  + ,  + +  and .
3 5 6
 +  +  = = – +  +  = ,  = – = – 3.
2 2 2
3 2
Ex.11.2 Find the roots of 4x + 20x – 23x + 6 = 0. If two roots are equal.
Let roots be ,  and 
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20
 ++=–

page 9 of 23
4
 2 +  = – 5 .............(i)
23
  .  +  +  = –
4
23 6
 2 + 2 = – & 2 = –
4 4
from equation (i)

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23
2 + 2 (– 5 – 2) = –
4
23
 2 – 10 – 42 = –  122 + 40 – 23 = 0
4
23 1
  = 1/2, – when  =
6 2
1 3
from equation (i) 2 = (– 5 – 1) = –
4 2
23
when  = –
6
23  23   23  
2 =   5  2x      – 3
36   6  2
1
 = , =–6
2
1 1
Hence roots of equation = , , – 6 Ans.
2 2
Self Practice Problems :
29. Find the relation between p, q and r if the roots of the cubic equation x 3 – px 2 + qx – r = 0 are such that they are
in A.P. Ans. 2p3 – 9pq + 27r = 0
30. If , ,  are the roots of the cubic x 3 + qx + r = 0 then find the equation whose roots are
(a)  + ,  + ,  +  Ans. x 3 + qx – r = 0
(b) , ,  Ans. x 3 – qx 2 – r2 = 0
(c) 2,  2,  2 Ans. x 3 + 2qx 2 + q2 x – r 2 = 0
(d) ,,
3 3 3
Ans. x 3 + 3x 2r + (3r2 + q3) x + r3 = 0

SHORT REVISION
The general form of a quadratic equation in x is , ax2 + bx + c = 0 , where a , b, c  R & a  0.
RESULTS :
b b 2 4ac
1. The solution of the quadratic equation , ax² + bx + c = 0 is given by x =
2a
The expression b2 – 4ac = D is called the discriminant of the quadratic equation.
2. If  &  are the roots of the quadratic equation ax² + bx + c = 0, then;
(i) +  = – b/a (ii)  = c/a (iii) –  = D / a .
3. NATURE OF ROOTS:
(A) Consider the quadratic equation ax² + bx + c = 0 where a, b, c  R & a  0 then ;
(i) D > 0  roots are real & distinct (unequal).
(ii) D = 0  roots are real & coincident (equal).
(iii) D < 0  roots are imaginary .
(iv) If p + i q is one root of a quadratic equation, then the other must be the
conjugate p  i q & vice versa. (p , q  R & i =  1 ).
(B) Consider the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 where a, b, c  Q & a  0 then;
(i) If D > 0 & is a perfect square , then roots are rational & unequal.
(ii) If  = p + q is one root in this case, (where p is rational & q is a surd)
then the other root must be the conjugate of it i.e.  = p  q & vice versa.

4. A quadratic equation whose roots are  &  is (x  )(x  ) = 0 i.e.


x2  (+ )x +  = 0 i.e. x2  (sum of roots) x + product of roots = 0.
5. Remember that a quadratic equation cannot have three different roots & if it has, it becomes an identity.
6. Consider the quadratic expression , y = ax² + bx + c , a  0 & a , b, c  R then ;
(i) The graph between x , y is always a parabola . If a > 0 then the shape of the
parabola is concave upwards & if a < 0 then the shape of the parabola is concave downwards.
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(ii)  x  R , y > 0 only if a > 0 & b²  4ac < 0 (figure 3) .
(iii)  x  R , y < 0 only if a < 0 & b²  4ac < 0 (figure 6) .
Carefully go through the 6 different shapes of the parabola given below.
7. SOLUTION OF QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES:
ax2 + bx + c > 0 (a  0).
If D > 0, then the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 has two different roots x1 < x2.
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(i)
Then a > 0  x  (, x1)  (x2, )
a < 0  x  (x1, x2)

page 10 of 23
(ii) If D = 0, then roots are equal, i.e. x1 = x2.
In that case a > 0  x  (, x1)  (x1, )
a < 0  x 
P (x )
(iii) Inequalities of the form 0 can be quickly solved using the method of intervals.
Q (x )
8. MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUE of y = ax² + bx + c occurs at x =  (b/2a) according as ;
 4 ac  b 2   4 ac  b 2 
a < 0 or a > 0 . y   ,  if a > 0 & y     ,

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 if a < 0 .
 4a   4a 
9. COMMON ROOTS OF 2 QUADRATIC EQUATIONS [ONLY ONE COMMON ROOT] :
Let  be the common root of ax² + bx + c = 0 & ax2 + bx + c = 0 . Therefore
a ² + b+ c = 0 ; a² + b + c = 0. By Cramer’s Rule
2  1
 
bc  bc a c  ac ab  a b
ca ca bcbc
Therefore,  =  .
aba b a cac
So the condition for a common root is (ca  ca)² = (ab ab)(bc bc).
10. The condition that a quadratic function f(x , y) = ax² + 2 hxy + by² + 2gx + 2 fy + c may be resolved into two linear factors is
that ;
a h g
abc + 2 fgh  af  bg  ch = 0 OR h b f = 0.
2 2 2

g f c
11. THEORY OF EQUATIONS :
If 1, 2, 3, ......n are the roots of the equation;
f(x) = a 0 x n + a 1 x n-1 + a 2 x n-2 + .... + a n-1 x + a n = 0 where a 0 , a 1 , .... a n are all real & a 0  0 then,
a a2 a3 a
 1 =  1 ,  1 2 = + , 1 2 3 =  , ....., 1 2 3 ........n = (1)n n
a0 a0 a0 a0
Note : (i) If  is a root of the equation f(x) = 0, then the polynomial f(x) is exactly divisible by (x ) or (x ) is a factor of f(x)
and conversely .
(ii) Every equation of nth degree (n 1) has exactly n roots & if the equation has more than n roots, it is an identity.
(iii) If the coefficients of the equation f(x) = 0 are all real and  + i is its root, then   i is also a root. i.e. imaginary roots
occur in conjugate pairs.
(iv) If the coefficients in the equation are all rational &  +  is one of its roots, then   is also a root where ,  
Q &  is not a perfect square.
(v) If there be any two real numbers 'a' & 'b' such that f(a) & f(b) are of opposite signs, then f(x) = 0 must have atleast
one real root between 'a' and 'b' .
(vi) Every equation f(x) = 0 of degree odd has atleast one real root of a sign opposite to that of its last term.
12. LOCATION OF ROOTS : Let f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, where a > 0 & a, b, c  R.
(i) Conditions for both the roots of f (x) = 0 to be greater than a specified number ‘d’ are
b2  4ac  0; f (d) > 0 & ( b/2a) > d.
(ii) Conditions for both roots of f (x) = 0 to lie on either side of the number ‘d’ (in other words the number ‘d’ lies
between the roots of f(x) = 0) is f(d) < 0.
(iii) Conditions for exactly one root of f(x) = 0 to lie in the interval (d, e) i.e. d < x < e are b2  4ac > 0 & f (d) . f(e) <
0.
(iv) Conditions that both roots of f (x) = 0 to be confined between the numbers p & q are
(p < q). b2  4ac  0; f (p) > 0; f (q) > 0 & p < ( b/2a) < q.
13. LOGARITHMIC INEQUALITIES
(i) For a > 1 the inequality 0 < x < y & loga x < loga y are equivalent.
(ii) For 0 < a < 1 the inequality 0 < x < y & loga x > loga y are equivalent.
(iii) If a > 1 then loga x < p  0 < x < ap
(iv) If a > 1 then logax > p  x > ap
(v) If 0 < a < 1 then loga x < p  x > ap
(vi) If 0 < a < 1 then logax > p  0 < x < ap
EXERCISE–1
Q.1 If the roots of the equation [1/(x + p)] + [1/(x + q)] = 1/r are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign, show that p + q = 2r & that
the product of the roots is equal to (1/2) (p2 + q2).
Q.2 If x2  x cos(A + B) + 1 is a factor of the expression,
2x4 + 4x3 sin A sin B  x2(cos 2A + cos 2B) + 4x cos A cos B  2. Then find the other factor.
Q.3  ,  are the roots of the equation K(x2 –x) + x+ 5 = 0. If K1 & K2 are the two values of K for which the roots ,  are connected
by the relation (/) + (/) = 4/5. Find the value of
(K1/K2)+ (K2/K1).
Q.4 If the quadratic equations, x2 + bx + c = 0 and bx2 + cx + 1 = 0 have a common root then prove that either b + c + 1 = 0 or b2 + c2
+ 1 = bc + b + c.
 p 2  2 p2
Q.5 If the roots of the equation 1  q  x  p (1  q ) x  q ( q  1)  = 0 are equal then show that
 2  2

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p = 4q.
Q.6 If one root of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 be the square of the other, prove that
b3 + a2c + ac2 = 3abc.
ax 2  2(a  1) x  9a  4
Q.7 Find the range of values of a, such that f (x) = is always negative.
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x 2  8x  32
Q.8 Find a quadratic equation whose sum and product of the roots are the values of the expressions

page 11 of 23
(cosec 10° – 3 sec10°) and (0.5 cosec10° – 2 sin70°) respectively. Also express the roots of this quadratic in terms of tangent
 
of an angle lying in  0,  .
 2
6 x 2  22 x  21
Q.9 Find the least value of for all real values of x, using the theory of quadratic equations.
5x2 2  182 x  172

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Q.10 Find the least value of (2p + 1)x + 2(4p – 1)x + 4(2p2 + 1) for real values of p and x.
Q.11 If  be a root of the equation 4x2 + 2x – 1 = 0 then prove that 43 – 3 is the other root.
Q.12(a) If ,  are the roots of the quadratic equation ax2+bx+c = 0 then which of the following expressions in ,  will denote the symmetric

functions of roots. Give proper reasoning. (i) f (, ) = 2 –  (ii) f (, ) = 2 + 2 (iii) f (, ) = ln

(iv) f (, ) = cos ( – )
(b) If ,  are the roots of the equation x2 – px + q = 0, then find the quadratic equation the roots of which are (2  2) (3  3)
& 3 2 + 2 3.
Q.13 If ,  are the roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0 & ,   are the roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0, show that  ,  are the roots of
1 1
 b b  2  b b 
 a  a   x  x   c  c  = 0 .
   
Q.14 If   ,  are the roots of x 2 – px + 1 = 0 &   ,  are the roots of x 2 + qx + 1 = 0, show that
( ) ( ) (+ ) (+ ) = q2  p2.
Q.15 Show that if p , q , r & s are real numbers & pr = 2 (q + s) , then at least one of the equations x2 + px + q = 0, x2 + r x + s = 0
has real roots.
1 1 1
Q.16 If a & b are positive numbers, prove that the equation   = 0 has two real roots, one between a/3 & 2a/3
x xa xb
and the other between – 2b/3 & – b/3.
Q.17 If the roots of x 2  ax + b = 0 are real & differ by a quantity which is less than c (c > 0), prove that
b lies between (1/4) (a2  c2) & (1/4)a2.
Q.18 At what values of 'a' do all the zeroes of the function ,
f (x) = (a  2)x2 + 2ax + a + 3 lie on the interval ( 2, 1)?
Q.19 If one root of the quadratic equation ax² + bx + c = 0 is equal to the nth power of the other, then show that (acn)1/(n+1) + (anc)1/
(n+1) + b = 0.
Q.20 If p, q, r and s are distinct and different from 2, show that if the points with co-ordinates
 p4 p3  5   q4 q3  5   r4 r3  5   s4 s3  5 
 ,   ,   ,  and  , 
p2 p2  , q2 q2  , r2 r2   s  2 s  2  are collinear then
       
pqrs = 5 (p + q + r + s) + 2 (pqr + qrs + rsp + spq).
Q.21 The quadratic equation x2 + px + q = 0 where p and q are integers has rational roots. Prove that the roots are all integral.
Q.22 If the quadratic equations x2 + bx + ca = 0 & x2 + cx + ab = 0 have a common root, prove that the equation containing their
other root is x2 + ax + bc = 0.
Q.23 If  ,  are the roots of x2 + px + q = 0 & x2n + pnxn + qn = 0 where n is an even integer, show that /, / are the roots of
xn + 1+(x+1)n = 0.
Q.24 If ,  are the roots of the equation x 2  2x + 3 = 0 obtain the equation whose roots are
3  32 + 5  2 , 3  2 +  + 5.
Q.25 If each pair of the following three equations x2 + p1x + q1 = 0 , x2 + p2x + q2 = 0 &
x2 + p3x + q3 = 0 has exactly one root common , prove that;
(p1 + p2 + p3)2 = 4 [p1p2 + p2p3 + p3p1  q1  q2  q3].
Q.26 Show that the function z = 2x2 + 2 xy+ y2  2x + 2y+ 2 is not smaller than – 3.
1 1
 1 2  1 2
Q.27 Find all real numbers x such that,  x   + 1   = x.
 x  x
Q.28 Find the values of ‘a’ for which 3< [(x2 + ax 2)/(x2 + x+ 1)] < 2 is valid for all real x.
6
 1  6 1 
x   x  6 2
 x  x 
Q.29 Find the minimum value of 3 for x > 0.
 1 1
x    x  3
3
 x x
Q.30 Find the product of the real roots of the equation,
x2 + 18x + 30 = 2 x 2  18x  45
EXERCISE–2
Q.1 Solve the following where x  R.
(a) (x1)x2 4x+3+ 2x2 + 3x 5 = 0 (b) 3x2  4x+2= 5x  4
(c) x3 + 1+ x2  x  2 = 0 (d) 2x+2 2x+1  1= 2x+1 + 1
(e) For a  0, determine all real roots of the equation x2  2 ax a 3a2 = 0.
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Q.2 Let a, b, c, d be distinct real numbers and a and b are the roots of quadratic equation
x2 – 2cx – 5d = 0. If c and d are the roots of the quadratic equation x2 – 2ax – 5b = 0 then find the numerical value of a + b + c +
d.
p
Q.3 Let f (x) = ax2 + bx + c = 0 has an irrational root r. If u = be any rational number, where a, b, c, p and q are integer. Prove that
q
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1
 | f (u) |.
q2

page 12 of 23
Q.4 Let a, b, c be real. If ax2 + bx + c = 0 has two real roots  & , where  <  1 &  > 1 then show that 1 + c/a + b/a.
Q.5 If ,  are the roots of the equation, x 2  2 x  a 2 + 1 = 0 and  ,  are the roots of the equation,
x2  2 (a + 1) x + a (a  1) = 0 such that ,  ( , ) then find the values of 'a'.
Q.6 Two roots of a biquadratic x4 – 18x3 + kx2 + 200x – 1984 = 0 have their product equal to (– 32). Find the value of k.
Q.7 If by eleminating x between the equation x² + ax+ b = 0 & xy+ l (x+ y)+ m = 0, a quadratic in y is formed whose roots are the same
as those of the original quadratic in x. Then prove either
a = 2l & b = m or b + m = al.
 
sin 2 cos 2

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x 2  2x cos   1 2 and 2 .
Q.8 If x be real, prove that lies between
x 2  2x cos   1  2 
sin 2 cos
2 2
Q.9 Solve the equations, ax2 + bxy+ cy = bx + cxy+ ay = d.
2 2 2

Q.10 Find the values of K so that the quadratic equation x2 + 2(K1)x+ K + 5 = 0 has atleast one positive root.
Q.11 b g d
Find the values of 'b' for which the equation 2 log 1 bx  28   log5 12  4 x  x 2 has only one solution. i
25
Q.12 Find all the values of the parameter 'a' for which both roots of the quadratic equation
x2 – ax + 2 = 0 belong to the interval ( 0 , 3 ).
Q.13 Find all the values of the parameters c for which the inequality has at least one solution.
FG 7 IJ c h
H
1  log 2 2 x 2  2 x 
2 K  log 2 cx 2  c .
Q.14 Find the values of K for which the equation x4 + (1  2 K) x2 + K2  1 = 0 ;
(a) has no real solution (b) has one real solution
Q.15 Find all the values of the parameter 'a' for which the inequality
a.9x + 4(a–1)3x + a – 1 > 0 is satisfied for all real values of x.
Q.16 Find the complete set of real values of ‘a’ for which both roots of the quadratic equation
( a2 – 6a + 5) x2 – a 2  2a x + (6a – a2 – 8) = 0 lie on either side of the origin.
Q.17 If g (x) = x3 + px2 + qx + r where p, q and r are integers. If g (0) and g (–1) are both odd, then prove that the equation g (x) = 0 cannot
have three integral roots.
Q.18 Find all numbers p for each of which the least value of the quadratic trinomial
4x2 – 4px + p2 – 2p + 2 on the interval 0  x  2 is equal to 3.
Q.19 Let P (x) = x 2 + bx + c, where b and c are integer. If P (x) is a factor of both x 4 + 6x 2 + 25 and
3x4 + 4x 2 + 28x + 5, find the value of P(1).
Q.20 Let x be a positive real. Find the maximum possible value of the expression
x2  2  x4  4
y= .
x
EXERCISE–3
Solve the inequality. Where ever base is not given take it as 10.
2
 x 5 
Q.1 log 2 x  4
  log 1
 
 20 log 2 x  148  0 . Q.2 x1/logx . log x < 1
 2 4 
Q.3 (log 100x)2 + (log10 x)2 + logx  14 Q.4 log1/2 (x + 1) > log2 (2x).
Q.5 logx2 . log2x2 . log2 4x > 1. Q.6 log1/5 (2x2 + 5x + 1) < 0.
Q.7 log1/2 x + log3 x > 1. Q.8 logx² (2+x) < 1
4x  5
Q.9 logx < 1 Q.10 (logx+62) . log2 (x2 x2)  1
6  5x
x 2  4x  3
Q.11 log3 0 Q.12 log[(x+6)/3][log2{(x 1)/(2+x)}] > 0
x  x 5
2

log 3 ( x 2  3x  7)
Q.13 Find out the values of 'a' for which any solution of the inequality, < 1 is also a solution of the inequality, x2
log 3 (3x  2)
+ (5  2 a) x  10a.

Q.14 Solve the inequality log ( x 2  10 x  22)  0 .


x
log  
2 2 
Q.15 Find the set of values of 'y' for which the inequality, 2 log0.5 y2  3 + 2 x log0.5 y2  x2 > 0
is valid for atleast one real value of 'x'.
EXERCISE–4
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sin x cos 3x 1
Q.1 Prove that the values of the function do not lie from & 3 for any real x.[JEE '97 , 5]
sin 3x cos x 3
2
Q.2 The sum of all the real roots of the equation x  2  x  2  2  0 is ______. [JEE '97, 2]
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Q.3 Let S be a square of unit area. Consider any quadrilateral which has one vertex on each side of S. If a, b, c & d denote the lengths
of the sides of the quadrilateral, prove that: 2  a2 + b2 + c2 + d2  4.

page 13 of 23
Q.4 In a college of 300 students, every student reads 5 news papers & every news paper is read by
60 students. The number of news papers is:
(A) atleast 30 (B) atmost 20 (C) exactly 25 (D) none of the above
Q.5 If ,  are the roots of the equation x2  bx + c = 0, then find the equation whose roots are,
(2 + 2) (3 + 3) & 5 3 + 3 5 24 4.
Q.6(i) Let  + i;  R, be a root of the equation x3 + qx + r = 0; q, r  R. Find a real cubic equation, independent of  & , whose
one root is 2.
(ii) Find the values of  & , 0 < ,  < /2, satisfying the following equation,

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881 .
cos  cos  cos ( + ) = – 1/8. [REE '99, 3 + 6]
 P Q
Q.7(i) In a triangle PQR, R = . If tan   & tan   are the roots of the equation
2 2 2
ax2 + bx + c = 0 (a  0) then :
(A) a + b = c (B) b + c = a (C) a + c = b (D) b = c
(ii) If the roots of the equation x2  2ax + a2 + a  3 = 0 are real & less than 3 then
(A) a < 2 (B) 2  a  3 (C) 3 < a  4 (D) a > 4 [JEE '99, 2 + 2]
Q.8 If ,  are the roots of the equation, (x  a)(x  b) + c = 0, find the roots of the equation,
(x ) (x ) = c. [REE 2000 (Mains), 3]
Q.9(a) For the equation, 3 x2 + px + 3 = 0 , p > 0 if one of the roots is square of the other, then p is equal to:
(A) 1/3 (B) 1 (C) 3 (D) 2/3
(b) If  &  ( < ), are the roots of the equation, x2 + bx + c = 0, where c < 0 < b, then
(A) 0 <  <  (B)  < 0 < < 
(C) <  < 0 (D) < 0 <  < 
(c) If b > a , then the equation, (x  a) (x  b)  1 = 0, has :
(A) both roots in [a, b] (B) both roots in (a)
(C) both roots in [b) (D) one root in (a) & other in (b, +)
[JEE 2000 Screening, 1 + 1 + 1 out of 35]
(d) If ,  are the roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0, (a  0) and  +  ,  +  , are the roots of,
Ax2 + Bx + C = 0, (A  0) for some constant , then prove that,
b 2 4ac B2 4AC
= . [JEE 2000, Mains, 4 out of 100]
a2 A2
Q.10 The number of integer values of m, for which the x co-ordinate of the point of intersection of the lines
3x + 4y = 9 and y = mx + 1 is also an integer, is [JEE 2001, Screening, 1 out of 35]
(A) 2 (B) 0 (C) 4 (D) 1
Q.11 Let a, b, c be real numbers with a  0 and let  be the roots of the equation
ax2 + bx + c = 0. Express the roots of a3x2 + abcx + c3 = 0 in terms of 
[JEE 2001, Mains, 5 out of 100]
Q.12 The set of all real numbers x for which x2 – |x + 2| + x > 0, is
(A) (–, –2) U (2, ) (B) (–, – 2 ) U ( 2 , )
(C) (–, –1) U (1, ) (D) ( 2 , ) [JEE 2002 (screening), 3]

Q.13 If x2 + (a – b)x + (1 – a – b) = 0 where a, b  R then find the values of ‘a’ for which equation has unequal real roots for all values
of ‘b’. [JEE 2003, Mains-4 out of 60]
[ Based on M. R. test]
Q.14(a) If one root of the equation x2 + px + q = 0 is the square of the other, then
(A) p3 + q2 – q(3p + 1) = 0 (B) p3 + q2 + q(1 + 3p) = 0
(C) p3 + q2 + q(3p – 1) = 0 (D) p3 + q2 + q(1 – 3p) = 0
(b) If x2 + 2ax + 10 – 3a > 0 for all x  R, then
(A) – 5 < a < 2 (B) a < – 5 (C) a > 5 (D) 2 < a < 5
[JEE 2004 (Screening)]

1  2 x  5x 2   
Q.15 Find the range of values of t for which 2 sint = , t  2 , 2 
.
3x 2  2 x  1 
[JEE 2005(Mains), 2]
Q.16(a) Let a, b, c be the sides of a triangle. No two of them are equal and   R. If the roots of the equation
x2 + 2(a + b + c)x + 3(ab + bc + ca) = 0 are real, then
4 5 1 5  4 5
(A)   (B)   (C)    ,  (D)    , 
3 3 3 3  3 3
[JEE 2006, 3]
(b) If roots of the equation x  10cx  11d  0 are a, b and those of x2 – 10ax – 11b = 0 are c, d, then find the value of a + b + c
2
+ d. (a, b, c and d are distinct numbers) [JEE 2006, 6]
EXERCISE–5
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Part : (A) Only one correct option
1. The roots of the quadratic equation (a + b – 2c) x 2 – (2a – b – c) x + (a – 2b + c) = 0 are
1
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(A) a + b + c and a – b + c (B) and a – 2b + c


2

page 14 of 23
1
(C) a – 2b + c and (D) none of these
abc
3x
2. The roots of the equation 2 x + 2. 3 x 1 = 9 are given by

log 3

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881 .
(A) 1 – log2 3, 2 (B) log2 (2/3), 1 (C) –2, 2 (D) –2, 1 – log 2

3. Two real numbers  &  are such that  +  = 3 &   = 4, then  &  are the roots of the quadratic equation:

(A) 4x 2  12x  7 = 0 (B) 4x 2  12x + 7 = 0 (C) 4x 2  12x + 25 = 0 (D) none of these


4. Let a, b and c be real num bers such t hat 4a + 2b + c = 0 and ab > 0. T hen t he equat i on
ax 2 + bx + c = 0 has
(A) real roots (B) imaginary roots (C) exactly one root (D) none of these
5. If ecosx – e– cosx = 4, then the value of cos x is


(A) log 2  5  
(B) –log 2  5  
(C) log  2  5  (D) none of these
2 2
6. The number of the integer solutions of x + 9 < (x + 3) < 8x + 25 is :
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) none
7. If (x + 1) 2 is greater than 5x  1 & less than 7x  3 then the integral value of x is equal to
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

8. The set of real ' x ' satisfying, x  1  1  1 is:


(A) [0, 2] (B) [ 1, 3] (C) [ 1, 1] (D) [1, 3]
9. Let f(x) = x 2 + 4x + 1. Then
(A) f(x) > 0 for all x (B) f(x) > 1 when x  0 (C) f(x)  1 when x  – 4 (D) f(x) = f(– x) for all x

x2  x  1
10. If x is real and k = then:
x2  x  1

1
(A) k3 (B) k  5 (C) k  0 (D) none
3

x2  x  c
11. If x is real, then can take all real values if :
x2  x  2c
(A) c  [0, 6] (B) c  [ 6, 0] (C) c  (  6)  (0, ) (D) c  ( 6, 0)

x 4  3 x 3  2x 2
12. The solution set of the inequality  0 is:
x 2  x  30
(A) (,  5)  (1, 2)  (6, )  {0} (B) (,  5)  [1, 2]  (6, )  {0}
(C) ( ,  5]  [1, 2]  [6, )  {0}

(D) none of these
13. If x – y and y – 2x are two factors of the expression x 3 – 3x 2y + xy2 + y3, then
11 3
(A)  = 11,  = –3 (B)  = 3,  = –11 (C)  =
,=– (D) none of these
4 4
14. If   are the roots of the equation, x 2  2 m x + m 2  1 = 0 then the range of values of m for which
  ( 2, 4) is:
(A) ( 1, 3) (B) (1, 3) (C) (,  1)  ((3, ) (D) none
15. If the inequality (m  2)x 2 + 8x + m + 4 > 0 is satisfied for all x  R then the least integral m is:
(A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) none
16. For all x  R, if mx – 9mx + 5m + 1 > 0, then m lies in the interval
2

(A) – (4/61, 0) (B) [0, 4/61) (C) (4/61, 61/4) (D) (– 61/4, 0]
17. Let a > 0, b > 0 & c > 0. Then both the roots of the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0
(A) are real & negative (B) have negative real parts (C) are rational numbers (D) none
18. The value of 'a' for which the sum of the squares of the roots of the equation, x 2  (a  2) x  a  1 = 0 assume the
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least value is:
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) 3
2x
19. Consider y = , then the range of expression, y 2 + y  2 is:
1  x2
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(C)  9 / 4 , 0  (D)  9 / 4 , 1

page 15 of 23
(A) [ 1, 1] (B) [0, 1]
20. If both roots of the quadratic equation x 2 + x + p = 0 exceed p where p  R then p must lie in the interval:
(A) (, 1) (B) (,  2) (C) (,  2)  (0, 1/4) (D) ( 2, 1)
21. I f a, b, p, q are non zero re al num bers, t h e t wo equat i on s, 2 a 2 x 2  2 ab x + b 2 = 0 and
p2 x 2 + 2 pq x + q2 = 0 have:
(A) no common root (B) one common root if 2 a2 + b2 = p2 + q2
(C) two common roots if 3 pq = 2 ab (D) two common roots if 3 qb = 2 ap

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881 .
1  1  1 
22. If , &  are the roots of the equation, x 3  x  1 = 0 then, + + has the value equal to:
1  1  1 
(A) zero (B)  1 (C)  7 (D) 1
23. The equations x 3 + 5x 2 + px + q = 0 and x 3 + 7x 2 + px + r = 0 have two roots in common. If the third root of each
equation is represented by x 1 and x 2 respectively, then the ordered pair (x 1, x 2) is:
(A) ( 5,  7) (B) (1,  1) (C) ( 1, 1) (D) (5, 7)
24. If ,  are roots of the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 then the equation whose roots are 2 + 3 and 3 + 2 is
(A) ab x 2 – (a + b) cx + (a + b) 2 = 0 (B) ac x 2 – (a + c) bx + (a + c) 2 = 0
(C) ac x 2 + (a + c) bx – (a + c) 2 = 0 (D) none of these
25. If coefficients of the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0, a  0 are real and roots of the equation are non-real complex and
a + c < b, then
(A) 4a + c > 2b (B) 4a + c < 2b (C) 4a + c = 2b (D) none of these
26. The set of possible values of  for which x 2 – (2 – 5 + 5)x + (22 – 3 – 4) = 0 has roots, whose sum and product
are both less than 1, is

 5  5  5
(A)   1,  (B) (1, 4) (C) 1,  (D) 1, 
 2  2  2
27. Let conditions C1 and C2 be defined as follows : C1 : b2 – 4ac  0, C2 : a, –b, c are of same sign. The roots of ax 2
+ bx + c = 0 are real and positive, if
(A) both C1 and C1 are satisfied (B) only C2 is satisfied
(C) only C1 is satisfied (D) none of these
Part : (B) May have more than one options correct
28. If a, b are non-zero real numbers, and ,  the roots of x 2 + ax + b = 0, then

1 1
(A) 2,  2 are the roots of x 2 – (2b – a2) x + a2 = 0 (B) , are the roots of bx 2 + ax + 1 = 0
 

 
(C) , are the roots of bx 2 + (2b – a2) x + b = 0 (D) –, – are the roots of x 2 + ax – b = 0
 
29. x 2 + x + 1 is a factor of a x 3 + b x 2 + c x + d = 0, then the real root of above equation is
(a, b, c, d  R)
(A)  d/a (B) d/a (C) (b – a)/a (D) (a – b)/a
30. If (x 2 + x + 1) + (x 2 + 2x + 3) + (x 2 + 3x + 5) +...... + (x 2 + 20 x + 39) = 4500, then x is equal to:
(A) 10 (B)  10 (C) 20.5 (D)  20.5
31. cos  is a root of the equation 25x 2 + 5x  12 = 0,  1 < x < 0, then the value of sin 2 is:
(A) 24/25 (B)  12/25 (C)  24/25 (D) 20/25
2 2
32. If the quadratic equations, x + abx + c = 0 and x + acx + b = 0 have a common root then the equation containing
their other roots is/are:
(A) x 2 + a (b + c) x  a2bc = 0 (B) x 2  a (b + c) x + a2bc = 0
(C) a (b + c) x  (b + c) x + abc = 0
2
(D) a (b + c) x 2 + (b + c) x  abc = 0
EXERCISE–6
1. Solve the equation, x (x + 1) (x + 2) (x + 3) = 120.
2. Solve the following where x  R.
(a) (x  1)x²  4x + 3+ 2 x² + 3x  5 = 0 (b) (x + 3).x + 2+2x + 3+ 1 = 0
(c) (x + 3). (x + 1) +2x + 5= 0 (d) 2x+2 2x+1  1= 2x+1 + 1

( x  1) ( x  1) ( x  4) ( x  6)  25
3. If ' x ' is real, show that,  0.
7 x2  8 x  4
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x2 2x  3
4. Find the value of x which satisfy inequality > .
x2 4x  1
5. Find the range of the expression f(x) = sin 2x – sinx + 1  x  R.
Find the range of the quadratic expression f(x) = x 2 – 2x + 3  x  [0, 2].
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6.
7. Prove that the function y = (x² + x + 1)/(x² + 1) cannot have values greater than 3/2 and values smaller than 1/2

page 16 of 23
for  x  R.

x 2  2x  9 1 
8. If x be real, show that lies in  , 2 .
x 2  2x  9 2 
9. For what values of k the expression 3x 2 + 2xy + y2 + 4x + y + k can be resolved into two linear factors.
10. Show that one of the roots of the equation, a x 2 + b x + c = 0 may be reciprocal of one of the roots of
a1 x 2 + b1 x + c1 = 0 if (a a1  c c1)2 = (b c1  a b1) (b1c  a1b).

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11. Let  + i ; ,  R, be a root of the equation x 3 + qx + r = 0; q, r  R. Find a real cubic equation, independent
of  and , whose one root is 2.
12. If a, b are the roots of x 2 + px + 1 = 0 and c, d are the roots of x 2 + qx + 1 = 0. Show that
q2  p2 = (a  c) (b  c) (a + d) (b + d).
13. If ,  are the roots of the equation x² - px + q = 0, then find the quadratic equation the roots of which are (2   2)
(3   3) & 3  2 + 2  3.

x 2  kx  1
14. If ' x ' is real , find values of ' k ' for which, < 2 is valid.
x2  x  1

1 4 4 1 1
15. Solve the inequality, – + – < .
x 1 x  2 x  3 x  4 30

16. The equations x 2  ax + b = 0 & x 3  px 2 + qx = 0, where b  0, q  0 have one common root & the second
equation has two equal roots. Prove that 2 (q + b) = ap.
2
 x   x 
   
17. Find the real values of ‘m’ for which the equation,  2  (m  3)  1  x 2  + m = 0 has atleast one real root
1  x   
?
18. Let a and b be two roots of the equation x 3 +px 2 + qx + r = 0 satisfying the relation ab + 1 = 0. Prove that r 2 + pr
+ q + 1 = 0.
ANSWER KEY
EXERCISE–1
FG 1 IJ
Q.2 2x2 + 2x cos (A  B)  2 Q.3 254 Q.7
H
a   , 
2 K
  5 
Q.8 x2 – 4x + 1 = 0 ;  = tan   ;  = tan   Q.9 1 Q.10 minimum value 3 when x = 1 and p = 0
 
12  12 
Q.12 (a) (ii) and (iv) ; (b) x2  p(p4  5p2q + 5q2)x + p2q2(p2  4q) (p2  q) = 0

 1 5 1
Q.18    ,    {2}  (5, 6] Q.24 x2  3 x+2 = 0 Q.27 x= Q.28 2 < a < 1
 4 2
Q.29 ymin = 6 Q.30 20
EXERCISE–2
Q.1 (a) x = 1; (b) x = 2 or 5; (c) x = 1 or 1; (d) x  1 or x = 3; (e) x = (1 2 )a or ( 6  1)a

Q.2 30 Q.5 a   4 , 1
1
 Q.6 k = 86
Q.9 x = y = d/(a+b+c) ; x/(c  a) = y/(a  b) = K where K²a(a² + b² + c²  abbc  ca) = d
2 2

LM14 , IJ 11
Q 10. K  1 Q 11. (   ,  14 )  {4} 
N3 K Q 12. 2 2  a 
3
Q.13 (0, 8] Q 14. (a) K < 1or K > 5/4 (b) K = 1 Q 15. [ 1,  )
Q 16. (– , – 2]  [ 0, 1) (2, 4) (5, ) Q18. a=1– 2 or 5 + 10

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Q.19 P (1) = 4 Q 20. 2  
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2  1 where x = 2
EXERCISE–3
 1 1 1
Q 1. x   ,   8 ,16  Q 2. (0,1)  (1 , 101/10 ) Q 3.  x  10
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9
 16 8  10

page 17 of 23
1 5 1 5
Q 4. 1 < x < or < x < 2 Q 5. 2  2
< x < 2-1 ; 1 < x < 2 2
Q 6. (,  2.5)  (0, )
2 2
1
Q 7. 0 < x < 31/1– log3 (where base of log is 2) Q 8. 2<x<1, 1<x<0, 0<x<1, x>2 Q 9. <x <1
2
2 1 5
Q 10. x < 7 , 5 < x  2 , x  4 Q 11. x   ;  x  2 Q12. (6 , 5)  ( 3 , 2) Q 13. a 
3 2 2

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 
Q 14. x  3 , 5  3  7 ,    
 1 , 0  0 , 1 
Q 15.   ,  2 2   
2  

2
 2 2,  
EXERCISE–4
Q.2 4 Q.4 C
Q.5 x2  (x1 + x2)x + x1 x2 = 0 where x1 = (b2  2c) (b3  3cb) ; x2 = c3 (b2  4c)
Q.6 (i) x3 + qx  r = 0, (ii)  =  = /3, Q.7 (i) A, (ii) A, Q.8 (a, b) Q.9 (a) C, (b) B, (c) D
Q.10 A Q.11  = 2and  = 2 or  = 2 and  = 2 Q.12 B Q.13 a> 1

     3  
Q.14 (a) D ; (b) A Q.15  2 ,  10    10 , 2  Q.16 (a) A, (b) 1210
   
EXERCISE–5
1. D 2. D 3. A 4. A 5. D 6. D 7. C 8. B 9. C 10. A 11. B
12. B 13. C 14. A 15. B 16. B 17. B 18. B 19. C 20. B 21. A 22. C
23. A 24. D 25. B 26. D 27. A 28. BC 29. AD 30. AD 31. AC 32. BD
EXERCISE–6
1. {2,  5} 2. (a) x = 1 (b) x = ( 7  17 )/2
(c) x =  2,  4,  (1+ 3 ) (d) x  1, x =  3

1  3  11
4. x (– , – 2)   , 1  (4, ) 5.  4 , 3 6. [2, 3] 9. k= 11. x 3 + qx – r = 0
4    8

13. x 2  p(p4  5p2q + 5q2) x + p2q2(p2  4q) (p2  q) = 0 14. k  (0, 4)


 7 5
15. (– , – 2)  (– 1, 1)  (2, 3)  (4, 6)  (7, ) 17.  2 , 6
 

For 39 Years Que. from IIT-JEE(Advanced) &


15 Years Que. from AIEEE (JEE Main)
we distributed a book in class room

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foifr ns[k NksM+s rqjra e/;e eu dj ';keA
iq#"k flag ladYi dj] lgrs foifr vusd]
^cuk^ u NksM+s /;s; dks] j?kqcj jk[ks VsdAA
jfpr% ekuo /keZ iz.ksrk
ln~xq# Jh j.kNksM+nklth egkjkt
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Some questions (Assertion–Reason type) are given below. Each question contains Statement – 1 (Assertion) and Statement – 2
(Reason). Each question has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE is correct. So select the correct choice :
Choices are :
(A) Statement – 1 is True, Statement – 2 is True; Statement – 2 is a correct explanation for Statement – 1.
(B) Statement – 1 is True, Statement – 2 is True; Statement – 2 is NOT a correct explanation for Statement – 1.
(C) Statement – 1 is True, Statement – 2 is False.
(D) Statement – 1 is False, Statement – 2 is True.

1. Statement-1: If x ∈R, 2x2 + 3x + 5 is positive.


Statement-2: If ∆ < 0, ax2 + bx + c, ‘a’ have same sign ∀x ∈R.
2. Statement-1: If 1 + 2 is a root of x2 – 2x – 1 = 0, then 1 − 2 will be the other root.
Statement-2: Irrational roots of a quadratic equation with rational coefficients always occur in conjugate pair.
3. Statement-1: The roots of the equation 2x2 + 3i x + 2 = 0 are always conjugate pair.
Statement-2: Imaginary roots of a quadratic equation with real coefficients always occur in conjugate pair.
4. Consider the equation (a2 – 3a + 2) x2 + (a2 – 5a + 6)x + a2 – 1 = 0
Statement – 1: If a = 1, then above equation is true for all real x.
Statement – 2: If a = 1, then above equation will have two real and distinct roots.
5. Consider the equation (a + 2)x2 + (a – 3) x = 2a – 1
Statement–1 : Roots of above equation are rational if 'a' is rational and not equal to –2.
Statement–2 : Roots of above equation are rational for all rational values of 'a'.
6. Let f(x) = x2 = –x2 + (a + 1) x + 5
Statement–1 : f(x) is positive for same α < x < β and for all a∈R
Statement–2 : f(x) is always positive for all x∈R and for same real 'a'.
7. Consider f(x) = (x2 + x + 1) a2 – (x2 + 2) a
–3 (2x2 + 3x + 1) = 0
Statement–1 : Number of values of 'a' for which f(x) = 0 will be an identity in x is 1.
Statement–2 : a = 3 the only value for which f(x) = 0 will represent an identity.
8. Let a, b, c be real such that ax2 + bx + c = 0 and x2 + x + 1= 0 have a common root
Statement–1 : a=b=c
Statement–2 : Two quadratic equations with real coefficients can not have only one imaginary root common.
9. Statement–1 : The number of values of a for which (a2 – 3a + 2) x2 + (a2 – 5a + b) x + a2 – 4 = 0 is an identity in x is 1.
Statement–2 : If ax2 + bx + c = 0 is an identity in x then a = b = c = 0.
10. Let a ∈ (– ∞, 0).
Statement–1 : ax2 – x + 4 < 0 for all x ∈ R
Statement–2 : If roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0, b, c ∈ R are imaginary then signs of ax2 + bx + c and a are same for all x ∈ R.
11. Let a, b, c ∈ R, a ≠ 0.
Statement–1 : Difference of the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0
= Difference of the roots of the equation – ax2 + bx – c = 0
Statement–2 : The two quadratic equations over reals have the same difference of roots if product of the coefficient of
the two equations are the same.
12. Statement–1 : If the roots of x5 – 40x4 + Px3 + Qx2 + Rx + S = 0 are in G.P. and sum of their reciprocal is 10, then
| S |= 32.
Statement–2 : x1. x2. x3.x4.x5 = S, where x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 are the roots of given equation.
π
13. Statement–1 : If 0 < α < , then the equation (x – sin α) (x – cos α) – 2 = 0 has both roots in (sin α, cos α)
4

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Statement–2 : If f(a) and f(b) possess opposite signs then there exist at least one solution of the equation f(x) = 0 in open
interval (a, b).
14. Statement–1 : If a ≥ 1/2 then α < 1 < p where α , β are roots of equation –x2 + ax + a = 0
Statement–2 : Roots of quadratic equation are rational if discriminant is perfect square.
15. Statement-1 : The number of real roots of |x|2 + |x| + 2 = 0 is zero. Statement-2 : ∀x∈R, |x| ≥ 0.
16. Statement-1: If all real values of x obtained from the equation 4x – (a – 3) 2x + (a – 4) = 0 are non-positive, then a∈ (4, 5]
Statement-2: If ax2 + bx + c is non-positive for all real values of x, then b2 – 4ac must be –ve or zero and ‘a’ must be –ve.
17. Statement-1: If a , b , c , d ∈ R such that a < b < c < d, then the equation
(x – a) (x – c) + 2(x – b) (x – d) = 0 are real and distinct.
Statement-2: If f(x) = 0 is a polynomial equation and a, b are two real numbers such that f(a) f(b) < 0 has at least one real
root.
x2 + x +1
18. Statement-1: f(x) = > 0 ∀x∈R
x 2 + 2x + 5
Statement-2: ax2 + bx + c > 0 ∀x∈R if a > 0 and b2 – 4ac < 0.
19. Statement-1: If a + b + c = 0 then ax2 + bx + c = 0 must have ‘1’ as a root of the equation
Statement-2: If a + b + c = 0 then ax2 + bx + c = 0 has roots of opposite sign.
20. Statement-1: ax2 + bx + C = 0 is a quadratic equation with real coefficients, if 2 + 3 is one root then other root can be any
other real number.
Statement-2: If P + q is a real root of a quadratic equation, then P - q is other root only when the coefficients of
equation are rational
21. Statement-1: If px2 + qx + r = 0 is a quadratic equation (p, q, r∈R) such that its roots are α, β & p + q + r < 0, p – q + r < 0
& r > 0, then 3[α] + 3[β] = −3, where [⋅] denotes G.I.F.
Statement-2: If for any two real numbers a & b, function f(x) is such that f(a).f(b) < 0 ⇒ f(x) has at least one real root lying
between (a, b)
22. Statement-1: If x = 2 + 3 is a root of a quadratic equation then another root of this equation must be x = 2 + 3
Statement-2: If ax2 + bx + c = 0, a, b, c ∈ Q, having irrational roots then they are in conjugate pairs.
23. Statement-1: If roots of the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 are distinct natural number then both roots of the equation
cx2 + bx + a = 0 cannot be natural numbers.
1 1
Statement-2: If α, β be the roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0 then , are the roots of cx2 + bx + a = 0.
α β
24. Statement-1: The (x – p) (x – r) + λ (x – q) (x – s) = 0 where p < q < r < s has non real roots if λ > 0.
Statement-2: The equation (p, q, r ∈R) βx2 + qx + r = 0 has non-real roots if q2 – 4pr < 0.
25. Statement-1: One is always one root of the equation (l – m)x2 + (m – n) x + (n – l ) = 0, where l, m, n∈R.
Statement-2: If a + b + c = 0 in the equation
ax2 + bx + c = 0, then 1 is the one root.
26. Statement-1: If (a2 – 4) x2 + (a2 – 3a + 2) x + (a2 – 7a + 0) = 0 is an identity, then the value of a is 2.
Statement-2: If a = b = 0 then ax2 + bx + c = 0 is an identity.
27. Statement-1: x2 + 2x + 3 > 0 ∀ x ∈ R
Statement-2: ax2 + bx + c > 0 ∀ x ∈ R if b2 − 4ac < 0 and a > 0.
1 1
28. Statement-1: Maximum value of
x 2 − x +1
is
2 23/ 4
b
Statement-2: Minimum value of ax2 + bx + c (a > 0) occurs at x = − .
2a
29. Statement-1: If quadratic equation ax2+ bx − 2 = 0 have non-real roots then a < 0
Statement-2: For the quadratic expression f(x) = ax2 + bx + c if b2− 4ac < 0 then f(x) = 0 have non real roots.
30. Statement-1: Roots of equation x5 − 40x4 + Px3 + Qx2 + Rx + S = 0 are in G.P. and sum of their reciprocal is equal to 10 then
|s| = 32.
Statement-2: If x1, x2, x, x4 are roots of equation
ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e = 0 (a ≠ 0)
x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = − b/a
c
∑x x 1 2 =
a
d e
∑x x x1 2 3 =−
a
x1 x 2 x 3 x 4 =
a
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31. Statement-1: The real values of a form which the quadratic equation 2x2 – (a3 + 8a – 1) + a2 – 4a = 0. Possesses roots of
opposite signs are given by 0 < a < 4.
Statement-2: Disc ≥ 0 and product of root is < 2
ANSWER KEY
1. A 2. A 3. D 4. C 5. C 6. C 7. D 8. A 9. A 10. D 11. C 12. C
13. D 14. B 15. A 16. B 17. A 18. A 19. C 20. A 21. A 22. A 23. A 24. D
25. A 26. C 27. A 28. A 29. A 30. A 31. A
Solution
5. Obviously x = 1 is one of the root
2a − 1
∴ Other root = – − = rational for all rational a ≠ –2.
a+2
(C) is correct option.
6. Here f(x) is a downward parabola
D = (a + 1)2 + 20 > 0
From the graph clearly st (1) is true but st (2) is false

-∞ α β ∞
7. f(x) = 0 represents an identity if a – a – 6 = 0 ⇒ a = 3, –2
2

a2 – a – 6 = 0 ⇒ a = 3, –2
a2 – a = 0 ⇒ a = 3, –3
a2 – 2a –3 =0 ⇒ a = 3, –1 ⇒ a = 3 is the only values. Ans.: D
8. (A)
x2 + x + 1 = 0
D=–3<0 ∴ x2 + x + 1 = 0 and ax2 + bx + c = 0 have both the roots common
⇒ a = b = c.
9. (A)
(a2 – 3a + 2) x2 + (a2 – 5a + 6) x + a2 – 4 = 0
Clearly only for a = 2, it is an identify.
10. Statement – II is true as if ax2 + bx + c = 0 has imaginary roots, then for no real x,
2 2
( 2
ax + bx + c is zero, meaning thereby ax + bx + c is always of one sign. Further lim ax + bx + c = signum (a). ∞
x→∞
)
2 2
statement – I is false, because roots of ax – x + 4 = 0 are real for any a ∈(- ∞, 0) and hence ax – x + 4 takes zero, positive and
negative values.
Hence (d) is the correct answer.
11. Statement–I is true, as Difference of the roots of a quadratic equation is always D , D being the discriminant of the
quadratic equation and the two given equations have the same discriminant.
Statement – II is false as if two quadratic equations over reals have the same product of the coefficients, their discriminents
need not be same.
Hence (c) is the correct answer.
12. Roots of the equation x5 – 40x4 + px3 + qx2 + rx + s = 0 are in G.P., let roots be a, ar, ar2, ar3, ar4
∴ a + ar + ar2 + ar3 + ar4 = 40 . . . (i)
1 1 1 1 1
and + + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10 . . . (ii)
a ar ar ar ar
from (i) and (ii); ar2 = ± 2 . . . (iii)
Now, - S = product of roots = a5r10 = (ar2) 5 = ± 32.
∴ | s |= 32 . ∴ Hence (c) is the correct answer.
13. Let, f(x) = (x – sin α) (x – cos α) – 2
then, f(sin α) = - 2 < 0; f(cos α) = - 2 < 0
π
Also as 0 < α < ; ∴ sin α < cos α
4
There-fore equation f(x) = 0 has one root in (- ∞, sin α) and other in (cos α, ∞)
Hence (c) is the correct answer.

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sin α cos α
–∞ ∞

Hence (d) is the correct answer.


14. (B) x2 – ax – a = 0 g(1) < 0 ⇒ a > 1/2
15. equation can be written as (2x)2 – (a – 4) 2x – (a – 4) = 0 16. (A) Let f(x) = (x – a) (x – c) + 2 (x – b) (x – d)
⇒ 2x = 1 & 2x = a – 4 Then f(a) = 2 (a – b) (a – d) > 0
Since x ≤ 0 and 2x = a – 4 [∵ x is non positive] ∴ f(b) = (b – a) (b – c) < 0
0<a–4≤1⇒4 <a≤5 f(d) = (d – a) (d – b) > 0
i.e., a∈ (4, 5] Hence a root of f(x) = 0 lies between a & b and another
Hence ans. (B). root lies between (b & d).
Hence the roots of the given equation are real and distinct.
17. x2 + x + 1 > 0 ∀x ∈R 18. ax2 + bx + c = 0
a=1>0 Put x = 1
b2 – 4ac = 1 – 4 = -3 < 0 a + b + c = 0 which is given
x2 + 2x + 5 > 0 ∀x ∈R So clearly ‘1’ is the root of the equation
a=1>0 Nothing can be said about the sign of the roots.
2 ‘c’ is correct.
b – 4ac = 4 – 20 = -16 < 0
x2 + x +1
So > 0 ∀x∈R ‘a’ is correct
x 2 + 2x + 5
19. (A) If the coefficients of quadratic equation are not 20. (D) R is obviously true. So test the statement let f(x) = (x
rational then root may be 2 + 3 and 2 + 3 . – p) (x – r) + λ (x – q) (x – s) = 0
Then f(p) = λ (p – q) (p – s)
f(r) = λ (r – q) (r – s)
If λ > 0 then f(p) > 0, f(r) < 0
⇒ There is a root between p & r
Thus statement-1 is false.

21. (A) Both Statement-1 and Statement-2 are true and Statement-2 is the correct explanation of Statement-1.
22. (C) Clearly Statement-1 is true but Statement-2 is false.
∵ ax2 + bx + c = 0 is an identity when a = b = c = 0.
23. (A) for x2 + 2x + 3
a > 0 and D < 0
24. (A) x2 − x + 1
2
 1 3
= x −  +
 2 4
25. The roots of the given equation will be of opposite signs. If they are real and their product is negative
D ≥ 0 and product of root is < 0
a 2 − 4a
⇒ (a – 8a – 1) – 8(a – 4a) ≥ 0 and
3 2 2
<0
2
⇒ a2 – 4a < 0
⇒ 0 < a < 4.
Ans. (a)

Que. from Compt. Exams


1. If x = 1 + 1 + 1 + ....... to infinity , then x =
1+ 5 1− 5
(a) (b)
2 2
1± 5
(c) (d) None of these
2
2. For the equation | x 2 | + | x | −6 = 0 , the roots are [EAMCET 1988, 93]
(a) One and only one real number (b) Real with sum one
(c) Real with sum zero (d) Real with product zero
2
3. If ax + bx + c = 0 , then x = [MP PET 1995]

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b ± b 2 − 4 ac − b ± b 2 − ac
(a) (b)
2a 2a
2c
(c) (d) None of these
− b ± b 2 − 4 ac
4. If the equations 2 x 2 + 3 x + 5 λ = 0 and x 2 + 2 x + 3 λ = 0 have a common root, then λ = [RPET 1989]
(a) 0 (b) –1 (c) 0,−1 (d) 2,–1
5. If the equation x 2 + λx + µ = 0 has equal roots and one root of the equation x 2 + λx − 12 = 0 is 2, then (λ, µ ) =
(a) (4, 4) (b) (–4,4) (c) (4 ,−4 ) (d) (−4 ,−4 )
x2 − x +1
6. If x is real and k = , then [MNR 1992; RPET 1997]
x 2 + x +1
1
(a) ≤k ≤3 (b) k ≥ 5 (c) k ≤0 (d) None of these
3
7. If a < b < c < d , then the roots of the equation ( x − a)(x − c) + 2(x − b)( x − d ) = 0 are [IIT 1984]
(a) Real and distinct (b) Real and equal (c) Imaginary (d) None of these
8. If the roots of the equation qx 2 + px + q = 0 where p, q are real, be complex, then the roots of the equation x 2 − 4 qx + p 2 = 0 are
(a) Real and unequal (b) Real and equal (c) Imaginary (d) None of these
2 2
9. The values of ' a' for which (a − 1)x + 2(a − 1)x + 2 is positive for any x are [UPSEAT 2001]
(a) a ≥ 1 (b) a ≤ 1 (c) a > −3 (d) a < −3 or a > 1
x 2 − bx m − 1
10. If the roots of equation = are equal but opposite in sign, then the value of m will be
ax − c m +1
[RPET 1988, 2001; MP PET 1996, 2002; Pb. CET 2000]
a−b b −a a+b b+a
(a) (b) (c) (d)
a+b a+b a−b b −a
11. The coefficient of x in the equation x 2 + px + q = 0 was taken as 17 in place of 13, its roots were found to be –2 and –15, The
roots of the original equation are [IIT 1977, 79]
(a) 3, 10 (b) – 3, – 10 (c) – 5, – 18 (d) None of these
12. If one root of the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 be n times the other root, then
(a) na 2 = bc (n + 1)2 (b) nb 2 = ac(n + 1)2 (c) nc 2 = ab(n + 1)2 (d) None of these
2 th
13. If one root of the quadratic equation ax + bx + c = 0 is equal to the n power of the other root, then the value of
1 1
(ac n ) n +1 + (a n c) n +1 = [IIT 1983]
1 1
(a) b (b) – b (c) b n +1 (d) − b n +1
14. If sin α , cos α are the roots of the equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 , then [MP PET 1993]
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
(a) a − b + 2ac = 0 (b) (a − c) = b + c (c) a + b − 2ac = 0 (d) a 2 + b 2 + 2ac = 0
15. If both the roots of the quadratic equation
x 2 − 2kx + k 2 + k − 5 = 0
are less than 5, then k lies in the interval [AIEEE 2005]
(a) (−∞, 4 ) (b) [4, 5] (c) (5, 6] (d) (6, ∞ )
2 2
16. If the roots of the equations x − bx + c = 0 and x − cx + b = 0 differ by the same quantity, then b + c is equal to
[BIT Ranchi 1969; MP PET 1993]
(a) 4 (b) 1 (c) 0 (d) –4
17. If the product of roots of the equation
x 2 − 3 kx + 2 e 2 log k − 1 = 0
is 7, then its roots will real when [IIT 1984]
(a) k = 1 (b) k = 2 (c) k =3 (d) None of these
18. If a root of the given equation a(b − c)x 2 + b(c − a)x + c(a − b ) = 0
is 1, then the other will be [RPET 1986]
a(b − c) b(c − a) c(a − b)
(a) (b) (c) (d) None of these
b(c − a) a(b − c) a(b − c)
19. In a triangle ABC the value of ∠A is given by 5 cos A + 3 = 0 , then the equation whose roots are sin A and tan A will be
[Roorkee 1972]
2
(a) 15 x − 8 x + 16 = 0 (b) 15 x 2 + 8 x − 16 = 0 (c) 15 x 2 − 8 2 x + 16 = 0 (d) 15 x 2 − 8 x − 16 = 0
2
20. If one root of the equation ax + bx + c = 0 the square of the other, then a(c − b)3 = cX , where X is
(a) a 3 + b 3 (b) (a − b ) 3 (c) a 3 − b 3 (d) None of these

22 of 23
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Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 98930 58881 QUADRATIC EQUATIONS PART 2 OF 2

21. If 8, 2 are the roots of x 2 + ax + β = 0 and 3, 3 are the roots of x 2 + α x + b = 0 , then the roots of x 2 + ax + b = 0 are
(a) 8, − 1 (b) – 9, 2 (c) −8 ,−2 (d) 9, 1 [EAMCET 1987]
x+2
22. The set of values of x which satisfy 5 x + 2 < 3 x + 8 and < 4 , is [EAMCET 1989]
x −1
(a) (2, 3) (b) (−∞, 1) ∪ (2, 3) (c) (−∞, 1) (d) (1, 3)
2 n n
23. If α , β are the roots of x − ax + b = 0 and if α + β = Vn , then [RPET 1995; Karnataka CET 2000; Pb. CET 2002]
(a) Vn +1 = aVn + bVn −1 (b) Vn +1 = aVn + aVn −1 (c) Vn +1 = aVn − bVn −1 (d) Vn +1 = aVn −1 − bV n
7
24. The value of ‘ c ’for which | α 2 − β 2 | = , where α and β are the roots of 2 x 2 + 7 x + c = 0 , is
4
(a) 4 (b) 0 (c) 6 (d) 2
1 2
25. For what value of λ the sum of the squares of the roots of x + (2 + λ ) x − (1 + λ ) = 0 is minimum [AMU 1999]
2
(a) 3/2 (b) 1 (c) 1/2 (d) 11/4
26. The product of all real roots of the equation x 2 − | x | − 6 = 0 is [Roorkee 2000]
(a) – 9 (b) 6 (c) 9 (d) 36
27. For the equation 3 x 2 + px + 3 = 0, p > 0 if one of the root is square of the other, then p is equal to [IIT Screening 2000]
1 2
(a) (b) 1 (c) 3 (d)
3 3
28. If α, β be the roots of x 2 + px + q = 0 and α + h, β + h are the roots of x 2 + rx + s = 0 , then [AMU 2001]

p q p r
(a) = (b) 2 h =  +  (c) p 2 − 4 q = r 2 − 4 s (d) pr 2 = qs 2
r s q s 
29. If x 2 + px + q = 0 is the quadratic equation whose roots are a – 2 and b – 2 where a and b are the roots of x 2 − 3 x + 1 = 0 , then
[Kerala (Engg.) 2002]
(a) p = 1, q = 5 (b) p = 1, q = −5 (c) p = −1, q = 1 (d) None of these
2 2
30. The value of ‘a’ for which one root of the quadratic equation (a − 5 a + 3)x + (3 a − 1)x + 2 = 0 is twice as large as the other, is
[AIEEE 2003]
2 2 1 1
(a) (b) − (c) (d) −
3 3 3 3
d e f
31. If a, b, c are in G.P., then the equations ax 2 + 2bx + c = 0 and dx 2 + 2ex + f = 0 have a common root if , , are in
a b c
[IIT 1985; Pb. CET 2000; DCE 2000]
(a) A.P. (b) G.P. (c) H.P. (d) None of these
32. The value of ‘a’ for which the equations x 2 − 3 x + a = 0 and x 2 + ax − 3 = 0 have a common root is [Pb. CET 1999]
(a) 3 (b) 1 (c) –2 (d) 2
33. If (x + 1) is a factor of
x 4 − ( p − 3)x 3 − (3 p − 5 )x 2 +(2 p − 7 )x + 6 , then p = [IIT 1975]
(a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) None of these
34. The roots of the equation
4 x 4 − 24 x 3 + 57 x 2 + 18 x − 45 = 0 ,
If one of them is 3 + i 6 , are
3 3 3
(a) 3 − i 6 ,± (b) 3 − i 6 ,± (c) 3 − i 6 ,± (d) None of these
2 2 2
35. The values of a for which 2 x 2 − 2 (2 a + 1) x + a(a + 1) = 0 may have one root less than a and other root greater than a are given by
[UPSEAT 2001]
(a) 1 > a > 0 (b) −1 < a < 0 (c) a≥0 (d) a > 0 or a < −1
ANSWER KEY(Que. from Compt. Exams)
1 a 2 c 3 c 4 c 5 a
6 a 7 a 8 a 9 d 10 a
11 b 12 b 13 b 14 a 15 a
16 d 17 b 18 c 19 b 20 b
21 d 22 b 23 c 24 c 25 c
26 a 27 c 28 c 29 d 30 a
31 a 32 d 33 a 34 c 35 d
36 d 37 b 38 c 39 a 40 a

23 of 23
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page 1 of 26
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STUDY PACKAGE
Subject : Mathematics

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
Topic : Sequence & Progression
Available Online : www.MathsBySuhag.com

Index
1. Theory
2. Short Revision
3. Exercise (Ex. 1 + 5 = 6)
4. Assertion & Reason
5. Que. from Compt. Exams
6. 39 Yrs. Que. from IIT-JEE(Advanced)
7. 15 Yrs. Que. from AIEEE (JEE Main)
Student’s Name :______________________
Class :______________________
Roll No. :______________________

Address : Plot No. 27, III- Floor, Near Patidar Studio,


Above Bond Classes, Zone-2, M.P. NAGAR, Bhopal
: 0 903 903 7779, 98930 58881, WhatsApp 9009 260 559
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Sequence & Progression


Sequence : A sequence is a function whose domain is the set N of natural numbers. Since the domain
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for every sequence is the set N of natural numbers, therefore a sequence is represented by its range.
If f : N  R, then f(n) = t n n  N is called a sequence and is denoted by
{f(1), f(2), f(3),...............} =
{t 1, t 2, t 3, ......................} = {t n }

page 2 of 26
Real Sequence : A sequence whose range is a subset of R is called a real sequence.
Examples : (i) 2, 5, 8, 11, ....................... (ii) 4, 1, – 2, – 5, ......................
(iii) 3, –9, 27, – 81, ........................
Types of Sequence : On the basis of the number of terms there are two types of sequence.
(i) Finite sequences : A sequence is said to be finite if it has finite number of terms.
(ii) Infinite sequences : A sequenceis said to be infinite if it has infinite number of terms.
Solved Example # 1 Write down the sequence whose nth term is
2n 3  ( 1)n

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(i) (ii)
n 3n
2n
Solution. (i) Let t n =
n
put n = 1, 2, 3, 4, .............. we get
8
t 1 = 2, t 2 = 2, t 3 = , t 4 = 4
3
8
so the sequence is 2, 2, , 4, ........
3
3  ( 1)n
(ii) Let t n =
3n
put n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ......
2 4 2 4
so the sequence is , , , ,............
3 9 27 81
Series By adding or substracting the terms of a sequence, we get an expression which is called a
seri es. If
a1, a2, a3,........an is a sequence, then the expression a 1 + a2 + a3 + ...... + an is a series.
Example. (i) 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + .................... + n
(ii) 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + .................
Progression : It is not necessary that the terms of a sequence always follow a certain pattern or they
are described by some explicit formula for the nth term. Those sequences whose terms follow certain
patterns are called progressions.
An arithmetic progression (A.P.):
A.P. is a sequence whose terms increase or decrease by a fixed number. This fixed number is called
the common difference. If a is the first term & d the common difference, then A.P. can be written as a,
a + d, a + 2 d,....... a + (n  1) d,........
Example – 4, – 1, 2, 5 ...........
(i) n th term of an A.P.
Let a be the first term and d be the common difference of an A.P., then
t n = a + (n – 1) d where d = an – an – 1
Solved Example # 2 If t 54 of an A.P. is – 61 and t 4 = 64, find t 10.
Solution. Let a be the first term and d be the common difference
so t 54 = a + 53d = – 61 .........(i)
and t 4 = a + 3d = 64 .........(ii)
equation (i) – (ii)
 50d = – 125
5 143
d=–  a=
2 2
143  5
so t 10 = + 9    = 49
2  2
Solved Example # 3 Find the number of terms in the sequence 4, 12, 20, ........108.
Solution. a = 4, d = 8 so 108 = 4 + (n – 1)8  n = 14
(ii) The sum of first n terms of are A.P.
If a is first term and d is common difference then
n
Sn = [2a + (n – 1) d]
2
n
= [a +  ] = nt  n1  ,
2  
 2 
where  is the last term and t  n1  is the middle term.
 
 2 
th
(iii) r term of an A.P. when sum of first r terms is given is t r = sr – Sr – 1.
Solved Example # 4
Find the sum of all natural numbers divisible by 5, but less than 100.
Solution. All those numbers are 5, 10, 15, 20, ........... 95.
19
Here a = 5 n = 19  = 95 so S= (5 + 95) = 950.
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Solved Example # 5
Find the sum of all the three digit natural numbers which on division by 7 leaves remainder 3.
Solution. All these numbers are 101, 108, 115, ........ 997, to find n.
997 = 101 + (n – 1) 7  n = 129
129
so S= [101 + 997] = 70821.
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2
7n  1
Solved Example # 6 The sum of n terms of two A.Ps. are in ratio 1th terms.
. Find the ratio of their 11
4n  27

page 3 of 26
Sol. Let a1 and a2 be the first terms and d1 and d2 be the common differences of two A.P.s respectively then
n  n  1
[2a1  (n  1)d1] a1    d1
2 7n  1  2  7n  1
n =  =
[2a1  (n  1)d2 ] 4 n  27  n  1  4n  27
2 a2    d2
 2 
For ratio of 11th terms
n 1

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= 10  n = 21
2
7(21)  1
so ratio of 11th terms is
4(21)  27
148
=
111
Solved Example # 7 If sum of n terms of a sequence is given by S n = 2n2 + 3n, find its 50th term.
Solution. Let t n is nth term of the sequence so t n = sn – sn – 1.
= 2n2 + 3n – 2(n – 1)2 – 3(n – 1)
= 4n + 1
so t 50 = 201.
Self Practice Problems :
1. Which term of the sequence 2005, 2000, 1995, 1990, 1985, ............. contains the first negative term
Ans. 403.
2. For an A.P. show that
t m + t 2n + m = 2 t m + n
3. Find the maximum sum of the A.P. 40, 38, 36, 34, 32, .............. Ans. 420
Properties of A.P.
(i) The common difference can be zero, positive or negative.
(ii) If a, b, c are in A.P.  2 b = a + c & if a, b, c, d are in A.P.  a + d = b + c.
(iii) Three numbers in A.P. can be taken as a  d, a, a + d; four numbers in A.P. can be taken as
a  3d, a  d, a + d, a + 3d; five numbers in A.P. are a  2d, a  d, a, a + d, a + 2d & six terms in
A.P. are a  5d, a  3d, a  d, a + d, a + 3d, a + 5d etc.
(iv) The sum of the terms of an A.P. equidistant from the beginning & end is constant and equal to
the sum of first & last terms.
(v) Any term of an A.P. (except the first) is equal to half the sum of terms which are equidistant
from it. an = 1/2 (ank + an+k), k < n. For k = 1, an = (1/2) (an1+ an+1);
For k = 2, an = (1/2) (an2+ an+2) and so on.
(vi) If each term of an A.P. is increased, decreased, multiplied or divided by the sA.M.e non zero
number, then the resulting sequence is also an A.P..
Solved Example # 8 The sum of three numbers in A.P. is 27 and the sum of their squares is 293, find them
Solution. Let the numbers be
a – d, a, a + d
so 3a = 27  a=9
Also (a – d)2 + a2 + (a + d) 2 = 293.
3a2 + 2d2 = 293
d2 = 25  d=±5
therefore numbers are 4, 9, 14.
5
Solved Example # 9 If a1, a2, a3, a4, a5 are in A.P. with common difference  0, then find the value of a
i1
i

when a3 = 2.
Solution. As a1, a2, a3, a4, a5, are in A.P., we have
a1 + a5 = a2 + a4 = 2a3.
5

Hence a
i1
i = 10.

1 1 1
Solved Example # 10 If , , are in A.P. prove that a2, b2, c2 are also in A.P..
bc ca ab
1 1 1
Solution. , , are in A.P..
bc ca ab
1 1 1 1 bc c a c aab
 – = –  =
ca bc ab ca (c  a )(b  c ) (a  b )(c  a)
ba c b
 =  b2 – a2 = c 2 – b2  a2, b2, c2 are in A.P.
bc ab

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bc a c ab abc 1 1 1
Solved Example # 11 If , , are in A.P., then , , are also in A.P.
a b c a b c
bc a c ab abc
Solution. Given , , are in A.P..
a b c
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Add 2 to each term
bc a c ab abc
 , , are in A.P..
a b c

page 4 of 26
1 1 1
divide each by a + b + c  , , are in A.P..
a b c
Arithmetic Mean (Mean or Average) (A.M.):
If three terms are in A.P. then the middle term is called the A.M. between the other two, so if a, b, c are
in A.P., b is A.M. of a & c.
(a) n  Arithmetic Means Between Two Numbers:
If a, b are any two given numbers & a, A 1, A2,...., An, b are in A.P. then A1, A2,... An are the
n A.M.’s between a & b.

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
ba 2 (b  a ) n (b  a )
A1 = a + , A2 = a + ,......, An = a +
n1 n1 n1
NOTE : Sum of n A.M.’s inserted between a & b is equal to n times the single A.M. between a & b
n
i.e.  Ar = nA where A is the single A.M. between a & b.
r1

13
Solved Example # 12 Between two numbers whose sum is , an even number of A.M.s is inserted, the
6
sum of these means exceeds their number by unity. Find the number of means.
Solution. Let a and b be two numbers and 2n A.M.s are inserted between a and b then
2n
(a + b) = 2n + 1.
2
 13   13 
n   = 2n + 1. given a  b  6 
 6   
 n = 6.  Number of means = 12.
Solved Example # 13 Insert 20 A.M. between 2 and 86.
Solution. Here 2 is the first term and 86 is the 22nd term of A.P. so 86 = 2 + (21)d
 d=4
so the series is
2, 6, 10, 14,......., 82, 86  required means are 6, 10, 14,...82.
Self Practice Problems :
4. If A.M. between pth and qth terms of an A.P. be equal to the A.M. between rth and sth term of the A.P. then
prove that p + q = r + s.
5. If n A.M.s are inserted between 20 and 80 such that first means :
last mean = 1 : 3, find n. Ans. n = 11
a n 1  b n 1
6. For what value of n, , a  b is the A.M. of a and b. Ans. n = 0
an  bn
Geometric Progression (G.P.)
G.P. is a sequence of numbers whose first term is non zero & each of the succeeding terms is equal to
the proceeding terms multiplied by a constant. Thus in a G.P. the ratio of successive terms is constant.
This constant factor is called the common ratio of the series & is obtained by dividing any term by
that which immediately proceeds it. Therefore a, ar, ar 2, ar3, ar4,...... is a G.P. with a as the first term
& r as common ratio.
Example 2, 4, 8, 16 .......
1 1 1 1
Example , , , .......
3 9 27 81
(i) th
n term = a r n1

 
a rn  1
 , r 1
(ii) Sum of the first n terms i.e. S n =  r  1
 na , r 1
a
(iii) Sum of an infinite G.P. when r < 1. When n  rn  0 if r < 1 therefore,S =
1 r
r 1 . 
Solved Example # 14: If the first term of G.P. is 7, its nth term is 448 and sum of first n terms is 889, then find
the fifth term of G.P.
Solution. Given a = 7 the first term
t n = arn – 1 = 7(r)n – 1= 448.
 7rn = 448 r
a(r n  1) 7(r n  1) 448r  7
Also Sn = =  889 =
r 1 r 1 r 1
 r=2
Hence T 5 = ar4 = 7(2)4 = 112.
Solved Example # 15: The first term of an infinite G.P. is 1 and any term is equal to the sum of all the succeeding
terms. Find the series.
Solution. Let the G.P. be 1, r, r 2, r3, .........

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r2 1
given condition  r =  r= ,
1 r 2
1 1 1
Hence series is 1, , , , ..............
2 4 8
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1 1 1
Solved Example # 16:Let S = 1 + + + + .......... find the sum of
2 4 8
(i) first 20 terms of the series (ii) infinite terms of the series.

page 5 of 26
  1  20 
1    
 2 
  2 20  1 1
Solution. (i) S20 = 1 = 19
. (ii) S 
= 1 = 2.
1 2 1
2 2
Self Practice Problems :
1. Find the G.P. if the common ratio of G.P. is 3, n th term is 486 and sum of first n terms is 728.
Ans. 2, 6, 18, 54, 162, 486.

Teko Classes, Maths : Suhag R. Kariya (S. R. K. Sir), Bhopal Phone : 0 903 903 7779, 0 98930 58881.
2. If the pth , qth , rth terms of a G.P. be a, b, c respectively, prove that a q – r br – p cp – q = 1.
3. A G.P. consist of 2n terms. If the sum of the terms occupying the odd places is S1 and that of the terms
S2
occupying the even places is S 2 then find the common ratio of the progression. Ans. .
S1
4. The sum of infinite number of terms of a G.P. is 4, and the sum of their cubes is 192, find the series.
3
Ans. 6, – 3, ,........
2
Properties of G.P.
(i) If a, b, c are in G.P.  b2 = ac, in general if a1, a2, a3, a4,......... an – 1 , an are in G.P.,
then a1an = a1an – 1 = a3 an – 2 = ..........................
a
(ii) Any three consecutive terms of a G.P. can be taken as , a , ar, in general we take
r
a a a
, , ,.........a, ar, ar 2,.........ar k in case we have to take 2k + 1 terms in a G.P. .P.
r k r k 1 r k 2
a a
(iii) Any four consecutive terms of a G.P. can be taken as 3 , , ar, ar3, in general we take
r r
a a a
, , ......... , ar, .............ar 2k – 1 in case we have to take 2k terms in a G.P. .P.
r 2k 1 r 2k 3 r
(iv) If each term of a G.P. be multiplied or divided or raised to power by the some nonzero quantity, the
resulting sequence is also a G.P..
(v) If a1, a2, a3,........ and b1, b2, b3,......... are two G.P’s with common ratio r 1 and r2 respectively then the
sequence a1b1, a2b2, a3b3, ..... is also a G.P. with common ratio r1 r2.
(vi) If a1, a2, a3,..........are in G.P. where each ai > 0, then log a1, loga2, loga3,..........are in A.P. and its
converse is also true.
Solved Example # 17: Find three numbers in G.P. having sum 19 and product 216.
a 1 
Solution. Let the three numbers be , a, ar so a   1  r  = 19 .......(i)
r r 
3
and a = 216  a=6
so from (i) 6r2 – 13r + 6 = 0.
3 2
 r= , Hence the three numbers are 4, 6, 9.
2 3
Solved Example # 18: Find the product of 11 terms in G.P. whose 6 th is 5.
Solution.: Using the property
a1a11 = a2a10 = a3a9 = .............. = a62 = 25
Hence product of terms = 511
p
Solved Example # 19:Using G.P. express 0. 3 and 1.2 3 as form.
q
Solution. Let x = 0. 3 = 0.3333 .............
= 0.3 + 0.03 + 0.003 + 0.0003 + .............
3 3 3 3
= + + + + ..............
10 100 1000 10000
3
10 3 1
= 1 = 9 = 3.
1
10
Let y = 1.2 3
= 1.233333
= 1.2 + 0.03 + 0.003 + 0.0003 + .............
3 3 3
= 1.2 + + + + ............
10 2 10 3 10 4

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3
10 2 1 37
= 1.2 + = 1.2 + = .
1 30 30
1
10
Solved Example # 20
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Evaluate 7 + 77 + 777 + ........... upto n terms.


Solution. Let S = 7 + 77 + 777 + ..........upto n terms.
7

page 6 of 26
= [9 + 99 + 999 + .......]
9
7
= [(10 – 1) + (102 – 1) + (103 – 1) + ........ + upto n terms]
9
7
= [10 + 102 + 103 + ...........+ 10n – n]
9
n
7 10 (10 )  1  n 7

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=   = [10n + 1 – 9n – 10]
9  9  81
Geometric Means (Mean Proportional) (G.M.):
If a, b, c are in G.P., b is the G.M. between a & c.
b² = ac, therefore b = a c ; a > 0, c > 0.
(a) nGeometric Means Between a, b:
If a, b are two given numbers & a, G 1, G 2,....., G n, b are in G.P.. Then
G 1, G 2, G 3,...., G n are n G.M.s between a & b.
G 1 = a(b/a)1/n+1, G 2 = a(b/a)2/n+1,......, G n = a(b/a)n/n+1
NOTE : The product of n G.M.s between a & b is equal to the nth power of the single G.M. between a & b
n
i.e.  G r = (G)n where G is the single G.M. between a & b.
r1
Solved Example # 21 Insert 4 G.M.s between 2 and 486.
1
 b  n1
Solution. Common ratio of the series is given by r =   = (243)1/5 = 3
a
Hence four G.M.s are 6, 18, 54, 162.
Self Practice Problems :
1. The sum of three numbers in G.P. in 70, if the two extremes be multiplied each by 4 and the mean by
5, the products are in A.P. Find the numbers. Ans. 10, 20, 40
111 ..........1
2. If a =  , b = 1 + 10 + 102 + 103 + 104 and c = 1 + 105 + 1010 + ..... + 1050, then prove that
55
(i) ‘a’ is a composite number (ii) a = bc.
Harmonic Progression (H.P.) : A sequence is said to H.P. if the reciprocals of its terms are in A.P.. If the
sequence a1, a2, a3,...., an is an H.P. then 1/a1, 1/a2,...., 1/an is an A.P. & converse. Here we do not
have the formula for the sum of the n terms of a H.P.. For H.P. whose first term is a and second term is
ab 2ac a ab
b, the nth term is t n = . If a, b, c are in H.P.  b = or = .
b  (n  1)(a  b) ac c bc
ab a ab a
NOTE : (i) If a, b, c are in A.P.  = (ii) If a, b, c are in G.P.  =
bc a bc b
Harmonic Mean (H.M.):
If a, b, c are in H.P., b is the H.M. between a & c, then b = 2ac/[a + c].
If a1, a2 , ........ an are ‘n’ non-zero numbers then H.M. H of these numbers is given by
1 1  1  1  .......  1 
=  
H n  a1 a 2 an 
Solved Example # 22: If m th term of H.P. is n, while nth term is m, find its (m + n) th term.
1
Solution.: Given Tm = n or a  (m  1) d = n; where a is the first term and d is the common difference of
the corresponding A.P.
1 1 mn 1
so a + (m – 1)d = and a + (n – 1) d = (m – n)d = or d =
n m mn mn
1 (m  1) 1
so a= – =
n mn mn
1 mn mn
Hence T (m + n) = = = .
a  (m  n  d) d 1 m  n  1 mn
Solved Example # 23: Insert 4 H.M between 2/3 and 2/13.
13 3

Solution. Let d be the common difference of corresponding A.P. so d = 2 2 = 1.
5
1 3 5 2
 = +1= or H1 =
H1 2 2 5
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1 3 7 2
H2
= +2= or H2 =
2 2 7
1 3 9 2
H3
= + 3 = or H =
2 2 3 9
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1 3 11 2
H4
= +4= or H4 = .
2 2 11

page 7 of 26
th th th
Solved Example # 24: If p , q , r terms of a H.P. be a, b, c respectively, prove that
(q – r)bc + (r – p) ac + (p – q) ab = 0
Solution. Let x be the first term and d be the common difference of the corresponding A.P..
1
so = x + (p – 1)d ...........(i)
a
1
= x + (q – 1) d ..........(ii)
b

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1
= x + (r – 1) d ..........(iii)
c
(i) - (ii)  ab(p – q)d = b – a ..........(iv)
(ii) - (iii)  bc (q – r)d = c – b ..........(v)
(iii) - (i)  ac (r – p) d = a – c ..........(vi)
(iv) + (v) + (vi) gives
bc (q – r) + ac(r – p) + ab (p – q) = 0.
Self Practice Problems : 1. If a, b, c be in H.P., show that a : a – b = a + c : a – c.
2.If the H.M. between two quantities is to their G.M.s as 12 to 13, prove that the quantities are in ratio 4 to 9.
H H
3. If H be the harmonic mean of a and b then find the value of + – 1. Ans. 0
2a 2b
4. If a, b, c, d are in H.P., the show that ab + bc + cd = 3ad
Relation between means :
(i) If A, G, H are respectively A.M., G.M., H.M. between a & b both being unequal & positive then,
G² = AH i.e. A, G, H are in G.P.
3
Solved Example # 25:The A.M. of two numbers exceeds the G.M. by and the G.M. exceeds the H.M. by
2
6
; find the numbers.
5
Solution. Let the numbers be a and b, now using the relation
G2 = A.H.
 3  6
= G   G  
 2   5 
3 9
= G2 + G–  G=6
10 5
i.e. ab = 36
also a + b = 15 Hence the two numbers are 3 and 12.
(ii) A.M.  G.M.  H.M.
Let a1, a2, a3, .......an be n positive real numbers, then we define their
a  a 2  a 3  .......  an
A.M. = 1 , their
n
n
G.M. = (a1 a2 a3 .........an)1/n and their H.M. = 1 1 1 It can be shown that
  ....... 
a1 a 2 an
A.M.  G.M.  H.M. and equality holds at either places iff
a1 = a2 = a3 = ..............= an
a b c
Solved Example # 26 If a, b, c, > 0 prove that + + 3
b c a
Solution. Using the relation A.M.  G.M. we have
a b c 1
   a b c  3 a b c
b c a   . .     3
3 b c a b c a

 1 1 1
Solved Example # 27 For non-zero x, y, z prove that (x + y + z)  x  y  z   9
 
Solution. Using the relation A.M.  H.M.
xyz 3
 1 1 1
3  
x y z
 1 1 1
 (x + y + z)  x  y  z   9
 

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n
Sol. Ex. # 28: If ai > 0  i  N such that a
i 1
i  1 , then prove that (1 + a1) (1 + a2) (1 + a3) ........(1 + an)  2n

Solution. Using A.M.  G.M.


1 + a1  2 a1
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1 + a2  2 a 2
1 + an  2 an  (1 + a1) (1 + a2) .........(1 + an)  2n a1a 2a 3 ......a n 1/ n

page 8 of 26
As a1 a2 a3 ..... an = 1
Hence (1 + a1) (1 + a2) .......... (1 + an)  2n.
Solved Example # 29 If n > 0 prove that 2n > 1 + n 2n1
Solution. Using the relation A.M.  G.M. on the numbers 1, 2, 22, 23........... 2n–1 we have
1  2  2 2  .......  2n1
> (1.2 22 23 .........2n–1)1/n
n

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Equality does not hold as all the numbers are not equal.
1
n
2 1  ( n1) n  n (n 1)
 
 > n 2 2   n
2 –1>n 2 2
2 1  
( n1)
 2 >1+n n
2 2
Sol. Ex. # 30Find the greatest value of xyz for positive value of x, y, z subject to the condition xy + yz + zx = 12.
Solution. Using the relation A.M.  G.M.
xy  yz  zx
 (x2 y2 z2)1/3 4  (x y z)2/3  xyz  8
3
Solved Example # 32 If a, b, c are in H.P. and they are distinct and positive then prove that an + cn > 2bn
Solution. Let an and cn be two numbers
an  cn
then > (an cn)1/2
2
an + cn > 2 (ac)n/2 ...........(i)
Also G.M. > H.M.
i.e. ac > b (ac)n/2 > bn ...........(ii)
hence from (i) and (ii) an + cn > 2bn
Self Practice Problems :
1. If a, b, c are real and distinct then show that a2 (1 + b2) + b2 (1 + c2) + c2 (1 + a2) > 6abc
2. Prove that nn > 1 . 3 . 5 .........(2n – 1)
3. If a, b, c, d be four distinct positive quantities in G.P. then show that
1 1  1 1 1 
(i) a + d > b + c (ii) + >2    
ab cd  bd ac ad 
4. Prove that ABC is an equilateral triangle iff tan A + tan B + tan C = 3 3
5. If a, b, c > 0 prove that [(1 + a) (1 + b) (1 + c)]7 > 77 a4 b4 c4
Arithmetico-Geometric Series: A series each term of which is formed by multiplying
the corresponding term of an A.P. & G.P. is called the AritH.M.eticoGeometric Series. e.g. 1 + 3x +
5x 2 + 7x 3 +..... Here 1, 3, 5,.... are in A.P. & 1, x, x 2, x 3..... are in G.P..
Sum of n terms of an ArithmeticoGeometric Series:
Let Sn = a + (a + d) r + (a + 2 d) r² +..... + [a + (n  1)d] rn1

then Sn =
a


d r 1  r n 1 
a  (n  1) d r n , r  1.
1 r 1  r2 1 r
a dr
Sum To Infinity: If r < 1 & n  then Limit n
n   r = 0  S = 1  r
 .
1  r2
Solved Example # 33 Find the sum of the series
4 7 10
1+ + 2 + 3 + ...... to n terms.
5 5 5
4 7 10 3n  2
Solution. Let S=1+ + 2 + 3 + ...... + ..........(i)
5 5 5 5n1
 1 1 4 7 3n  5 3n  2
  S= + 2 + 3 + ....... + n 1 + ..........(ii)
5 5 5 5 5 
5n
(i) – (ii) 
4 3 3 3 3 3n  2
S=1+ + 2 + 3 + ....... + n 1 – .
5 5 5 5 5 5n
n 1
3   1  
1  
4 5 5  3n  2
 
S =1+ –
5 1
1 5n
5
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3 3 1 3n  2
– =1+
× n 1 –
4 4 5 5n
7 12n  7 35 (12n  7)
= – 4.5 n  S = – .
4 16 16 . 5n1
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Solved Example # 35: Evaluate 1 + 2x + 3x 2 + 4x 3 + ......... upto infinity where | x | < 1.


Solution. Let S = 1 + 2x + 3x 2 + 4x 3 + ..... ........(i)
xS = x + 2x 2 + 3x 3 + ......... ........(ii)

page 9 of 26
1
(i) - (ii)  (1 – x) S = 1 + x + x 2 + x 3 + .......... or S =
(1  x )2
Solved Example # 36 Evaluate 1 + (1 + b) r + (1 + b + b2) r2 + ......... to infinite terms for | br | < 1.
Solution. Let S = 1 + (1 + b)r + (1 + b + b2) r2 +..... ..........(i)
rS = r + (1 + b) r 2 + ......... ..........(ii)
(i) - (ii)  (1 – r)S = 1 + br + b2r2 + b3r3 + ......
1
 S=

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(1  br )(1  r )
Self Practice Problems :
1. Evaluate 1.2 + 2.22 + 3.23 + ...... + 100. 2100 Ans. 99.2101 + 2.
1
2. Evaluate 1 + 3x + 6x 2 + 10x 3 + ...... upto infinite term where | x | < 1. Ans.
(1  x )3
2
 1  1
3. Sum to n terms of the series 1 + 2 1   + 3 1   + ...... Ans. n2
 n  n 
Important Results
n n n n n
(i)  (ar ± br ) =  ar ±  b r. (ii)  k ar = k  ar .
r1 r1 r1 r1 r1
n n
n (n 1)
(iii)  k = k + k + k.......n times = nk; where k is a constant.(iv)  r = 1 + 2 + 3 +.....+ n =
2
r1 r1
n
n (n  1) (2n  1) n
n 2 (n  1) 2
(v)  r² = 12 + 22 + 32 +......+ n2 =
6
(vi)  r3 = 13 + 23 + 33 +...........+ n3 =
4
r1 r1
n
(vii) 2 a a
i  j 1
i j = (a1 + a2 + ........+ an )2 – (a12 + a22 + ...... + an 2)

Solved Example # 37: Find the sum of the series to n terms whose general term is 2n + 1.
Solution. Sn = T n = (2n + 1)
= 2n + 1
2(n  1) n
= +n = n2 + 2n or n(n + 2).
2
n
Solved Example # 38:T k = k2 + 2k then find T
k 1
k .

n n n
Solution.  Tk =  k2 + 2 k

k 1 k 1 k 1
n (n  1) (2n  1) 2(2n  1) n (n  1) (2n  1)
= + = + 2n + 1 – 2.
6 2 1 6
n i j

Solved Example # 39: Find the value of the expression 


i  1 j  1k  1
1

n i j n i n
i (i  1)
Solution.:  1 = 
i 1 j 1
j =  2
i  1 j  1k  1 i1
 n n 
1
 i2  = i  
 i  1 i 1 
 2

1  n (n  1) (2n  1)  n (n  1) 
= 
2  6 2 
n (n  1) n (n  1) (n  2)
= [2n + 1 + 3] = .
12 6
METHOD OF DIFFERENCE
Type – 1 Let u1, u2, u3 ........ be a sequence, such that u2 – u1, u3 – u2, ......... is either an A.P. or a G.P. then
nth term un of this sequence is obtained as follows
S = u1 + u2 + u3 + ........... + un ................(i)
S= u1 + u2 + ........... + un–1 + un ................(ii)
(i) – (ii)  un = u1 + (u2 – u1) + (u3 – u2) + ........... + (un – un–1)
Where the series (u2 – u1) + (u3 – u2) + .......... + (un – un–1) is
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k

either in A.P. or in G.P. then we can find un and hence sum of this series as S = u
r 1
r

Solved Example # 40 Find the sum to n-terms 3 + 7 + 13 + 21 + .........


Solution. Let S = 3 + 7 + 13 + 21 + ......... + Tn ...........(i)
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S= 3 + 7 + 13 + ............ + T n–1 + Tn ...........(ii)
(i) – (ii)  Tn = 3 + 4 + 6 + 8 + .......... + (Tn – Tn–1)
n 1

page 10 of 26
=3+ [8 + (n – 2)2]
2
= 3 + (n – 1) (n + 2)
= n2 + n + 1
Hence S =  (n2 + n + 1)
= n2 + n + 1
n(n  1)(2n  1) n(n  1) n 2
= + +n = (n + 3n + 5)
6 2 3
Solved Example # 41 Find the sum to n-terms 1 + 4 + 10 + 22 + ........
Solution. Let S = 1 + 4 + 10 + 22 + .........+ Tn ........(i)

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S= 1 + 4 + 10 + ......... + Tn–1 + Tn ........(ii)
(i) – (ii)  Tn = 1 + (3 + 6 + 12 + ......... + Tn – Tn–1 )
 2n 1  1 
 
Tn = 1 + 3  2  1 
 
Tn = 3 . 2n–1 – 2
So S =  Tn = 3  2n–1 – 2
 2n  1
 
= 3 .  2  1  – 2n = 3.2n – 2n – 3
 
Type – 2 If possible express rth term as difference of two terms as tr = f(r) – f(r ± 1). This can be explained with
the help of examples given below.
Solved Example # 42 Find the sum to n-terms of the series 1.2 + 2.3 + 3.4 + ............
Solution. Let Tr be the general term of the series
So Tr = r(r + 1).
To express tr = f(r) – f(r–1) multiply and divide tr by [(r + 2) – (r – 1)]
r
so Tr = (r + 1) [(r + 2) – (r – 1)]
3
1
= [r (r + 1) (r + 2) – (r – 1) r (r + 1)].
3
1
Let f(r) = r (r + 1) (r + 2)
3
n

so Tr = [f(r) – f(r – 1)]. Now S =  T r = T1 + T2 + T3 + .........+ Tn


r 1

1 1 1
T1 = [1 . 2 . 3 – 0], T2 = [2 . 3 . 4 – 1 . 2 . 3], T3 = [3 . 4 . 5 – 2 . 3 . 4]
3 3 3
1 1
Tn = [n(n+1) (n + 2) – (n – 1)n (n + 1)]  S = n (n + 1) (n + 2)
3 3
Hence sum of series is f(n) – f(0).
1 1 1
Solved Example # 43 Sum to n terms of the series + + + .........
(1  x )(1  2x ) (1  2x )(1  3 x ) (1  3 x )(1  4 x )
Solution. Let Tr be the general term of the series
1 1  [1  (r  1)x]  (1  rx ) 
Tr = So Tr =  
(1  rx )(1  (r  1)x) x  (1  rx)(1  (r  1)x ) 
1  1  1 
=  
x  1  rx 1  ( r  1) x 
Tr = f(r) – f(r + 1)
 S =  Tr = T1 + T2 + T3 + .......... + Tn
1  1  1  n
=   =
x  1  x 1  (n  1)x  (1  x )[1  (n  1)x]
4 5 6
Solved Example # 44 Sun to n terms of the series 1 . 2 . 3 + 2 . 3 . 4 + 3 . 4 . 5 + .........

r 3
Solution. Let Tr =
r(r  1)(r  2)
1 3  1 1  3  1  1 
= + =    +  
(r  1)(r  2) r(r  1)(r  2) r  1 r  2  2  r(r  1) (r  1)(r  2) 
1 1  3 1  1 
 S=    +  
2 n  2 2  2 (n  1)(n  2) 

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5 1  3  5 1
= – 1   = – [2n + 5]
4 n2  2( n  1)  4 2 (n  1)(n  2)
Note : It is not always necessary that the series of first order of differences i.e. u2 – u1, u3 – u2 ....... un – un–1, is
always either in A.P. or in G.P. in such case let u1 = T1 , u2 – u1 = T2 , u3 – u2 = T3 ......., un – un–1 = Tn.
So un = T1 + T2 + ..............+ Tn .........(i)
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un = T1 + T2 + .......+ Tn–1 + Tn .........(ii)


(i) – (ii) 
Tn = T1 + (T2 – T1) + (T3 – T2) + ..... + (Tn – Tn–1)

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Now, the series (T2 – T1) + (T3 – T2) + ..... + (Tn – Tn–1) is series of second order of differences and when it is
either in A.P. or in G.P. , then un = u1 +  Tr
Otherwise in the similar way we find series of higher order of differences and the nth term of the series. With
the help of following example this can be explained.
Solved Example # 45 Find the nth term and the sum of n term of the series
2, 12, 36, 80, 150, 252
Solution. Let S = 2 + 12 + 36 + 80 + 150 + 252 + ................+Tn ...........(i)
S= 2 + 12 + 36 + 80 + 150 + 252 + .........+Tn–1 + Tn ...........(ii)
(i) – (ii)  Tn = 2 + 10 + 24 + 44 + 70 + 102 + ............... + (Tn – Tn–1) ...........(iii)
Tn = 2 + 10 + 24 + 44 + 70 + 102 + ....... + (Tn–1–Tn–2) + (Tn – Tn–1) ...........(iv)

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(iii) – (iv)  Tn – Tn–1 = 2 + 8 + 14 + 20 + 26 + .........
n
= [4 + (n – 1) 6] = n [3n – 1] = Tn – Tn–1 = 3n2 – n
2
 general term of given series is  Tn – Tn–1 =  3n2 – n = n3 + n2.
Hence sum of this series is S =  n3 +  n2
2 2 n(n  1)(2n  1)
n (n  1) n (n  1)
= + = (3n2 + 7n + 2)
4 6 12
1
n (n + 1) (n + 2) (3n + 1)
12
Solved Example # 46: Find the general term and sum of n terms of the series 9, 16, 29, 54, 103
Sol. Let S = 9 + 16 + 29 + 54 + 103 + ................. + T n ...........(i)
S= 9 + 16 + 29 + 54 + 103 + ......... + Tn–1 +Tn ...........(ii)
(i) – (ii)  Tn = 9 + 7 + 13 + 25 + 49 + ................. + (Tn – Tn–1) ...........(iii)
Tn = 9 + 7 + 13 + 25 + 49 + ........... + (Tn–1–Tn–2) + (Tn – Tn–1) ...........(iv)
(iii) – (iv)  Tn – Tn–1 = 9 + (–2) + 6  12 
 24  ........
 = 7 + 6 [2n–2
– 1] = 6(2)n–2
+ 1.
( n  2 ) terms
 General term is Tn = 6(2)n–1 + n + 2
Also sum S = Tn = 62n–1 + n + 2
(2n  1) n (n  1) n(n  5)
=6. + + 2n = 6(2n – 1) +
2 1 2 2
Self Practice Problems : 1. Sum to n terms the following series
1 1 2 1 2  3 2n
(i) 3 + 3 3 + 3 3 3 + ......... Ans.
1 1 2 1 2 3 n1
1 1 1 1 1  1 
(ii) 1. 3 . 5
+ 3.5.7
+ 5.7.9
+ ......... Ans.  
4  3 (2n  1)(2n  3) 
n
(iii) 1 . 5 . 9 + 2 . 6 . 10 + 3 . 7. 11 + ......... Ans. (n + 1) (n + 8) (n + 9)
4
(iv) 4 + 14 + 30 + 52 + 82 + 114 + .......... Ans. n(n + 1)2
3n  n2  n  1
(v) 2 + 5 + 12 + 31 + 86 + ............... Ans.
2

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SHORT REVESION
(SEQUENCES AND SERIES)
DEFINITION : A sequence is a set of terms in a definite order with a rule for obtaining the terms.
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e.g. 1 , 1/2 , 1/3 , ....... , 1/n , ........ is a sequence.


AN ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION (AP) :AP is a sequence whose terms increase or decrease by a fixed

page 12 of 26
number. This fixed number is called the common difference. If a is the first term & d the common
difference, then AP can be written as a, a + d, a + 2 d, ....... a + (n – 1)d, ........
nth term of this AP tn = a + (n – 1)d, where d = an – an-1.
n n
T h e s u m o f t h e f i r s t n t e r m s o f t h e A P i s g i v e n b y ; S
n = [2 a + (n – 1)d] = [a + l].
2 2
where l is the last term.
NOTES :(i) If each term of an A.P. is increased, decreased, multiplied or divided by the same non zero
number, then the resulting sequence is also an AP.

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(ii) Three numbers in AP can be taken as a – d , a , a + d ; four numbers in AP can be taken as a – 3d,
a – d, a + d, a + 3d ; five numbers in AP are a – 2d , a – d , a, a + d, a + 2d & six terms in AP are
a – 5d, a – 3d, a – d, a + d, a + 3d, a + 5d etc.
(iii) The common difference can be zero, positive or negative.
(iv) The sum of the two terms of an AP equidistant from the beginning & end is constant and equal to the
sum of first & last terms.
(v) Any term of an AP (except the first) is equal to half the sum of terms which are equidistant from it.
(vi) tr = Sr  Sr1
(vii) If a , b , c are in AP  2 b = a + c.
GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION (GP) : GP is a sequence of numbers whose first term is non zero & each
of the succeeding terms is equal to the proceeding terms multiplied by a constant . Thus in a GP the ratio
of successive terms is constant. This constant factor is called the COMMON RATIO of the series &
is obtained by dividing any term by that which immediately proceeds it. Therefore a, ar, ar2, ar3, ar4,
...... is a GP with a as the first term & r as common ratio.
(i) nth term = a rn –1

(ii) Sum of the Ist n terms i.e. Sn =


a r n 1  , if r  1 .
r 1
a
(iii)Sum of an infinite GP when r < 1 when n  rn  0 if r < 1 therefore,S = ( | r | 1) .
1r
(iv) If each term of a GP be multiplied or divided by the same non-zero quantity, the resulting sequence is
also a GP.
(v) Any 3 consecutive terms of a GP can be taken as a/r, a, ar ; any 4 consecutive terms of a GP can be
taken as a/r3, a/r, ar, ar3 & so on.
(vi) If a, b, c are in GP  b2 = ac.
HARMONIC PROGRESSION (HP) :A sequence is said to HP if the reciprocals of its terms are in AP.
If the sequence a1, a2, a3, .... , an is an HP then 1/a1, 1/a2, .... , 1/an is an AP & converse. Here we do
not have the formula for the sum of the n terms of an HP. For HP whose first term is a & second term
ab
is b, the nth term is tn = .
b  (n  1)(a  b)
2ac a ab
If a, b, c are in HP  b = or = bc.
ac c
MEANS
ARITHMETIC MEAN :If three terms are in AP then the middle term is called the AM between the other
two, so if a, b, c are in AP, b is AM of a & c .
a  a  a  .....  a
AM for any n positive number a1, a2, ... , an is ; A = 1 2 3 n
.
n
n - ARITHMETIC MEANS BETWEEN TWO NUMBERS :
If a, b are any two given numbers & a, A1, A2, .... , An, b are in AP then A1, A2, ... An are the n AM’s
between a & b .
ba 2 (b  a ) n (b  a )
A1 = a + , A2 = a + , ...... , An = a +
n1 n1 n1
ba
=a+d, = a + 2 d , ...... , An = a + nd , where d =
n 1
NOTE : Sum of n AM’s inserted between a & b is equal to n times the single AM between a & b
n
i.e.  Ar = nA where A is the single AM between a & b.
r1
GEOMETRIC MEANS : If a, b, c are in GP, b is the GM between a & c.

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b² = ac, therefore b = a c ; a > 0, c > 0.
n-GEOMETRIC MEANS BETWEEN a, b :
If a, b are two given numbers & a, G1, G2, ..... , Gn, b are in GP. Then
G1, G2, G3 , ...., Gn are n GMs between a & b .
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G1 = a(b/a)1/n+1, G2 = a(b/a)2/n+1, ...... , Gn = a(b/a)n/n+1


= ar , = ar² , ...... = arn, where r = (b/a)1/n+1
NOTE : The product of n GMs between a & b is equal to the nth power of the single GM between a & b

page 13 of 26
n
i.e. r  1 Gr = (G)n where G is the single GM between a & b.
HARMONIC MEAN :If a, b, c are in HP, b is the HM between a & c, then b = 2ac/[a + c].
THEOREM : If A, G, H are respectively AM, GM, HM between a & b both being unequal & positive then,
(i) G² = AH (ii) A > G > H (G > 0). Note that A, G, H constitute a GP.
ARITHMETICO-GEOMETRIC SERIES :
A series each term of which is formed by multiplying the corresponding term of an AP & GP is called the

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Arithmetico-Geometric Series. e.g. 1 + 3x + 5x2 + 7x3 + .....
Here 1, 3, 5, .... are in AP & 1, x, x2, x3 ..... are in GP.
Standart appearance of an Arithmetico-Geometric Series is
Let Sn = a + (a + d) r + (a + 2 d) r² + ..... + [a + (n  1)d] rn1
a dr
SUM TO INFINITY : If r < 1 & n  then Limit n
n   r = 0 . S =
 .
1 r 1  r2
SIGMA NOTATIONS
n n n n n
THEOREMS :(i)  (ar ± br) =  ar ±  br.(ii)  k ar = k  ar.
r1 r1 r1 r1 r1
n
(iii)  k = nk ; where k is a constant.
r1

RESULTS
n n (n 1)
(i)  r= (sum of the first n natural nos.)
r1
2
n n (n  1) (2n  1)
(ii)  r² = (sum of the squares of the first n natural numbers)
r1
6
2
n 2 (n  1) 2  r 
n n
(iii)  r3 =  (sum of the cubes of the first n natural numbers)
r1 4  r  1 
n n
(iv)  r4 = 30
(n + 1) (2n + 1) (3n² + 3n  1)
r1
METHOD OF DIFFERENCE : If T1, T2, T3, ...... , Tn are the terms of a sequence then some times the
terms T2  T1, T3  T2 , ....... constitute an AP/GP. nth term of the series is determined & the sum to
n terms of the sequence can easily be obtained.
Remember that to find the sum of n terms of a series each term of which is composed of r factors in
AP, the first factors of several terms being in the same AP, we “write down the nth term, affix the next
factor at the end, divide by the number of factors thus increased and by the common difference and add
a constant. Determine the value of the constant by applying the initial conditions”.
EXERCISE–1
Q.1 If the 10th term of an HP is 21 & 21st term of the same HP is 10, then find the 210th term.
n (n  1)
Q.2 Show that ln (4 × 12 × 36 × 108 × .............. up to n terms) = 2n ln 2 + ln 3
2
Q.3 There are n AM’s between 1 & 31 such that 7th mean : (n  1)th mean = 5 : 9, then find the value of n.
Q.4 Find the sum of the series , 7 + 77 + 777 + ..... to n terms.
Q.5 Express the recurring decimal 0.1 576 as a rational number using concept of infinite geometric series.
1 2 3
Q.6 Find the sum of the n terms of the sequence 2 4
 2 4
  ........
1 1  1 1 2  2 1  3  34
2

Q.7 The first term of an arithmetic progression is 1 and the sum of the first nine terms equal to 369. The first
and the ninth term of a geometric progression coincide with the first and the ninth term of the arithmetic
progression. Find the seventh term of the geometric progression.
Q.8 If the pth, qth & rth terms of an AP are in GP . Show that the common ratio of the GP is q  r .
pq
Q.9 If one AM ‘a’ & two GM’s p & q be inserted between any two given numbers then show that
p3+ q3 = 2 apq .
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Q.10 The sum of n terms of two arithmetic series are in the ratio of (7 n + 1) : (4 n + 27) . Find the ratio of their
nth term.
n
Q.11 If S be the sum , P the product & R the sum of the reciprocals of a GP , find the value of P 2  R  .
 S
Q.12 The first and last terms of an A.P. are a and b. There are altogether (2n + 1) terms. A new series is
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formed by multiplying each of the first 2n terms by the next term. Show that the sum of the new series is
(4n 2  1)(a 2  b 2 )  (4n 2  2)ab .

page 14 of 26
6n
Q.13 In an AP of which ‘a’ is the Ist term, if the sum of the Ist p terms is equal to zero , show that the sum of
the next q terms is  a (p + q) q/(p  1).
Q.14(a) The interior angles of a polygon are in AP. The smallest angle is 120° & the common difference is 5°.
Find the number of sides of the polygon.
(b) The interior angles of a convex polygon form an arithmetic progression with a common difference of 4°.
Determine the number of sides of the polygon if its largest interior angle is 172°.

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Q.15 An AP & an HP have the same first term, the same last term & the same number of terms ; prove that
the product of the rth term from the beginning in one series & the rth term from the end in the other is
independent of r.
Q.16 Find three numbers a , b , c between 2 & 18 such that ;
(i) their sum is 25 (ii) the numbers 2, a, b are consecutive terms of an AP &
(iii) the numbers b , c , 18 are consecutive terms of a GP .
Q.17 Given that ax = by = cz = du & a , b , c , d are in GP, show that x , y , z , u are in HP .
Q.18 In a set of four numbers, the first three are in GP & the last three are in AP , with common difference 6.
If the first number is the same as the fourth , find the four numbers.
2 3
Q.19 Find the sum of the first n terms of the sequence : 1  2 1  1   3  1  1   4  1  1   .........
 n  n  n
Q.20 Find the nth term and the sum to n terms of the sequence :
(i) 1 + 5 + 13 + 29 + 61 + ...... (ii) 6 + 13 + 22 + 33 + .......
Q.21 The AM of two numbers exceeds their GM by 15 & HM by 27 . Find the numbers.
Q.22 The harmonic mean of two numbers is 4. The airthmetic mean A & the geometric mean G satisfy the
relation 2 A + G² = 27. Find the two numbers.
Q.23 Sum the following series to n terms and to infinity :
n
1 1 1
(i)  
1. 4 . 7 4 . 7 .10 7 .10 .13
 ......... (ii)  r (r + 1) (r + 2) (r + 3)
r1
n 1 1 1.3 1.3.5
(iii)  (iv)    ........... .
r1
4 r2  1 4 4.6 4.6.8
n n
Q.24 Find the value of the sum (a)   rs 2r 3s where rs is zero if r  s & rs is one if r = s.
r1 s 1
n i j
(b)    1.
i 1 j1 k 1
Q.25 For or 0 <  < /2, if :
  
x=  cos2n  , y =  sin2n  , z =  cos2n  sin2n  then : Prove that
n0 n0 n0
(i) xyz = xy + z (ii) xyz = x + y + z
EXERCISE–2
Q.1 The series of natural numbers is divided into groups (1), (2, 3, 4), (5, 6, 7, 8, 9), ...... & so on. Show
that the sum of the numbers in the nth group is (n  1)3 + n3 .
Q.2 The sum of the squares of three distinct real numbers , which are in GP is S² . If their sum is  S, show
that ²  (1/3 , 1)  (1 , 3) .
Q.3 If there be m AP’s beginning with unity whose common difference is 1 , 2 , 3 .... m . Show that the sum
of their nth terms is (m/2) (mn  m + n + 1).
Q.4 If Sn represents the sum to n terms of a GP whose first term & common ratio are a & r respectively, then
an a r (1  r 2 n )
prove that S1 + S3 + S5 + ..... + S2n-1 =  .
1  r (1  r ) 2 (1  r )
Q.5 A geometrical & harmonic progression have the same pth, qth & rth terms a, b, c respectively. Show
that a (b  c) log a + b (c  a) log b + c (a  b) log c = 0.
Q.6 A computer solved several problems in succession. The time it took the computer to solve each successive
problem was the same number of times smaller than the time it took to solve the preceding problem.
How many problems were suggested to the computer if it spent 63.5 min to solve all the problems
except for the first, 127 min to solve all the problems except for the last one, and 31.5 min to solve all the
problems except for the first two?
Q.7 If the sum of m terms of an AP is equal to the sum of either the next n terms or the next p terms of the
same AP prove that (m + n) [(1/m)  (1/p)] = (m + p) [(1/m)  (1/n)] (n  p)
Q.8 If the roots of 10x3  cx2  54x  27 = 0 are in harmonic progression, then find c & all the roots.

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Q.9(a) Let a1, a2, a3 ...... an be an AP . Prove that :
1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1
   ..........  =     ..........  
a1 a n a 2 a n 1 a 3 a n  2 a n a1 a1  a n a1 a 2 a3 an 
(b) Show that in any arithmetic progression a1, a2, a3 .......
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a1²  a2² + a3²  a4² + ...... + a²2K  1  a²2K = [K/(2 K  1)] (a1²  a²2K) .

Q.10 Let a1 , a2 , ........... , an , an+1 , ....... be an A.P.

page 15 of 26
Let S1 = a1 + a2 + a3 + ............. + an
S2 = an+1 + an+2 + ...............+ a2n
S3 = a2n+1 + a2n+2 + .............+ a3n
................................................
................................................
Prove that the sequence S1 , S2 , S3 , ........ is an arithmetic progression whose common difference
is n2 times the common difference of the given progression.

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Q.11 If a, b, c are in HP, b, c, d are in GP & c, d, e are in AP, Show that e = ab²/(2a  b)² .
Q.12 If a, b, c, d, e be 5 numbers such that a, b, c are in AP ; b, c, d are in GP & c, d, e are in HP then:
(i) Prove that a, c, e are in GP . (ii) Prove that e = (2 b  a)²/a .
(iii) If a = 2 & e = 18 , find all possible values of b , c , d .
Q.13 The sequence a1, a2, a3, ....... a98 satisfies the relation an+1 = an + 1 for n = 1, 2, 3, .........97 and has
49
the sum equal to 4949. Evaluate  a 2k .
k 1
Q.14 If n is a root of the equation x² (1  ac)  x (a² + c²)  (1 + ac) = 0 & if n HM’s are inserted between
a & c, show that the difference between the first & the last mean is equal to ac(a  c) .
Q.15 (a) The value of x + y + z is 15 if a , x , y , z , b are in AP while the value of ;
(1/x)+(1/y)+(1/z) is 5/3 if a , x , y , z , b are in HP . Find a & b .
(b) The values of xyz is 15/2 or 18/5 according as the series a , x , y , z , b is an AP or HP . Find
the values of a & b assuming them to be positive integer .
Q.16 An AP , a GP & a HP have ‘a’ & ‘b’ for their first two terms . Show that their (n + 2)th terms will be
2 n 2
in GP if b a 2 n2 n1 .


ba b 2n a 2 n  n
1.3 3.5 5.7 7.9
Q.17 Prove that the sum of the infinite series    ..........23 .
2 2 2 23 2 4
Q.18 If there are n quantities in GP with common ratio r & Sm denotes the sum of the first m terms, show that
the sum of the products of these m terms taken two & two together is [r/(r + 1)] [Sm] [Sm  1] .
Q.19 Find the condition that the roots of the equation x3 – px2 + qx – r = 0 may be in A.P. and hence solve the
equation x3 – 12x2 + 39x –28 = 0.
Q.20 If ax2 + 2bx + c = 0 & a1x2 + 2 b1x + c1 = 0 have a common root & a/a1 , b/b1 , c/c1 are in AP,
show that a1 , b1 & c1 are in GP.
Q.21 If a , b , c be in GP & logc a, logb c, loga b be in AP , then show that the common difference of the
AP must be 3/2.
1
Q.22 If a1 = 1 & for n > 1 , an = an-1 + , then show that 12 < a75 < 15.
a n 1
1 2x 3 x2
Q.23 Sum to n terms : (i)    .......
x  1 (x  1) (x  2) (x  1) (x  2) (x  3)
a1 a2 a3
(ii)    .......
1  a 1 1  a 1  1  a 2  1  a 1  1  a 2  1  a 3 
Q.24 In a GP the ratio of the sum of the first eleven terms to the sum of the last eleven terms is 1/8 and the
ratio of the sum of all the terms without the first nine to the sum of all the terms without the last nine is 2.
Find the number of terms in the GP.
Q.25 Given a three digit number whose digits are three successive terms of a G.P. If we subtract 792 from it,
we get a number written by the same digits in the reverse order . Now if we subtract four from the
hundred's digit of the initial number and leave the other digits unchanged, we get a number whose digits
are successive terms of an A.P. Find the number.
EXERCISE–3
Q.1 For any odd integer n  1, n3  (n  1)3 + ...... + ( 1)n  1 l3 = ______ . [ JEE ’96, 1]
Q.2 x = 1+ 3a + 6a² + 10a3 + ..... a < 1
y = 1+ 4b + 10b² + 20b3 + ..... b < 1, find S = 1+ 3ab + 5(ab)² + .... in terms of x & y.
Q.3 The real numbers x1, x2, x3 satisfying the equation x3  x² +  x +  = 0 are in A.P . Find the
intervals in which  and  lie . [JEE ’96, 3]
Q.4 Let p & q be roots of the equation x2  2x + A = 0, and let r & s be the roots of the equation
x2  18x + B = 0 . If p < q < r < s are in arithmatic progression, then A = ______, and B = ______.
Q.5 a, b, c are the first three terms of a geometric series. If the harmonic mean of a & b is 12 and that of b

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& c is 36, find the first five terms of the series. [ REE '98, 6 ]
Q.6 Select the correct alternative(s). [ JEE '98, 2 + 2 + 8 ]
(a) Let Tr be the rth term of an AP, for r = 1, 2, 3, .... If for some positive integers m, n we have
1 1
Tm = & Tn = , then Tmn equals :
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n m
1 1 1
(A) (B)  (C) 1 (D) 0
mn m n

page 16 of 26
1 1 1
(b) If x = 1, y > 1, z > 1 are in GP, then , , are in :
1  n x 1  n y 1  n z
(A) AP (B) HP (C) GP (D) none of the above
(c) Prove that a triangle ABC is equilateral if & only if tan A + tan B + tan C = 3 3 .
  
Q.7(a) The harmonic mean of the roots of the equation 5  2 x2  4  5 x + 8 + 2 5 = 0 is
(A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 6 (D) 8

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(b) Let a1, a2,...., a10, be in A.P. & h1, h2, ....., h10 be in H.P. If a1 = h1 = 2 & a10 = h10 = 3 then a4 h7 is:
(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 5 (D) 6
Q.8 The sum of an infinite geometric series is 162 and the sum of its first n terms is 160. If the inverse of its
common ratio is an integer, find all possible values of the common ratio, n and the first terms of the series.
Q.9(a) Consider an infinite geometric series with first term 'a' and common ratio r . If the sum is 4 and the
second term is 3/4, then :
7 3 3
(A) a = , r= (B) a = 2 , r =
4 7 8
3 1 1
(C) a = , r = (D) a = 3 , r =
2 2 4
(b) If a, b, c, d are positive real numbers such that a + b + c + d = 2, then M = (a + b) (c + d) satisfies
the relation :
(A) 0  M  1 (B) 1  M  2

(C) 2  M  3  (D) 3  M  4
(c) The fourth power of the common difference of an arithmetic progression with integer entries added to
the product of any four consecutive terms of it . Prove that the resulting sum is the square of an integer.
[ JEE 2000, Mains, 4 out of 100 ]
Q.10 Given that ,  are roots of the equation, A x2  4 x + 1 = 0 and ,  the roots of the equation,
B x2  6 x + 1 = 0, find values of A and B, such that , ,  &  are in H.P.
[ REE 2000, 5 out of 100 ]
Q.11 The sum of roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is equal to the sum of squares of their reciprocals. Find
whether bc2, ca2 and ab2 in A.P., G.P. or H.P.? [ REE 2001, 3 out of 100 ]
Q.12 Solve the following equations for x and y
log2x + log4x + log16x + .................... = y
5  9  13............ (4y  1)
= 4log4x [ REE 2001, 5 out of 100 ]
1  3  5.............. (2y  1)
Q.13(a) Let  be the roots of x2 – x + p = 0 and  be the roots of x2 – 4x + q = 0. If are in G.P.,
then the integral values of p and q respectively, are
(A) –2, –32 (B) –2, 3 (C) –6, 3 (D) –6, –32
(b) If the sum of the first 2n terms of the A.P. 2, 5, 8, ........... is equal to the sum of the first n terms of the A.P.
57, 59, 61, ........, then n equals
(A) 10 (B) 12 (C) 11 (D) 13
(c) Let the positive numbers a, b, c, d be in A.P. Then abc, abd, acd, bcd are
(A) NOT in A.P./G.P./H.P. (B) in A.P.
(C) in G.P. (D) H.P. [JEE 2001, Screening, 1 + 1 + 1 out of 35 ]
(d) Let a1, a2 .......... be positive real numbers in G.P. For each n, let An, Gn, Hn, be respectively, the
arithmetic mean, geometric mean and harmonic mean of a1, a2, a3, ...........an. Find an expression for the
G.M. of G1, G2, .........Gn in terms of A1, A2 .............An, H1, H2, .........Hn. 3
Q.14(a) Suppose a, b, c are in A.P. and a2, b2, c2 are in G.P. If a < b < c and a + b + c = , then the value of
a is 2
1 1 1 1 1 1
(A) (B)  (C) (D) 
2 2 2 3 2 3 2 2
(b) Let a, b be positive real numbers. If a , A1 , A2 , b are in A.P. ; a , a1 , a2 , b are in G.P. and
a , H1 , H2 , b are in H.P. , show that
G1 G 2 A  A2 ( 2a  b ) ( a  2 b )
 1  [ JEE 2002 , Mains , 5 out of 60 ]
H1 H 2 H1  H 2 9ab

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c
Q.15 If a, b, c are in A.P., a2 , b2 , c2 are in H.P. , then prove that either a = b = c or a, b,  form a G.P..
2
Q.16 The first term of an infinite geometric progression is x and its sum is 5. Then
(A) 0 x  10 (B) 0 < x < 10 (C) –10 < x < 0 (D) x > 10
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Q.17 If a, b, c are positive real numbers, then prove that [(1 + a) (1 + b) (1 + c)]7 > 77 a4 b4 c4.
Q.18(a) In the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, if  = b2 – 4ac and  + , 2 + 2, 3 + 3 are in G.P. where

page 17 of 26
,  are the roots of ax2 + bx + c = 0, then
(A)   0 (B) b = 0 (C) c = 0 (D)  = 0
 n  1  n+1
(b) If total number of runs scored in n matches is   (2 – n – 2) where n > 1, and the runs scored in
 4 
the kth match are given by k·2n+1– k, where 1  k  n. Find n. [JEE 2005 (Mains), 2]
2 3 n
3  3 3 3
Q.19 If A n           .......   1n 1   and Bn = 1 – An, then find the minimum natural

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4  4 4 4
number n0 such that Bn > An.  n > n0. [JEE 2006, 6]
EXERCISE–4
Part : (A) Only one correct option
1. If x  R, the numbers 51+x + 51–x, a/2, 25x + 25–x form an A.P. then 'a' must lie in the interval:
(A) [1, 5] (B) [2, 5] (C) [5, 12] (D) [12, )
a b c
 1  1  1
2. If x > 1 and   ,   ,   are in G.P., then a, b, c are in
x x x
(A) A.P. (B) G.P. (C) H.P. (D) none of these
3. If A, G & H are respectively the A.M., G.M. & H.M. of three positive numbers a, b, & c, then the
equation whose roots are a, b, & c is given by:
(A) x 3  3 Ax 2 + 3 G 3x  G 3 = 0 (B) x 3  3 Ax 2 + 3 (G 3/H)x  G 3 = 0
3 2 3
(C) x + 3 Ax + 3 (G /H) x  G = 0 3 (D) x 3  3 Ax 2  3 (G 3/H) x + G 3 = 0
 1
4. The sum  2
r 1
is equal to:
r2
(A) 1 (B) 3/4 (C) 4/3 (D) none
5. If a, a1, a2, a3,..., a2n , b are in A.P. and a, g1, g2, g3,.....g2n , b are in G.P. and h is the harmonic mean of
a1  a 2n a 2  a 2n  1 an  a n  1
a and b, then g g + g g + ... + g g is equal to
1 2n 2 2n  1 n n 1
2n n
(A) (B) 2nh (C) nh (D)
h h
6. One side of an equilateral triangle is 24 cm. The midpoints of its sides are joined to form another
triangle whose mid  points are in turn joined to form still another triangle. This process continues
indefinitely. Then the sum of the perimeters of all the triangles is
(A) 144 cm (B) 212 cm (C) 288 cm (D) none of these
1 1 p (1  p) 2
7. If p is positive, then the sum to infinity of the series,   -...... is:
1  p (1 p) 2 (1  p) 3
(A) 1/2 (B) 3/4 (C) 1 (D) none of these
8. In a G.P. of positive terms, any term is equal to the sum of the next two terms. The common ratio of the
G.P. is
(A) 2 cos 18° (B) sin 18° (C) cos 18° (D) 2 sin 18°
1 1 1 2 1 1 1
9. If 2
+ 2
+ 2
+...... upto  = , then 2 + 2 + 2 +...... =
1 2 3 6 1 3 5
(A) 2/12 (B) 2/24 (C) 2/8 (D) none of these
10. The sum to 10 terms of the series 2 + 6 + 18 + 54 + ... is
121
(A) 121 ( 6 + 2) (B) ( 3 + 1) (C) 243 ( 3 + 1) (D) 243 ( 3 – 1)
2
11. If a1, a2,... an are in A.P. with common difference d  0, then the sum of the series
(sin d) [cosec a1 cosec a2 + cosec a2 cosec a3 + ... + cosec an–1 cosec an ]
(A) sec a1 – sec an (B) cosec a1 – cosec an (C) cot a1 – cot an (D) tan a1 – tan an
12. Sum of the series
S = 12 – 22 + 32 – 42 + .... – 20022 + 20032 is
(A) 2007006 (B) 1005004 (C) 2000506 (D) none of these
1 1 1 3 5 2n  1
13. If Hn = 1 + + + ...........+ , then value of 1 + + + ......... + is
2 3 n 2 3 n
(A) 2n – Hn (B) 2n + Hn (C) Hn – 2n (D) Hn + n
1 1 1 1
14. The sum of the series log 4 + log 4 + log 4 + ...... + log 4 is
2 4 8 2n
1 1 1 1
(A) n (n + 1) (B) n (n + 1) (2n + 1) (C) n (n  1) (D) n (n + 1)
2 12 4

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15. If S1 , S2, S3 are the sums of first n natural numbers, their squares, their cubes respectively, then
S3 (1  8S1 )
is equal to
S 22
(A) 1 (B) 3 (C) 9 (D) 10.
16. If p and q are respectively the sum and the sum of the squares of n successive integers beginning with
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‘a’, then nq – p2 is
(A) independent of ‘a’ (B) independent of ‘n’ (C) dependent on ‘a’ (D) none of these

page 18 of 26
x x( x  a1 ) x( x  a1 )( x  a 2 )
17. Sum of n terms of the series 1 + + + + ... is
a1 a1a 2 a1a 2a 3
x( x  a1 ) ...(x  a n1 ) ( x  a1 )( x  a 2 ).... ( x  an 1 ) x( x  a1 ).... ( x  a n )
(A) (B) a1a 2 ...an  1 (C) (D) none of these
a1a 2 ...a3 a1a 2 ...an
n n n n
18. {an } and {bn } are two sequences given by an = ( x )1/ 2 + ( y )1/ 2 and bn = ( x )1/ 2 – ( y )1/ 2 for all n  N.
The value of a1a2a3........an is equal to
xy xy xy

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(A) x – y (B) (C) (D)
bn bn bn
19. If a1, a2, a3, ........., an are positive real numbers whose product is a fixed number c, then the minimum
value of a1 + a2 + a3 + .... + an – 1 + 2an is [IIT - 2002, 3]
(A) n(2c)1/n (B) (n + 1) c1/n (C) 2nc1/n (D) (n + 1)(2c)1/n
Part : (B) May have more than one options correct
n
20. If  r(r  1) (2r + 3) = an
r 1
4
+ bn3 + cn2 + dn + e, then

(A) a + c = b + d (B) e = 0 (C) a, b – 2/3, c – 1 are in A.P. (D) c/a is an integer


21. The sides of a right triangle form a G.P. The tangent of the smallest angle is
5  1 5  1 2 2
(A) (B) (C) (D)
2 2 5 1 51
22. Sum to n terms of the series S = 12 + 2(2)2 + 32 + 2(42) + 52 + 2(62) + ... is
1 1
(A) n (n + 1)2 when n is even (B) n2 (n + 1) when n is odd
2 2
1 2 1
(C) n (n + 2) when n is odd (D) n(n + 2)2 when n is even.
4 4
23. If a, b, c are in H.P., then:
a b c 2 1 1
(A) , , are in H.P. (B) = +
bca ca  b a  bc b ba bc
b b b a b c
(C) a  , , c  are in G.P.
.P. (D) , , are in H.P..
2 2 2 bc ca a b
24. If b1, b2, b3 (bi > 0) are three successive terms of a G.P. with common ratio r, the value of r for which the
inequality b3 > 4b2 – 3b1 holds is given by
(A) r > 3 (B) r < 1 (C) r = 3.5 (D) r = 5.2
EXERCISE–5
1. If a, b, c are in A.P., then show that:
(i) a2 (b + c), b2 (c + a), c2 (a + b) are also in A.P.(ii) b + c  a, c + a  b, a + b  c are in A.P.
2. If a, b, c, d are in G.P., prove that :
1 1 1
(i) (a2  b2), (b2  c2), (c2  d2) are in G.P. (ii) 2 2
, 2 2
, are in G.P..
a b b c c  d2
2

3. Using the relation A.M.  G.M. prove that



(i) tan  + cot   2 ; if 0 <  < (ii) (x 2y + y2z + z2x) (xy2 + yz2 + zx 2) > 9x 2 y2 z2.
2
(iii) (a + b) . (b + c) . (c + a)  abc ; if a, b, c are positive real numbers
4. Find the sum in the nth group of sequence,
(i) 1, (2, 3); (4, 5, 6, 7); (8, 9,........, 15); ............ (ii) (1), (2, 3, 4), (5, 6, 7, 8, 9),........
5. If n is a root of the equation x² (1  ac)  x (a² + c²)  (1 + ac) = 0 & if n HM’s are inserted between
a & c, show that the difference between the first & the last mean is equal to ac(a  c).
6. The sum of the first ten terms of an AP is 155 & the sum of first two terms of a GP is 9. The first term
of the AP is equal to the common ratio of the GP & the first term of the GP is equal to the common
difference of the AP. Find the two progressions.
5 55 555 5555
7. Find the sum of the series + 2 + 3 + + ... up to 
13 (13) (13) (13)4
8. If 0 < x <  and the expression
exp {(1 + cos x + cos2 x + cos3 x + cos4 x + ....... upto ) loge 4}
satisfies the quadratic equation y 2 – 20y + 64 = 0 the find the value of x.
9. In a circle of radius R a square is inscribed, then a circle is inscribed in the square, a new square in the
circle and so on for n times. Find the limit of the sum of areas of all the circles and the limit of the sum
of areas of all the squares as n .
10. The sum of the squares of three distinct real numbers, which are in GP is S². If their sum is  S, show
that ²  (1/3, 1)  (1, 3).
11. Let S1, S2,...Sp denote the sum of an infinite G.P. with the first terms 1, 2, ...., p and common ratios
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1
1/2, 1/3, ...., 1/(p + 1) respectively. Show that S 1 + S2 + ... + Sp = p(p + 3)
2
12. Circles are inscribed in the acute angle  so that every neighbouring circles touch each other. If the
radius of the first circle is R then find the sum of the radii of the first n circles in terms of R and .
13. Given that   are roots of the equation, A x 2  4 x + 1 = 0 and ,  the roots of the equation,
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B x 2  6 x + 1 = 0, find values of A and B, such that , ,  &  are in H.P.


14. The airthmetic mean between m and n and the geometric mean between a and b are each equal to
ma  nb

page 19 of 26
: find the m and n in terms of a and b.
mn
15. If a, b, c are positive real numbers then prove that (i) b2c2 + c2a2 + a2b2 > abc (a + b + c).
(ii) (a + b + c)3 > 27abc. (iii) (a + b + c)3 > 27 (a + b – c) (c + a – b) (b + c – a)
s s s n2
16. If 's' be the sum of 'n' positive unequal quantities a, b, c,......., then    ...  .
sa s b sc n 1
n
17. Sum the following series to n terms and to infinity: (i)  r (r + 1) (r + 2) (r + 3)

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r1

1 2 3 1 16 1 24 1
(ii) 2 4
+ 2 4 + 2 4 +........ (iii) + 2 2 + + 2 2
+
11 1 12  2 13 3 3.5 3 .5 5.7 5 .7 7 .9
32
+ 2 2 +........
7 .9
18. Let a, b, c d be real numbers in G.P. If u, v, w, satisfy the system of equations
u + 2v + 3w = 6; 4u + 5v + 6w = 12
6u + 9v = 4 then show that the roots of the equation
1 1 1
    x 2 + [(b – c)2 + (c – a)2 + (d – b)2] x + u + v + w = 0 and
u v w 
20x 2 + 10 (a – d)2 x – 9 = 0 are reciprocals of each other. [IIT- 1999, 10]
19. The fourth power of the common difference of an arithmetic progression with integer entries added to
the product of any four consecutive terms of it. Prove that the resulting sum is the square of an integer.
[IIT - 2000, 4]
20. If a, b & c are in arithmetic progression and a 2, b2 & c2 are in harmonic progression, then prove that
c
either a = b = c or a, b &  are in geometric progression. [IIT – 2003, 4]
2
ANSWER KEY
EXERCISE–1
Q 1. 1 Q 3. µ = 14
Q 4. S = (7/81){10n+1  9n  10} Q 5. 35/222
Q 6. n (n + 1)/2 (n² + n + 1) Q 7. 27
Q 10. (14 n  6)/(8 n + 23) Q 11. 1
Q 14. (a) 9 ; (b) 12 Q 16. a = 5 , b = 8 , c = 12
Q 18. (8 ,  4 , 2 , 8) Q 19. n²
Q 20. (i) 2n+1  3 ; 2n+2  4  3n (ii) n² + 4n + 1 ; (1/6) n (n + 1) (2n + 13) + n
Q 21. 120 , 30 Q 22. 6 , 3
Q 23. (i) sn = (1/24)  [1/{6(3n + 1) (3n + 4) }] ; s = 1/24 (ii) (1/5) n (n + 1) (n + 2) (n + 3) (n + 4)
 1 1.3.5.....(2n  1)(2n  1) 
(iii) n/(2n + 1) (iv) Sn = 2   ; S = 1
2 2.4.6......(2n )(2n  2) 
Q 24. (a) (6/5) (6n  1) (b) [n (n + 1) (n + 2)]/6
EXERCISE–2
Q 6. 8 problems , 127.5 minutes Q.8 C = 9 ; (3, 3/2 , 3/5)
Q 12. (iii) b = 4 , c = 6 , d = 9 OR b =  2 , c =  6 , d =  18 Q.13 2499
Q 15. (a) a = 1 , b = 9 OR b = 1 , a = 9 ; (b) a = 1 ; b = 3 or vice versa
Q.19 2p3 – 9pq + 27r = 0; roots are 1, 4, 7
xn 1
Q 23. (a) 1  (b) 1 
(x  1) (x  2) ..... (x  n) (1  a 1 ) (1  a 2 ) ..... (1  a n )
Q 24. n = 38 Q 25. 931
EXERCISE–3
1
Q 1. (2n  1) (n + 1)²
4
1  ab
Q 2. S = Where a = 1  x–1/3 & b = 1  y–1/4 Q3.   (1/3) ;   (1/27)
(1  ab) 2
Q 4.  3, 77 Q 5. 8, 24, 72, 216, 648
Q 6. (a) C (b) B Q 7. (a) B (b) D
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Q 8. r = ± 1/9 ; n = 2 ; a = 144/180 OR r = ± 1/3 ; n = 4 ; a = 108 OR r = 1/81 ; n = 1 ; a = 160
Q 9. (a) D (b) A Q 10. A = 3 ; B = 8
Q 11. A.P. Q 12. x = 2 2 and y = 3
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1


Q 13. (a) A, (b) C, (c) D , (d)  A1 , A2 ,............ An   H1, H2 ,............ H n  2 n 
Q14. (a) D Q.16 B Q.18 (a) C, (b) n = 7 Q.19 n0 = 5

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EXERCISE–4
1. D 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. A 6. A 7. A 8. D 9. C 10. A
11. C 12. A 13. A 14. D 15. C 16. A 17. B 18. C 19. A 20. ABCD
21. BC 22. AB 23. ABCD 24. ABCD

EXERCISE–5
4. (i) 2n  2 (2n + 2n  1  1) (ii) (n  1)3 + n3
65  2 

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6. (3 + 6 + 12 +......); (2/3 + 25/3 + 625/6 +......) 7. 8. , ,
36 2 3 3
n

9. 2 R2; 4 R2 12.
 
R 1  sin 2  1  sin 2 
 

  1 13. A = 3; B = 8
2 sin 2  1  sin 2  
 