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OIL PALM PROCESS SYNOPSIS

By Noel Wambeck. - June, 1999

Volume I OIL PALM MILL, SYSTEMS AND PROCESS


OIL PALM PROCESS SYNOPSIS
By Noel Wambeck - June 1999
2nd Edition - Update 3rd March 2001

Volume 1 - OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS AND PROCESS.


1.0 INTRODUCTION

2.0 A BRIEF OF THE WRITER's EXPERIENCE

3.0 BRIEF HISTORY OF OIL PALM


* Palm Oil Processing Flow Chart
* Picture of Palm Fruit & Fruit Bunches
* Uses of Palm Oil
* Oil Palm Tree Matrix
* Apparent Density of oils at various temperatures
* Malaysia Palm Oil Products Export Procedure.

4.0 HISTORY OF OIL PALM PLANTATIONS IN INDONESIA

5.0 OIL PALM MILL, SYSTEMS AND PROCESS


* Palm oil mill schematic process flow chart
* Matrix Oil Palm Mill Process
* Pictures of sections the oil palm milling process
* Process Mass Flow and Losses During Production
* Typical Empty bunch Incinerator.
* Typical Effluent ( Ponding ) Treatment system of Anaerobic & Aerobic process.
* Matrix of Oil Palm Mill Process & Waste Water Effluent Ponding System.

6.0 AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL PLAN (ECP)


* Potential Hazards and Control Plan.
* Oil Palm Mill Environment Control and Waste Disposal Flow Chart.
* Placement Avenue for empty bunch, fonds and treated effluent for land application.
* POME Sludge process with the Decanter & Dryer - Schematic flow diagram.
* Schematic diagram for Boiler three element control and scrubber system.
* General layout of Anaerobic & Aerobic ETS.
* Typical Layout of an Oil Palm Mill with the ECP effluent treatment plant.
* Typical Furrow Layout.

7.0 OIL PALM MILL PROCESS MONITORING & CONTROL (PMC) SYSTEM.

8.0 THE DEVELOPMENT OF OIL PALM IN MALAYSIA.

9.0 THE OIL PALM EXTRACTION PROCESS MATCHING WITH TYPE OF FFB.

10.0 OILPALM EMPTY BUNCH DISPOSAL BY INTEGRATED INCINERATION.

11.0 FAO- FEEDING PIGS IN THE TROPICS : CHAPTER 4 - AFRICAN OIL PALM.

12.0 PREPARATION OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROJECT


* Matrix for oil palm mill project.
* Project manager's checklist.
* Typical project monthly report
13.0 OIL PALM MILL DESIGN BASIS
* Specific Gravities and Densities of Oil Palm Components & Substance.

14.0 A PALM KERNEL OIL EXTRACTION MILL PROJECT


* Matrix for Palm Kernel Oil ( Expeller Press ) Extraction
* Proposed Palm Kernel Oil Mill - Typical General Layout
* Photors of a Palm Kernel Oil Mill
* General arrangement drawing.

15.0 REFINING PROCESS FOR PALM OIL AND OTHER DOWNSTREAM PROCESSES
* Introduction to Refining process for palm oil and other downstream processes.
* Rationale of an integrated oil palm mill and refinery complex project.

16.0 USEFUL INFORMATION


* Palm Oil Registration & Licensing Authority Activities.
* PORLA Fresh Fruit Bunch Grading Manual
* PORLA Fresh Fruit Bunch Grading Form
* PORLA Basic Extraction Rate for Oil & Kernel based on year planted.

17.0 ABBREVIATIONS & GLOSSARY USED IN THE OIL PALM INDUSTRY

The complete Oil Palm Process Synopsis set includes the following:

Vol.2 - TESTING AND COMMISSIONING MANUAL FOR OIL PALM MILL

Vol.3 - OIL PALM MILL MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Revised 3rd March 2001


OIL PALM PROCESS SYNOPSIS
Volume 2. TESTING AND COMMISSIONING MANUAL FOR OIL PALM MILL

2 nd Edition - 3nd March 2001

1.0 INTRODUCTION

2.0 A BRIEF OF THE WRITER's EXPERIENCE

3.0 TESTING AND COMMISSIONING MANUAL FOR OIL PALM MILL


A Introduction
B Preparation
C Test procedures.
D Finalization
E Taking over and certification test.
F Training and Manpower

4.0 APPENDICES
A. Master list of machinery
B Checklist of oil palm mill.
C Electric motor list
D Palm Oil Mill Schematic Process Flow
E Matrix oil palm mill process.

5.0 SPECIFICATION FOR MACHINERY

6.0 MECHANICAL & ELECTRICAL DRAWINGS

The complete Oil Palm Process Synopsis set includes the following:

Vol.1 - OIL PALM MILL, SYSTEMS & PROCESS

Vol.3 - OIL PALM MILL MAINTENANCE MANUAL

Noel Wambeck June 1999.


Revised 3nd March 2001
OIL PALM PROCESS SYNOPSIS
Volume 3. - OIL PALM MILL MAINTENANCE MANUAL

2nd Edition - Update 3rd March 2001.

1.0 INTRODUCTION

2.0 A BRIEF OF THE WRITER's EXPERIENCE

3.0 WELCOME TO PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE

4.0 STORE AND PARTS MAINTENANCE

5.0 MAINTENANCE OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

6.0 DIGESTER USE AND MAINTENANCE


Effective use of the Digester.
Digester operating instructions and spare parts.

7.0 TWIN SCREW PRESS USE AND MAINTENANCE


Operating instructions & spare parts manual.
Effective use of the screwpress.

8.0 MULTI-HYDROCYCLONE SYSTEM


Use of the Multi-Hydrocyclone system
Automatic Triplex Multi-Cyclone Desanding System - Westfalia type ADP-100-3

9.0 DECANTER FOR CLARIFICATION SYSTEM.


Alfa Laval
Westfalia

10 CENTRIFUGE OIL PURIFIER


Alfa Laval
Westfalia
China

11 SLUDGE CENTRIFUGE SEPARATOR


Alfa Laval
Westfalia
Star Bowl Type - Local

12 NUT CRACKING MACHINE


UDW rotor ring type - use and maintenance
Ripple mill type - use and maintenance
Contents .

13 HYDRO CLAYBATH USE AND MAINTENANCE

14 STEAM BOILER ( Generator )

15 GEARBOX & GEARMOTOR USE AND MAINTENANCE

16 MAINTENANCE GLOSSARY & TERMINOLOGY

17 GLOSSARY OF BEARINGS

18 COMPRESSED AIR TERMINOLOGY AND SYSTEMS

19 PIPE FITTING AND VALVE GLOSSARY & TERMINOLOGY

20 PUMP MAINTENANCE
Pump maintenance programs pay.
Pump maintenance.
Why Seals Fail.
Pump performance checklist.
Pump seal maintenance.
Troubleshooting Electro-Hydraulic Pumps.

21 ROLLER CHAIN DRIVES


Roller chain drives installation.
Roller chain maintenance.
Roller chain drives maintenance.
Roller chain drives lubrication.
Roller chain drives - Troubleshooting Guide.

22 V-BELT INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE.

23 USEFUL TABLES.

The complete Oil Palm Process Synopsis set includes the following:

Vol.1 - OIL PALM MILL, SYSTEMS & PROCESS.

Vol.2 - TESTING AND COMMISSIONING MANUAL FOR OIL PALM MILL.

Noel Wambeck June 1999.


Revised 2nd March 2001
OIL PA LM PRO CE SS SYNO PSIS
- Oil Palm Process Handbook -

By Noel Wambeck. - June, 1999

This oil palm process synopsis or handbook intents to be a series of reference books to the
recipient, Manager, Engineer and people who are involved in the oil palm industry, it
contains information such as the function, activities, the milling process and systems,
specification of products, by- products, processing mill and plant design basis, the
operation, commissioning, maintenance, useful data, flow charts and graphs etc.

The handbook also hopes to encourage the expansion of product development and
improved oil palm processing facilities, which can lead to greater commercialisation of oil
palm, its products and to the betterment of the manager, engineer and all who seek
knowledge.

The Oil Palm Process Synopsis handbook is in three volumes, which are:

Volume 1. Oil Palm Mill, Systems and Process including the Preparation of an oil
palm mill project and enclosures.

Volume 2. Testing and Commissioning manual including specifications &


drawings

Volume 3. Oil palm mill maintenance manual including proprietary equipment


installation and operation manuals.

The handbooks sized A4 with retractable binder hinged for flexibility in terms of being
expandable whereby, occasional periodical in an update manner and series distribution can
be filed into this handbook for continuous usage.

The contents of this handbook are also available in CD-ROM

The writer acknowledges with sincere appreciation the generous assistance given him by
colleagues and friends who made many valuable suggestions.

Any error or omissions are regrettable.

June 1999 Noel Wambeck.


A Brief on the writers experience.
Noel Wambeck @ Nurehsan born in Penang during the Japanese occupation to James
Godfry Wambeck and Dorothy Symons of Dutch descendents.

Educated at St. Xaviers Institution in Penang with an engineering diploma from Gurney
Technical Institute, Kuala Lumpur in the year 1969.

Married to Fadilah A. Hamid in 1990 a Singaporean and fathered four children, two boys
and twin girls.

30 years experience in the Agro-based engineering field of project management, project


study, appraisal, market development of equipment, plant, system design and its
implementation in such areas as edible oils industry, food processing plants, Rubber
processing, Co-generation systems, pollution, effluent treatment and control systems.

Some of the projects commissioned, are Padang Piol Oil palm Mill (Felda), Sarawak Oil
palm mill (CDC), Fuji Oil refinery project ( Singapore) Ghana Rubber processing plant
(Ghana), World bank projects PNP X Bekri, Betung PNP III Aek Raso Oil Palm Mills (
Indonesia ) Nalfico Premier for Palm kernel oil solvent extraction plant ( Malaysia)
Indopalma extraction & refining of edible oils project ( Czech & Slovak) Coconut milk
production for S&P Coconut Sdn Bhd (Malaysia) Rotary Dryer for Tioxide project (ICI
Malaysia) Study on Pricing and distribution policies for Veg.Oils in Indonesia (ADB)
Study on EB treatment / co-generation & PK crushing mill for Higaturu POM. ( CDC /
PNG ) Study of production capabilities and marketing potential for coconut oil by
products in Chuuk ( Fed.States of Micronesia) OPIL Oil palm Mill (India) PORIM Oil
palm Mill ( Guthrie / PORIM) Kunak & Lumadan Oil palm mills ( Project manager with
Konsultan Proses for Borneo Samudera Sdn Bhd. Sabah).

He has consulted for commercial clients such as United Brands U.S.A., Cargill,
Experience Inc., GFA International Management Consulting GMBH as well as donor
agencies such as World Bank, KFW Bank (Germany), ADB, IBRD, UNIDP, CDC in
Central America, Africa and Asia, including Malaysia and Indonesia.

Noel Wambeck is at present an associate partner of Perunding AME Consulting


Engineers with on going assignments for consultancy services.

The assignments are for oil palm mills for Borneo Samudera Sdn Bhd, Sabah, project
study for PT. Kebun Ganda Prima in Kalimantan, Indonesia, project study for Low Yat
Group in Sabah and detail engineering for the M&E works for a dry mixed cement plant
for Chuan Cement Industries of Singapore.

June, 1999.
Brief History of Oil Palm ( Its development in Malaysia).

by Noel Wambeck. - 8th November 1993. (Revised)

The oil palm ELAEIS GUINEENSIS grows around the globe in a zone of 10
degrees latitude to the north and south of the equator.

Its utilization as basic nourishment had always been of vital importance to the
inhabitants of this equatorial regions and its existence is reported as long as 3000
BC, when palm oil was known to the Egyptians under Pharaohs reign.

The Oil Palm originates from Africa where there is a wealth of oil palm genetic
material.

The natives of Guinea coast who had made a living by raiding for slaves, were
induced to find a new occupation in processing and selling the oil for export; for
through the trade in palm oil firmly established before 1850.

It has been selected by the Africans over the ages to provide palms with a high
proportion of kernels and palm with a high yield of palm oil.

The first planting of oil palm of the Deli type, brought from Africa and planted in the
Buiterzorg botanical garden, Java, Indonesia in 1848, four plants being received,
two from Bourbon and two from Holland and during the ten years of experimental
observation, showed very good growth, and fruited.

Their progeny was distributed from 1853 forwards and the stock in the Dutch
Indies, in general, came from them.

The palm was brought to Singapore about 1870, probably from Java. These
seeds was soon distributed to various places, chiefly to gardens of those who
cared to grow it as an ornamental tree.

In 1879 Buitenzorg gardens in Java had sent seeds to Sumatra and the palm grew
well; so that Sumatra appears to have received its first two supplies of the palm
from Buitenzorg stock, one direct and the other through Singapore.

Some of the oldest palms on the St. Cyr tobacco estate in Sumatra, figured by
Rutgers are recorded as from seed from the botanical gardens of Singapore; and
these trees, in turn, supplied material to many other places in Sumatra. The idea
of a common origin is supported by and large the characters which all the old trees
have in-common.
Rutgers thinks that the actual trees of 1879 were subsequently removed to make
room for the town of Medan as this tree race is the old Deli type.

The material bred from these palms is referred to as DURA DELI. It is very stable
and uniform in oil and kernel contents.

The vernacular names for the palm in Java are salak minyak, klapa sawit and
klapa sewu. The tree was then freely distributed in that island, and about
1906 interest in the oil palm was aroused among Malayan planters, who planted a
few trees on their estates by way of experiment.

The new era of advancing communications and transport, fueled the growth of
liberalism in Europe as telegraph system was introduced in 1856, the postal
system in 1862 and the opening of the Suez canal in 1869.

The fast growth of plantations in the Golden era of plantation companies, before
the first world war saw the expansion in acreage, productivity and diversification of
crops.

In 1903, the department of Agriculture made several importation of seeds to Batu


Tiga experimental plantation and the public gardens in Kuala Lumpur.

The foundation of the Industry is generally attributed to M. Adrien Hallet, a Belgian


with some knowledge of the oil palm in Africa, who planted palms of Deli origin in
1911 in the first large commercial plantation in Sumatra.

Hallets plantings on Sungei Liput, Atjeh and Pulu Radja, Asahan estates are
recorded as being contemporary with the establishment of 2,000 palms by
K. Schadt, on his Tanah Itam Ulu concession in Deli.

He also recognised that the avenue palms growing in Deli were not only more
productive than palms in Africa, but had a fruit composition superior to the ordinary
Dura palms of the west coast.

A potential oil content of 30% in the fruit was recongnised in the early 90s.

The climate of Malay Peninsula and Eastern Sumatra has proven ideal for growing
Elaeis or Oil Palm trees.

In the meantime, a Frenchman M. H. Fauconnier, who had been associated with


Hallet, had established during 1911 and 1912 some palms of Deli origin at Rantau
Panjang in Kuala Selangor. These palms were in full bearing by 1917 and in that
year the first seedlings were planted on an area later to be known as Tannamaram
estate.
It was during this period that the DURA palm and Pisifera palm were cross to
produce a hybrid progeny, that all modern planting and milling systems are
designed.

Thus the birth of the Malayan Hybrid palm TENERA was introduced to the Oil
Palm Industry.

The second commercial oil palm plantation, also in the Kuala Selangor district,
was developed at Elimina Barlows estate ( Sungei Buluh ) Selangor in 1919 and
the first 40 acres planted in 1920.

In 1922, selected seeds from the experimental plantation were planted at the new
experiment plantation in Serdang, Selangor. During this period the boost in
prices of major commodities before the first world war, was the main factor in the
expansion of plantations in Malaya.

The number of plantations increased from 1925 to 1930 with an expansion in the
development in the Palm Oil processing Mills which began only at the beginning of
the nineteenth century when its possibilities were realized, alike in Europe and
America.

There are two oils in the fruit, one in the fruit wall ; the other is in the kernel.

The methods of manufacture, then employed was badly, often abominably


prepared, if the working be quoted from a letter from Accra, Gold coast, in 1877
and printed in the Kew bulletin ( 1889 p 263 ) whereby the writer describes the
bunches of fruit as cut down from the tree and heaped in the open air for 7 to 10
days, during which the pedicels become weak and the fruit easy to detached.

The dry fruit bunch is then shaken off and fruitlets gathered together. A hole about
a meter deep is dug in the ground and lined with banana leaves; into this hole the
fruitlets are put and left for a period between three weeks and three months for
decomposition to set in, and the pericarp to become quite soft.

Part of the accumulation of fruitlets, if not decomposed enough, will next be boiled
in an iron or earthware pot and returned to the heap, and the entire quantity
transferred to another hole, which is lined with rough stones, where it is pounded
until the pericarp and kernel are separated.

The pericarp are folded into a coarse cloth, and by twisting the ends, the oil is
extracted and the nuts are collected manually.
Another method, which was used in Portuguese West Africa; describes that the
fruit, after they have been detached from the pedicels are put into baskets and
submerged in swamps to ferment, before they are beaten in order to detach the
fruit from the kernel and are again left to ferment for a few days before the oil is

extracted. Off course, oil so crudely process is full of fatty acids, even up to 80%
FFA or sometimes called a Hard oil .

At first the Africans offered in trade the oil of the kernel mixed into the oil of the
pericarp; and as they commonly cracked the shell by heat, the addition imparted a
peculiar smell to the mixture; but, about 1870 the market began to offer a price for
the kernel, which activated the interest of the locals to collect and sell the whole
kernels to the trading stations, who than bagged them for export.

Primitive methods of processing palm oil with crude machines during the course
of the development of the extraction process, saw changes such as the hand
press, centrifugal basket, hydraulic press and the present day screw press, which
also changed the process system, flow and Mill layout design.

The method in winning the oil in the early 1900s was that the bunches were
transported from the field to a convenient place, where they remain for the fruit
bunch to soften, so that the fruitlets may be removed. Next the detached fruitlets
are sterilized by heat; and this kills the enzymes, which would otherwise spoil the
oil by leading to the production of fatty acids.

Keeping in mine that most of the equipment, machinery and plants were designed
to handle Dura type material in the early 1900s and not until 1960s did the change
in the Mill design take place, when Tenera type material made its prominent
appearance in Malaya, when most of the further developments took place in the
Mill layout and selection of processing equipment.

Modern Palm Oil Mills with screw presses were first introduced into Mongana (
Zaire ) in the early 1950s and soon after, about 1956 in Malaya at Jendarata Mill (
United Plantations ) and Limablas, Slim river Mill ( Socfin ) henceforth to process
Malayan Tenera type material ( D X P ) fresh fruit bunches.

The search for new process and the development of oil palm extraction plants,
equipment and machinery continues ..................... End.
Kernel

Shell

Mesocarp
OIL PALM TREE MATRIX OIL PALM COMPONENTS, BIOMASS AND ANALYSIS

by Noel Wambeck 3/3/01 23:56


UNIT MEASURE WEIGHT Percentage
BASIC DATA ELAEIS GUINEENSIS
1 Type of Palm tree Tenera ( D x P )
2 Planting density Number of trees per hectare Trees per hectare 143
3 Growth of fronds per year New leaves per year Nr. Of Fronds 21 - 25
4 Tree growth rate per year Vertical trunk height mm / year 1000
5 Inflorescence full production at every days per cycle 15
6 Number of fruit bunch produced per hectare / year number of fruit bunch Nr / year 1250

7 COMPOSITION OF FFB
7.1 Weight of Fresh fruit bunch (FFB) average weight kg 20 100%
7.2 Empty Bunch (EB) average weight kg 5 25%
7.3 Nos in EB average weight kg 1.4 7%
7.4 Water in EB average weight kg 3.2 16%
7.5 Oil in EB average weight kg 0.4 2%
7.6 Fruitlets in each bunch Individual fruitlet Nr 1500 65%
7.7 Weight of each fruitlet Individual fruitlet grammes 8 to 10
7.8 Nuts in Bunch average weight kg 3 15% Kernel 6%
7.9 Pericarp average weight kg 10 50%

8 YIELDS
8.1 FFB yield per year average weight per hectare in a year mt / year 25
8.2 Crude oil yield per year average weight per hectare in a year mt / year 6.25 25% oil
8.3 Palm Kernel yield per year average weight per hectare in a year mt / year 1.5 6% Palm kernel
9 BIOMASS
9.1 Biomass of fronds pruned annually average weight per year / hectare mt / year / ha 10
9.2 Biomass of Fibre average weight per mt FFB kg 120 12%
9.3 Biomass of Shell average weight per mt FFB kg 80 8%
9.4 Biomass of Empty bunch average weight per mt FFB kg 240 24%
9.5 Moisture in bunch average weight per mt FFB kg 200 20%
9.6 Solid matter in bunch average weight per mt FFB kg 40 4%
9.7 Biomass of spears average dry weight of spears / palm kg / palm / dry 9.4
9.8 Biomass of cabbage average dry weight of cabbage / palm kg / palm / dry 4.5
9.9 Biomass of inflorescences average dry weight of inflorescences / palm kg / palm / dry 6.3
9.10 Biomass of Leaflets ( average 40 fronds ) average dry weight of leaflets / palm kg / palm / dry 58 9%
9.11 Biomass of Rachies ( average 40 fronds) average dry weight of Rachies / palm kg / palm / dry 118 19%
9.12 Biomass of frond bases ( average 40 fronds) average dry weight of frond bases / palm kg / palm / dry 130 21%
9.13 Biomass of Trunk ( 6-9 m length ) average dry weight of Trunk / palm kg / palm / dry 302 48%
9.14 Biomass of matured palm tree in total weight average fresh weight of palm tree 6-9 m kg / palm tree 2200
10 ENERGY kcal Moist. % oil %
Energy value for Oil palm products
10.1 Fibre Net Calorific Value of FIBRE kcal / kg 2,700 2420 30 - 45 7
10.2 Shell Net Calorific Value of SHELL kcal / kg 4,000 3640 10 0
10.3 Empty Bunch Net Calorific Value of EMPTY BUNCH kcal / kg 2,000 1600 33 - 45 2
10.4 Crude Palm Oil Net Calorific Value of CRUDE PALM OIL kcal / kg 10,300
10.5 Input energy per ha /year Annual energy values - INPUT GJ / ha / year 19.2
10.6 Output energy per ha /year Annual energy values - OUTPUT GJ / ha / year 182.1
10.7 Energy values Ratio 9.5

10.8 Energy consumption in oil palm plantation INPUT


10.8.1 Fertilizers GJ / ha / year 11.2
10.8.2 Pesticides, herbicides, rat baits GJ / ha / year 0.8
10.8.3 Machinery GJ / ha / year 5.14
10.8.4 other GJ / ha / year 2.06
10.9 Methane yield of kg mill effluent dry matter average yield of methane is litres per kg dry matterl / kg 230

10.10 Gas liberated by anaerobic digester contain methane percentage 60% l / kg 230
carbon dioxide percntage 35% l / kg 135
other gas percentage 5% l / kg 19
11 BULK DENSITIES
11.1 Air average weight in kg per m3 kg / m3 1.177
11.2 Ash average weight in mt per m3 mt / m3 0.437
11.3 Bunch same same 0.550
11.4 Cracked mixture same same 0.653
11.5 Crude Palm Oil same same 0.890
11.6 Diluted crude oil same same 0.900
11.7 Fibre same same 0.350
11.8 Fresh Fruit Bunch same same 0.480
11.9 Fruitlets same same 0.680
11.10 Palm Kernel Oil same same 0.890
11.11 Palm Nuts same same 0.653
11.12 Palm Olein same same 0.900
11.13 Palm Stearin same same 0.880
11.14 Press expelled cake same same 0.650
11.15 Pure water without air at 30degC same same 0.990
11.16 Shell same same 0.750
11.17 Sludge same same 0.900
11.18 Sterilized Fruit same same 0.660
11.19 Vegetable oils same same 0.950
11.20 Water at 4 deg.C max same same 1
12 AIR ABSORPTION / EMISSIONS OF PALM TREE Page 2.
12.1 Absorption of Carbon Dioxide tonnes of carbon dioxide per hectare tonnes
12.2 Carbon Dioxide emission to produce kw displacement of fossal fuel / tons carbon dioxide per kwtonnes 5
12.3 Oxygen emmissions per hectare tonnes of oxygen per hectare tonnes

13 Soil enrichment contribution


13.1 Carbon contribution of root biomass at contributes carbon per hectare at replanting mt / ha 8

13.2 Nutrient stocks of above ground biomass N kg / ha 577


for replanting cycle P kg / ha 50
K kg / ha 1255
Mg kg / ha 141
Ca kg / ha 258

14 POME application 3 rounds a year or equivalent to twice rate of


Nitrogen kg N/ ha/ year 650
Process waste water from th oil palm mill
14.1 Properties of raw effluent (POME) pH mean 4.1
14.2 BOD mg / Liter 25,000
14.3 COD mg / Liter 53,630
14.4 Total solids mg / Liter 43,635
14.5 Suspended solids mg / Liter 19,020
14.6 Volatile solids mg / Liter 36,515
14.7 Ammoniacal Nitrogen mg / Liter 35
14.8 Total Nitrogen mg / Liter 770
14.9 Oil & Grease mg / Liter 8,370

15 ANALYSIS of dried sludge (POME)


15.1 Moisture 5 - 15 % N 1.8 - 2.3 % B 20 ppm
15.2 Ash 15 - 22 % P 0.3 - 0.4 % Cu 20-50 ppm
15.3 Silica 7 - 10 % K 2.5 - 3.2 % Fe 3000-5000 ppm
15.4 Ether extract 11 - 13 % Mg 0.6 - 0.8 % Mn 50-70 ppm
15.5 Crude fibre 11 - 14 % Ca 0.6 - 0.8 % Zn 20-100 ppm
15.6 Crude protein 11 - 13 %

16 OIL PALM STEM ( Trunk )

16.1 Properties Density ( Oven dry ) kg / m3 220 - 550


MOE Mpa 800 -8,000
MOR Mpa 8 to 45
Compr // to grain Mpa 5 to 25
Hardness (N) 350 - 2,450

16.2 Chemical Composition Alcohol benzene 9.8


Hot water solubes 14.2
Alkali ( 1% NaOH ) soluble 40.2
Holocellulose 45.7
Alpha - cellulose 29.2
Acid- insoluble lignin 18.8
Pentosans 18.8
Ash 2.3

16.3 Sugar Contents ( after acid hydrolysis ) % of O.D. original fibre Persentage Average %
Glucose 35
Xylose 14.,47
Galactose 0.5
Arabinose 1
Mannose 0.83
Rhamnose 0.2
APPARENT DENSITY OF OILS AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES (3)
(Decimal point omitted)

RECOMMENDED VALUES FOR (CRUDE) PALM OIL PRODUCTS

Palm Oil Range


MS814:1983, Rel density 50/25 deg.C 0.8919 to 0.8932
AOCS, Spec.grav. 37.8/25 deg.C 0.888 to 0.901
Equivalent 50/25 deg.C 0.880 to 0.893
Codex Aliment. Rel density 50/20 deg.C 0.891 to 0.899
Equivalent 50/25 deg.C 0.892 to 0.900
Palm Olein
MS816:1983, Rel density 40/25 deg.C 0.9001 to 0.9028
Palm Stearin
MS815: 1983, Rel density 60/25 deg.C 0.8816 to 0.8915

Source: Porim technology No.12 Aug 1985 The Density of oils in the liquid state.

16th August 1997./ NW


MALAYSIA PALM OIL PRODUCTS EXPORT PROCEDURE
1. The buyer and the seller sign a sales contract in accordance to products and standard
contract forms for PORAM, FOSFA, MEOMA, MOPGC, GAFTA

2. PORLA licensees are required to register the contracts with PORLA within 24 hours after
the contracts are concluded, A copy of the contract must be submitted to PORLA within
30 days.

3. The seller fills in the Exchange Control Form (KPW 3) and submits it to the bank for
approval of foreign exchange.

4. The buyer instructs his bank to Issue a credit in favour of the seller.

5. The buyers bank advises or confirms the credit to the sellers bank.

6. The sellers bank informs the seller that the credit has been issued.

7. The seller is in a position to load the goods and dispatch them to the buyer

8. The following documents are required for the exports.

a. Commercial Invoice.
b. Bill Of Lading.
c. Packing List.
d. Marine Insurance Policy (CIF)
e. Customs Declaration Form (CD 2)
f. Exchange Control Form (KWP 3)
g. Survey report.
h. Analysis Certificate.
i. Ship Masters Authorisation Letter for shipping agent to sign Bill Of Lading.
j. IASC Heating Instructions.
k. Masters Certificate For The Last Three Cargoes.
l. Masters Certificate certifying vessel tank, heating oil, manifold pipe and pipelines,
valves and fittings do not contain copper or copper alloy.
m. Cargo Shipped Under The Appropriate FOSFA Contract
n. Other document as and when required, may include:
Phyto Sanitary Certificate
Radiation- free Certificate
Lard-free Certificate
Certificate Of Origin

9. The seller then remits to the sellers bank the documents evidencing the shipment as
follows:

a. Commercial Invoice
b. Packing List
c. Certificate of Origin
d. Bill Of Lading
c. Marine Insurance Policy
d. Original Letter of Credit
e. Survey/Analysis Certificate

10. After checking the documents against the credit, the bank will pay, accept or negotiate
according to the terms of the credit to the seller.

14th September 2000./ NW


THE HISTORY OF PLANTATIONS IN INDONESIA.

THE HISTORY OF PLANTATIONS IN INDONESIA


Noel Wambeck June 21st 1992 ( Revised )

To appreciate the present developments in the Indonesian Oil palm industry, one has to look
back into the history of plantations in Indonesia.

Large plantations were first established 170 years ago by the Dutch colonial administration, and
term what was known as Cultuur Stelsel ( forced cultivation ) .

Oil Palm Plantations today are not only divided into large and small holding plantation, but also
Nucleus Estates Schemes or ( PIR ) which constitutes a form of cooperation between large
plantation companies and small holders.

Development of the plantations since 1830 to present day operations are as follows:

Period I. ( 1830 to 1870 )

During this period, plantation consist of camps established by the Government, then the Dutch
Government on the cultuur stelsel system with forced labour.

But prior to this period, trade went on in the normal way between the VOC a Dutch trading
company and with Indonesian growers with chosen agents who were important to the Dutch.

The agents were mostly ethnic Chinese, officials of the Indonesian Kingdoms or Dutch
nationals.

The VOC set up a number of warehouses in areas near a port to facilitate the trade.

The commodities were the products grown by the Indonesian farmers which were controlled and
managed by VOC who later on handed over the monopolized trade to the Dutch Government
which brought about the start of the Dutch colonial power in Java.

The process of domination of the country was hampered by the situation in Europe for a period,
when the Netherlands was under the French Napoleon rule.

The Napoleon war from 1800 - 1816 and then the Diponegoro war from 1825 to 1830, caused
financial problems, which prom the Dutch Governor Daendles at that point of time to surrender
Indonesia to Britain for a period, and after the defeat of Napoleon, the Dutch regained a foothold
and power in Indonesia.

The Dutch Government with the lack of funds, took on a program to cope with the budget deficit,
whereby the cultuur stelsel was introduced which started the forced cultivation in 1830 the
farmers were forced to set aside one fifth of their land to grow export crops and further to work
60 days per year, without pay for the Government.

The cultuur stelsel system earned the Dutch Government 18 million guilders a year or 60% of
the Dutch budget revenue.

1
THE HISTORY OF PLANTATIONS IN INDONESIA.

The first crops to be grown were, sugar and indigo, but later the crops range were diversified to
include coffee, tea, tobacco, pepper, cinnamon and cotton of which coffee grew to become the
main crop.
Plantation were established in West Java for Sugar, coffee and pepper whereas indigo was
stopped after it turned out to be not profitable as a synthetic substitute was discovered.

The first plantation of palms of the Deli type was made in Java in 1859, and during the ten years
of experimental observation, showed very good growth, and fruited.

It was brought to Singapore about 1870, probably from Java, seed was soon distributed to
various places, chiefly to gardens of those who cared to grow it as an ornamental tree.

In 1879 Buitenzorg had sent seed to Sumatra and the palms grew well; so that Sumatra
appears to have received its two first supplies of the palm from the Buitenzorg stock, one direct
and the other through Singapore.

Some of the oldest palms in Sumatra, those on the St Cyr tobacco estate, figured by Rutgers
are recorded as from seed from the Botanic gardens of Singapore; and these trees, in turn,
supplied offsprings to many other places in Sumatra.

The idea of a common origin is supported by the characters which all the old trees have in
common.

Rutgers thinks that the actual trees of 1879 were subsequently removed to make room for the
town of Medan as this tree race is the old Deli type.

The vernacular names for the palm in Java are ' salak minyak ', ' klapa sawit and ' klapa sewu'.

The tree was then freely distributed in that island, and about 1906 interest in the oil palm was
aroused among Malayan planters, who planted a few trees on their estates by way of
experiment.

Period II ( 1870 to 1900 )

Liberalism in Europe in 1850 opposed the cultuur stelsel system enforced by the colonial
countries which marked the begaining of the privatisation of plantations in Indonesia.

The new era of advancing communications and transport, fuel the growth of liberalism in Europe
as telegraph system was introduced in 1856, the postal system in 1862 and the opening of the
Suez canal in 1869.

The Agrarian law in 1870 made it possible for private companies to secure land title for 75 years,
which were considered long enough for plantations.

Dutch ownership of plantations companies, mushroomed with the support of Dutch Government,
banks, trading houses, communications and transport facilities.

The Dutch built railways to facilitate transport of the plantation commodities and irrigation
systems for the crops.

2
THE HISTORY OF PLANTATIONS IN INDONESIA.

In Deli north Sumatra, investors were allowed to lease the land owned by the Sultan for 75 years
and growing of the reknowned Deli tobacco was established and later on orther plantations were
opened to include Rubber, Coffee and Oil Palm estates.

Period III. ( 1900 to 1930 )

The fast growth of plantations in the Golden era of plantation companies, before the first world
war saw the expansion in acreage, productivity and diversification of crops.

The first rubber plantation was established in 1905 and followed by Oil palm plantation in 1911.

The importance of Chinese tea was changed for Assam tea and Arabica coffee for Robusta.

The Indonesian Kings or Sultans had their powers reduced in 1915 and the Dutch authorities
began collecting tax on land.

During this period the boost in prices of major commodities before the first world war, was the
main factor in the expansion of plantations in Indonesia.

The number of plantations increased from 2130 in 1925 to 2467 in 1930 with an expansion in the
acreage from 2.6 million hectares to 2.8 million.

Period IV ( 1930 to 1940 )

The depression period which began with the crisis in 1929 resulted with a steep fall in prices,
whereby the supply exceeded the demand for most commodities including plantation crops in
the world market which hit rock bottom in 1933.

According to the Javasche Ban, exports in 1933 were worth only 40% of the export prices for
the same commodities in 1929.

The global recession forced the Government to impose restriction on production and exports
through a quota system on tea, rubber, sugar and copra in 1933.

Farmers were even prohibited to tap rubber, under what was called ' rubber restrictie' whereby
the Dutch government offered cash compensation for rubber plantations.

A team was set up to supervise the distribution of the compensation of which the government
charged levies on certain plantation crops to finance research and marketing promotions.

The number of plantations and acreage is shown in the table below:


Details 1930 1933 1938
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Plantations. 2467 2395 2402
Acreage held under HGU ( Ha) 2,876,000 2,410,000 2,485,000
Acreage cultivated (Ha) 1,048,000 1,089,000 1,171,000

source ; Institute of Asian Studies.

Many sugar mills were forced to shut down operations as a result of the recession; leasing of
small holder's lands declined by 51% where many concession holders with land title (HGU)
returned the land to the government, resulting in a sharp shrinkage in the acreage of plantations.

3
THE HISTORY OF PLANTATIONS IN INDONESIA.

Period V. ( 1940 to 1950 )

The advent of world war II in 1941, communication with the Netherlands ceased and in March
1942, Japanese forces landed on Java and the occupation of Indonesia.
All development hauled as many foreign planters and owners left the country or were arrested by
the Japanese; leaving the larger plantations without proper management, however the small
holders of local Indonesian farmers increased in numbers as they had to be self-sufficient;
resulting in the expansion of small holding plantations.

The Japanese authorities took over the management of plantations and reinstated forced
cultivation of the land.

The Dutch which returned to resume colonial administration in Indonesia, after Japan
surrendered, relied mainly on plantations for finance.

Rehabilitation of some of the plantations, where it was possible under the tense situation as the
during this time, were the plans made by the locals for the war of independence of Indonesia.

The original foreign owners of the plantations could only regain and operate their plantations in
the areas where the Dutch military could effectively maintain authority.

Period VI. ( 1950 to 1970 )

This period marked by the consolidation and fostering of plantations which were still productive;
pre and post independence of Indonesia.

The process of transferring ownership was made between Indonesian private companies and the
colonial or foreign owners which took place from 1959 to 1962 during the campaign to free Irian
Jaya from the Dutch colonial rule.

The number of plantations, continued to decline and the acreage reduced from 1,819,000 Ha in
1950 to 841,800 Ha in 1970.

The plantations were managed and operated by state-owned companies in 1962 which were
gradually changed into limited companies.

The Indonesian Government took direct control over British, Malayan and Singapore plantations
in Indonesia; following the campaign against the establishment of the new Malaysia which was
later returned to its original owners, when the control was lifted towards the end of the 60's.when
Indionesia and Malaysia resume a relationship.

The implementation of the Agrarian law No. 5 in 1960, replaced a similar Dutch law the
Agrarische Wet of 1870.

The law maintained the controlling rights by the state over land.

The law regulated the land title as follows:

a. The land title for exploitation was for 25 years and could be extended to 35 years.

b. Concession rights was lifted and replaced with HGU.

c. HGU for land wider than 25 hectares was available only for a company based in
Indonesia.

4
THE HISTORY OF PLANTATIONS IN INDONESIA.

d. A HGU land was at least 5 hectares and no wider than 25 hectares could be held by
an individual

A concession holder was required to convert its land title to HGU and in the process the holder
is required to hand over part of the land to the state to be given to a new private company which
resulted an increase in the number of private plantation companies.

Period VII. ( 1970 to date )

The new order period, called the ' Repelita' ( five year development plan.) marked the start of the
phase development of the plantation sector, with the focused on improvement of productivity and
efficiency.

The main commodities were given greater attention for development are sugar, rubber and oil
palm as a number of state owned plantation companies received credit aid from the world bank
to improve productivity and efficiency.

The Government's prime concern was for the farmer, and in the middle of the 1970's introduced
a new system for development of plantations for the small holder which is known as the " small
holder nucleus pattern ( PIR ); A state plantation company ( PTP ) planning to expand its
acreage must use the PIR pattern whereby under the system, PTP act as an agent of
development of the tree crop projects.

Private companies could use the National Private Plantation (PBSN) scheme without having to
use the PIR pattern.

Working relations between small holders and the large plantations companies were maintained
through the selling of crop by the small holder and purchase by the PTPs who is responsible for
the processing and marketing of finished products.

The Government have adopted two systems in the development of the plantation sector, such as
in the intensification and diversification programs; One is based on the initiative of the farmer
with government guidance and the other is program oriented, based on the government program
with partial or integrated approaches.

The partial approach is assistance to plantation companies by providing part of production,


usually in the form of seedlings and guidance, while the integrated approach, the government
provides all production factors which includes fund, management, operation and marketing.

Great progress has been made in Indonesia in recent years to improve the lot of its citizens.

The Indonesian oil palm industry have also advanced and are poised for a major leap forward;
this has been made possible by an enlightened Government and by the efficient implementation
of the government directives.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

Selected documents, data, studies and books available in the project file are :

Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula by I.H. Burkill dated 1935.

Indonesia tree crop processing project 6949-IND dated 11th Jan 1988.

5
THE HISTORY OF PLANTATIONS IN INDONESIA.

Study on Indonesian plantations and market of Palm Oil 1990 Book by PT. Capricorn Indonesia Consult Inc.

Progress and development of Oil palm industry in Indonesia by Adlin U Lubis dated Sept.1991.

Notes from the Institute of Asian Studies.

6
OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS & PROCESS 0

OIL PALM MILL, SYSTEMS AND PROCESS.


By Noe l Wambe ck ( Re vi sed June, 1999 )

&INTRODUCTION
The aim of the writer of this paper is to provide an overall brief description of the Oil Palm Mill
flow process and its systems employed based on concept and collective experience of the firm.

Any errors in intention are regrettable

The synopsis of the Malaysian Oil Palm Industry success is basically due to the following
factors:

Commercially sound investment with state encouragement.

Practical Project Study Preparation.

Good management of the plantation who will provide for and ensure good genetical
planting material, soil conditioning, harvesting, collection standards, handling and
transportation of FFB to the mill and let nature do the rest.

Proper selection of the process system, machinery equipment and plant ( eg. Process
matching with type of FFB ) for high extraction yield, quality palm oil and palm
kernel.

Efficient transportation of the finished production to the bulking station or refinery.

Good shipping facilities for loading and discharge of the finished products for the
export market.

And last but not the least, a dedicated and loyal workforce whose ambition is filled
with grit.

Malaysian engineers can to-day provide Oil Palm Mill and process systems designs to
achieve lower production cost, train and organize a stable work force, which will
maintain the oil palm mill effectively and produce the best quality product at maximum
yield extraction for the minimum cost.
OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS & PROCESS 2

&THE REQUIREMENT OF A MODERN OIL PALM MILL.

The requirements of a modern oil palm mill shall be with consideration for and incorporation of the
latest technology available in the Industry and to include the following :

a) To be suitable in every respect for processing fruit from Tenera palms;

b) To recovery with the minimum loss the palm oil and the kernels;

c) To produce oil and kernels of the highest quality;

d) To facilitate the disposal of the shell, fibre; and empty bunches;

e) To incinerate the empty bunches for the recovery of the potash for fertilizer or to treat the empty
bunch to recover 0.25% additional oil and used as fuel to produce steam for more valuable electrical
power generation.

f) The plant and process shall be Environmentally friendly and to dispose of waste water (sludge) in
such as a way as not pollute local rivers and waters;

g) To be reliable and suitable for local conditions of labour supervision and maintenance.

h) Consideration and the incorporation of safety aspects that comply with Occupational Safety and
Health act, such as to provide for good ventilation, working space, dust free and noise levels within
permissible limits.

i) The incorporation of operating procedures, equipment, plant and process systems to meet the
ecological, hygienic and cleanliness of the plant on par with good food manufacturing industrial plant
standards.

j) Designed for cost effectiveness for operation and maintenance.

&THE PALM.
Practically all the oil palm planted in the Far East are directly related to one, two or four oil palms
which were brought from Africa and planted in the Buiterzorg botanical gardens in Java in 1848.

The material bred from these palms is referred to as Dura Deli. It is very stable and uniform in Oil and
kernel content.

An average content of the fresh fruit bunch ( FFB ) is 25% oil, 5.5% kernel, 6% shell, 9% fibre, 25%
empty bunch ( EB ) and the balance is moisture.

In recent years another parent has been introduced to produce the material referred to as Tenera.

The same Dura Dali palm is used to produce the Tenera palm seed but it is pollinated with pollen from
a selected Pisifera palm ( the selected Pisifera when self pollinated produce fruit with a small kernel
and little shell ).

The resultant Tenera material produces fruit with more oil than Dura material, the same kernels as Dura
but less shell than Dura.
OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS & PROCESS 3

For this reason, it is now always planted in preference to the straight Dura Deli and it is for Tenera
material that all modern oil palm mill systems should be designed.

The quality of the palm oil and kernels is at its highest just before harvesting, collection and milling.

The extent to which the oil is degraded depends on the system used and the care with which is
executed.

&TENERA BUNCH COMPOSITION.


The bunch composition will very from bunch to bunch and from tree to tree particularly in respect of
shell thickness but the average bunch content for Tenara material (D x P) with an assumed average
composition of Fresh Fruit Bunch ( FFB ) or now called Palm Fruit Bunch ( PFB ) from matured
palms having a maximum 2.5 ffa for the extraction of Crude Palm Oil and Palm Kernel.

TENERA MATERIAL COMPOSITION ( PORLA STD )

Empty bunch 25% = Nos 7% = ash 0.5%


= water 16%
= Oil 2%
Evaporation 10%

Fruitlets 65% = nuts 15% = kernel 6%


= pericarp 50% = NOS 7.5%
= water 19.5%
Total PFB 100% = Oil 23%
====
Total Oil Plus FFA = 25% to Palm Fruit Bunch

&HARVESTING.
Harvesting is normally a 6 to 8 day cycle. It is important that the fruit must not be harvested before it is
ripe, that is until the process of photosynthesis, which converts the carbohydrates into fat, is well in
advance.

The oil content of unripe mesocarp may be in the order of 35% whereas the oil content of ripe mesocarp
is usually between 50% and 55%.

The harvesting of under ripe fruit can cause losses in the order of 8% of the possible yield.
OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS & PROCESS 4

&FREE FATTY ACID ( FFA)


The FFA content of the oil in the bunch before harvesting may be in the order of 0.1% whilst the FFA
of the oil in the same bunch when it is received at the mill will never be less than 1%, normally in the
order of 3%, and is frequently above 3% under bad conditions.

A low FFA content is the first characteristic to which edible oil refiners pay attention.

A premium of 1% of the sale price is paid for every one percent, should the FFA content be below 5%
and the Refining loss will be 1.25% to 1.80% per 1% of FFA.

The rise in the FFA content from harvest to mill will make possible the harvesting of riper fruit with
higher oil content and recovery of higher quality oil with a lower FFA.

The riper the fruit the more vulnerable it is to damage during transport and handling.

Of all different stages of processing, the harvesting of the palm tree and the transport of fruit to the
edible oil refiner has the most effect on quality.

&FRUIT COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT.


There are two basic systems used for fruit transport.

One is the collection of fruit directly into the sterilizer cages and the other is the collection of the
fruit in trucks or trailers and then transferred into sterilizer cages at the oil palm mill.

The transfer system is less costly but results in some loss of oil and a higher FFA content due
to the extra handling and damage to the fruit.

The other system requires that the sterilizer cages be taken to the field for direct loading from
the collection points.

At such points the harvesters place the fruit on nets which are lifted by crane to load gently into the
sterilizer cages.

At the time when the fruit is lifted in the nets it is convenient to weigh, using a weighing cell.

This is particularly important for the collection of small holder crops.


OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS & PROCESS 5

OIL PALM PROCESSING.


The flow diagram and matrix relating to the processing of fruit from Tenera palms is shown in the
appendix enclosed.

1.0 FFB Reception.

The FFB bunches loaded on trucks, cages or trailer are weighed on arrival at the mill and on
departure when empty by weighbridge of 50 ton capacity and automatically recorded, that is
computerised.

After weighing-in process of the truck, cage or trailer, the PFB are dumped into the inclined hopper
at the ramp that will hold 900 mt PFB ( 2 lines of 15 bays x 30 mt PFB ).

Modern mills in Malaysia are equipped with the following in the reception area of the mill:

A. Load cell ( pitless ) 50 tons weigh bridge of 3.3m W x 15m L and computerised.

B. Larger loading ramp with double door hoppers of 30mt capacity per bay.

C. FFB Cage and bogie with capacities of 5, 7 and 10 mt of wheel spanned of 800mm gauge.

D. FFB loading into cages by conveyor system

E. Straight line railway system with Cage transfer carriage located at both ends of the railtrack
system to facilitate easier operation of the 2-door sterilizer and shunting of the cages can be
handled easily with the capstan and Bollard.

On opening the hopper door ( 2 doors to a bay ) the bunches drop into the 7mt cages with bogies placed
beneath it.

The loaded PFB cages are then conveyed by the transfer carriage on the rail track and pushed into the
sterilizer, by a winch and ballard system for sterilization.

2.0 Sterilization.

The sterilizer process is done in 5, 7 and today 10 tons capacity FFB cages which are pushed into long
cylindrical steel vassel with special doors and subjected to steam at approximately 3 BAR.

One of the effects of sterilisation is to inactivate the fruit enzyme. Once this enzyme has been
inactivated the rise of the FFA is virtually stopped.

The objective after harvesting is to sterilize the fruit as quickly as possible with the minimum of
handling and damage.

In addition to arresting the development of the FFA content, the sterilizing of the fruit also facilitates:

a. The purification of the palm oil by coagulating nitrogenous and mucilaginous matter and thus
preventing the formation of emulsions during verification of the crude oil.
OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS & PROCESS 6

b. The extraction of the crude palm oil by freeing the fruits from the bunch stalks and by breaking
the oil cells in the mesocarp.

Majority of mills today has programmable automatic control systems to cater for proper sterilization of
90-minute cycle.

Sterilisation is a simple process but it is essential, for the proper operation of the mill so that it is
done correctly. This operation is the largest user of steam in the mill.

A STERILISER STATION WITH SINGLE DOOR STERILISERS

3.0 Stripping.

After the sterilisation the sterilised fruit in 3.5 mt PFB Cages are then winched out of the steriliser
vassal by the arrangement of Bollard & winch and then placed in position for the remote control
overhead hoist, for the activity of emptying the FFB into the threshing machine which will separate the
empty bunches from fruit.

Or for larger capacity mill with 5 mt FFB cages and above, into the cage Tippler machine a ring
structure for emptying the contents of FFB onto a scraper type conveyor and transported to the thresher
machine for stripping of the fruitlets from bunch.

The fruit is then conveyed by screw conveyors and bucket elevators to the Pressing or Extraction
station.

New mills have included in their design bunch crusher and secondary thresher system for recovery of
fruitlets of large or poorly sterilised bunches which are difficult to strip.
OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS & PROCESS 7

4.0 Empty Bunches.

Empty bunches from 25% of the total weight of the ffb. They are then returned to the field as fertilizer
after incineration for the recovery of resultant potash, in conventional mills.

They have no food value and have a high silica content. When properly incinerated they yield 0.3 to
0.5% of potash.

Utilisation of empty bunche for field application as fertiliser supplement is found to be cost effective
by some plantation groups and to the others justification of logistics, other constrains or practical
experience? seems to be the objection for use of EFB in the field.

In recent years a system has been introduced in Malaysia for the Treatment of Empty Bunches which
recovers a further 0.25% of the oil on ffb from the empty bunches and at the same time reduces the
moisture content to approximately 35% so that they can be used as additional solid waste fuel for steam
and power generation, required for other down stream process.

5.0 Oil Extraction.

The efficient extraction of the crude oil from Tenera fruit has presented problems but these have been
overcome by the development of the continuous screw press, which is now used in all modern factories.

The fruit from the stripper passes to digesters, which complete the breaking of the oil cells with slow
moving arms. Digesters have a capacity of above 3 cubic metres.

TYPICAL SIDE VIEW OF THE EXTRACTION STATION


OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS & PROCESS 8

The fruit mash then passes to the screw presses (capacities of 1016Mt FFB per hour) which press the
crude oil out through holes in the side of the press cage. The press cake, which is discharged from the
end of the press, contains the fibre and the nuts.

The three products separated in this section are :

a) The crude oil which consists of water, dirt and palm oil. This is passed to the purification
section;

b) Nuts: 15% of the ffb. Is separated by the depericarper and kernel plant for the recovery of the
kernels;

c) Fibre: Approximately 15% of the ffb weight with moisture content of 37%. The residual oil
content should be between 6% and 8% of oil to dry fibre.

The fibre should also retain as far as possible the phophatides and other non-glycerides
impurities. The fibre separated in the deparicarper winnowing system is conveyed to the boiler
as fuel.

The proper design of the extraction section is important. Unsatisfactory practices such as excessive
drainage of the crude oil before the extraction press leads not only to purification problems and losses
but also to the higher absorption of iron by the palm oil.

The importance of reducing the absorption of heavy metal, copper and iron is indicated by the
totox value. For the production of superior quality palm oil, stainless steel moving the wearing
parts should be used for extraction units (such as the digester and screwpress).

6.0 Kernel Recovery

The conditioning of the nuts starts in the sterilizer and the separation starts in the screw presses. After
the screw press the nuts and the fibre traverse a heated breaker conveyor which further separates them
and removes moisture from the fibre.

The fibre and nuts then pass into a pneumatic separating column, called the winnowing column fitted
with IC damper in operation, depending on the number of presses in operation.

The fibre is blown into a cyclone close to the boiler and the nuts pass down a polishing drum, designed
to handle a verity of nuts which removes any attached dirt or fibres and tramp iron.
OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS & PROCESS 9

A. Press cake to winnowing

B. Ejection of Nuts

C. Fibre to cyclone

D. Removal of dirt & tramp iron

A DEPARICARPER, WINNOWING COLUMN AND POLISHING DRUM STATION FOR FIBRE & NUTS SEPARATION

The nuts are conditioned in nut silos before being cracked in centrifugal nutcrackers or / and in present
day Rippler mills. After cracking, the cracked mixture is separated in the double winnowing separating
column for dry separating system or separated in hydrocyclones or clay baths.

These processes are wet. A modern Hydroclay bath separator is more efficient than a hydrocyclone
separator when processing more than 15% Dura material in the cracked mixture.

A supply of suitable clay at the rate of approximately 450 kg to 100 tons of ffb is necessary for the
clay separator system. Both systems depend upon the density of the shell being greater then the
density of the kernels.

The higher yield of PK compensates the addition cost of clay or kaolin required for the Hydro-clay
bath separator process.

The shell and kernels are washed and the kernels are passed to a kernel dryer to normalize the
moisture content of 7% so as to minimize the development of FFA during storage and shipment.

It is also advantages to sterilizer the kernels before shipment or storage with steam at atmospheric
pressure.
Kernel plants designed for Dura derived nuts are not suitable for the processing of Tenera
derived nuts. There have been a number of experimental designs, which have proved failures.

Caution and a wide experience are required in selecting the proper equipment and design for
kernel recovery plant.

7.0 Palm Oil Purification

The modern purification or oil classification station is designed to recover and purify the crude oil as
quickly as possible with the minimum heating and exposure to air.

This is to minimize the damage by oxidation, which is caused by the exposure of crude oil to air at
high temperature.
OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS & PROCESS 10

The process begin at the crude oil tank of the extraction station and ends at oil cooler as finished CPO
with dirt contents of 0.009% and moisture contents of 0.09%.

The major effluent problem is eliminated by the decanter system, which removes the semi-solid
sludge for treatment, by the sludge dryer, which reduces the moisture of the sludge from 45% to
10%.

Adequate heat for drying of the sludge is obtained from the boiler exhaust flue gasses.

The composition of the dryer decanter cake is shown in Appendix.

The major contributor to poor quality oil is oxidation.

Oxidation measured by the totox value, starts when the oil is above 60C and exposed to air
During processing, storage and shipment.

8.0 Steam and Power Generation.

Utilization of existing energy resources is indispensable not only for large industrial processes but also
for small production plant and in particular oil palm mills where the balance between heat and power
are required for production process which are pre-condition for a combined heat and power ( CHP
) scheme. Or commonly referred to as C0-GENERATION SYSTEM.

Solid waste fuel in the form of shell, fibre and empty bunches which are by-products of the process are
utilized as fuel for the boiler.

Steam is required for processing at the approximate rate of 500kg per hour per ton ffb.

This steam can be easily raised in a reasonably efficient water tube boiler with fuel available from the
Fibre, shell and empty bunch. Power is required at the approximate rate of 15 to 25 Kw per ton ffb.

This can be easily be provided by placing a back-pressure single stage steam turbine between the
boiler and the header of the mill processing system.

Steam is generated from the boiler at a pressure of say 20 Bar.g and into the steam turbo alternator at
18.5 Bar.g at 260C with back pressure of 3.16 Bar.g for the mill process which is convenient and
effective for process Heating.

The additional power generated in this system is made possible by burning of the empty bunches as
shown in the enclosed Fuel /Steam /Power balance and Steam Production from 1 Ton Solid Waste Fuel
for a Oil Palm Mill.

Every ton of FFB can produce 733 kg steam and 30kw power shown, in the diagram below :

A system has been introduced for the treatment and disposal of empty bunches and recovery of palm oil
and at the same instance reduces the moisture contents of the empty bunches to approx. 45 % so that
they can be used as solid waste fuel for the boiler and production of additional steam and electrical
power.
OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS & PROCESS 11

Every ton of FFB can produce 733 kg steam and 30kw power shown, in the diagram below :

Steam is produced by water tube boilers at pressures and temperatures higher ( 20 bar.g 207 deg. C )
than required for the process. First it is expanded in steam turbines, and then led into the process
where the latent heat contained in the exhaust steam ( 3.16 bar.g ) is utilized for sterilisation of FFB
and heating systems in the process.

The diagram below show a typical CHP scheme of a modern oil palm mill.

The energy released during the expansion of steam is converted by the turbine into mechanical power to
drive an alternator.
OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS & PROCESS 12

There is a direct relationship between the number of palms cultivated and the corresponding harvest
yield of a given plantation area processed by the mill, the primary energy available in the by product
fuel, and power / heat requirement of the mill

A properly design Oil Palm Mill will not only provide sufficient steam and electrical power for its
operation requirement but will provide an additional 17 to 33 % more power for other planned
integrated down stream processes, domestic use or sold to other consumers of power.

9.0 Effluent Control.

SOURCE OF SOLID WASTE, EFFLUENT & POLLUTION

Effluent discharge quantities in Oil palm mills is dependent on the extent of design of the milling
process systems, in -plant process control, equipment maintenance and good house-keeping.

The solid waste or by-products in the oil palm milling process, consist of :

Empty bunches
Shell and fibers
Decanted solids
Sludge centrifuge solids
Boiler ash
De-sludging of ponds.

Solid waste such as treated empty bunches ( de-water ) of approximately 25% to FFB and recovered
dryed sludge of approximately 3% to FFB are by products that will be utilized in the plantation and sold
as produces.

The shell and fiber are sources of solid waste fuel for co-power generation in the oil palm mill.

Waste water from the sterilizer condensate, clarificatio n effluent and hydro-cyclone or claybath
discharges are sufficiently contaminated and require treatment.

Some of the sources waste water discharged from the steam turbine condensate / cooling system and
boiler blow down are relatively clean and can be put to good use in the process such as for the dilution
system, screw press, oil gutter spraying and for the factory floor cleaning requirements.

The liquid effluent total quantity of 0.6 to 1 mt per ton of FFB between the generating sources being as
follows :

Sterilizer condensate
Calrification station
Hydrocyclone / Claybath.
Other waste water
OIL PALM MILL SYSTEMS & PROCESS 13

The table below presents the typical physical and chemical properties of raw effluent from Oil palm
milling process.

PARAMETER MEAN

pH 4.1
BOD 25,000
COD 53,630
Total Solids 43,635
Suspended Solids 19,020
Volatile Solids 36,515
Ammoniacal Nitrogen 35
Total Nitrogen 770
Oil and Grease 8,370

* All values except pH are in milligrams per liter ( mg / L) Source : PORIM

The total liquid effluent could well increase if mill process wash water is included.

The effluent is not toxic but it has a biochemical oxygen demand of above 25,000 (BOD) which makes
it objectionable to fish life when introduced in relatively large quantities in waterways and rivers.

The objective is to treat the oil palm mill effluent discharge so as to comply with conditions imposed by
the Department of Environment (DOE) for disposal in accordance to standards as follows:

Standard A. - For discharge to rivers shall be less than BOD 20 mg / l


Standard B For discharge to waterways shall be less than - BOD 50 mg / l
Standard C For discharge to land & field shall be less than - BOD 500 mg / l

A system to treat affluent by ponding or Oxidation ponds is commonly adopted in Malaysia.

The system of Anaerobic and Aerobic process in general conform to regulations which require a
sizeable area of 65 to 75 days retention time for the ponds, proper monitoring, cost for power for
circulation pumps and aerators, de-sludging of ponds, maintenance and supervision but at times are
unstable as a result of a reduction of ponding volume due to silting with sludge, weather conditions and
by contamination.

Many systems are being tried but no generally accepted system has yet emerged.

The systems tried including centrifuges, fitters, sun bed drying, air flotation / coagulation and
mechanical extended aeration plants.

Some pilot systems include Methane production units and Effluent free system or Zero discharge by
means of a multi-Stage condensing unit and Thermal Oxidation plant to produce dry sludge in the finish
product as POME which is sold as fertiliser and filler for animal feed.

The search for new designs and systems continues..

q Oil Palm Mill Schematic Process Flow


q Oil Palm Process Matrix
q Process Mass flow and losses during Production

Noel Wambeck / October. 1997 / Revised June 23, 1999.


ALTERNATIVE
CAGE TIPPLER
SYSTEM

EMPTY BUNCH
DISPOSAL BY DECANTER FOR
INCINERATION SOLIDS REMOVAL
FIELD APPLICATION
OR OIL RECOVERY

CRUDE PALM OIL 0.09% moist. 0.009% dirt.

DRY KERNEL 7% moisture 4.6% dirt.

Designed by Noel Wambeck - 25th. July 1992


05b. Matrix OPM Process.xls

MATRIX OIL PALM MILL PROCESS. BASED ON MALAYSIA TENERA MATERIAL WITH 25% OIL CONTENT

POINT SAMPLE AT POINT Mill Capacity: mt FFB / Hr > 1 3 5 10 20 30 45 60 90 120


% / FFB OIL WATER SOLID OTHER Weight in kg.
A Fresh fruit bunches 100 25 48.5 26.5 kg 1,000 3,000 5,000 10,000 20,000 30,000 45,000 60,000 90,000 120,000

B Empty bunches 25 0.75 18 6.25 0 250 750 1,250 2,500 5,000 7,500 11,250 15,000 22,500 30,000
B1 Liquid from EB Press 8.3 0.249 7.387 0.664 0 83 249 415 830 1,660 2,490 3,735 4,980 7,470 9,960
B2 Potash ( Bunch ash ) 0.5 0.5 5 15 25 50 100 150 225 300 450 600

C Fruitlets on bunch 66 24.25 37 7 0 660 1,980 3,300 6,600 13,200 19,800 29,700 39,600 59,400 79,200
C1 Fruitlets in Empty bunch loss 2 0.735 1.121 0.212 0 20 60 100 200 400 600 900 1,200 1,800 2,400

D Digested mash 64 23.52 35.88 6.79 0 640 1,920 3,200 6,400 12,800 19,200 28,800 38,400 57,600 76,800
D1 Press Cake 26 1.56 10.9 14.0 0 260 780 1,300 2,600 5,200 7,800 11,700 15,600 23,400 31,200
D2 Extraction CPO & water ex-press 38 21.96 15.2 0.84 0 380 1,140 1,900 3,800 7,600 11,400 17,100 22,800 34,200 45,600

E Wet Fibre & Nuts to depericarper 25.75 1.55 10.82 13.39 0 257 771 1,285 2,570 5,140 7,710 11,565 15,420 23,130 30,840
E1 Wet Fibre to boiler 12.0 1.08 3.60 6.48 0 120 360 600 1,200 2,400 3,600 5,400 7,200 10,800 14,400
E2 Wet Nut Ex- winnowing 13.75 0.47 0.76 12.53 0 137 411 685 1,370 2,740 4,110 6,165 8,220 12,330 16,440

F Cracked Mixture 12.5 0 125 375 625 1,250 2,500 3,750 5,625 7,500 11,250 15,000
F1 Kernel 5.5 0 55 165 275 550 1,100 1,650 2,475 3,300 4,950 6,600
F2 Shell 7 0 70 210 350 700 1,400 2,100 3,150 4,200 6,300 8,400
F3 Water for Hydrocyclone 80 80kg 0 80 240 400 800 1,600 2,400 3,600 4,800 7,200 9,600
F4 Clay for Claybath system 5 5kg 5 15 25 50 100 150 225 300 450 600

G Crude oil diluated with water 53.2 21.96 30.4 0.84 0 532 1,596 2,660 5,320 10,640 15,960 23,940 31,920 47,880 63,840
G1 Clarified crude oil to Purifier 25.00 21.96 2.20 0.84 0 250 750 1,250 2,500 5,000 7,500 11,250 15,000 22,500 30,000
G2 Sludge to Separator 42.31 21.74 19.81 0.8 0 423 1,269 2,115 4,230 8,460 12,690 19,035 25,380 38,070 50,760

H Clean oil to Oil dryer 23.91 21.74 2.17 0 239 717 1,195 2,390 4,780 7,170 10,755 14,340 21,510 28,680
H1 Clean & dry CPO to stoarge tank 21.52 21.50 0.01 0.009 0 215 645 1,075 2,150 4,300 6,450 9,675 12,900 19,350 25,800

J Raw water 1000 1000kg kg 1,000 3,000 5,000 10,000 20,000 30,000 45,000 60,000 90,000 120,000
J1 Boiler feed water 700 700 kg kg 700 2,100 3,500 7,000 14,000 21,000 31,500 42,000 63,000 84,000
J2 Precess water 120 120kg kg 120 360 600 1,200 2,400 3,600 5,400 7,200 10,800 14,400
J3 Domestic water 180 180kg kg 180 540 900 1,800 3,600 5,400 8,100 10,800 16,200 21,600

K Solid waste fuel to boiler ( 30% moist.) 43 0.01 12.9 30.09 430 1,290 2,150 4,300 8,600 12,900 19,350 25,800 38,700 51,600
K1 Fibre 12 0.016 3.6 8.384 120 360 600 1,200 2,400 3,600 5,400 7,200 10,800 14,400
K2 Shell 8 0.008 1.2 6.792 80 240 400 800 1,600 2,400 3,600 4,800 7,200 9,600
K3 Light particals 0.5 0.0005 0.025 0.4745 5 15 25 50 100 150 225 300 450 600
K4 De-oiled empty bunches 22.5 0.008 6.75 15.742 225 675 1,125 2,250 4,500 6,750 10,125 13,500 20,250 27,000

L Boiler steam generation ( kg / ton FFB ) 660 660kg 660 1,980 3,300 6,600 13,200 19,800 29,700 39,600 59,400 79,200
L1 Turbine steam requirement 600 600kg 600 1,800 3,000 6,000 12,000 18,000 27,000 36,000 54,000 72,000
L2 Sterilisation steam requirement 540 540 kg 540 1,620 2,700 5,400 10,800 16,200 24,300 32,400 48,600 64,800
L3 Process heating steam requirement 120 120 kg 120 360 600 1,200 2,400 3,600 5,400 7,200 10,800 14,400

M Wast water Effluent ( kg / ton FFB ) 1000 1000kg kg 1,000 3,000 5,000 10,000 20,000 30,000 45,000 60,000 90,000 120,000
M1 From Clarification 550 kg 550 1,650 2,750 5,500 11,000 16,500 24,750 33,000 49,500 66,000
M2 From Steriliser condensate 150 kg 150 450 750 1,500 3,000 4,500 6,750 9,000 13,500 18,000
M3 From PK recovery plant 80 kg 80 240 400 800 1,600 2,400 3,600 4,800 7,200 9,600
M4 Boiler blow down 120 120 360 600 1,200 2,400 3,600 5,400 7,200 10,800 14,400
M5 From OTHERS & cleaning 100 kg 100 300 500 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,500 6,000 9,000 12,000

N Power generation ( kw / ton FFB / hr ) 25 KW 25 75 125 250 500 750 1,125 1,500 2,250 3,000
N1 Process 20 KW 20 60 100 200 400 600 900 1,200 1,800 2,400
N2 Mill lighting & grounds 2 KW 2 6 10 20 40 60 90 120 180 240
N3 Domestic 3 KW 3 9 15 30 60 90 135 180 270 360
Perunding AME / POMProMatrix / 16th November 1998 /nw. 5/10/00
PROCESS MASS FLOW AND LOSSES DURING PRODUCTION

Based on Tenera material

Oil content 24% PRODUCT WASTE LOSS


FFB input in kg FFA 2.5% max kg kg kg

STERILISER Out Flow Evaporation 12


100 kg 12.3 Oil Loss 0.3

STRIPPING 25 Empty bunches 24.5


87.7 kg Oil Loss 0.5

EXTRACTION 31.14 Solids


62.7 kg 31.56 Liquids

OIL CLARIFICATION Water 6.56


31.56 kg Non-oily solids 2
Oil Loss 0.75
Oil 22.25

DEPERICARPER Evaporation 3.84


31.14 kg 16.19 Oil Loss 0.1
Fibre 12
Kernel Loss 0.25

KERNEL RECOVERY Evaporation 1.7


14.95 kg Oil Loss 0.1
Kernel Loss 0.15
NUTS Shell 8
5.4 Kernel 5

TOTAL in kg 100 27.25 70.6 2.15

CPO Yield 22.25 92.7% Total OIL loss in kg 1.75


( Including FFA as Oil )
Palm Kernel Yield 5 92.6% Total kernel loss in kg 0.4

QUALITY Moisture % 0.09 Moisture % 7


Dirt % 0.009 Dirt % 5
FFA % 3.5 FFA % 2.5

Noel Wambeck Feb.1999


Empt y b unch Incinera tor for Oil Palm Mill ( c ap : 6,000 kg / hr )
TYPICAL FLOW DIAGRAM OF AN EFFLUENT TREATMENT
PONDING SYSTEM FOR A 30 MT FFB PER HOUR OIL PALM MILL.

RAW EFFLUENT
FAT PIT EFFLUENT OIL RECOVERY STATION INPUT 432 m3 /day
WASTE WATER FROM : BOD 25,000 ppm.
Steriliser Condensate, Clarification Station
Kernel recovery station and wash water

Cooling 302 m3 each Pond Cooling


Pond No 1 1 day HRT Pond No 2
12 x 15 x 2.5
Recycle Activated Sludge ( 100%) 18m3 per hour

302 m3 each Pond


Acidification 1 day HRT Acidification
Pond No.1 Pond No.2
12 x 15 x 2.5

Anaerobic Anaerobic
Pond No.1 Pond No.2
16 x 160 x 6
6629 m3 each Pond
61days HRT

Anaerobic Anaerobic
Pond No.3 Pond No.4

RECYCLE PIPE LINE

RECYCLE PUMP
Facultative Pond
932m3 2 days HRT
16 x 30 x 2.5

Aerobic 2,611 m3 each Aerobic


Pond No.1 12 days HRT Pond No.2
16 x 80 x 2.5

FINAL DISCHARGE
Pipeline / Tanker TO PLANTATION
FLOW RATE OF > 432 m3 / Day
BOD REDUCTION = 99.6 %
> LESS THAN 100 PPM BOD
Perunding AME/ ETP Flow Diagram
05g. MatrixPOMEffluent.xls

MATRIX OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROCESS & WASTE WATER EFFLUENT PONDING SYSTEM.
Item Details

1 Milling capacity MT FFB / hr 1 30 45 60 90 120

2 Effluent Generation Rate


a. FFB moisture kg 200 6,000 9,000 12,000 18,000 24,000
b. Sterilizer condensiate kg 140 4,200 6,300 8,400 12,600 16,800
c. Clarification station kg 600 18,000 27,000 36,000 54,000 72,000
d. Kernel Plant kg 150 4,500 6,750 9,000 13,500 18,000
e. Other & washwater kg 110 3,300 4,950 6,600 9,900 13,200
Total per hour in kg. kg 1,000 30,000 45,000 60,000 90,000 120,000

3 Flow rate of Effluent


Per Hour m3 1 30 45 60 90 120
Per Day ( 24 hours ) m3 24 720 1,080 1,440 2,160 2,880
HRT of 75 days m3 1,800 54,000 81,000 108,000 162,000 216,000

4 Suspended Solids
at Fat / Sludge pit ( 22,000 mg/L ) kg 39.6 1188 1782 2376 3564 4752
at Final discharge ( 200 mg/L ) kg 0.36 10.80 16.20 21.60 32.40 43.20
Rate of aerobic Biosolids produced kg 39.24 1177.2 1765.8 2354.4 3531.6 4708.8

5 Organic loading Rate ( 0.3 kg BOD/m3/Day ) kg 7.2 216 324 432 648 864

6 Rate of Re-circulation of Anaerobic effluent


Anaerobic - HRT 5 days m3 120 3600 5400 7200 10800 14400
return to seeding pond ( 50 % ) m3 / hr 0.5 15 22.5 30 45 60
Pump size KW 0.33 3 4.5 6 9 12
number of pumpsets unit 1 1 1 1 1 1

7 BOD of Effluent
at Sludge pit - 25,000 mg / L kg 4.5 135 202.5 270 405 540
at Anaerobic pond discharge - 5,000 mg /L kg 0.90 27.00 40.50 54.00 81.00 108.00
at Aeration pond discharge - 50 mg /L kg 0.009 0.27 0.405 0.54 0.81 1.08
at Stabilisation pond discharge - 20 mg / L kg 0.0036 0.108 0.162 0.216 0.324 0.432

8 Aeration pumpsets
Flow rate m3 / hr at TDH 20 2 45 67.5 90 135 180
Drive motor kw 5.625 8.4375 11.25 16.875 22.5
Number required units 1 x 7.5 2 x 5.5 2 x 7.5 2 x 10 4 x 5.5
PERUNDING AME Consulting Engineers 1

AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL PLAN (ECP)


By Noel Wambeck April 1999.

FOR THE PROPOSED OIL PALM MILL WITH AN INTEGRATED EFFLUENT TREATMENT AND
DISPOSAL SYSTEM, AIR POLLUTION AND SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM.

01. INTRODUCTION.
The proposed Environmental Control Plan (ECP) will exploit every practical avenue to
provide a complete effective system for Effluent treatment, solid waste disposal, air pollution
control and minimising of the environmental impact, to the requirements and expectations of
DOE, local authorities and inhabitant indemnity.

The Department of Environment has set a target for Oil palm mills to achieve 100 percent
compliance by the year 2000 in terms of meeting emission and effluent discharge standards,
which are :

Environmental Quality ( Licensing ) regulations 1977.

Environmental Quality ( Prescribed Premises) (Crude Palm Oil ) Regulations 1977


(Amendment) 1982.

Environmental Quality ( Clean Air ) Regulations 1978.

The overall objective of this project report is to determine and advise the client on the
following :

1 Proposed project needs in terms of design, cost, capacity, manpower requirements and
project schedule.

2 Selection of the Oil Palm Mill complex location.

3 Provide detail design and specification, supervision, commissioning, training of


personnel and guarantee performance for the proposed project.

4 Care in the implementation of the project, and not to endanger the environment by
providing the proper process, system and method for the treatment of effluent for 100 %
land application, solid waste disposal and the control of noise and air pollution.
PERUNDING AME Consulting Engineers 2

02. PROJECT SALIENT DATA.

The following salient data is used in the design calculations:-

2.1 Milling capacity ( MT / FFB per hour. ) : 30 mt per hour


720 mt FFB per day

2.2 Amount of Empty Bunches for disposal (mt / hr.) : 7. 5 mt per hour
Based on the ratio of 25% Empty bunches to FFB 180 mt per day

Empty bunch decomposing period : 90 days


Area required for mulching ( 2333m3 / Ha ) : 26 Ha

2.3 Ratio of raw effluent (POME) to FFB : 60 %

2.4 B.O.D. level of raw effluent (POME) : 25,000 mg/l

2.5 Processing hours based on peak operation : 24 hours.

2.6 Average flow rate of effluent (POME ) : 18 m3 / hr


or 432 m3 / day
2.7 Effluent ( waste water ) treatment system :
1 No. Sterilizer condensate oil recovery tank : 120 m3
1 No. Sludge oil recovery tank : 120 m3
2 Nos Fat pits : 20m3 volume : 40 m3
2 Nos Cooling Ponds : 256m3 each : 461m3 / hr HRT 2.13 days
1 No. Mixing Pond 461m3 : 461m3/ hr HRT 1.07 days
3 Nos Digesting Tanks : 3720m3 each : 11,160 m3 HRT 25.8 days
4 Nos Aeration reactor : 2000m3 each : 8000 m3 HRT 4 days
1 No. Sludge drying bed : 6 x 30 m : 180 m2
1 No. Sludge Clarifier : 225.6.m3 : 225.6m3 HRT 12.5 hr
1 No. Treated effluent holding tank

B.O.D. level of Final discharge : < 20 mg/l


Total BOD reduction : 99.9 %

2.10 Proposed site area : 122 ha

Area allocated for Oil palm mill complex : 12 ha

Percolation Rate of liquid Effluent on proposed land : 560m3 / day / ha

Area allocated for field / Land disposal of final effluent : 69 ha


in trenches / furrows ( based on 90 days cycle )

2.11 Boiler Gas Volume : 30 m3/ s

2.13 Dust load : 4000mg/ NM3 max.

2.14 Boiler Air Emission : < 0.4g / NM3


PERUNDING AME Consulting Engineers 3

03. SOURCE OF SOLID WASTE, EFFLUENT & POLLUTION


Effluent discharge quantities in Oil palm mills is dependent on the extent of design of the milling
process systems, in -plant process control, equipment maintenance and good house-keeping.

The solid waste or by-products in the oil palm milling process, consist of :

Empty bunches
Shell and fibers
Decanted solids
Sludge centrifuge solids
Boiler ash
De-sludging of ponds.

Solid waste such as treated empty bunches ( de-water ) of approximately 25% to FFB and recovered
dryed sludge of approximately 3% to FFB are by products that will be utilized in the plantation and sold
as produces.

The shell and fiber are sources of solid waste fuel for co-power generation in the oil palm mill.

Waste water from the sterilizer condensate, clarification effluent and hydro-cyclone or claybath
discharges are sufficiently contaminated and require treatment.

Some of the sources waste water discharged from the steam turbine condensate / cooling system and
boiler blow down are relatively clean and can be put to good use in the process suc h as for the dilution
system, screw press, oil gutter spraying and for the factory floor cleaning requirements.

The liquid effluent total quantity of 0.6 m to 1m per ton of FFB between the generating sources
being as follows :

Sterilizer condensate
Calrification station
Hydrocyclone / Claybath.
Other waste water

The table below presents the typical physical and chemical properties of raw effluent from Oil palm
milling process.

PARAMETER MEAN

pH 4.1
BOD 25,000
COD 53,630
Total Solids 43,635
Suspended Solids 19,020
Volatile Solids 36,515
Ammoniacal Nitrogen 35
Total Nitrogen 770
Oil and Grease 8,370

* All values except pH are in milligrams per liter ( mg / L) Source : PORIM


PERUNDING AME Consulting Engineers 4

04. POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM.

The proposed Pollution control and treatment systems are :

4.1 THE DISPOSAL OF EMPTY BUNCH.

4.2 THE PROCESS OF THE INTEGRATED DECANTER DRIER SYSTEM

4.3 THE ANAEROBIC & AEROBIC EFFLUENT TREATMENT SYSTEM.

4.4 DISPOSAL OF TREATED EFFLUENT FOR LAND APPLICATION.

4.5 CONTROL OF AIR EMISSIONS.

The brief process description of the above systems are as follows:

4.1 THE DISPOSAL OF EMPTY BUNCH.

Empty bunch a solid waste product of the Oil Palm Milling process has a high moisture content of
approximately 55 65% and high in silica content , form 25% of the total weight of Palm Fruit Bunch.

The treated Empty bunch are mechanically crushed ( de-watered and de-oiled ) in the process but are
rich in major nutrients and contain reasonable amounts of trace elements. They have a value when
returned to the field as mulch for the enrichment of soil.

The use of empty bunch for field application as mulching material is preferred by the client, therefore
we shall confine to this method of disposal of empty bunch for the proposed oil palm plantation.

The land application .mulching system is said to have a cost savings of RM 250 per ha annually in
place of fertiliser supplement.

In Perak state, several estates have this system of land application of empty bunch mulching, including
Seri Pelangi, Nova Scotia, Jendarata Estate, since 1973 on a commercial scale.

Other mills that used the same method of disposal are; Ulu Basir, UIE, Southern Perak, Changkat
Chermin, Topaz Emas, Foong Lee etc

To do this, adequate hopper and conveyor system will be provided at the oil palm mill site for storage
and an arrangement of tractor & trailer with a capacity of 5 -10 mt EFB shall be deployed for the
transportation of the treated empty bunches ( de-watered ) to the field for disposal.

On arrival at the estate, the train of two or more trailers are parked on the road adjacent to the inter row
to be mulched and with the aid of the extended draw-bar, the trailers are unhitched one from the other.

The trailers are towed one at a time into the inter rows and tipped while slowly moving forward.

The empty trailers are then hitched back one to the other by lifting with the tractor draw-bar and pins
put into position, they than return to the mill to repeat the process.
PERUNDING AME Consulting Engineers 5

The drainage pattern in most fields is four palm rows to a drain, to ensure that all palms benefit from
mulching, the empty bunches are applied in the avenue between row 2 and 3, and between palm points
in the two outer drain side rows ( see the diagram of the Placement of empty bunches in the appendix.)

In the latter, the side-tipping trailers are particularly useful. Manual labour is used to make minor
improvements where leveling may be required.

The rate of application ranges between 75 to 100 tons empty bunches per hectare.

In conclusion, bunch mulching of oil palms on a commercial scale is recommended as a


viable proposition in plantation where the terrain and ground conditions allow
mechanisation of the operation.

4.2 THE PROCESS OF THE INTEGRATED DECANTER DRIER SYSTEM

( FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SOLID WASTE SLUDGE ( POME ) AS ANIMAL FEED OR FERTILISER. )

The Decanter Drier integrated system reduces the volume and handling of oil palm mill effluent
discharge of about 75% of the total BOD load discharge from the mill.

The system also provide a means of a dust collecting system for the boiler flue gas with the advantage
of being able to produce an added value by product of dried sludge ( POME ) for animal feed or
fertiliser, resulting in better returns on investment of the project.

The source of solid waste effluent are :

1. Decanter solids
2. Steriliser condensate sludge
3. Clarification station sludge
4. Boiler ash
5. De-sludging of the effluent treatment system
6. De-sludging of all process tanks

The use of the Decanter in the oil clarification station for the removal of solid matter, reduces the load
on the separator and static clarification settling tank by about 50 75% while there is not change in the
load on the other machinery of the clarification station process.

Process dried sludge has certain properties:

Releases nutrients slowly


It supplies trace elements
And it improves water retention.

The system proposed has been developed and in operation over 20 years at United Plantations Mills,
Keck Seng and several other mills in Malaysia and Indonesia.
PERUNDING AME Consulting Engineers 6

The proposed system details are as follows :

A. Multi cyclone separator.


The multi cyclone will remove coarse sand and other solid matters with a particle size of more than 50
microns or about 50% of the solid matter from the crude oil.

B. The Decanter system.


The decanter will remove approximately 90% of all suspended solids from the crude oil.

C. Rotary Drum drier.


Solid sludge is conveyed by the screw conveyor and fed to the Rotary Drum Drier located close to the
boiler house for heating by the Boiler flue gas.

The rotary drum drier in which the flue gas from the boiler, is in direct contact with the wet solids
discharged from the decanter, multi cyclone and oil pit effluent recovery system.

Flow of the flue gas and solids is con-current. The flue gas is tapped from the chimney above the
boiler fan.

The ducting size would be the same size of the chimney and the portion of the chimney above the
ducting is closed with a damper for flue gas control.

The diamension of the rotary drum drier is 2 meter in diameter and about 15 meter in length.

D. Dried sludge clarification screen.


The dried sludge material with a moisture content of 10% is discharged at the end of the rotary drum
drier and conveyed by a screw conveyor and fed to the vibrating screen.

A circular vibrating screen will screen the dust and sludge grains before the mixing and packing in
polybags for storage as the finished product and sold to buyer.

The product POME ( Palm Oil Mill Effluent Dried sludge )

The best prospects for POME as an animal feed because of its ability to substitute some of the
expensive imported components of feed meals and as a fertiliser, POME is a good source of major and
minor nutrients.

Commercial value of POME fertiliser is about RM 500 per ton and sold to plantations, flower gardens,
golf club application to turf etc.

A comprehensive analysis of dried sludge is given in the table below:

% % p.p.m.
Moisture 5 15 N 1.8 2.3 B 20
Ash 15 22 P 0.3 0.4 Cu 20 50
Silica 7 10 K 2.5 3.2 Fe 3000-5000
Ether extract 11 13 Mg 0.6 0.8 Mn 50 70
Crude Fibre 11 14 Ca 0.6 0.8 Zn 20 100
Crude Protein 11 13
PERUNDING AME Consulting Engineers 7

In conclusion, we can say that dried sludge or POME improves the water availability,
carbon and nitrogen content, a provider for microbial activities in soil and a useful
source of plant nutrients for crops grown on normal or degraded land.

An added attraction of the system that is of growing importance, is the reduction in air
pollution brought about by scrubbing of the boiler flue gas in the drier and finally its
yields an income as waste by-product.

4.3 THE ANAEROBIC & AEROBIC EFFLUENT TREATMENT SYSTEM.

The effluent is not toxic but it has a biochemical oxygen demand of above 25,000 (BOD)
which makes it objectionable to fish life when introduced in relatively large quantities in
waterways and rivers.

The effluent treatment system developed for use in this project shall be of a modern biological
system, characterised by the anaerobic and aerobic process phases.

The total effluent from the proposed Oil palm mill process is approximately 0.6 tons per ton ffb. which
is made up of :

1. Sterilizer condensate
2. Classification station dicharge of effluent
3. Hydrocyclone / Claybath waste water
4. Boiler blow down.
5. Wash water, make up the balance.

The proposed Anaerobic & Aerobic effluent treatment system, shall be located within the oil palm mill
complex, that will require an area of approximately 100 m x 100m ( 1 ha ) and will consist of :

Sterilizer and Sludge oil recovery tank


Fat trap pits
Compressed air flotation unit.
Cooling & Mixing tanks
Anaerobic digesting tanks
Aeration reactors
Solids removal clarifer
Effluent metering.
Drying bed.
Final effluent holding tank
Monitoring & control system
Pumps and Air compressor
Inter-connecting piping, valves and fittings.

A schematic flow diagram and system calculations are enclosed in the appendix.
PERUNDING AME Consulting Engineers 8

The system will be monitored on site for pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), total alkalinity (TA) and
solids contents whereas the more complex tests for BOD, COD, ammoniacal nitrogen (AN) and total
organic nitrogen (TKN) analysis will be sent out to reputable laboratory for samples test.

The proposed effluent treatment system shall be procured from experience environmental control
equipment and system vendor who will guarantee its performance.

Full advantage is to be made of the decanter and the decanter solids dryer, design to dry all of
the wet solid sludge removed from the system.

To this end part of the sludge outlet water is to be used at the screwpress, in place of the existing
dilution water, to assist the transport of the crude oil to the clarification plant.

THE PROCESS
The effluent treatment system will include two main parts, the anaerobic section and aerobic
stabilisation process before the final discharge of treated palm oil mill effluent onto the plantation for
palm tree irrigation.

The condensate discharge from the sterilizers is pumped to the post static clarifier an oil recovery
system tank.

The oil skimmers removes the highly contaminated oil from both the clarifier and sludge decanter tank
which is isolated in a special drumming holding tank.

The sludge will than pass through a CAF unit for the removal of disolved oils, grease by flotation
process etc, before being fed to the cooling pond.

Every precaution is to be taken to ensure that this oil cannot and does not contaminate the crude oil
system.

The objective is to reduce the loading of the effluent treatment system by the removal of the oil and
solid matter in sterilizer condensate at an early stage.

The deoiled sterilizer condensate is then discharged in to its own isolated effluent collection pit
And overflow to the effluent treatment sys tem.

The sludge slurry which are drained from the static clarifier and sludge decanter tank are
discharged to the drying bed or conveyed to the rotary sludge dryer for the drying process.

The anaerobic phase is favoured by higher temperature and the absence of air.

The influent from the sterilizer sludge pit and the clarification pit is to be pumped to the cooling pond
and than to the mixing pond.

The anaerobic process start to take place in the first pond and end at the digester tanks.

There the complex organic materials are first solubilized by the extra cellular enzymes and then
converted to volatile acids by acid producing bacteria.
PERUNDING AME Consulting Engineers 9

In the last methane fermentation phase the volatile acids are transformed to methane and carbon
dioxide.

The process is to be accelerated by the circulation of the bacteria laden sludge into the mixing pond of
the material from the last digester tank.

The acidification process will have an HRT of 1 day. Effluent from the mixing pond is pumped from
the collecting sump and into the digesters with a total HRT of more than 20 days.

The discharge from the overflow of the final anaerobic tank is to be discharge into an open pit and
pumped into the aerobic reactor tanks for the extended aeration process equipped with over powered
mechanical aerators.

The overflow of the aerobic reactor tank, operating in tandem with a total HRT of 4 days will be
pumped to the clarifier tank for the removal of solids.

The sludge scum is to be held back and removed from the ample sized sludge clarification tank.

Sludge accumulated at the bottom of the clarifier, and drying bed, are to be removed by the auto
programmed system provided for the sludge removal process.

The separated sludge cake can be dried in rotary dryer and used as plant nutrient in compound form as
a by product.

The treated effluent is now pumped to the final effluent holding tank.

A finish effluent holding tank will hold the effluent waste water with a BOD of 20 ppm for
displacement into furrows in the plantation disposal area.

The system is to be stable and is to be capable of with standing reasonable shock loads.

The efficiency of the system is facilitated by a monitoring and programmable control system design
which requires only simple maintenance and operational skills.

4.4 DISPOSAL OF TREATED EFFLUENT FOR LAND APPLICATION.

The recycling of POME in plantations is now widely accepted as an economically viable and
environmentally acceptable waste management technique.

Treated Effluent are pumped or discharged by gravity to the pre-selected area as a good source of plant
nutrients and a value added ( RM 350 per ha / year ) cost effective organic fertilizer.

The disposal of treated effluent for land application require an area of approximately 69 hectares in the
plantation, have been marked in the vicinity of the proposed oil palm mill to receive the effluent in
loaded furrows.

A typical furrow layout is shown in the report drawing section.

Field drains on the sides of each plot which act as trenches to prevent poaching.
PERUNDING AME Consulting Engineers 10

a. Methods of Land Application.

The percolation through furrows or trenches method will be used in the land application of treated
effluent of approximately 560m3 / day / ha for the given volume at an application cycle of mor e than
90 days, based on experience.

b. Factors for consideration.

The following factors effect the rate of application.


Soil characteristics such as porosity, water table, acidity of soil;
Characteristics of effluent, such as concentration of large solids;
Age of oil palms;
Vegetation in between the oil palms;
Over application of the effluent must be avoided which may result in anaerobic conditions in the soil by
formation of an impervious coat of organic matter on the soil surface.

c. The percolation through furrows or trenches system.


Waste Water Effluent is pumped or discharged by gravity to the high points of the pre-selected area and
allowed to drain down the slopes in furrows or trenches shown in the appendix Typical Furrow
layout.

The velocity of flow is given as a steady infiltration rate of 7 11 cm per hour, slow enough to enable
percolation into the soil and also it prevents erosion.

An area of approximately 110 hectares have been marked and allocated in the vicinity of the proposed
oil palm mill, shown in the Soil suitability for land application of Palm Oil Mill Effluent Survey
Report enclosed.

The furrows or trenches are about 90 cm / 60 width x 75 cm depth shown in the appendix and survey
report.

Field drains of each plot, which act as pits to prevent poaching and used as silt traps to contain
sediments transported by surface erosion.

d. Effects of land application.


Yields of oil palm increases with the use of oil palm mill effluent. The optimum rate of application is
approximately 40 cm rainfall per year.

The nutrient value of the soil also shows improvements with land application, especially the nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium and magnesium values.

The effect on underground water and surface drainage, are negligible.


PERUNDING AME Consulting Engineers 11

4.5 CONTROL OF AIR EMISSIONS.

The Environmental quality ( clean air ) regulation 1978 stipulate the permitted level of solids
concentration in gases emitted from solid waste thermal plants to be not more than 0.4 g per
cubit meter.

Air emissions from oil palm mills are from the boilers and incinerators, being mainly gases with
particulates such as tar and soot droplets of 20 100 microns and a dust load of about 3000 to 4000
mg. / NM3.

Incomplete combustion of the boiler and incinerator produces dark smoke resulting from burning of a
mixture of solid waste fuel such as shell, fibre and some times empty bunches.

A good design and properly rated boiler capacity with a closed loop control over the fuel feed rate and
air supply will ensure steady state combustion in tandem with steam demand.

The introduction of the proposed system will alter the situation whereby the thermal plant such as the
waste fuel boiler shall emit clean smoke in accordance to the DOE standard requirements.

The scrubber system.


Flue gas from the boiler furnace with a temperature of approximately 288 deg. C flow through the
ducting to the scrubber.

Water is sprayed from the top of the scrubber, through a manifold and then mixed with the flue gas and
dust particles where the proc ess of separation of the particles, gas and water droplets take placed.

The spray water of 10 m3 per hour used in this system are from the steam turbine cooling system and
heat exchange steam condensiate waste water.

The cooled clean gas is conveyed by the ID fan that blows the exhausted gas to the chimney

Slurry from the separator is collected in a seal tank via a trap sump and pump to the effluent treatment
plant.

The scrubber system consist of :

Scrubber unit
Fan
Moisture separator
Pump
Inter-connecting piping, valves, fittings and duct works.
Control , Instrumentation & wiring.

The above system vendor guarantee an emission at the chimney outlet of less than 400 mg./ NM3 and
in accordance to the DOE allowed standard.
PERUNDING AME Consulting Engineers 12

5.0 PROJECT COST.


The project cost of establishing the proposed mill with a capacity of 30 mt FFB per hour is estimated
at the total cost of approximately RM 30 million.

This amount is made up of RM 25.6 million for the conventional oil palm mill and the additional
investment of RM 4.4 million or 17.19% more for the systems required for the proposed
Environmental Control Plan.

The expenditure is spread over the mill constructional period of two years.

The summary of the above costs are as follows :

PACKAGE DETAILS INVESTMENT ADDITIONAL

1. PRELIMINARIES 330,000
2. SITE FACILITIES 270,000
3. EARTH WORKS 1,400,000 400,000
4. QUARTERS BUILDING WORKS 2,800,000
5. RAW WATER SUPPLY AND TREATMENT 800,000
6. CIVIL & STRUCTURE WORKS 7,500,000
7. MECHANICAL & PI 10,500,000 1,700,000
8. STORAGE TANK FARM 600,000
9. ELECTRICAL WORKS 1,400,000 300,000
10. EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT 2,000,000

25,600,000 4,400,000

TOTAL PROJECT COST in RM 30,000,000

Additional Investment for ECP in % is approximately : 17.19 %

Preliminary estimates can vary extensively depending on terrain, type of soil, accessibility, selection of
quality of equipment and design factors applied.

The above estimate have taken into consideration of the following :

a). Best applied technology, innovation and development for a modern oil palm mill.

b). Proven design of machinery, systems and plant layouts.

c) The site for locating the proposed oil palm mill has been selected on the basis of
substantial cost savings in transportation, as being one of the factors for its selection.

Our aim is to help shape our common future and to save us from being submerged in sludge.

April 1999 Noel Wambeck


POTENTIAL HAZARDS AND CONTROL PLAN.

The potential hazards which could affect the public water supply and the proposed control plan in
place, are as follows :

POTENTIAL HAZARDS. CONTROL PLAN.

1. Process wastewater 1. Runs into process drains, fat pit collecting sump,
effluent oil recovery and solid removal system
before discharge to effluent pond system.

2. System failure of mill during operation 2. Shut down of operation for major problems or
effect repairs immediately of equipment and plant
for minor repairs, all runoffs into process drains.

3. Wash water contaminated with oil. 3. Runs into process drains, the Fat pit collecting
sumps and effluent treatment.

4. Oil tanks leakage, spillage during loading into oil 4. Runs into process drains and into collecting sump
Tankers. for recycling back to process.

5. Fuel tanks spillage during unloading and pipe line 5. Contained in bund storage area.
Leakage

6. Lubrication oils & Chemicals spillage 6. Contained in bund storage area

7. Boiler blow down waste water 7. Runs into dedicated process drains

8. Rain water flooding. 8. Runs into dedicated storm drains.

9. Oils and sludge in the sump 9. Oil is skimmed and pumped into drums for sale,
whereas the treated sludge and sterilizer
Fat pit collecting sumps. condensate waste water will be treated in the
Ex- Oil room waste water, Sterilizer condensate effluent treatment system and than discharged of
water, Hydrocyclone / Claybath and wash water. the effluent to the plantation with BOD of 20 ppm.

Perunding AME / 22 nd. February 1999.


OIL PALM MILL ENVIRONMENT CONTROL PLAN ( EPC System )

WASTE MATERIAL REDUCTION FINAL TREATMENT & DISPOSAL


Present system
CONDENSATE
SLUDGE TANK
STERILISER CONTROL Anaerobic
CONDENSATE STATIC SEPARATION & Aerobic (CAA)system TREATED
OIL RECOVERY EFFLUENT

Liquid phase to EFFLUENT to Field


Effluent ponds

CLARIFICATION DECANTERED
STATION WASTE SLUDGE SLUDGE Drying
System to produce Bag POME
WATER
Liquid phase to Fertilizer products
CAA system

POTASH production
EMPTY BUNCH INCINERATOR POTASH
FIELD DISPOSAL
FROM
THRESHING STORAGE HOPPERS Dewatered bunch for oil
STATION recovery and COGEN power
DEWATERING production. OIL and POWER
PROCESS
FIBRE products FIBRE products

MULTI CYCLONE
CLEAN
WATER TUBE DUST SEPARATOR Full combustion for FLUE GAS
BOILER Reduction of dust particles
Subject to shock Discharge of air to less than 0.2 mg / m3 in
loads / unstable polluting dust to flue gas
combustion atmosphere

INSTALL SOUND DAMPERS


PROCESS LINE TO HIGH SPEED MACHINERY.
& POWER ROOM SOUND CANOPY MAINTAINED EQUIPMENT NOISE
MACHINERY PARTITIONED CONTROL
NOISE Reduce to 50 dB / m sound
ROOM
Limits

ECONOMICS OF WASTE BUT WASTE NOT OF USEFUL VALUE ADDED PRODUCTS

ZERO HAZARDS
& AIR TREATMENT DISPOSAL &
LIQUID PRODUCTION
SOLID WASTE POLLUTION & CONTROL
EFFLUENT HAVE VALUE
ADDED PRODUCTS

Noel Wambeck / 8th December 98.


PROPOSED PLACEMENT AVENUE FOR EMPTY BUNCHES, FRONDS AND
TREATED EFFLUENT FOR LAND APPLICATION.
PRESS STATION CLARIFICATION STATION BOILER HOUSE

STERILIZED
FRUITLETS

WET SLUDGE FOR


DRYING PROCESS

BAGGING OF
DRIED POME

POME SLUDGE PROCESS WITH THE DECANTER & DRYER SCHEMATIC FLOW DIAGRAM
HOLDING / DISTRIBUTING
FURROW FURROW PVC OVERFLOW PIPE

CONTIGENCY
FURROW

EFFLUENT PIPE LINE


PUMPED FROM MILL

ESTATE RING ROAD FOR INSPECTION PURPOSE

Perunding AME / 20th April 99 / NW. TYPICAL FURROW LAYOUT


Oil palm mill process monitoring & control system 1

OIL PALM MILL PROCESS MONITORING


& CONTROL (PMC) SYSTEM

CONTENTS.

Introduction.
System description.
Data Acquisition Features.
Process Alarm.
Interlocking Features.
Systems for Individual Stations

1. 0 Sterilizer control system

2. 0 Crude oil dilution control system

3. 0 Depericarper control system

4. 0 Cracked Mixture Winnowing control system for


kernel recovery plant

5. 0 Back-pressure vessel control system

6. 0 Boiler combustion control and scrubber system

7. 0 Specifications of hardware and software.


Oil palm mill process monitoring & control system 2

INTRODUCTION.

Spotting trouble before it strikes for most manufacturing plants, maintaining production
equipment means keeping a process within well-defined parameters.

Slight variance from those parameters introduces product defects, added machine wear,
such as slipping belts, chattering chains and poorly meshing gears, resulting in equipment
or system failure.

To complicate the process further, critical signs or warning provided in the monitoring
and control system are ignored and at times human errors in operation are the cause of
total breakdown of the mill.

When product defects or equipment failure occur, mill engineers must diagnose the
situation and do so quickly to minimize production stoppage.

& Which component is out of specification ?


& What is necessary to return the process to normal ?
& What needs an adjustment ?
& Replacement of new parts or an overhaul is required immediately ?
Process monitoring and control (PMC) systems are the best available tools for the
purpose.

They record the process systems or equipment digitally, they allow instantaneous review,
data measurement, and analysis of the data measured.

Until now, mills seeking process monitoring systems that work properly had limited
choices.

The present availability of PMC systems, durable components and companies of


reputation with full after sale service, makes rational sense in the investment of a good
working process monitoring and control system for oil palm mills that are conducive to
spotting trouble before it strikes.
Oil palm mill process monitoring & control system 3

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION.

The Process and Monitoring Control (PMC) system shall be a user friendly PC based
platform that is specifically designed for the monitoring of analog or digital inputs,
graphic display, data logging and acquisition, trending and change of parameters of the
network operation in the individual stations in an Oil Palm Mill

The systems for the individual stations are :

01. Sterilizer control system

02. Crude oil dilution control system

03. Depericarper control system

04. Winnowing control system for kernel recovery plant

05. Back-pressure vessel control system

06. Boiler combustion control and scrubber system

There will be remote control panels with PLC cards, whereby each system will be linked
to the control by their respective station.

The remote control panels will be link to the Central Control Station that will be located
inside the Central Control Room (CCR) through computer networking system.

The proposed system shall be robust in construction, proven design, user friendly and
widely used in oil palm mills.

The Central Control Room which fully air conditioned shall contain the computer unit
with screen, key board, mouse, backup battery unit and printer in a console work station.

The PMC system shall provide a means for centralizing the tasks of monitoring, data
recording, configuring and manipulating the process while using distributing processors
to perform application, control and actual process interface functions.

Further the system shall interface to printer, recorder and graphic annunciators for
logging, alarming, the inter locking, trip override and real time trending of selected
points.
Oil palm mill process monitoring & control system 4

DATA ACQUISITION FEATURES.

The data acquisition features will include the following :

Weighbridge data for FFB received, dispatched produce of CPO, Palm Kernel, Empty
bunch, ash etc.

Vehicle movements and registration numbers.

Sterilizer system operating status

Crude oil dilution system operating status

Depericarper system operating status

Winnowing system operating status

Clarification station operating status

Back-pressure vessel system operating status

Boiler operation operating status

Pressure and temperature of all salient equipment, machinery and plant.

KW recording of all salient equipment, machinery and plant.

Hour meter recording of all salient stations and plant.

PROCESS ALARM.

Data captured shall be monitored and information generated will be computed to rise the
alarm when any of the parameters exceed the normal condition.

INTERLOCKING FEATURE.

The system shall be wired for safety interlocking of the operating process as an example
when the fibre cyclone airlock trips, the interlocking system will trip the upstream
process line equipment such as the screw presses, the cake breaker conveyor etc.
Oil palm mill process monitoring & control system 5

SYSTEMS FOR INDIVIDUAL STATIONS.

0.1 STERILISER CONTROL SYSTEM.

The system shall be designed to achieve the optimum utilization of steam for the
sterilisation process in a continuous and balance mode.

The steriliser programmable control system will regulate the sequence for sterilisation of
the FFB for process with the objective of conditioning the FFB before the stripping of the
fruitlets from the bunches.

The system is designed to operate in the following modes :

Automated operation controlled by PLC

Semi automatic operation by manual activation of pushbuttons.

Manual operation.

The Sterilizer Control System Features are :

The system will start with a batch sequencing control where the sterilizer will start in
sequence automatically and shall incorporate safety features whereby the steam inlet
valves will operate if the following conditions are fulfilled :

When the sterilizer doors are in closed position and that the safety lock is in placed.

The steam feed to the sterilizer can start on Auto mode or on the ready push button
mode and on manual override by manually operating the sterilizer valves.

The modulating valves will control the steam inlet valves based on the balanced pressure
of the sterilizer, the back pressure vessel and boiler which are linked to Central Control
Station via the PLC and network computer.

The sterilisation cycle can be set or modified via user- friendly keypad, text and graphic
display without interrupting the program or the process.

The system shall be flexible and can be expandable to cater for future sterilizer units.
Oil palm mill process monitoring & control system 6

0.2 CRUDE OIL DILUTION CONTROL SYSTEM

Crude oil mixture does vary in composition and therefore hot water dilution is a means of
stabilisation to provide an accurate consistency of the crude oil mixture before the
clarification process.

The auto dilution control is to cater for the monitoring and regulating the amount of water
dilution required for the stabilisation of the crude oil .

The aim is to provide a dilution of 50% oil and 50% water plus NOS maintained at 95C
as the set point that is based on a variance of 40-60 % oil and 60-40% water including
NOS of between 12 16% discharged from the extraction process.

The set point of the unit can be adjusted to the operation requirements but over dilution
must be avoided for best results.

The CODC system consist of :

Density monitor ( Vibrating reed devise)

Convertor

Pneumatic control proportional valve

Mounting steel frame

Control panel with PLC card.

The Crude Oil Dilution Control system shall be linked to Central Control Station via the
PLC and network computer.
Oil palm mill process monitoring & control system 7

0.3 DEPERICARPER CONTROL SYSTEM.

The Depericarper control system shall be designed to achieve an efficient separation of


nuts, kernel and fibre in the depericarper winnowing column and further to optimised the
recovery of nuts and kernels.

The control system is to monitor and maintain a consistent air flow velocity in the
separating column irrespective of the volume of the material in the column.

The system will incorporate variable features of :

Predetermined air velocity required for efficient separation.

The change of volume of material in the column

The number of screw presses in operation

The system shall consist of :

01. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).

02. Pneumatic control actuators and dampers.

03. Sensors for level switches, air flow and recorders.

The sensor will measure the air flow and compare it with the set value which will
automatically adjust the damper to the operating requirement.

The Depericarper Control system shall be linked to Central Control Station via the PLC
and network computer.
Oil palm mill process monitoring & control system 8

0.4 CRACKED MIXTURE WINNOWING COLUMN CONTROL SYSTEM.

The CMWCC system shall be design to effectively monitor, separate and recover the
kernel for the mixture.

The control system is to monitor and maintain a consistent air flow velocity in the
separating column irrespective of the volume of the material in the column.

The system will incorporate variable features of :

Predetermined air velocity required for efficient separation.

The change of volume of material in the column

The number of screw presses in operation

The system shall consist of :

A. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).

B. Pneumatic control actuators and dampers.

C. Sensors for level switches, air flow and recorders.

The sensor will measure the air flow and compare it with the set value which will
automatically adjust the damper to the operating requirement.

The Cracked mixture winnowing control system shall be linked to Central Control
Station via the PLC and network computer.
Oil palm mill process monitoring & control system 9

0.5 BACK PRESSURE RECEIVER (BPR) CONTROL SYSTEM.

The system shall be designed to achieve the optimum balance of steam from the Boiler,
during the sterilisation process and turbine operation in a continuous and balance manner.

The system is designed to operate in the following modes :

Automated operation controlled by PLC

Semi automatic operation by manual activation of pushbuttons.

Manual operation.
The features of the system are that when the steam pressure at the back pressure receiver
falls below a set point, the makeup valve will open via the reducing valve and regulate
the high pressure steam from the boiler and into the back-pressure receiver.

The makeup valve will close when the steam pressure at the back-pressure receiver
exceeds the set point amount.

In the event that the boiler pressure drops below the allowable limit the pressure switch at
the upstream will override the makeup valve that will permit the turbine to operate at the
cycle of frequency.

The Back Pressure Receiver (BPR) control system consist of :

I. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).

II. Pneumatic control Valves with turn wheel for manual operation of the valves

III. Sensors for pressure, temperature and recorders.

The BPR control system shall be linked to Central Control Station via the PLC and
network computer.
Oil palm mill process monitoring & control system 10

0.6 BOILER COMBUSTION CONTROL ( with the 3 element control ) AND


SCRUBBER SYSTEM.

The system shall be designed to achieve the optimum utilization of waste solid fuel and
the correct amount of air for effective boilers combustion, the generation of steam for the
turbine operation, the sterilization operation and processing steam in a continuous and
balance co-ordination.

The system is designed to operate in the following modes :

Automated operation controlled by PLC

Semi automatic operation by manual activation of pushbuttons.

Manual operation.

The system shall consist of :

A. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).

B. Pneumatic control actuators and dampers.

C. Sensors for pressure and temperature

D. 3 element boiler drum level switches.

E. Air flow meter and recorders.

F. Control valves.

G. Fuel feeder and spreader complete with Variable speed drives.

H. Boiler scrubber unit complete with water spraying equipment.

The BCCASS control system shall be linked to Central Control Station via the PLC and
network computer.
Oil palm mill process monitoring & control system 11

0.7 SPECIFICATION OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE.

The Process Monitoring and Control (PMC) System shall be supplied of proven in
operation, rigid components designed specifically for an oil palm mill environment and
consist of one or more racks containing modules, interconnecting power and data cables.

The Oil Palm Mill environment conditions are :

Temperature 27 - 40C

Humidity 99%

Power 230 / 415 volts 50 Hz

Power Interruption Operate through a total loss of power for 17.6 msec.

ITEM DESCRIPTION TYPE QUANTITY

1 Central Processing Unit (CPU) Server type Intel PIII 1 unit


2 Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) 5 units
3 Personal Computer (PC) complete keyboard, Intel PIII 2 units
21 monitor and mouse
4 Printer - Colour graphic type 600x1200 pdi 1 unit
5 Modem ( Data / Fax/ Voice ) 56 K bps 1 unit
6 Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) 2000 VA 1 unit
7 Custom built PMC system software 1 lot
8 Microsoft Windows NT Pro 1 lot
9 Microsoft Office 2000 Pro. 1 lot
10 AutoCAD Ver. 14 1 lot
11 Acrobat Suite 1 lot
12 Cables to field instruments Bradon 1 lot

Perunding AME / March 1999 Noel Wambeck.


THE DEVELOPM ENT OF OIL PALM IN MALAYSIA.
1

THE DEVELOPMENT OF OIL PALM IN MALAYSIA.


ACTIVIT IES FOR PALM OIL AND FRACT IONS By Noel Wambeck 2nd September 1997.

General Overview.

The Malaysian oil palm based industry has grown to become the second largest foreign exchange
earner in the country, next to petroleum and gas.

Malaysia today exports about 95 percent of its total production of 9 million mt palm oil in the form
of refined and fractionated products whereas the bulk of its palm kernel oil is still being exported in
the crude form.

Manufacture of higher value added products such as oleochemical and fat products based on palm oil
and palm kernel oil is still limited and besides being the largest producer of oil palm, Malaysia is
already the largest single exported of total oils & fats, ahead of the United States of America which
had been the leader up till now.

Competitive edible oil.

The existing high prices of all edible oils indicate the general trend in demand.

The Tenera material makes possible in Malaysia yields up to 6 tons of oil per hectare ( 2.5 tons of oil
per acre ) on alluvial clay soil and indications are that higher yields may be possible on rich volcanic
soils such as those of Papua New Guinea, East Malaysia and Indonesia.

The oil palm is by far the highest producer of oil per hectare of any commercial planting or crop.

VEGETABLE OIL YIELD PER HECTARE PER YEAR

5000
Kg. Kernel
4500 1000
4000

3500
3000

2500
2000 4000
1500

1000
500 940
620 740
330 500
220
0
Cotton Soybean Rape Seed Sunflower Coconut Peanut Kernel /
Seeds Palm oil

Commodity

In this respect oil palm has an advantage over such competitive annual oil crops as soyabean, rape
seed, sunflower, cotton seed, coconut and groundnut.
THE DEVELOPM ENT OF OIL PALM IN MALAYSIA.
2

To extend the advantage every measure should be taken to ensure technical development for the
production of high quality palm oil.

The Malaysian palm oil industry has undergone three distinct phases of growth, each reflecting a
progress towards the overall establishment of the palm oil industry.

During the first phase there was massive planting of oil palm and construction of Oil Palm & Palm
Kernel Mills. This was in response to the encouragement given by the Government in the 1970s to
diversify Malaysias agricultural sector.

The second phase of growth was in the rapid establishment of a palm oil downstream fractions
processing and the establishment of the Oleochemical sector in the 1980s.

In the third phase of development was the joint venture projects undertaken by both, the Government
and private sector in palm oil marketing and investment in palm oil refinery processing activities in
foreign countries such as China, Vietnam, Egypt, Indonesia, England, etc.

Malaysia is in position today to expend its planting activities and have embark on the forth phase of
its plan which was launched in the early 1990s by the establishment of joint venture plantation
companies in counties where oil palm can be seen to have been planted, ie. Indonesia, Philippine,
South America .

In business and government circles, there is a sense of exhilaration about what has being achieved but
the process of de-regulation which started in the early 1990s has brought about a virtual re-birth of
the New Order in the industry and the Government has realized that the private sector is truly the
engine of growth in the economy.

There is an in-debt desire by the Government and business circles to achieve the aims of the new
order but whereas the Government's inclination is for creating a macro economic balance and on the
other hand agree to the continued expansion of the private sector's preference to profit in
development.

Demand for Palm Oil.

As the world population increases the demand and consumption of Edible oils will increase and in
particular palm oil products to a level above 15.5 kg per capita consumption by the year 2000.

The table below shows the actual and projected consumption of oils and fats up to the year 2000.

100 Million

96.0
*
85.5
79.0 *
67.6 Million MT *
*
50 Million

YEAR 1985 1990 1995 2000

POPULATION 4.83 ( Billion ) 5.45 5.70 6.20


CONSUMPTION 14.0 kg per capita 14.5 15.0 15.5

BASED ON UNITED NATIONS ESTIMATED POPULATION GROWTH.


THE DEVELOPM ENT OF OIL PALM IN MALAYSIA.
3

Review of the marketing palm oil and fractions.

The countries with the most need for edible oil, are usually those which are the least able to afford
large scale imports.

They are also likely to be the same countries least likely to have adequate processing facilities for
crude palm oil.

In the context of Malaysia's future activities for palm oil and fractions, the marketing of palm stearin
represents a special case, as Malaysia increases the amount of Palm Olein placed on the world and its
domestic cooking oil market, an inevitable consequence will be the co-production of increasing
amounts of palm stearin.

Not all of this additional production will be absorbed locally; discovering or creating new overseas
markets for the balance, is a priority for the Malaysian marketing organization.

Palm Stearin, although ideally food grate material has been placed with some success in those
markets, usually serviced by beef and / or mutton tallow.

Palm Stearin is a useful source of a completely natural, hard fat component, for such products as
compound shortenings, pastry margarine and other products which capitalize on the specific
crystallization attributes of palmitic acid.

Commercial fatty acids are derived almost entirely from natural fats.

The fatty acids are an abundant raw material, produced from a renewable resource, and serve as
building blocks for the entire Oleochemical Industry.

Historically, the main fats used for the manufacture of fatty acids have been beef tallow, as the source
of Palmitic C16 acids and Stearic / Oleic C18 acids, together with coconut oil, the only significant
source of lauric C12 acids.

Tallow production is a function of red meat consumption and is estimated to be growing at a rate of
only 1.5% per year.

World population is projected to grow at a rate of 1.6% per year while world palm oil production is
expected to grow at a rate of 7.3 % per year. (Oil World.)

Palm Stearin and Palm Kernel oil, whose production growths have been out-stripping those of tallow
and coconut oil by a wide margin, are equally rich source of these acids.

It is to be expected that Palm oil derived inputs will continue to be available at prices attractive
relative to those of tallow and coconut oil, and that their use in oleochemical manufacture will also
grow.

With recent developments in Eastern Europe an expanded market for Palm Oil based material, both
for food and technical uses will emerge.

Coupled with these regional changes, developments in the oleochemical field, driven by demands for
even increasing utilization of renewable resources, mean that fats, oils and their fatty derivatives will
be subject to increasing demands in the future; in other words the raw material supply will be
available on long term with no effect on the year to year basis.
THE DEVELOPM ENT OF OIL PALM IN MALAYSIA.
4

Research & Development.

It is evident that a lot has been achieved in the last century for the development and technology in the
oil palm industry.

Advances in R & D undertaken by the industry in brief, are:

< Pioneer strategic marketing technique.

< Development of palm oil e-business and e-commerce.

< Advanced training programs for managers, planters, technical and process engineers.

< Mechanisation in planting, maintenance and harvesting in the plantations.

< Higher density planting of palm trees and the cloning of high yield oil palm research.

< Biological pest control. ( Owls and Bats )

< New potential use of palm oil in food products and nutrition. E.g. Vitamin research

< Use of palm oil for body care products, Biodegradable detergents, engine oil, inks, molecular
electronics etc..

< Technical use of oil palm waste in the automobile, plastic & composite material.
E.g. Fibre in car sits and mattress, trunk in fibre board, glassy carbon. etc.

< New processing equipment and systems including Larger capacity oil palm mills, refineries and
processing plants.

< Quality product handling, packing and transportation ( ie. Containerization) of palm oil produces.

< Better oil palm processing techniques and the use of IT systems, computerization, robotic,
automation etc

< The incorporation of operating procedures, equipment, plant and process systems to meet the
ecological, hygienic and cleanliness of the plant on par with good food manufacturing industrial
plants standards.

Palm oil production will be a major factor in 5 years time, but it is today, secondary to the increased
production of seed crop oils.

The superior quality of CPO and its derivatives are the marketing organisations assurance for the
future of its product.

Cultural and religious practices tend to favour Palm Oil derivatives. In the Islamic world, it has
complete acceptance for both food and cosmetic applications.

The favour which palm oil attracts is likely to grow and every marketing organisation using edible
oils and fats will wish to have palm oil and its derivatives available for its products.

The development of Oil Palm continues ..

By Noel Wambeck 2nd September 1997.


THE OIL PALM EXTRACTION PROCESS
MATCHING WITH TYPE OF FFB.
By Noel Wambeck - 25th September 1974.

The oil extraction of palm fruit can be carried out by 3 different methods :

a. Centrifuge equipment by Leaching or wet process ( water washing )


b. Piston or discontinuous pressing ( Automatic hydraulic press. )
c. Continuous pressing ( by single or twin screw press.)

Other methods have been considered and experimented, such as solvent extraction,
extraction by saturated steam, by pressing of fruit pulp only, simultaneous extraction
of palm and palm kernel oil after crushing the whole fruit and high-pressure critical
extraction.

The chart above shows the different methods that have to be applied for the selected fruit with
different pulp contents.
THE PROCESS MATCHING WITH TYPE OF FFB. Page 2.

A DURA cake is for instance, an agglomeration of nuts with fibres in between,


whereas a TENERA cake is a fibre mattress with dispersed nuts.

The ratio of nuts to fibre or nuts to pulp decides the type of equipment to be used for
oil palm milling or extraction process.

However, there are not only these ratios which will affect the choice of equipment,
process systems and the design of the oil palm mill, but also the fact that pulp and
fibre show characteristics that do not appear as long as they mixed with nuts, but
become apparent when the continuous phase is made up with fibre and cellular
debris.

This important feature is the imperviousness of pulp and cake.

This phenomenon is generally known as OIL WALL .

Cake imperviousness is explained by the clogging up of fibrous mesh by cellular


debris and cell clusters.

The introduction of TENERA material, came one of the most important process
phases in modern oil palm milling, the extraction of oil from pre-treated digested
fruit, the continuous twin screw press.

25th Sept.1998 Noel Wambeck.


THE PROCESS MATCHING WITH TYPE OF FFB. Page 3.

Fig.1 Centrifugal type extractor. Fig.2 The Automatic Hydraulic Type press

Fig.3 UDW - P15 type Twin Screw Press.


OIL PALM EMPTY BUNCH DISPOSAL
BY THE INTEGRATED INCINERATION.
By Noel Wambeck 22 nd April 1999.

The processing oil palm is one of the most unique self-sufficient processes in Agro-based
manufacturing industry, yet the most pollution contributor to the environment.

In 1998 about 400 oil palm mills were known to be in operation producing approximately 9.3
million tons of crude palm oil, 15 million tons Empty bunches of unused solid waste and 300
thousand tons of revenue yielding Potash per year in Malaysia.

The salient air pollutants from the oil palm mill process, are :
Smoke and dust from the boiler.
Smoke and dust from the incinerator.

The Smoke and dust from the boiler is a subject of another paper.

This brief paper will deal with the disposal of empty bunches a solid waste from the
process of an oil palm mill.

Empty bunch a solid waste product of the Oil Palm Milling process has a high moisture content of
approximately 55 65% and high in silica content , form 25% of the total weight of Palm Fruit
Bunch.

The treated Empty bunch are mechanically crushed ( de-watered and de-oiled ) in the process but
are rich in major nutrients and contain reasonable amounts of trace elements.

When properly incinerated they yield 0.3 to 0.5 % of ash and such ash contents the following
average contitutients :

Potassium 28%
Phosphorous 1.2%
Calcium 2.3%
Magnesium 4%

They have a value when returned to the field after incineration as POTASH for the enrichment of
soil.

Many new systems for empty bunch disposal other than the incineration process and
EMPTY BUNCH INCINERATION 2
disposal for land application are being tried but no generally accepted system by the
industry has yet emerged.

The existing simple design of the incinerator to burn empty bunch is to be phased out and
disapproved for use in new mills by DOE due to high air pollution and discomfort to the local
Authority, who have to attend to complains of smoke and haze made by inhabitants of the area.

The Incinerator which are subjected to shock loads and unstable combustion resulting in high
amounts of dust particles in the flue gas emitted to the atmosphere.

All efforts to find a solution are being encouraged by DOE, PORIM and the Industry and to some
extend, partial results have taken placed in the development of ne w technology in the treatment of
effluent and air pollution control.

We envisage that the thermal oxidation system, being the direct approach to the problem may be
able to solve the hazards and control of the environment in providing a means to reduction of the
flue gas discharge of the incinerator.

The integrated system proposed is for the empty bunches to be de-watered and where the
oil is recovered in the crushing process and than finally the solid waste residue disposed
off by thermal oxidation in the incineration process has economical merit when considering
the alternative cost for the mulching system.
EMPTY BUNCH INCINERATION 3

OIL PALM MILL EMPTY BUNCH INCINERATOR WITH


DUST COLLECTOR AND ASH REMOVAL SYSTEM.

The Environmental quality ( clean air ) regulation 1978 stipulate the permitted
level of solids concentration in gases emitted from solid waste thermal plants to be
not more than 0.4 g per cubit meter.

Air emissions from oil palm mill incinerators, being mainly gases with particulates
such as tar and soot droplets of 20 100 microns and a dust load of about 3000
to 4000 mg. / NM3.

Incomplete combustion of the incinerator produces dark smoke resulting from


burning of empty bunches.

The introduction of the proposed system will alter the situation whereby the
incinerator shall emit clean smoke in accordance to the DOE standard
requirements.

Dewater / de-oiled empty bunches are fed into the incinerator chute fitted with
smoke trap door.

Flue gas from the incinerator furnace with a temperature of approximately 600
deg. C flow through the axial flow votex tube type dust collector that is mounted
in line of the flue gas ducting system.

The Dust collector is an axial flow centrifugal separation devise used to separate
particulate matter from gas streams by centrifugal action.

The cooled clean gas is conveyed by the ID fan that blows the exhausted gas to
the chimney

The system consist of :

Inlet chute
EMPTY BUNCH INCINERATION 4

Incinerator furnace complete with steel structure, fire bricks and insulation.

Shaking grate & pneumatic assembly.

Ash removal conveyor

Dust collecting unit.

Induce draught Fan. ( 30 kw 20,000 m3 / hr 100 mm wg )

Chimney with ladder and platform ( 22 m )

Inter-connecting fittings and duct works.

Control , Instrumentation & wiring.

1. Capacity ( dewatered / deoiled ) : 9000 kg Empty bunch per hour

2. Persons to operate : Two ( 2) for bagging of Potash

3. Power requirement : 30 kW

4. Estimated cost of system : RM 900 thousand.

5. Delivery schedule : 9 months

The above system vendor guarantee an emission at the chimney outlet of less
than 400 mg./ NM3 and in accordance to the DOE allowed standard.
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 1

FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm.


Feeding Pigs in the tropics 1998 ORLAC / FAO p 255 - 267

The African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis (Jacq.), is characterized by its vertical trunk and the feathery
nature of its leaves. Every year, 20 to 25 new leaves, called "fronds", develop in continuous whorls at
the apex of the trunk. The fruit bunches develop between the trunk and the base of the new fronds.
Although new plantations start to bear at three years, generally the first commercial crop requires
between five and six years and continues to produce for 25-30 years, or until the palms grow too high to
be harvested. Once a plantation reaches full production, a new inflorescence is produced every 15 days.
It weighs between 15 and 20 kg and can contain up to 1500 individual palm fruits of between 8 to 10
grammes each. The individual fruits consist of the following four parts:

a pericarp, a thin outer skin, which upon ripening changes from brown to orange; a mesocarp, a layer of
fibrous material, which surrounds the nut; an endocarp or hard inner shell (nut) to protect the seed or
kernel, and the seed (kernel).

PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

Production

The African oil palm, which yields about 20t/ha/yr of fresh fruit bunches (Bolaos, 1986; Espinal,
1986: Garza, 1986), is capable of producing between three to five t/ha of crude oil from the fruit
(mesocarp) and an additional 0.6 to 1.0 t/ha from the palm kernels (Ocampo et al., 1990a). Its
productivity is influenced by climate, soil type, genetic factors, maturity, rainfall, fertilization and the
harvest period. Mijares (1985) has stated that for optimum annual production the African oil palm
requires a minimum of 1600 mm of well distributed precipitation, a relative humidity no less than 75%,
a minimum and maximum temperature of between 17 and 28 C., a total of 2000 hours of light and a soil
depth of 100 centimetres.

There are two distinct types of oil palm: the "dura" and the "pisifera". The basic difference has to do
with the inner nut. The nut of the dura type of oil palm has a thick and hard shell while the pisifera type
has a small kernel, with no shell, but rather surrounded by a matrix of fibre. When a pisifera male is
crossed with a dura female, a "tenera" type of fruit is produced; its shell is of intermediate thickness.
Currently, it is this type of oil palm that is most widely grown in plantations.

The African oil palm produces two main commercial products: raw or crude oil, approximately 22% of
the weight of the fresh fruit bunch, and the palm nuts which represent 4-6%. When the nut is processed,
it yields palm kernel oil and palm kernel meal. The two main industrial residues, the oil-rich fibrous
residue and the palm nut shells, are used as sources of energy to run the factory. The empty fruit bunch
is normally incinerated and the ash is returned to the plantation as fertilizer.
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 2
The initial interest in the African oil palm as a feed resource for pigs was in the extracted and non-
extracted palm kernel meal. This was because when nuts of the oil palm were first brought to Europe
from Africa as ship's ballast, they were jettisoned into the sea before the ships were reloaded.

However, soon the oil millers recognized their value and began processing them for oil in order to
supplement copra oil in the manufacture of soap, paints and for other industrial applications
(Collingwood, 1958). The meal was used as a major protein supplement for pigs and cattle until soya
bean meal became commercially available.

Oil palm cultivation started at the beginning of this century (Devendra, 1977). By 1980, production of
oil had risen to slightly more than five million tons and, by 1992, annual world production reached
thirteen million tons. As seen in Table 4.1, the primary areas of production are Southeast Asia, followed
by the west coast of Africa and Latin America. Currently, Malaysia produces half the world's
production of palm oil, followed by Indonesia and Nigeria. Presently, the fourth and fastest growing
producer of palm oil is Colombia, where production has more than quadrupled in 12 years. In that
country, (Ocampo et al., 1990b) has reported that the average annual production of fruit is 15 t/ha of
which raw oil represents slightly more than three tons.

Table 4.1. Production of African palm oil: world, regional and top four countries, tonnes

(FAO, 1992).

Geographical area 1979-81 1992

World 5 046 308 12 725 346

Africa 1 337 913 1 835 888

Nigeria 666 667 900 000

Latin America 190 780 753 251

Colombia 70 500 304 496

Asia + Oceania 3 502 851 10 136 207

Indonesia 720 826 3 162 228


Malaysia 2 528 947 6 373 461
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 3

TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS

The technological process by which the oil is extracted from the palm fruit consists of the following
steps; note that the fresh fruit bunch includes the stem and the adhering individual palm fruits.

Reception: where sand, dirt and gravel are separated from the fresh fruit bunch.

Sterilization: necessary to rapidly inactivate certain enzymes which tend to reduce the quality of the oil
by increasing the amount of free fatty acids. In addition, this process contributes to the mechanical
separation of the fruit from the stem and to the rupture of the oil cells within the mesocarp.

Oil extraction: An oil press, into which hot water is injected, is used to separate the crude oil from the
solid or fibrous-like material containing the nuts. The crude oil is then pumped to the purification
section.

Figure 4.1 shows the quantities of the principal components of the oil palm based on 100 tons of the
fresh fruit bunch. The nuts are treated and cracked to extract the kernel which contains approximately
50% oil. The oil-rich fibrous residue, traditionally used as a source of energy to run the plant, has a
caloric value superior to 18.8 MJ/kg. This is largely due to the residual oil, calculated as between 8 and
18 percent (Brezing, 1986; Solano, 1986; Wambeck, 1990).

Similar to the proposal for livestock diversification within the sugar industry (FAO, 1988), the
integration of pig production within the oil palm industry might introduce a certain degree of flexibility
in the entire enterprise, resulting in: an increase in the productive capacity of the plant, particularly
during the period of maximum industrial yield; a significant reduction in plant maintenance; increased
employment opportunities related to the utilization of the different byproducts for livestock feeding; the
production of animal wastes and thereby organic fertilizer for the plantations and, perhaps most
importantly, an overall reduction in the amount and/or concentration of the industrial effluents which
threaten the contamination of the surrounding ecosystem (Ocampo, personal communication).

As a follow-up to these observations, the following information summarizes the average daily amount
of products and sub-products produced in a oil palm processing plant of 125 t/day and 10t/hour (Table
4.2).

One factor that might require attention if derivatives from the African oil palm present new
opportunities to be used as energy feed resources for pigs is the cyclic nature of its production. Bolaos
(1986) has reported that in Costa Rica the average monthly yield of fresh fruit bunch can vary from 6%
during the dry winter months to 10 or 12% during the rainy, summer season. In that country, the annual
yield of the fresh fruit bunch is 20 t/ha and with the oil-rich fibrous residue representing 12% of this
amount, this could mean the production of 0.3 t/ha of oil-rich fibrous residue during the wet season as
opposed to only 0.15 t/ha during the dry or winter season.
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 4

Table 4.2. Potential feed resources in an African oil palm processing plant, air-dry basis.

mt / day mt / year mt / ha /yr

Fresh Fruit Bunch 125 25000 20

Palm oil 25 5000 4

Palm kernel meal 2.5 1000 0.8

Empty Fruit Stem 40 8000 6.4

Ash (from stem) 0.6 125 0.1

Effluent 80 16000 13

Oil-rich fibrous residue 13.7 2750 2.2

Shell (from kernel) 12 2500 2

Ash (from shell) 0.6 16000 13

Source: Brezing (1986)

However, if sugar cane, generally harvested only in the dry season, was integrated into this feeding
system, the two energy feed resources might complement each other. The data in Tables 4.6 and 4.7
tend to support this interesting concept.

USE FOR PIGS


As earlier mentioned, one of the first references to the use of derivatives of the oil palm for pigs
referred to the use of the extracted and non-extracted palm kernel meal in complete, dry rations for
growing/finishing pigs. Most pig farmers contended that the gritty texture of the meal affected
consumption, and therefore performance. However, palm kernel meal continued to be used for many
years as a replacement for scarce cereals, mainly because it was available, relatively inexpensive and
highly nutritious (Crowther, 1916, cited by Collingwood, 1958). In the 1930s, when a commercial
process for extracting oil from the soya bean was perfected and it was seen that a higher quality animal
protein supplement (soya bean meal), would be commercially available, the byproduct from the
extraction of the oil from the kernel, palm kernel meal, was destined for ruminants (PNI, 1990).
Currently, palm kernel meal represents about one per cent of world trade in oil seed meals. Table 4.3
gives the chemical composition of several oil palm byproducts.
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 5

Table 4.3. Chemical composition of African oil palm byproducts.

Oil-rich fibrous residue a Dry sludge a (% Fresh centrifuged sludge solids b


Component
(% DM) DM) (% AD)

Dry matter 86.2 90.3d 15.0-20.8

Crude protein 4.0 9.6 3.1-3.4

Crude fibre 36.4 11.5 3.0-5.2

Ether extract 21.0 21.3 2.4-3.5

Ash 9.0 11.1 2.8-3.4

Nitrogen free
29.6 46.5 -
extract

Calcium 0.31 0.28 -

Phosphorous 0.13 0.26 -

Gross energy
18.1 18.7 -
(MJ/kg)

Sources: a Devendra (1977); b Ong (1982)

To date, derivatives of the African oil palm have shown potential feeding value for pigs in
conventional, cereal-based rations: the de-hydrated palm oil mill effluent and the fresh centrifuged
sludge solids have been studied both by Devendra et al. (1981) and by Ong (1982), and the whole palm
nut by Flores (1989) and Chavez (1990). However, recent interest has focused on the use of primary
products and by-products of the African oil palm as a partial or complete energy source replacement in
swine rations, particularly where the protein is offered separately, in the form of a restricted amount of
a high-quality supplement. It has been shown that the oil-rich fibrous residue (ORFR), normally used as
a source of energy to run the factory, can also furnish the necessary energy for the pig (Ocampo et al.,
1990a, 1990b). As exemplified in following sections, the successful experimental use of the crude oil
(Ocampo, 1994b), combinations of the crude oil and sugar cane juice (Ngoan and Sarra, 1994) and
even the whole fresh palm fruit (Ocampo, 1994a, b) further emphasize the fact that other oil palm
byproducts can serve to completely replace cereals in rations for swine.

Crude (raw) palm oil

Crude palm oil has traditionally been used up to about 5% in dry diets for pigs in a manner similar to
molasses: to improve palatability, to reduce dustiness, to supply vitamins and to improve the texture of
rations prior to pelleting (Devendra, 1977; Hutagalung and Mahyudin, 1981). The oil contains
approximately 80% of unsaturated fatty acids (Table 4.4) and 10% of linoleic acid, an essential fatty
acid required at a dietary level of 0.1% for pigs (NRC, 1988).
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 6

Table 4.4. Composition of the fatty acids in the oil from fruit and kernel of the African oil palm
(% AD).

Fatty acids Palm oil Palm kernel oil

Myristic 1.6 -

Palmitic 45.3 7.8

Stearic 5.1 2.5

Oleic 38.7 12.6

Linoleic 9.2 1.7

Lauric - 15.7

Capric - 47.3

Caprilic - 4.1

Caprolic - 4.3

Source:Pardo and Moreno (1971), cited by Ocampo et al. (1990b)

The addition of from 2 to 10% of crude palm oil in the diets of growing pigs was studied by Fetuga et
al. (1975) who found no significant effect on performance. When palm oil was compared to groundnut
oil, lard or beef tallow, there were no significant growth differences, however, increasing the level of
palm oil in the diet slightly increased the percentage of lean cuts (Babatunde et al., 1971, 1974, cited by
Devendra, 1977). This same observation was reported by Balogun et al. (1983) cited by Ngoan and
Sarra (1994) who noted that the addition of 30, 64 or 97 g/kg of palm oil to the ration increasingly
improved muscle development.

In Malaysia, it was reported that six groups of pigs from 16 to 81 kg were fed iso-nitrogenous diets
containing different levels of palm oil, from 5 to 30 percent. Although the results were reported as not
significant, the average daily gains obtained on the experimental diets were 10% superior compared to
that of the cereal control; in addition, where palm oil was included, the conversions were improved by
an average of 17 percent (Devendra and Hew, cited by Devendra, 1977).

Recently, Ocampo (1994b) showed that palm oil and a source of protein, either fortified soya bean meal
and rice polishings, or combinations of fortified soya bean meal/fresh Azolla and rice polishings, might
provide an interesting feeding system for the production of pigs in the tropics, particularly if the pigs
were integrated with the palm plantations. Pigs of an initial average liveweight of 30 kg were fed diets
in which 10, 20 and 30% of the protein from fortified soya meal was replaced by fresh Azolla
filiculoides, a water fern (Table 4.5).
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 7

Table 4.5. Composition of diets using crude palm oil, rice polishings and fresh Azolla filiculoides
as a replacement for the protein in soya bean meal (kg AD/day).

% replacement of protein in soya bean meal by Azolla

growing phase: 30-60 kg finishing phase: 60-90 kg

0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30

Protein supplement 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35

Rice polishings 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15

Crude palm oil 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80

Fresh Azolla 0.0 1.74 3.48 5.21 0.0 1.74 3.48 5.21

Source: Ocampo (1994b); * contains: soya bean meal, 86%; dicalcium phosphate, 10%; salt, 2% and a
vitamin/mineral premix, 2%

In the morning, the pigs were fed the daily ration of protein supplement and rice polishings, and half the
daily allowance of oil and Azolla. In the afternoon, they received the remaining portion of Azolla and
oil. The average daily gain (g) and dry matter feed conversion for the control treatment, without Azolla,
and the groups where 10, 20 and 30% of the protein in soya bean meal was replaced by that of Azolla
were: 526, 2.10; 561, 1.98; 535, 2.00 and 452, 2.20, respectively.

In the same publication reference was made to a commercial piggery that used the following "palm oil
feeding system". For that, a total of 170 growing/finishing pigs, in 4 groups, were fed daily one
kilogramme of protein supplement and 0.5 kg of crude palm oil. The protein supplement contained: 450
g soya bean meal, 374 g palm kernel meal, 150 g rice polishings, 20 g dicalcium phosphate and 3 g
each of salt and a vitamin/mineral premix. The initial average liveweight (kg), average daily gain (g)
and dry matter feed conversion for each of the 4 groups were 32.0, 722, 1.80; 24.2, 628, 2.00; 25.8, 524,
2.40 and 26.0, 464, 2.80, respectively. In spite of the fact that the diet was the same for all groups, no
explanation was offered for the observed variation in performance, inferring, perhaps, that the "palm oil
feeding system" requires further refinement.

Palm oil has also been studied as either a partial or complete energy source replacement for pigs, also
fed fresh sugar cane juice and a restricted protein supplement. The oil replaced 25, 50, 75 and 100% of
the energy in cane juice in both the growing and finishing phases of this most interesting and unique
feeding system to study the potential integration of sugar cane and the African oil palm as dry/wet-
season energy feed resource alternatives for pig production in the tropics (Table 4.6).

The average daily gain was not significantly affected by treatment in the growing phase, however,
during the finishing phase, gains were significantly lowered when palm oil replaced 75 and 100% of the
juice (Table 4.7). In both phases, the average daily feed intake was lower for those pigs fed palm oil
which according to the authors, might have been related to its low palatability or high energy content.
They reported a digestible energy value for palm oil and sugar cane juice in pigs as 37.5 and 14.5
MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Feed conversions were significantly improved by the addition of palm oil.
Carcass measurements were not affected.
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 8

Table 4.6. Replacement of the energy in sugar cane juice (SCJ) by that in palm oil (PO) for
growing/finishing pigs (kg AD/day). *

Liveweight, kg <30 40 50 60 70 80 90 >90

100 SCJ 6.0 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 13.0 >14

75 PO/25 SCJ 4.5/.1 6.0/.15 7.0/.2 8.0/.2 9.0/.25 10/.25 11.0/.3 12.0/.3

50 PO/50 SCJ 3.0/.2 4.0/.3 4.5/.35 5.0/.4 5.5/.45 6.0/.5 6.5/.55 7.0/.6

25 PO/75 SCJ 1.5/.3 2.0/.45 2.5/.5 2.5/.6 3.0/.65 3.0/.75 3.5/.8 3.5/.9

100 PO 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

Source: Ngoan and Sarra (1994); * plus 500 g/d of a 40% crude protein supplement

Table 4.7. Performance of finishing pigs (50-90 kg) fed a restricted protein supplement (RPS)*
with energy from sugar cane juice (SCJ) increasingly replaced by palm oil (PO).

100 SCJ 75 SCJ 25 PO 50 SCJ 50 PO 25 SCJ 75 PO 100 PO

Initial liveweight, kg 51.1 50.1 48.9 50.2 45.2

Final liveweight, kg 99.5 93.7 91.2 89.8 84.2

ADG, g 768 693 672 628 615

DM feed intake, kg/d 3.05 2.32 2.14 1.77 0.92

DM feed conversion 3.97 3.35 3.18 2.82 1.47

Source: Ngoan and Sarra (1994); Ngoan (1994); *The RPS was 500g/day of 91% soya bean meal, 6%
minerals, 1% salt and 2% of a vitamin premix

Oil-rich fibrous residue (ORFR)

The residue which remains after the crude oil is separated from the sterilized fruit by means of a screw-
press, represents approximately 12 to 15% of the fresh fruit bunch. The chemical composition of this
residue is presented in Table 4.3. This material, reported to contain from 63% (Wambeck, 1990) to 70
or 85% dry matter (Solano, 1986) still contains from 6 to 8% of residual oil. It is of a deep yellow-
tangerine color, with a fibrous consistency, sweetish smell and greasy-like texture (Ocampo et al.,
1990a). It is used as the main source of energy to run the plant.

ORFR has been studied as a complete replacement for the energy derived from cereals. Diets in which
sorghum was the sole energy source, or where 25, 50, 75 or 100% of the energy from sorghum was
replaced by this residue, were offered ad libitum to pigs from 20 to 90 kg, also fed a restricted amount
of fortified soya bean meal to meet the current, daily, NRC (1988) requirement for crude protein
(Ocampo et al., 1990a).
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 9

Preliminary results showed that pigs can grow extremely well on this type of feeding system. Where
ORFR replaced 100% of the energy supplied by sorghum, the average liveweight growth was 639
g/day. The pigs consumed a daily average of 0.75 kg of protein supplement together with 2.32 kg of oil-
rich fibrous residue (Table 4.8).

Table 4.8. Oil-rich fibrous residue as a partial or complete replacement for the energy in sorghum
for pigs (20-90 kg).

0% ORFR 25% ORFR 50% ORFR 75% ORFR 100%ORFR *

Initial liveweight, kg 19.8 20.6 21.7 22.2 22.6

Final liveweight, kg 89.7 91.1 92.5 92.6 94.2

Days to finish 133 119 112 112 112

ADG, g 525 592 632 629 639

DM feed intake, kg/d 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.8

DM feed conversion 4.00 3.59 3.49 3.75 4.47

Source:Ocampo et al. (1990a); * fed 0.55, 0.64 and 0.9 kg/day of fortified soya bean meal (see Table
4.5) during the 3 phases of: weaners, growers and finishers, respectively

Following this initial trial, Ocampo et al. (1990b), attempted to prove an observation of Sarra et al.
(1990), that when pigs are fed a restricted amount of a high quality protein supplement, particularly
when the required levels of essential amino acids are supplied by soya bean meal, lower amounts of
total crude protein are feasible. This amounts to approximately 200 g/day and can be provided in 500
g/day of a 40% protein, soya bean meal-based supplement. The concept had been first developed
through feeding systems based on sugar cane juice (see Chapter 3).

For this study, the basic diet was ORFR, fed ad libitum. Three groups of growing/finishing pigs were
fed constant amounts (high, medium or low) of fortified soya bean meal throughout the entire
experimental period. A fourth group, the control, received different amounts of fortified soya bean meal
(high, medium and low) to correspond with the needs of each of the three developmental phases:
weaners, growers and finishers (Table 4.9). The authors concluded that the two groups that received the
least amount of protein exhibited an inferior performance but gave the highest economic returns. A
more recent trial studied the effect of supplementing this unusual feeding system (ad libitum ORFR and
a restricted amount of protein supplement) with methionine and/or B-complex vitamins (Ocampo,
1992). None of the experimental treatments produced significant results.
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 10

Table 4.9. Different amounts of restricted protein supplement (RPS) * and free-choice oil-rich
fibrous residue for pigs from 22 to 90 kg.

Control High (0.64 Medium (0.57 kg/d Low (0.50


** kg/d) ) kg/d)

Initial liveweight, kg 22.7 22.8 22.8 22.1

Final liveweight, kg 90.2 90.0 90.4 90.3

Days to finish 121 126 124 135

ADG, g 558 532 545 505

AD feed intake, kg/d: RPS 0.70 0.64 0.57 0.50

ORFR 2.33 2.44 2.22 2.56

DM feed conversion 4.80 5.20 4.60 5.40

Source: Ocampo et al. (1990b); * see Table 4.5; ** 0.50, 0.64 and 0.90 kg/day of RPS fed during three
consecutive 40-day periods: weaners, growers and finishers.

Palm oil mill effluent and palm oil sludge

The palm oil mill effluent, the final liquid discharge after extracting the oil from the fresh fruit bunch,
contains soil particles, residual oils and suspended solids but only 5% of dry matter. While Wambeck
(1990) stated that it represents 0.5 t/t of fresh fruit and can cause serious problems to the entire
surrounding ecosystem, Brezing (1986) went one step further and estimated that a processing plant with
a capacity of 10 tons fresh fruit per hour would require a water treatment plant comparable to that
required by a population of half a million inhabitants!

Palm oil sludge is the material that remains after decanting the palm oil mill effluent (Devendra et al.,
1981). It can be either filter-pressed, before dried and ground to produce dehydrated palm oil mill
effluent, or centrifuged in the wet state, after having undergone anaerobic, thermophilic and acidophilic
fermentation. In the latter case, the product is known as fresh centrifuged sludge solids of 15 to 20% dry
matter and may be dehydrated to form dry centrifuged sludge solids of between 94 and 97% dry matter
(Table 4.3). The composition of the essential amino acids in palm oil sludge and palm kernel meal is
given in Table 4.10. Although, there is insufficient information concerning the amino acid composition
of different African oil palm products, data from Table 4.10 suggest that lysine is not present in an
appropriate proportion in the protein.
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 11

Table 4.10. Composition of essential amino acids in palm oil sludge and palm kernel meal (%
CP).

Amino Palm oil Palm kernel Palm oil Palm kernel


Amino acid
acid sludge meal sludge meal

Arginine 0.19 2.20 Methionine+cystine 0.28 1.98

Phenylalanine+
Histidine 0.14 0.27 0.77 1.28
tyrosine

Isoleucine 0.35 0.63 Threonine 0.34 0.54

Leucine 0.60 1.05 Tryptophan 0.12 0.17

Lysine 0.21 0.56 Valine 0.36 0.9

Source: Devendra (1977)

Fresh centrifuged sludge solids have been incorporated in a concentrate ration daily at a level of 14%
total dry matter for pigs from 30 to 90 kilogrammes. The average daily gain and dry matter feed
conversion for the maize control group and one of the experimental treatments containing fresh
centrifuged sludge solids was: 700g, 3.36 and 650g and 3.83, respectively (Ong, 1982).

Dehydrated palm oil mill effluent has been incorporated up to 20% in dry rations for growing/finishing
pigs; however, with increasing inclusion of dehydrated palm oil mill effluent, performance was poorer
and carcass fat deposition increased (Table 4.11).

Table 4.11. The use of dehydrated palm oil mill effluent for growing/finishing pigs (19-92 kg).

0% 5% 10% 15% 20%

Maize, ground 78.9 74.9 70.4 65.9 61.4

Soya bean meal 13.5 12.5 12.0 11.5 11.0

Dehydrated palm oil mill effluent - 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0

ADG, g 730 700 690 720 650

AD feed intake, kg/d 2.24 2.30 2.34 2.38 2.34

AD feed conversion 3.04 3.31 3.38 3.34 3.60

Fat, % of carcass 16.7 17.9 20.4 19.9 19.5

Source:Ong (1982); all diets contained. 5.5% fishmeal, 1.95% minerals and vitamins and 0.15%
methionine
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 12

There have been numerous attempts to convert palm oil mill effluent into a viable animal feed resource;
however, most methods have been discontinued due to the large initial capital investment required, and
particularly to the cost of fuel for dehydration.

In Malaysia, one method used to convert fresh palm oil mill effluent into a potential feedstuff involved
concentration by centrifugation or decantation, followed by absorption on other dry feeds like tapioca
chips, grass meal or palm kernel meal. The absorption process can be repeated several times before
final dehydration (Webb, Hutagalung and Cheam, 1976, cited by Devendra et al., 1981).

Perhaps, one idea would be to promote the use of the fresh centrifuged sludge solids (15-20% dry
matter) for finishing pigs which, compared to younger animals, have a greater capacity to effectively
use larger amounts of more liquid feeds. To date, apparently, this material has only been used in dry,
concentrate rations (Ong, 1982).

This approach might require supplementation to increase the crude protein content to that of a cereal, as
well as some molasses to improve palatability. It would have to be fed immediately, preferably near the
factory in order to avoid transportation of a product that contains 80% of water.

Interestingly, this approach was indicated by Devendra et al. (1981) for feeding sheep and cattle
(Devendra, 1992); he referred to the use of this residual product alone, or combined with oil-rich
fibrous residue. Perhaps, this same recommendation might be applied to feeding pigs.

In Ghana, oil palm slurry (sludge) has been used to replace 15, 20, 25 and 30% of maize in ad libitum
diets for growing pigs to 70 kg. The control group was fed a maize-based diet; performance was not
affected by the use of sludge. It was emphasized that with the exception of the loin-eye area, carcass
measurements were improved when pigs were offered the slurry-containing feed (Abu et al., 1984).

The use of unconventional feeds for pigs in Ghana was also studied by Hertrampf (1988), who reported
using oil palm sludge in place of maize at a level of from 15 to 30 percent. An increase in the daily feed
intake and the average daily gain, in addition to a significant reduction in feed costs, was reported.

Palm kernel meal

The palm kernel represents 5% of the weight of the fresh fruit bunch; it contains approximately 50% oil
(Beltrn, 1986). The meal is produced by extracting the oil from the kernel within the palm nut. The
resultant meal, sometimes also referred to as "palm kernel cake", can contain from 12 to 23% of crude
protein depending upon the efficiency of the process used to extract the oil (Table 4.12) .

As expressed earlier, the first oil palm by-product reportedly used for feeding pigs was the extracted
and non-extracted palm kernel meal. It was first used in Europe as a substitute for wheat bran in rations
for growing/finishing pigs. Currently, because of its poor palatability and high fibre content, it is more
commonly fed to ruminants where it produces a hard, white carcass fat in meat animals and a saturated
fatty acid profile in the milk of lactating animals (PNI, 1990).

In Nigeria, palm kernel meal was used for pigs but it ranked lowest in protein quality compared to other
local protein sources and produced a loss in weight (Fetuga et al., 1974, cited by Devendra, 1977).
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 13

However, in Colombia, good results have been reported (Ocampo, 1994b) when almost 40% of palm
kernel meal was used in the form of a restricted protein supplement that also contained soya bean meal.
Correct storage, to reduce the risk of mould and the production of alfa-toxins, was emphasized. The
chemical composition and digestibility of palm kernel meal is shown in Table 4.12.

Table 4.12. Chemical composition/digestibility of palm kernel meal for pigs (%).

average composition digestibility

Dry matter 90 -

Crude protein 16 60

Crude fibre 16 36

Nitrogen free extract 48 77

Ether extract 10 25

Source: PNI (1990)

Whole fresh palm fruit

The chemical composition of the flesh (mesocarp) which surrounds the palm nut, and interior kernel, is
presented in Table 4.13. The whole fresh palm fruit constitutes a potential energy feed resource for the
small-scale pig producer without access to factory produced palm oil derivatives, such as, crude oil or
oil-rich fibrous residue. In an experiment to determine the performance of pigs from 27 to 90 kg, fed
twice daily with a restricted amount of protein, and whole fresh palm fruit as a partial or complete
replacement for sorghum, Ocampo (1994a) surprisingly found that, apart from consuming easily the
fibrous material adjuring to the nut, the pigs often ate the entire fruit including the palm nut and the
interior kernel. It was observed that first they ate the fibrous material surrounding various nuts,
accumulated the nuts, then proceeded to crack and extract the kernel within the nuts. One interesting
observation was that when the fresh fruit was stored for more than seven days, palatability, and
therefore voluntary consumption, was noticeably affected.
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 14
Table 4.13. The chemical composition of the pulp (mesocarp) and kernel of the fruit of the
African oil palm (% DM).

pulp kernel

Crude protein 9.26 11.9

Crude fibre 25.5 31.6

Nitrogen free extract 31.3 25.9

Ether extract 28.6 26.9

Ash 5.4 2.5

Source: Ocampo (1994b)

Although the data in Table 4.14 show that best growth was obtained when only 25% of the fresh fruit
was used in place of sorghum, it was emphasized that best economic gains were when 75 or 100% of
the fruit was used. In a second trial, Ocampo (1994c) used 4 groups to study the optimum amount of
rice polishings as a source of carbohydrate for growing/finishing pigs, also fed a restricted protein
supplement (500 g/day) and whole, unprocessed African oil palm fruit, fed ad libitum. The amount of
rice polishings offered during the growing phase (20-60 kg) was 100, 200, 300 and 400 g/day, and
during the finishing phase (60-90 kg), 150, 250, 350 and 450 g/day. During the entire experimental
period, the average consumption of the fresh fruit was 1.1, 1.1, 1.0 and 0.9 kg AD/day; the average
liveweights were: 485, 515, 492 and 497 g/day and dry matter conversions were: 3.20, 3.20, 3.30 and
3.30, respectively. Reportedly, the most economic levels of rice polishings were 200 g/day during the
growing phase and 250 g/day during the finishing phase.

Table 4.14. Whole fresh palm fruit (WFPF) as a partial or complete replacement for sorghum in
diets for pigs from 27-90 kg.

% WFPF 25% 50% 75% 100%

Initial liveweight, kg 28.1 27.0 26.7 27.0

Final liveweight, kg 89.3 85.7 90.2 85.7

Days to finish 98 98 126 126

1.30 0.86 0.20 0.00


AD feed * intake, kg/d: sorghum
oil palm fruit
0.54 0.97 1.43 1.53

ADG, g 625 598 503 466

DM feed intake, kg/d 2.02 1.94 1.68 1.59

DM feed conversion 3.20 3.20 3.30 3.40

Source: Ocampo (1994a); *also fed 500 g/d of protein supplement : soya bean meal, 97.6%; dicalcium
phosphate, 2%; salt, 0.3% and vitamin/mineral premix, 0.3 percent
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 15

For the low income farmer in the tropics, the possibility to fatten a pig with one's own fresh palm fruit,
and perhaps purchase only 60 kg of a high-quality protein supplement, or even use some rice
polishings, is definitely an example of an alternative feeding system for pigs.

This same author also emphasized that if a feeding system based on the whole fruit was used, there
would be approximately 100 g/day of protein availabe to the pig via the kernel, and that this fact
merited even further study.

Obviously, the African oil palm has definite potential as a feed resource for pigs in the tropics. Perhaps,
its utilization might be improved if more basic information related to its nutritional value was available.

References

Abu, A.A., Okai, D.B. and Tuah, A.K. 1984. Oil palm slurry (OPS) as a partial replacement for maize
in the diets of growing-finishing pigs. Nutrition Reports International 30 (1): 121-127.

Bolaos, M.A. 1986. La palma aceitera en Costa Rica. En: IV Mesa Redonda Latinoamericana sobre
Palma Aceitera, Valledupar, Colombia 8-12 de junio de 1986, ORLAC/FAO p 23-25.

Beltrn, C. 1986. Requisitos, Calidades y Usos del Palmiste. En: IV Mesa Redonda Latinoamericana
sobre Palma Aceitera, Valledupar, Colombia 8-12 de junio de 1986, ORLAC/FAO p 145-146.

Brezing, D. 1986. Subproductos de la Palma Africana en Plantas de Beneficio Primario: El Tratamiento


de Efluentes. En: IV Mesa Redonda Latinoamericana sobre Palma Aceitera, Valledupar, Colombia 8-12
de junio de 1986, ORLAC FAO p 151-160.

Chavez, J.M. 1990. Full fat african palm kernel nuts as energy source for weaned pigs from 5 to 10
weeks of age. Ing. Agr. Thesis, Panamerican School of Agriculture, Honduras pp 68.

Collingwood, J.G. 1958. Palm kernel meal. In: Processed Plant Protein Foodstuffs Ed: A. M. Altschul,
Academic Press, New York pp 995.

Devendra, C. 1977. Utilization of Feedingstffs from the Oil Palm. In: Proc. Symp. Feedingstuffs for
Livestock in South East Asia p 116-131.

Devendra, C. 1992. Non-conventional Feed Resources in Asia and the Pacific: Strategies for
Expanding Utilisation at the Small Farm Level. 4th edition International Development Research Centre,
Sinapore, FAO Regional Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific,
Bangkok.
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 16

Devendra, C., Yeong, S.W. and Ong, H.K. 1981. The Potential Value of Palm Oil Mill Effluent
(POME) as a Feed Resource for Farm Animals in Malaysia. Proc. of National Workshop on Oil Palm
By-Product Utilization December 14-15 Kuala Lumpur.

Espinal, M. 1986. Informe de la Coordinacin Nacional Tcnica en Palma Africana. En: IV Mesa
Redonda Latinoameric ana sobre Palma Aceitera, Valledupar, Colombia 8-12 de junio de 1986,
ORLAC/FAO p 31-34.

FAO 1988. Sugarcane as Feed. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 72 FAO Rome pp 319.

FAO 1992. Production Yearbook. FAO, Roma .

Fetuga, B.L., Babatunde, G.M. and Oyenuga, U.L. 1975. The effect of varying the level of palm oil
in a constant high protein diet on performance and carcass characteristics of the growing pig. Ef. Afr.
Agric. Ror. J. 40: 264-270.

Flores, R. 1989. Full fat african palm kernel nuts as energy source for growing pigs. Ing. Agr. Thesis,
Panamerican School of Agriculture, Honduras, pp 60.

Garza, E.F. 1986. Situacin actual de la palma aceitera en Mxico. En: IV Mesa Redonda
Latinoamericana sobre Palma Aceitera, Valledupar, Colombia 8-12 de junio de 1986, ORLAC/FAO p
35-36.

Hutagalung, R.I. and Mahyudin, M. 1981. Feeds for animals from the oil palm. Proc. Inter. Conf. on
Oil Palm in Agriculture in the Eighties. p 609-622.

Hertrampf, J. 1988. Unconventional feedstuffs for livestock. Muhle + Mischfuttertechnik 125(9):108-


109.

Mijares, N.R. 1985. Aspectos ecolgicos de la palma africana de aceite. En:Potential Productivo de la
Palma Africana en Venezuela, Facultad Agropecuaria, Maracay, Venezuela p 17-40.

Ngoan, L.D. 1994. The use of African palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil as energy source for pigs. Swedish
University of Agricultural Sciences. M. Sc. Thesis. Uppsala.

Ngoan, L. D. and Sarria, P. 1994. Effect on growth performance of replacing sugar cane juice energy
with African palm oil in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Conferencia presentada en el II Seminario
Internacional "Sistemas Agrarios Sostenibles para el Desarrollo Rural en el Trpico" y IV Seminario
Nacional "Alternativas de Produccin Animal con Recursos Tropicales" Univ. Tecnologica de los
Llanos Orientales, Villavecencio, Colombia.

NRC 1988. Nutrient Requirement of Domestic Animals. Nutrient Requirement of Swine. 8th ed.
National Academy Press, Washington, D.C..

Ocampo, A., Lozano, E. and Reyes, E. 1990a. Utilizacin de la cachaza de palma africana como
fuente de energa en el levante, desarrollo y ceba de cerdos. Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 2(1): 43-50.
FAO / Chapter 4: African oil palm - Feeding Pigs in the tropics 17

Ocampo, A., Castro, C. and Alfonso, L. 1990b Determination del nivel ptimo de protena al utilizar
cachaza de palma africana como fuente de energa en raciones para cerdos de engorde. Livest. Res. Rur.
Dev. 2(2):67-76.

Ocampo, A. 1992. Oil-rich Fibrous Residue from African Oil Palm as Basal Diet of Pigs; Effects of
Supplementation with Methionine. Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 4(2):55-59.

Ocampo, A. 1994a Utilizacion del fruto de palma Africana como fuente de energia con niveles
restringidos de proteina en la alimentacion de cerdos de engorde. Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 6(1):1-7.

Ocampo, A. 1994b. Raw palm oil as the energy source in pig fattening die ts and Azolla filiculoides as
a substitute for soya bean meal. Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 6 (1): 8-17.

Ocampo, A. 1994c. Efecto del nivel de pulidura de arroz en una dieta basada en el fruto entero de
palma africana para el engorde de cerdos. Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 6(2): (18Kb).

Ong, H.K. 1982. The Use of Palm Oil Sludge Solids in Pig Feeding. (Paper presented at First Asian
Australasian Animal Science Congress, Sept. 2-5th, 1980) Animal Production and Health in the Tropics
pp307-311.

PNI (Pig News and Information) 1990. Palm Kernel Meal. 11(4) pp 11.

Sarra, P., Solano, A. and Preston, T.R. 1990. Utilizacin de jugo de caa y cachaza panelera en la
alimentacin de cerdos. Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 2(2): 92-99.

Solano, R. 1986. Principales subproductos de las plantas extractoras de aceite. En IV Mesa Redonda
Latinoamericana sobre Palma Aceitera, Valledupar, Colombia 8-12 de junio de 1986, ORLAC/FAO p
161-167 .

Wambeck, N. 1990. La experiencia Malasiana en el desarrollo de la industria de la palma aceitera con


la tecnologia avanzada de Estechnik. In: VI Mesa Redonda Latinoamerica sobre Palma Aceitera San
Jos, Costa Rica 12-16 marzo 1990 ORLAC/FAO p 255-267

File:// 1990 ORLAC/FAO p 255 267 : 11. FAO Feeding pigs.doc Sep.1999/ NW.
PREPARATION OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROJECT.
By Noel Wambeck ( Revised 30th October 1997 )

INTRODUCTION.

Once a project have been initiated, and the decision has been taken to go ahead with a project, the
management team will need the totally committed backing of the investors and that the degree of
confidence and faith in the project can only come from a thoroughly prepared project study and
appraisal.

To the investor, it is important that they should generate a good cash flow as early as possible
through well planned but speedy development, income arising from early plantings or from
revenues, exploitation of natural resources, eg. Sales of timber from land preparation or from tree
crops during replanting cycles.

Timely provision of infrastructure including roads of access for development inputs and for produce
evacuation, water supply, housing and offices, power, communications with adequate processing
facilities and logistics for points of export, shall all be part of the preparation of project.

Although a lot have been said and written on the subject of PROJECT STUDY the basic phases
involved from project inception to project implementation are as follows:

OVERALL APPROACH

The project work will be divided into 4 main stages and later, further sub-divided in accordance with
the yet-to-be-determined Phases of development.

Stage 1 is described in detail and the subsequent stages are described in general since these stages
depend on the Stage 1 findings.

We recommend that these work stages be as follows:-

Stage 1 : Initial assessment of the proposed project site and preparation of a


Feasibility Study Report.

Stage 2 : Compilation of additional information and basic design for submission


to Local Authority and approvals.

Stage 3 : Detailed Project Design and Drawings, Tender Documents to Tender


Evaluation and Contract Document.

Stage 4 : Implementation and Supervision of the project.


PREPARATION OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROJECT.
2

STAGE 1. PROPOSED SITE SELECTION AND FEASIBILITY STUDY REPORT

The essential elements in Stage 1 are as follows :-

1.1 Discussions with the Clients project members regarding their objectives for the proposed
oil palm plantation project in the short, medium and long-term requirements.

The discussions would include marketing strategy and determine whether Market Research
or an Economic Study would be required at Stage 2.

1.2 The project team to inspect the proposed project site identified by the client.

The site visit will include locating possible sites for the operation command base, plantation,
nursery area, processing facilities and infrastructure such as, roads water source, waste
water effluent discharge point, housing area, utility requirements for estate, such as treated
water and electrical power etc..

1.3.1 Liaise with local Authority in order to take into account any restrictions the Authority may
have on the establishment and operation of the proposed project.

1.4 Assess location of plantation site with regards to the communication and transportation
logistics.

1.5 Consider the following items to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each site.

1.6 Access to site during land preparation, construction of infrastructure, planting and during
operation.

1.7 Location of each site relative to the shoreline and access roads.

1.8 Assess the size of each site for the proposed project.

1.9 Determine the capacity and zoning for expansion at each site.

1.10 Estimate the ground level at each site relative to the tide levels and assess the need for flood
prevention including reclamation and shoreline protection.

1.11 Investigate the Environmental effects, including effluent disposal. Determine the
requirements for the Environmental Impact Assessment which will be carried out at Stage 2.

1.12 Assess location of sites with regards to source for construction materials.

1.13 Investigate the requirements of Local Government and of other Approval Authorities for
the construction of a project

1.14 Preliminary investigation into source of processing equipment and in particular, we


would explore the possibility of using locally manufactured equipment.

1.15 Study the existing site investigation details. Determine the extent of further investigation
and topographic and surveys required at each site. The Investigation and Surveys would
be carried out at Stage 2.
PREPARATION OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROJECT.
3

1.16 Determine in principle the foundations required for the buildings and structures based on
Existing soil information.

1.17 Identify whether Market Research and Economic Studies are required.

1.18 Prepare order-of-cost budget estimates for the preferred site, including approximate
comparisons with the other site if appropriate. The budget estimate would include the cost
of soil investigation, Earthworks, Reclamation, Infrastructure, Services, and the Processing
Plant.

In addition the estimate shall nclude


i the approximate costs for upgrading existing roads if
required.

1.19 The results of the study will be presented in a report highlighting the advantages and
disadvantages of each site recommending which site should be selected for Stage 2
investigations.

This stage is intended to provide an overview of the main issues, and does not become involved in
detail.

The project site selection, assessment and feasibility study will make use of as much data that is
available at the time, including charts or surveys indicating general topography and preliminary
knowledge of soil conditions from the existing site investigation.

This data will be augmented by data obtained in the field during the site visit.

The study will take into account the Clients requirements in preliminary terms and will aim to
confirm that the desired facilities within the development plan can be efficiently located on the
proposed site.

During Stage 1 it is expected that several discussions will take place in order to establish the
medium and long-term requirements of the project.

It will be identified whether there is a clash between the short-term needs of the Client and their
long-term objectives. This will be assessed in Stage 2.

The deliverables in Stage 1 would be presented as a document recording the data used and the risks
involved pending later detailed surveys and soils investigations.

It will include layouts at small scale with descriptive text and preliminary order-of-cost budget
estimates.

The cost estimates for the site will be based on the existing soil investigation at the site.
PREPARATION OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROJECT.
4

STAGE 2. COMPILATION OF ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND BASIC PROJECT


DESIGNS FOR SUBMISSION TO LOCAL AUTHORITIES AND APPROVALS.

The commencement of Stage 2 services would be dependent on written instructions from the Client
to proceed.

The activity and work components of Stage 2 would generally be as follows :-

2.1 Establish Short, Medium and Long-Term Requirements of the Plant

Based on the outline concept layout selected from the Stage 1 work, establish in precise terms by
discussion, the detailed objectives and strategies required to achieve the Clients business plan for
the short, medium and long-term.

2.2 Review and Acquisition of Project Design Data.

At a detailed level, and in close cooperation with Operational Staff, considerable amounts of data
will need to be reviewed, or if not available, acquired.

Such data would include size of the proposed oil palm plantation, utility requirements including
capacities and distribution round the processing plants.

In addition, if it is found during Stage 1 that further studies such as Market Research and Economic
Studies, these studies would also be carried out, during Stage 2.

On completion of the required on-site surveys, investigations and the desktop studies, all such data
would be entered into a Project Design Specification Document, which is updated and reissued to
the Client as and when required.

This document forms the basis for the recording of agreed data, and provides the Client with a
permanent means of easy reference in the future.

Stage 2 would also include an Environmental Assessment Report.

The assessment would include a study into the present and future needs of the project against the
present and expected future legislation.

Included in the study will be required data and forms for the applications and approvals by Local
Authorities.

2.3 Definition of the Agreed Project Scheme.

Based on the reviews of data, the acquisition of essential new data, and detailed discussions on
proposed project scheme to meet business plan objectives.

These Study report taken together with the Basic Design Specification document define the Agreed
Scheme, from which on the instructions of the Client, detailed engineering would commence.
PREPARATION OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROJECT.
5

STAGE 3. DETAILED DESIGN, TENDERS AND CONTRACT DOCUMENT.

The activity and work components of Stage 3 would generally be as follows: -

3.1 Detailed Engineering Design

Based on the Agreed Scheme layouts and associated drawings and on the contents of the Design
Specification, taken in conjunction with the results of surveys and any necessary studies, detailed
engineering calculations would be prepared together with sufficient general arrangement and detail
drawings required to allow selected Contractors to submit concise tenders for each package of work.

The project team would make use of our comprehensive in-house computer facilities for specialist
design tasks and by means of our AutoCAD system for the production of almost all of the drawings.

In addition to their own broad experience, the members of our Project Team would be able to call
upon the specialized knowledge of experts within industry whenever required.

The Consultant would also provide the Quality Management function ensuring both that the correct
management and control functions are in place, and carry out key design checking procedures,
which include the all important design reviews.

3.2 Technical Specifications

In conjunction with the preparation of detailed engineering design, full specification for materials
and construction of the works and procurement of the plant will be provided, taking into account the
latest thinking for the most efficient operation of a processing plant and for low maintenance.

Emphasis will be placed on the use of practical materials and construction requirements including
where possible the elimination of overly complex details to ensure easy maintenance and
satisfactory durable structures suitable for the harsh environment.

3.3 Contract Documents for Tender Issue


On a contract by contract basis, these documents would generally comprise:

Tender Notice
Instructions to tenderers
Form or Forms of Contract, to be discussed and agreed with the Client taking into account
Client specific requirements, project constraints, and international practice to include a
reasonable allocation of responsibility between the contracting parties.
Technical specifications, discussed above
Any necessary schedules (e.g. of suppliers)
Bills of Quantities

Client and site specific conditions would generally be dealt with under Part 2 of the General
Conditions of Contract.
PREPARATION OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROJECT.
6

3.4 Tender Evaluation

The tender period would vary depending on the scale and complexity of the work.

While there is always a desire to shorten tender periods in order to expedite the project, we would
recommend the allowance of an adequate time to ensure that tenderers preparations are not rushed
so that sufficient attention can be paid by them to the details of the work and the competitiveness of
their bids.

During the tender period members of our team would be available to answer tenderers queries and
where appropriate, would undertake the issue of clarification notices to all tenderers.

Upon receipt of tenders we would carry out a full evaluation and prepare a report for review by the
Client.

It is likely that this would take the form of a preliminary report on the tender submissions to be
followed by meetings with those submitting preferred bids.

The report would then be updated and include recommendations for the award of contract. In its
final form the report would include:

A tender summary and breakdown of principal items for all tenderers


More detailed price breakdown for the leading tender
Notes of Meetings and Negotiations
Comments on tenderers submissions and approach to the project

If alternative designs are submitted by tenderers these would be examined and assessed and, if
necessary, discussed with the tenderer concerned.

The final report would contain an assessment of such alternatives and recommendations as to
whether or not this would be acceptable.

The deliverables for Stage 3 would comprise initially a full set of tender documents for Client
confirmation and, after receipt of final approval, a master set of tender documents for issue to all
selected tenderers by the Client.

The Consultant will provide assistance with the pre-selection of tenderers early on in Stage 3.

In addition, the Client would receive detailed reports on the assessment of each of the tenders.
PREPARATION OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROJECT.
7

STAGE 4. CONSTRUCTION STAGE, SITE SUPERVISION

The commencement of Stage 4 services would be dependant on written instructions form the Client
to proceed.

The activity and work components of the Stage 4 services would generally be as follows:-

4.1 Preparation of Contract Documents etc.

Upon confirmation of selection of Contractor by the Client we will prepare two sets of original
contract documents including:

Form of tender
Form of Contract
Form of Bond
Conditions of Contract
Specifications
Bills of Quantities/Summary of Prices as priced by the successful tenderer
Schedule of Drawings
Contract Drawings
Technical Schedules
Agreed notes of meetings, relevant correspondence and notices of clarification pertaining to
the acceptance of the tender

These will be issued to the selected Contractor and then to the representative of the Client for
signature and following this 3 certified copies would be prepared. The two originals will then be
returned to the contract parties for retention.

At the same time as the original contract documents are being prepared and processed, full sets of
construction drawings, specifications and other documents will be prepared and issued to the
Contractor.

4.2 Project Management Services

We would confirm that the nominated Project Manager, or equivalent alternative, is fully used to
managing multi-disciplinary projects.

4.3 Pre-construction Meeting

We would hold a pre-construction meeting prior to the commencement of all the contracts.

The purpose of this meeting would be to review with the successful Contractor the requirements of
the Tender Documents to develop a list of information that he is required to provide as stipulated in
the Tender Documents and to solicit from him, his programme of activities as required by the
Tender Documents.
PREPARATION OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROJECT.
8

4.4 Review and Approve Contractors Programme

For each separate contract, the control programme submitted by the Contractor indicating his
proposed timing and phasing of various operations will be reviewed.

Following that review, advice will be given on any changes deemed necessary in the programme
proposed by the Contractor.

It is also necessary to monitor carefully the Contractors control programme to check his progress
and compare actual progress with the programmed progress.

From time to time as required by circumstances, the Contractor will be required to update his
programme.

The Client will be advised of any developments threatening the delay of completion and
recommendations will be made on any actions necessary to facilitate timely completion.

The construction programme must be prepared by the Contractors using CPM techniques and
contain the key elements and timetables for the completion of his work.

We will review the programmes and any subsequent changes deemed appropriate.

4.5 Establish Project Files, Prepare Monthly Reports and Attend Job Meetings.

Essential to any project is the establishment of a project filing system such that shop drawings,
contract correspondence, daily reports, monthly reports, time schedules, etc., can be readily retrieved
from files and utilized for the purpose of administering the Project.

A computerised record file consistent with our needs as the Consultants and the Client is established.

Monthly progress reports will be prepared for submission to the Client.

These monthly progress reports will report on all phases of the work in all disciplines, on delivery
schedules, on the development of programme updates, identify particular construction problems or
quality control problems during the course of the month and will further include the degree of
physical completion and expenditures under each contract.

As the project construction proceeds actual costs may vary from the previously estimated costs due
to changes in quantities of work and materials, or due to unforeseen circumstances.

A close control over these costs and their affects on the overall project costs will be undertaken so
that strict budgetary control is exercised.

On a regular basis, formal progress meetings will be held with the Contractor. An agenda will be
prepared with input from the Contractor and the Client.

We will prepare the final minutes of the meeting. It is important to the orderly progress of the job
that progress-meeting minutes are maintained accurately.
PREPARATION OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROJECT.
9

4.6 Recommend Tests on Materials and Equipment

We propose that laboratory, shop, and mill tests on materials and equipment are incorporated in the
Project.

As appropriate, our sit e staff or representatives will observe the actual performance of such tests.

4.7 Review Test Reports and Witness Tests

At various points in the progress of the project it will be required by the Contract Documents that
specific materials or equipment be tested and certificates be issued for their performance.

The objective of such tests is to ensure that the Contractor complies with the requirements of the
Contract Documents and that the materials and equipment meet the appropriate contract
specifications.

Where witness tests are required for specific pieces of equipment, we would be able to provide the
necessary manpower to witness the tests as required by the Contract Documents.

Under the provision of the Contract Documents, the Contractor will also be required to submit
certification of materials testing and certified test results ensuing from such tests.

This system will be monitored and such certificates and tests reports reviewed and approved and
provided as historical records.

4.8 Review and Approval of Fabrication Drawings

The Contractor will be required to submit fabrication drawings for approval prior to construction
and installation of specific materials and equipment items.

These fabrication drawings will be reviewed in accordance with the procedures laid down in the
Quantity Plan.

It is also critical to the conduct of the Project that fabrication drawing review be expedited and that
the Contractors submittals are as accurate as possible.

Poor quality fabrication drawings frequently result in increases in engineering costs as well as
frustrations to the Client.

Detailed construction drawings, fabrication and erection drawings, charts, and any other related
proposals required to be submitted by the Contractor, will also be checked for adequacy and
compliance with the terms and conditions of the Contract Documents.

Comments concerning required revision of the Contractors submittals will be prepared in writing
for approval of the Client prior to presentation to the Contractor.

Copies of Contractors submittals, comments and the finally accepted documents will be maintained
in permanent files until completion and final acceptance of all construction undertaken by each
Contractor.
PREPARATION OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROJECT.
10

Archiving will then be carried out in accordance with the Quality Plan with the transfer of
appropriate document records to the Client as agreed.

4.9 Prepare Diaries and Records

During the execution of the work, we will prepare detailed daily diaries and records concerning the
work, site, ground and weather conditions, material quantities delivered to the job sites, and related
information.

Copies of such records will be provided to the client upon request.

These diaries and records are invaluable in cases of later disputes with Contractors and possible
arbitration or legal action.

4.10 Evaluation of Extra Payment Claims

Contractors or suppliers may make claims from time to time for extra payment. Any such simple
claims will be reviewed and evaluated impartially and professionally by the site staff and
recommendations made to the client with respect to the admissibility of a claim.

Where a claim is considered allowable and approved by the client, a variation order will be initiated
for the client approval.

4.11 Variation Orde rs

Throughout the progress of the Project, certain changes by virtue of site conditions may be required.

Changes may be required to plans and / or specifications due to site conditions being at variance
with those assumed during design.

We are obliged to advise the Client of any such changes and variation orders deemed necessary.

When such conditions arise we will prepare the appropriate variation orders with the backup
information and explanation as to the need and reason and submit it to the client for approval.

Each variation order will accompanied by an analysis concerning the appropriate amount by which
payments to the Contractor are to be increased or decreased as a result of the changes to the work
included in the variation order.

4.12 Contractors Progress Payment

Progress payments by the Client will be made to the Contractor on a schedule basis throughout the
job, based on payment certificates, which we will issue as Engineer.

We will maintain records sufficient to review and check the progress payment request in detail.

Monthly project photographic records will also be required, as these are often a substantial aid in
identifying project conditions and degree of project completion.
PREPARATION OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROJECT.
11

4.13 Final Inspection

After the contracts are virtually completed, we will undertake final inspection during the period of
each contract and advise the Contractor of any additional work required.

On completion of the remedial work, we will issue a final certificate for each contract.

4.14 Supervise Commissioning and Handing Over

We will provide qualified personnel to supervise and monitor all required final tests and
commissioning to be performed by the Contractor and to make appropriate recommendations.

The relevant Government agencies and Authorities shall be notified in advance by the Contractor for
final inspection and approval by such authorities.

Supervision of the no load trial run of the plant and ancillary shall be carried out by the Consultant
after which the Client will be notified to arrange for raw material for process to be delivered to the
plant.

A pre-commissioning meeting shall be conducted between the Contractor, Plant Manager,


Supervisors, key personnel and Consultant on the procedure, safety requirements and expectations.

It is suggested that the operators and / or other selected personnel of the Client, who will later be
responsible for the operations of the new plant, should be in attendance during the final acceptance
testing.

This approach will familiarize those operators with the new systems.

Following completion of the final tests and commissioning, a final report will be submitted to the
Client.

4.15 As-Built Drawings and Documents

During the course of construction a record set of the contract drawings for each contract will be
maintained and marked up by the Contractor and agreed by the Resident Engineer to show as built
work.

This is particularly important where approved changes may have been made to the contract drawings
so that their true location in the field is properly recorded.

On completion of the construction contracts, the as-built modifications will be recorded on a


master set of reproducible AutoCAD drawings (reduced and full size) and 3 inch diskettes which
will be supplied by the Contrac tor and submitted to the Client as a permanent record of the as-
constructed works.

The appropriate specification, vendors data, spare parts lists and similar aspects will accompany the
as built drawings.
PREPARATION OF AN OIL PALM MILL PROJECT.
12

4.16 Operation and Maintenance Manuals and Training

All suppliers of machinery and equipment will be contractually bound to provide Manuals of
Instructions to facilitate satisfactory operation and maintenance of mechanical and electrical and
other equipment.

The manuals will be compiled by the Contractor into bound documents, each of which explains the
operational and maintenance programmes for each piece of equipment installed.

The Client will then have easy reference to the methodology and requirements for operating and
maintaining the equipment under their supervision.

The Consultant shall advise and assist the Client in the recruitment of personnel.

The on-site commissioning engineer will provide operation of machinery and plant, quality control
and maintenance schedules, and prior and during the commissioning period short courses and
training of personnel on the process systems.

4.17 End of Maintenance Period

A final inspection of the works will be carried out at the end of the maintenance period; corrective
action list(s) will be prepared and submitted to the Contractor.

The final completion certificate will be issued a completion of defect rectification.

4.18 WORK PROGRAMME

Stage 1 : Site Selection and Feasibility Study work is the starting point from which clear project
definition emerges, it is appropriate at this very early stage of the Project to concentrate only on the
work required to achieve completion of Stage 1.

The Site Selection and Feasibility Study should be completed in final draft form within 6 weeks
from the commencement of the initial site selection visit.

Salient notes of the size of plantation with the corresponding basic data and project cost of
Oil Palm Mills are enclosed.

Noel Wambeck / Reprint June1999.


MATRIX FOR OIL PALM MILL PROJECT - DESIGN CAPACITY, COST ESTIMATES, BASIC DATA AND OPERATING REQUIREMENTS.
APPLICABLE TO COUNTIES WITH AMOUNTS SHOWN IN ITS CURRENCY BELOW : DATE :

ITEM Details Design Capacity 5 10 20 30 20/40 45 30/60 45/90 60 / 120


MT Fruit Bunches / HOUR

Basic Data for Project Planning BASED ON MALAYSIAN TENERA MATERIAL WITH 25 MT FFB / HA. 25% OIL CONTENT & OER AT 22% CPO 5% PK.

1 PLANTATION ha 1,000 2,000 4,000 5,000 7,000 8,000 10,000 15,000 20,000
1.1 FRESH FRUIT BUNCH ( 25 mt / Ha ) mt / year 25,000 50,000 100,000 125,000 175,000 200,000 250,000 375,000 500,000

2 MILL CAPACITY
2.1 Operating on 24 hours per day mt / hr 3.99 7.99 15.97 19.97 27.95 31.94 39.93 59.90 79.86
2.2 Operating on 20 hours per day mt / hr 4.79 9.58 19.17 23.96 33.54 38.33 47.92 71.88 95.83
2.3 Operating on 16 hours per day mt / hr 5.99 11.98 23.96 29.95 41.93 47.92 59.90 89.84 119.79

3 PRODUCTION
3.1 Production of CPO per Year mt / 22% 5,500 11,000 22,000 27,500 38,500 44,000 55,000 82,500 110,000
3.2 Production of PK per Year mt / 5% 1,250 2,500 5,000 6,250 8,750 10,000 12,500 18,750 25,000

4 HUMAN RESOURCES
4.1 Management & Staff persons 3 3 3 6 9 9 9 9 9
4.2 Manpower requirements persons / per shift 12 24 28 30 34 36 42 50 56
4.3 Total manpower persons / 3 shifts 39 75 87 96 111 117 135 159 177

5 OTHER REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Water requirements m3 / hour 10 20 40 60 80 90 120 180 240
5.2 Electrical power requirements KW 150 300 600 900 1000 1125 1500 2,250 3,000
5.3 Land required hectares
5.4 Mill & Appurtenance ha 2 2 6 6 8 8 8 10 12
5.5 Effluent Ponds ha 2 2 6 6 8 8 8 10 10
5.6 Project time schedule months 16 18 20 20 22 22 24 24 24

6 CAPITAL COST
6.1 Land RM Client Client Client Client Client Client Client Client Client
6.2 Preliminary/ Soil Invest./ Survey/ Prof. Fee RM 300,000 550,000 650,000 800,000 900,000 1,100,000 1,300,000 1,600,000 1,800,000
6.3 Infrastructure / Earth Works & Piling RM 450,000 900,000 1,600,000 1,800,000 2,000,000 2,250,000 2,400,000 2,700,000 3,600,000
6.4 Civil & Structure with Buildings RM 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 3,600,000 4,400,000 4,950,000 6,600,000 7,700,000 8,800,000
6.5 Proprietary Equipment RM 2,200,000 3,150,000 6,000,000 7,200,000 7,900,000 8,600,000 9,500,000 11,100,000 12,900,000
6.6 Mechanical & PI RM 1,000,000 2,500,000 5,000,000 6,900,000 7,200,000 7,700,000 8,800,000 9,300,000 10,800,000
6.7 Electrical works RM 500,000 900,000 1,200,000 1,400,000 1,500,000 1,800,000 2,100,000 2,900,000 3,300,000
6.8 Effluent treatment system RM 200,000 500,000 900,000 1,200,000 1,600,000 1,800,000 2,000,000 2,400,000 3,400,000
6.9 Lab & Workshop equipment RM 200,000 300,000 300,000 300,000 300,000 400,000 400,000 400,000 400,000
6.10 Vehicles RM 150,000 200,000 350,000 400,000 400,000 400,000 500,000 500,000 500,000
6.11 Staff Quarters RM Not required Not required 2,000,000 2,400,000 2,800,000 3,000,000 3,400,000 3,900,000 4,500,000
TOTAL for Malaysia RM 6,000,000 11,000,000 21,000,000 26,000,000 29,000,000 32,000,000 37,000,000 42,500,000 50,000,000

7 COUNTRIES Capacity mt/hr 5 10 20 30 20/40 45 30/60 45/90 60/120


7.1 West Africa / South America USD 3.8 2,052,632 3,763,158 7,184,211 8,894,737 9,921,053 10,947,368 12,657,895 14,539,474 17,105,263
7.2 India / Sri Lanka India Rs.11.5 69,000,000 126,500,000 241,500,000 299,000,000 333,500,000 368,000,000 425,500,000 488,750,000 575,000,000
7.3 Indonesia Indonesian Rp.2300 15,870,000,000 29,095,000,000 55,545,000,000 68,770,000,000 76,705,000,000 84,640,000,000 97,865,000,000 112,412,500,000 132,250,000,000
7.4 Papau New Guinea PNG Kina 2.8 2,785,714.29 5,107,142.86 9,750,000.00 12,071,428.57 13,464,285.71 14,857,142.86 17,178,571.43 19,732,142.86 23,214,285.71

Noel Wambeck 26th March 1999 revised.

5/13/00 Perunding AME / MaY 99 / NW.


PROJECT MANAGER'S CHECK LIST DATE ;

PROJECT NO.

PROJECT : PROJECT MANAGER:

Project Deivery : . Months


Completion Date : . 199.
ITEM TASK IN BRIEF STATUS ACTION BY TARGET COMPLETION COMMENTS
DATE DATE

A Design stage - Preliminaries

1 Master list of Machinery & Appurtenance


2 Preliminary layout
3 Engineer's Cost Estimates
4 Project Report
5 Drawing List
6 Layout review & approval by client
7 Proposal for Effluent control & system
8 DOE site approval
9 State Authority approval
10 MIDA application ( Industrial manufacturing Licence )
11 PORLA application ( for Palm Oil projects )
12 DOE writen approval
13 Fire Department
14 Chieft Electrical Inspector
15 Indah water approval
16 Local town board approval for buildings
17 Other

B Preparation of Drawings & Documents

18 Clearance of all applications


19 Pre-qualification of Contractors
20 Soil investigation tender
21 Proprietary equipment tender
22 Earth works tender
23 Civil & Structural works tender
24 Mechanical & PI works tender
25 Electrical works tender
26 Other

C Tender & Award Stage

27 Tender notice ads in local news / by invitation


28 Tender acknowledgement
29 Evaluation report
30 Letter of acceptance
31 Preparation of Contract
32 Proformance bonds / guarantees
33 Insurance certificate
34 Prepare monthy reports to client / PORLA OR MIDA
35 Certify claims by Contractors
36 Other
D Construction Stage STATUS ACTION BY TARGET COMPLETION COMMENTS
DATE DATE
37 Confirm taking over of site by contractor
38 Check Contractors quarters and facilities at site
39 Check bench marks and setting out of project sites
40 Check all safety requirements & sign display at site
41 Inspection of fabrication works at contractor's site
42 Conduct pre-delivery meeting with proprietary supplies
43 Check delivery schedules
44 JKJ approval to commence installation of machinery & Plant
45 Inspection of site works
46 Conduct site meetings
47 Certify works at site
48 Issue variation instruction
49 Prepare monthy reports to client / PORLA OR MIDA
50 Certify claims by Contractors
51 Other

E Commissioning Stage

52 Check all machinery, equipment and plant installation, fittings etc.


53 Call for CEI inspection & JKJ hydrostatic test of pressure vessels
54 Conduct hydrostatic test & setting of safety valves
55 Check drying out of Boilers & start up proceedures
56 Loading of tanks with water to check for leakage & stabilisation
57 Setting of switch gear, earthfault etc. & test power supply
58 Check all piping & valves position, connections, supports & blowing out of steam
pipes
59 Check all lubrication requirements
60 Fire & safety requirements & sign board displays
61 Conduct pre-commissioning meeting with client, supplies & contractors
62 Check all raw material, manpower and utility requirements
63 Notice by letter to client, contractors, insurance company and authorities for
confimation of commissioning date
64 Conduct & supervice commissioning
65 Chech and adjust speeds of machinery, fans & conveyors
66 Conduct capacity test with control of performance
67 Conduct training of machinery operators
68 Follow up defective works by contractor

F Closing of Project

69 Submit commissioning report & certify hand over cetificate


70 Submit machinery parts & service manuals
71 Collect & submit "as built" drawings
72 Wind up all contracts
73 Release all retention funds
PROJECT MONTHLY REPORT 1

PROJECT MONTHLY REPORT

PROPOSED CONSTRUCTION OF .

FOR ( Client )

(For the month of November 1998)

Prepared by :
PROJECT MONTHLY REPORT 2

The Contract

The Employer:

The Employers
Representative:

The Contractor:

Essential Terms Agreed:

1. Contract Sum : RM
Malaysian Ringgit :

2. Contract Sum Analysis : To be provided by the contractor

3. Revised Contract Period :

4. Liquidated and
Ascertained Damages : RM per calendar day.
PROJECT MONTHLY REPORT 3

INDEX

1.0 General

2.0 Progress against Schedule


- Site progress
- Manpower
- Imported items
- Submission
- Next month schedule

3.0 Monetary report


- Progress payment
- Variation orders
- Day works
- Others

4.0 Information Requested


- from authorities
- from the employer
- from the contractor

5.0 Important issues that might give rise to


Contractual dispute in due course.

6.0 Progress photographs

7.0 Project Managers recommendations

8.0 Monthly Report submitted by Contractor

8.1 Contract Agreement :

8.2 Meetings & Site visit :

8.3 Works Completed :

8.4 Works Outstanding :

8.5 Pending Information :


OIL PALM MILL DESIGN BASIS
F OR A 45 90 MT F F B P ER HOUR

The information herein contains strategies, trade secrets, intellectual properties and other confidential information and
the protection of its secrecy is critical to the future financial well-being of Perunding AME.

Accordingly, this document is provided on the conditions of confidentiality and non-disclosure and parties to whom
this document is supplied by the document, acknowledge and agree to respect the sensitivity and exclusivity of the
information, affirm that the document and its contents are confidential; and further, agree to hold and treat it in
strictest confidence, not permit, directly or indirectly, the disclosure of the information contained herein to third
parties, and if so required by Perunding AME to return the document without any photocopies or other duplications
being made.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY

SPECIFIC GRAVITIES AND DENSITIES OF OIL PALM COMPONENTS & SUBSTANCE


USED IN THE CALCULATION IN THE DESIGN BASIS SHEETS.

ITEM / COMPONENTS / MATERIAL OR Bulk Density


SUBSTANCE Specific Gravity Average weight
SG mt / m3

Ash 0.550 0.437


Bunch 0.628 0.550
Cracked mixture 0.535 0.653
Crude Palm Oil 0.8927 0.893
Diluted crude oil 0.890 0.900
Fibre 0.257 0.350
Fresh Fruit Bunch 0.580 0.480
Fruitlets 0.640 0.680
Palm Kernel Oil 0.892 0.892
Palm Nuts 0.653 0.653
Palm Olein 0.9015 0.902
Palm Stearin 0.8865 0.880
Press expelled cake 0.550 0.650
Pure water without air at 30degC 0.994 0.994
Shell 0.650 0.750
Sludge 0.899 0.900
Sterilized Fruit 0.640 0.660
Vegetable oils 0.945 0.950
Water at 4 deg.C max 1 1
DESIGN OF LOADING RAMP DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 1.02

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE : DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel Input data by: NW

POWER 230/415V 50Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

LOADING RAMP & HOPPERS 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Minimum Storage Period 12 hr
Capacity of each cage 7 Tonnes FFB
Bulk Density Of FFB 480 kg/m3
Capacity Per Door Of Loading Ramp 15 Tonnes
Number of loading ramps / hoppers 12 24 Nr.
Loading Ramp Slab: Length n/a m
Width n/a m
Assume Average storage depth 0.45 m
Operating period 24 hr/day
Choose number of loading doors 2 doors per bay
Number of doors required 24 48 Nr.

CALCULATE

Total storage required 540 1,080 tonnes


Storage in the ramp / hopper 180 360 tonnes
Storage on slab 0 0 tonnes
Storage in cages 360 720 tonnes
Nr.of cages required (Minimum) 51 103 Nos

Number of Loading Ramps with Hoppers 12 24 Nr.

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF CAGE TRANSFER CARRIAGE DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 1.4

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: BS2654 DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel ST 37 Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

CAGE TRANSFER CARRIAGE 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Tranfer cycle time 9 min
Capacity of each cage 7 tonnes FFB

CONSIDERATION
Design for final phase 90 90 mt / FFB per hour

CALCULATE

Transfer capacity required 6.43 12.86 cages/hr


Nr.of cages required per transfer 0.96 1.93

Number of transfer capacity 2 2 cages per transfer

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF FFB STERILIZER DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 2.2

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: BS2654 DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel ST 37 Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure 3.16 Bar.g Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

FFB STERILIZER 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Capacity of each cage 7 tonnes FFB
Nr.of cages per steriliser 7 7 cages
Cycle time 120 minutes

CALCULATE

Nr.of steriliser required 1.84 3.67 Nos


Nr.of units to be provided 2 4 units

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF FFB CAGE TIPPLER DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 3.1

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: BS2654 DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel ST 37 Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

CAGE TIPPLER 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Capacity of each cage 7 tonnes FFB
Nr.of Tippler 1 2

CALCULATE

Nr.of cages required to be tippled 6 13 per hour


Time taken per tippling cage 9.33 minutes

ACCEPTABLE YES

Page 1 of 1
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers

DESIGN OF FRUIT ELEVATOR (45MT /HR ) DESIGN BASIS


ITEM : 4.1

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel Input data by: NW

PowerPower 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA FRUIT ELEVATOR


Mill Capacity mt 45 mt/HR
MATERIAL Sterilized Fruit
3
BULK DENSITY pf 640 kg/m
CAPACITY, M 30 mt/HR
TF/ Material Ratio r 100%
VERTICAL HEIGHT H 14m
o
INCLINATION t 60 C
SPROCKET C/C c 15m
SPROCKET TEETH 12T
SPROCKET PCD 0.2964 mm
SPROCKET REV 33.12 rpm
SPEED S 30.84 m/min
BUCKET SPACING z 0.75m
CHAIN PITCH l 150 mm
BUCKET THICKNESS t 3mm
3
STEEL DENSITY ps 7200 kg/m

CALCULATE

MASS FLOW Mf=rxMx1000 29,700 kg/hr


NO.OF BUCKETS n=S/z 41 bucket/min
WEIGHT OF material per bucket Qf=Mf/(60*n) 12 kg/bucket
3
NET VOLUME OF BUCKET Vb=Qf/pf 0.0188 m /bucket
CHOOSE BUCKET SIZE:

width a 0.25 m
depth d 0.25 m
length b 0.70 m
3
VOLUME OF BUCKET Vb=1/2xaxdxb 0.021875 m 86%
2 2 0.5 -3
WEIGHT OF BUCKET wb=[ad+2b({a/2} +d ) ]tpsx1.1x10 10.78 kg
WEIGHT OF MATERIAL Wm=Mfxc/(60xS) 240.8 kg
NO.OF BUCKET ON LOADED STRAND Nb=c/z 20
WEIGHT OF MATERIAL PER BUCKET wm=Wm/Nb 12.0 kg
DREDGING PULL F1=20.12 x wm/z 323 kg
ESTIMATED WEIGHT OF BUCKET+CHAIN Wb=wbx4xNb 863 kg
PRELIM CHAIN PULL F2=(Wm+F1)f1+Wbxf1/2 995 kg
f1= 1.0
fs= 10

MIN.BREAKING STRENGTH F3=F2xfs 9,950 kg

Page 1 of 2
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers

FINAL CHAIN PULL ( Renold conveyor chain booklet )

Choose:
Chain:
Pitch 150 mm
Strength: 13,636 kg
Weight: 11.68 kg/m

Total weight of chain, 350 kg


Total weight of bucket Wc=wb x Nb 431 kg
Total weight of chain + bucket, Wt=Wc+Wb 782 kg
Final chain pull, (Wm+F1)f2+Wt/2(f2+f3) 955 kg

f2= 1.0
f3= 0

Actual safety factor, fsa 14

Power 5.32 KW

f4= 1.2
f5= 0.03
S.F= 1.5

Installed motor 7.5 KW

Page 2 of 2
DESIGN OF DIGESTER DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 4.5

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: BS2654 DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel ST 37 Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

DIGESTER 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Ratio of fruitlet / FFB 66%
Digestion time 12 min
Bulk density 640 kg/m3

CALCULATE

Amount of fruitlets 30 59 mt/hr


Volume of fruitlets 46.41 92.81 m3/hr
Total volume of digester 9.28 18.56 m3
Nr of digester chosen to operate 3 6
Nr. of stand-by digester 1 2
Capacity per digester 3,094 3,094 m3
Choose digester capacity 3500 litres

Number of units to be provided 4 8

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF TWIN SCREW PRESS DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 4.6

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

TWIN SCREW PRESS 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Capacity of each press 15 mt FFB/hr

CALCULATE

Nr.of presses required 3 6


Nr.of presses as spare 1 2
Number of units to be provided 4 8 Units

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF SAND TRAP TANK DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 4.7

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: BS2654 DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel ST 37 Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

SAND TRAP TANK 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Ratio of diluted oil/FFB 60%
Tank retention time 15 min
Density of diluted crude oil 890 kg/m3

CALCULATE

Amount of diluted crude oil produced 27 54 mt/hr


Volume of diluted crude oil produced 30.34 60.67 m3/hr
Volume of sand trap required 7.58 15.17 m3/hr
Use tank capacity 8 m3
Nr.of tank required 0.948 1.896
Nr of sand trap tank to be provided 1 2

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF OIL CLARIFIER DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 5.1

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: BS2654 DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel ST 37 Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

OIL CLARIFIER 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Crued oil to FFB 60%
Density of crude oil 890 kg/m3
Retention time 4 hr

CALCULATE

Amount of diluted crrude oil produced 27.00 54.00 mt/hr


Volume of Clarifer required 121.3 242.7 m3

Capacity per clarifier 120 m3


Nr.of clarifiers to be provided 1 2 m3

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF OIL PURIFIER DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 5.15

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: BS2654 DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel ST 37 Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

OIL PURIFIER 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Oil to FFB 22%
Density 890 kg/m3

CALCULATE

Amount of oil produced 9.90 19.80 mt/hr


equivalent to 11,124 22,247 litres/hr
Choose purifier capacity 4,500 litres/hr
Nr.of purifier required 2.47 4.94 Nos
Nr.of purifiers to be provided 3 5 Nos

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF VACUUM DRYER DESIGN BASIS
ITEM :

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: BS2654 DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel ST 37 Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

VACUUM DRYER 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Oil to FFB 22%
Density of oil 890 kg/m3

CALCULATE

Amount of oil produced 9.90 19.80 mt/hr


Use capacity per purifier 12 mt/hr
Nr.of dryer required 0.83 1.65 Nos
Nr.of dryer to be provided 1 2 Nos

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF PURE OIL TANK DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 5.2

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: BS2654 DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel ST 37 Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

PURE OIL TANK 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Pure oil to FFB 22%
Density of oil 890 kg/m3
Retention time 1 hr

CALCULATE

Amount of oil produced 9.90 19.80 mt/hr


Volume of pure oil tank required 11.1 22.2 m3
Use capacity per pure oil tank 15 m3
Nr.of tank required 0.742 1.483
Nr.of tank to be provided 1 2

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF SLUDGE TANK DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 5.3

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: BS2654 DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel ST 37 Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

SLUDGE TANK 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Crued oil to FFB 35%
Density of crude oil 890 kg/m3
Retention time 1 hr

CALCULATE

Amount of sludge oil produced 15.75 31.50 mt/hr


Volume of sludge tank required 17.7 35.4 m3
Use sludge tank capacity 20 m3
Nr.of sludge tank required 0.88 1.77
Nr.of sludge tank to be provided 1 2

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF CRUDE OIL TANK DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 5.4

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: BS2654 DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel ST 37 Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

CRUDE OIL TANK 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Ratio of diluted oil/FFB 60%
Tank retention time 15 min
Density of diluted crude oil 890 kg/m3

CALCULATE

Amount of diluted crude oil produced 27 54 mt/hr


Volume of diluted crude oil produced 30.34 60.67 m3/hr
Volume of crude oil tank required 7.58 15.17 m3/hr
Use tank capacity 8 m3
Nr.of tank required 0.948 1.896
Nr of tank to be provided 1 2

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF DECANTER DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 5.9

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

DECANTER 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Sludge to FFB 35%
Density of sludge 890 kg/m3

CALCULATE

Amount of sludge produced 15.75 31.50 mt/hr


Volume of sludge produced 17,697 35,393
Use capacity per decanter 18,000 liters/hr
Nr.of Decanter required 0.98 1.97 m3
Use Nr.of decanter 1 2 Nos

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF DEPARICARPER DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 6.2

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

DEPARICARPER 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Fibre to FFB 18.5%
Bulk density 257 kg/m3
Air to fibre ratio 6
Air density 1.177 kg/m3

CALCULATE

Amount fo fibre produced 8.33 16.65 mt/hr


Amount of air required 49,950 99,900 kg/hr
Airflow rate required 42,438 84,877 m3/hr
24,959 49,918 cfm
Use fan 25,000 cfm
Nr.of fan required 0.998 1.997 Units
Nr.of units to be provided 1 2 Units

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF DESTONER DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 6.7

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

DESTONER 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Nut to FFB 15.0%
Bulk density 535 kg/m3
Air to nut ratio 2.75
Air density 1.177 kg/m3

CALCULATE

Amount of nut produced 6.75 13.50 mt/hr


Amount of air required 18,563 37,125 kg/hr
Airflow rate required 15,771 31,542 m3/hr
9,275 18,551 cfm
Select fan cfm 11,000 cfm
Nr.of fan required 0.84 1.69
Nr. Of units to be provided 1 2

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF NUT HOPPER DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 7.2

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

NUT HOPPER 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Nuts to FFB 15%
Bulk density 653 kg/m3
Buffer time 1 hr

CALCULATE

Amount of nuts produced 6.75 13.50 mt/hr


3
Volume of Silo required 10.3 20.7 m
3
Use hopper capacity per line 10 m
Number of hopper required 1.03 2.07
Number of hopper to be provided 1 2

Page 1 of 1
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers

DESIGN OF NUT ELEVATOR DESIGN BASIS


ITEM : 7.4

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel Input data by: NW

PowerPower 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA NUR ELEVATOR


Mill Capacity mt 45 mt/HR
MATERIAL PALM NUTS
3
BULK DENSITY pf 653 kg/m
CAPACITY, M 11 mt/HR
TF/ Material Ratio r 100%
VERTICAL HEIGHT H 11 m
o
INCLINATION t 60 C
SPROCKET C/C c 15 m
SPROCKET TEETH 12 T
SPROCKET PCD 0.2964 mm
SPROCKET REV 33.12 rpm
SPEED S 30.84 m/min
BUCKET SPACING z 0.75 m
CHAIN PITCH l 100 mm
BUCKET THICKNESS t 3 mm
3
STEEL DENSITY ps 7200 kg/m

CALCULATE

MASS FLOW Mf=rxMx1000 11,250 kg/hr


NO.OF BUCKETS n=S/z 41 bucket/min
WEIGHT OF material per bucket Qf=Mf/(60*n) 5 kg/bucket
3
NET VOLUME OF BUCKET Vb=Qf/pf 0.0070 m /bucket
CHOOSE BUCKET SIZE:

width a 0.22 m
depth d 0.23 m
length b 0.30 m
3
VOLUME OF BUCKET Vb=1/2xaxdxb 0.00759 m 92%
2 2 0.5 -3
WEIGHT OF BUCKET wb=[ad+2b({a/2} +d ) ]tpsx1.1x10 4.84 kg
WEIGHT OF MATERIAL Wm=Mfxc/(60xS) 91.2 kg
NO.OF BUCKET ON LOADED STRAND Nb=c/z 20
WEIGHT OF MATERIAL PER BUCKET wm=Wm/Nb 4.6 kg
DREDGING PULL F1=20.12 x wm/z 122 kg
ESTIMATED WEIGHT OF BUCKET+CHAIN Wb=wbx4xNb 387 kg
PRELIM CHAIN PULL F2=(Wm+F1)f1+Wbxf1/2 407 kg
f1= 1.0
fs= 10

MIN.BREAKING STRENGTH F3=F2xfs 4,070 kg

Page 1 of 2
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers

FINAL CHAIN PULL ( Renold conveyor chain booklet )

Choose:
Chain:
Pitch 150 mm
Strength: 13,636 kg
Weight: 11.68 kg/m

Total weight of chain, 350 kg


Total weight of bucket Wc=wb x Nb 193 kg
Total weight of chain + bucket, Wt=Wc+Wb 544 kg
Final chain pull, (Wm+F1)f2+Wt/2(f2+f3) 485 kg

f2= 1.0
f3= 0

Actual safety factor, fsa 28

Power 2.04 KW

f4= 1.2
f5= 0.03
S.F= 1.5

Installed motor 3.3 KW

Page 2 of 2
DESIGN OF CM WINNOWING DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 7.10

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

CM WINNOWING 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Cracked Mixture to FFB 11.0%
Bulk density 535 kg/m3
Air to Cracked mixture ratio 4
Air density 1.177 kg/m3

CALCULATE

Amount fo cracked mixture produced 4.95 9.90 mt/hr


Amount of air required 19,800 39,600 kg/hr
Airflow rate required 16,822 33,645 m3/hr
9,894 19,787 cfm
Use fan for each line 10,000 cfm
Nr of fan required 0.99 1.98 units
Nr. Of units to be provided 1 2 units

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF KERNEL DRYER SILO DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 7.17

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

KERNEL DRYER SILO 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Kernel to FFB 8%
Bulk density 653 kg/m3
Drying time 30 hr
1.3 days

CALCULATE

Amount of kernel produced 3.60 7.20 mt/hr


Volume of Silo required 165.4 330.8 m3 per hr
Capacity per silo 83 83 mt
Storage required 2 4 Nos

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF PK STORAGE SILO DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 7.20

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

PK STORAGE SILO 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Kernel to FFB 8%
Bulk density 653 kg/m3
Storage capacity required 5 days

CALCULATE

Amount of kernel produced 3.60 7.20 mt/hr


432 864 mt
Capacity per silo 83 83 mt
Nr. Of storage silos required 5.20 10.41 Nos
Nr. Of storage silos to be provided 6 12 Nos

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF WATER TUBE BOILER DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 8.5

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure Nil Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

WATER TUBE BOILER 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Power requirement 18 kW/mt FFB
HP steam required for power @ 21 barg 24 kg/kWH
LP steam req'd for process @ 3 barg 660 kg/mt FFB
Total power required 810 1620 KW

CALCULATE

Total HP steam req'd for power 19,440 38,880 kg/hr


Total LP steam req'd for processing 29,700 59,400 kg/hr LP is higher than HP
Maximum steam required 29,700 59,400 kg/hr
Choose operating capacity of boiler 85% of rated
Boiler capacity required 34,941 69,882 kg/hr
Choose boiler capacity 35,000 kg/hr
Nr. Of boilers required 0.998 1.997 units
Nr. Of boilers for spare 0 0 units
Nr.of boiler to be provided 1 2 units

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN OF STEAM TURBINE DESIGN BASIS
ITEM : 9.1

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: DATE: 16-Jun-99

CLIENT: Steel Input data by: NW

Power 230/415 V 50 Hz Pressure 18 / 3.16 Bar.g Perunding AME Consulting Engineers

GIVEN DATA

STEAM TURBINE 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Power required for machinery 18 KW/mt FFB
Power required for housing ( Domestic ) 46 152
Power required per house 4 4 KW

CALCULATE

Total power required for mill 810 1620 KW


Total power required for housing 184 608 KW
Total power required 994 2,228 KW
Choose capacity of turbine 1,200 KW
Nr.of turbine required 0.83 1.86 Nos

Turbine running at 83% 93%


No. of units to be provided 1 2 units

Page 1 of 1
CPO Storage Tank

DESIGN OF CRUDE PALM OIL STORAGE TANK DESIGN BASIS

PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: BS2652 ITEM : 10.1

CLIENT: Steel ST 35 DATE: 16-Jun-99

CAPACITY Pressure Input data by: NW

GIVEN DATA

CRUDE PALM OIL STORAGE TANK 1st Ph 2nd Ph

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Oil extraction rate 22%
Maximum storage period 15 days
Maximum operating hour per day 24 hrs

CALCULATE

CPO produced 238 475 mt /day


CPO produced for 20 days 3,564 7,128 mt
Use tank capacity 2,000 mt
Nr.of tank required 1.78 3.56 Nr
Choose Nr.of tank 2 4 Nr

Page 1 of 1
DESIGN CALCULATION FOR WATER SUPPLY
DESIGN BASIS
PROJECT: OIL PALM MILL CODE: ITEM 11.0

CLIENT: DATE 04-Mar-01

Capacity Pressure 3 Bar.g Input data by NW

GIVEN DATA

Mill Capacity 10 mt FFB/hr


Processing period 25 days/month
Processing time 24 hr/day
Water consumption include quarters 2 m3/mt FFB
Clarifier retention time 2 hr
Reservoir retention time 3 months

CALCULATE

Total consumption 20 m3/hr


Clarifier capacity 23 m3
Monthly capacity 6,000 mt FFB
Reservoir volume 18,000 m3

Page 1 of 1
Energy Balance

DESIGN CALCULATION FOR ENERGY BALANCE ( Fuel / Steam / Power )


DESIGN BASIS
PROJECT OIL PALM MILL CODE ITEM 13 a.

CLIENT Steel DATE 4-Mar-01

CAPACITY 45-90 mt FFB per hour Pressure Input data by NW

INPUT DATA

Mill Capacity 45 90 mt FFB/hr


Specific power requirement for POM 17.5 17.5 KWh/mt FFB
Specific steam requirement for POM 550 550 kg/mt FFB
Specific steam requirement for back pressure turbine 25 25 kg/KWh
Turbine load factor 80% 80%
Boiler load factor 80% 80%
Fibre Content 16.5% 7.44 14.89 mt/hr
Shell Content 7.7% 3.48 6.96 mt/hr
Empty Bunch Content 22% 9.90 19.80 mt/hr
Net Calorific Value Of Fibre 10,000 10,000 KJ/Kg
Net Calorific Value Of Shell 15,900 15,900 KJ/Kg
Net Calorific Value Of Empty Bunch 6,000 6,000 KJ/Kg

Steam Generation

Energy required to raise 1 kg of water @ 60C, atm to 2382 2382 KJ


@ 21 barg 35C superheat

Assume boiler thermal efficiency 70% 70%


Actual energy required 3,403 3,403 KJ/Kg of water
Steam can be produced by 1 kg of fibre 2.94 2.94 kg
Steam can be produced by 1 kg of shell 4.67 4.67 kg
Steam can be produced by 1 kg of EB 1.76 1.76 kg
Total steam can be produced by fibre 21,877 43,754 Kg/hr
Total steam can be produced by shell 16,253 32,507 Kg/hr
Total steam can be produced by fibre+shell 38,131 76,261 Kg/hr
Total steam can be produced by bunch 17,456 34,912 Kg/hr
Total therotical steam can be generated 55,587 111,173 Kg/hr

Excess available Energy


a Total steam can be generated by burning Fibre, Shell & Bunch 55,587 111,173 Kg/hr
Steam required for specified Boiler capacity 35,000 70,000 kg/h
Excess Total available steam 20,587 41,173 kg/h
Percentage of excess energy 59% 59% %

b Total steam can be generated by burning Fibre & Shell only 38,131 76,261 kg/h
Steam required for specified Boiler capacity 35,000 70,000 kg/h
Excess Total available steam 3,131 6,261 kg/h
Percentage of excess energy 9% 9% %

Energy Generation & Requirement

Turbine capacity

Total power required 788 1,575 KW


LP steam required for processing 24,750 49,500 kg/h
HP steam required for power generation 19,688 39,375 kg/h
Minimum turbine capacity 984 1,969 KW
Specify Turbine Capacity 1,200 2 x 1,200 KW

Boiler capacity

Total HP steam requirement 24,750 49,500 kg/h


Minimum boiler capacity 30,938 61,875 kg/h
Specify Boiler Capacity 35,000 2 x 35,000 kg/h

[Page] of 1 PERUNDING AME


DESIGN CALCULATION FOR EMPTY BUNCH MULCHING AREA
DESIGN BASIS
PROJECT OIL PALM MILL CODE ITEM 14

CLIENT STEEL DATE 04-Mar-01

CAPACITY 45 - 90 mt FFB per hour Pressure INPUT DATA BY NW

INPUT DATA Symbol Formula Value Value

Mill capacity C 45 90 ton/hr


Ratio of empty bunch/FFB r 25% 25%
Bulk density of crushed empty bunches d 0.27 0.27 ton/m3
Empty bunches decomposing period T 90 90 days
Maximum operating period t 24 24 hr
Width of mulching area f 3 3m
Height of staking h 1 1m
Distant between rows of palm trees s 9 9m

CALCULATION

Weight of empty bunches produced w Cxr 11.25 22.5 ton/hr


W wxt 270 540 ton/day
Volume of empty bunches produced V W/d 1,000 2,000 m3/day
Nr. Of rows of mulching area for a 100m wide n 100/s 11 11 rows
plantation
Area available for mulching in 1 ha (100m W x A n x 100 x f 3333 3333 m2/ha
100m L)
Assume only 70% can be used, net area L A x 70% 2333 2333 m2/ha
available for mulching
Net volume available for mulching based on Q Lxh 2333 2333 m3/ha
1m stack
Mulching capacity of empty bunch in 1 ha K Q/V 2.33 1.17 days/ha
Total area required for 90 days cycle H T/K 38.57 77.14 ha

Conclusion

The total area required for mulching based on 90 days cycle time is: 40 80 HECTARES
A PALM KERNEL OIL MILL PROJECT

Noel Wambeck / May 1999


PALM KERNEL OIL MILL________
1 .

A PALM KERNEL OIL MILL PROJECT


By N oe l Wa mbe ck / M a y 19 99 .

01. OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE PROJECT


Our understanding is that the client wishes to establish a Processing complex for the production of
Palm kernel oil and PK meal.

The client has acquired a suitable site for the project.

The proposed Palm Kernel Oil Expeller Mill shall have capacity of 10 mt Palm Kernel per hour or
approx. an average of 240 mt Palm Kernel per day.

The proposed project processing plant will include facilities for:

a. Infrastructure & Buildings in the processing complex.

b. The Storage of raw material for process and finished produce.

c. Main process line machinery, equipment and plant will include the raw material reception
and storage, oil extraction by expeller presses, oil filter station, bins, silos, conveyor
elements, piping, pumps and storage of produce.

d. Utilities such as electrical power, water supply and fire protection systems.

e. Consideration for Environment Impact and treatment.

f. Design considerations for future expansions.

This proposal is based on our engineering know-how and project management in accordance to
the Turnkey Contract conditions for the proposed processing plant including the design,
fabrication, the supply C & F port of entry into Indonesia, supervision of erection, commissioning
and guarantee for 12 months after handing over of equipment, machinery and plant, manufactured
in Malaysia and third country by experienced and proven good sub-suppliers with part supply of
manufactured items or construction in buyers country under good supervision with drawings
applied for erection at site.
PALM KERNEL OIL MILL________
2 .

The equipment, machinery, plant and systems offered are essential and regarded as operation
requirement process sections of a modern plant and recommend that the buyer gives serious
consideration to the advantages the systems we have to offer.
PALM KERNEL OIL MILL________
2 .

02. METHODOLOGY.

OVERALL APPROACH, based on our experience, we anticipate that the turnkey project work
will be divided into 3 main stages and later, further sub-divided in accordance with the yet-to-be-
determined Phases of development.

We recommend that these work stages be as follows:-

Stage 1 : Initial assessment of the proposed sites and preparation of a project site
report that will include the compilation of additional information
regarding soil conditions, survey and logistics data, earth works, local
material and cost estimates, required for the preparation of the basic
design by the turnkey contractor for submission by the client to and
approval of the Authorities.

Stage 2 : Detailed Engineering Design, Specifications and Drawings for clients


consideration and approval, the submission of the final turnkey contract
price, the purchase of proprietary equipment, the manufacture and
fabrication works and delivery to site.

Stage 3 : Supervision at Site for construction, erection, commissioning, training


of process operators and handing over project for commercial
production.

The basic design, project requirements and schedule will be established with the Client in the very
early stages of the project.

We have always considered several factors as being extremely important in our design concept.

Maintenance and Operation.

This is a very important point to consider in the design concept. It depends very much on the level
of the operation and maintenance staff that can be expected to operate and maintain the plant and
availability of spare parts.
PALM KERNEL OIL MILL________
3 .

Extraction Efficiency and Performance.

The extraction efficiency is a factor, which must be taken into consideration at all times during the
design stage that will take into account an efficient plant in terms of extraction rate, throughput and
operation cost.

Flexibility of Design.

Flexibility of the design is equally important factor to be considered although sometimes it means
additional cost. In some cases, it may be necessary so that the plant can be operated even under
adverse conditions.

However in this respect, we would consult the Client to seek agreement.


PALM KERNEL OIL MILL 4

03. PALM KERNEL OIL EXTRACTION PROCESS.

The Oil Palm Industry offers advantage of its resource base and to optimize its profit
centres.

One such profit centre is the Palm Kernel Oil extraction milling process.

Extraction of oil from palm kernel can be processed in three basic processes.

1. Mechanical pressing of palm kernel in high-pressure expeller screw presses are common
for capacities between 10 mt PK to 300 mt per day.

2. Direct extraction after suitable preparation of the palm kernel in a solvent extraction
plant should be considered for capacities above 300 Mt PK per day.

3. A combination of the above two basic systems whereby the palm kernel after suitable
preparation is processed in a pre-pressed to extract 75% of the oil at a comparatively
low barrel pressure in the press.

The pre-press meal is treated in a solvent extraction plant to remove 23% of the oil with
a high total yield of 98% of the total oil input raw material.

The direct solvent extraction system is more efficient in terms of extraction yields and
operating cost per ton process material, among the three systems for palm kernel oil
extraction.

Mechanical pressing can be carried out in single or double pressing system.

Single pressing has certain drawbacks as to double pressing, as enumerated below :

(a) The major portion of the oil ( 80%) will be extracted at the pre-pressing and as the cone
pressures are kept low, the oil temperature will not exceed above 80 deg. C resulting in
a better grade of oil in terms of FFA and PV increase during the extraction process..

(b) Extraction at lower temperature will reduce the electrical load, the amount of solid
matter ( call foots ) discharged with oil that would result in better utilisation and life of
the vibrating screen, oil pumps and filter press.

(c) Thus, the system selected would intrinsically prolong and life of wear parts that would
reduce the operating cost of the complete plant.

(d) The 2nd pressing or finish press and associated conveying elements is better utilised
because less fines ( foots ) are being recycled with possible excess than rated capacity of
machinery and plant.
PALM KERNEL OIL MILL 5

(e) The finish press will extract the balance of the extractable oil ( say 20% ) from the pre-
press meal at a cone pressure as high as for a single pressing system but as the quantity
is only 60% of the input raw material, therefore the cooling of the press shaft and barrel
with water or oil is not required in turn would eliminate the use of heat exchangers and
cooling equipment.

(f) Deterioration in oil quality is eliminated by not using the extracted oil which is cooled
and sprayed on the barrel to lower the temperature of the fresh extracted oil.

Design features of double pressing system, which is common in Palm Kernel Mills in
Malaysia, take into consideration the following :

Easy and lower maintenance.

Longer life of wear parts.

Higher yield of palm kernel oil and cake.

Eliminate or reduce the cost of utilities, such as steam and cooling water.

Lower investment cost.

The double pressing system eliminates expensive preparation equipment such as roller
mills, flakers and cookers.

Take one more variable that if inadvertently the mill is not kept at peak efficiency would
ruin the quality of the final products and loss of process capacity that could cause
considerable embarrassment if not also monetary loss to the company.
PALM KERNEL OIL MILL 6

THE PROCESS DESCRIPTION.

The general arrangement of the Palm Kernel Oil expeller extraction mill is relatively simple
and can be followed by process flow schematic enclosed.

Process lines are made up of a raw material reception area, two rows of expeller presses,
each Press with a capacity of 10 mt palm kernel per day ( 24 hours ) and an oil clarification
station, housed in a steel structure main process building.

The appurtenance consists of the raw material and finished produces storage facilities.

Reception.

Palm Kernel with 7% moisture and 5% dirt content are conveyed directly from the kernel
silos of the palm oil mill or delivered in bulk or bags from outside source and unloaded in
the reception area after being weight and stored in PK storage hoppers by conveyors.

Each hopper can hold approximately 100mt palm kernel or provided with larger size silos in
accordance to the design capacity of the plant.

The raw material of palm kernel are evacuated by screw conveyors at the bottom of the
loading storage hopper and thereafter the material is transferred to the milling section of the
process.

The receiving conveyor is fitted with permanent magnet for the removal of tramp iron,
transports the PK into the pre-press buffer bins mounted on a steel structure of the main
process building.

Pre-Pressing section.

Palm Kernel or PK for short is fed into the pre-press, each with capacity of 10 mt PK per
day (24 hours ) via a chute fitted with slide valve or feed screw provided for presses with
such an arrangement.

The pre-press cake or meal discharged is conveyed and fed into the silos of final press line,
whilst the crude oil extracted ( approx. 80% of total oil ) flows into the screw conveying
gutter and to the oil clarification section for further process.

Finish Press section.

The pre-press material with an oil content of less than 20% is fed into the finish presses
extruding two products, oil and meal.

The meal as finished product is corrected with a moisture content of 10% and conveyed to
the PK meal bulk storage silos or bagging area.
PALM KERNEL OIL MILL 7

Crude Oil section.

The crude oil from the oil gutter flows onto the vibrating screen for removal of foots and
stored in the head tank which feeds the filter press.

Foots collected from the circular vibrating screen an filter press are recycled back to the
finished press for the removal of residual oil in solid matter.

The filtered oil is fed into the Vacuum dryer for the removal of moisture content and
discharge into the security filter, filled with citric acid where by dosing of the finish oil to
minimised the chance of oxidation and to enhance the stability of the PALM KERNEL
PRODUCT.

Storage of Products.

The clean and dry kernel oil with a moisture content of 0.09% is conveyed by stainless steel
canpumps to the oil storage tank or filled into steel drums for delivery to BUYER.

PALM KERNEL OIL EXTRACTION PROCESS SCHEMATIC FLOW.

Perunding AME / May 1999 / NW.


PALM KERNEL OIL MILL ________ 8 .

04. THE PROJECT BRIEF

4.1 SCOPE OF WORKS.

The contract will include the design, manufacture, fabricate, supply of proprietary equipment,
delivery to site, unloading, safe keeping, construction , erection, installation, Authority inspection and
approval, testing, commissioning, training of operators, handing over for commercial production and
guarantee for 12 months after handing over of plant with the limits of the plant complex,
Manufactured in Malaysia and third country by experienced and proven good sub-suppliers with
part supply and manufactured items in buyers country under good supervision with drawings applied
for erection at site.

4.2 PROPOSED PROJECT.

A 10 mt Palm Kernel Oil expeller extraction per hour mill complex including the following:

ITEM. DETAILS QUANTITY

1 Civil & Structure


Internal Roads & drains
Guard & weighbridge house 20 m2
Office & Lab. 120 m2
Canteen 72 m2
Palm Kernel Mill Building 600 m2
Store & workshop 200 m2
Warehouse for Meal Storage and packing 600 m2

2 Reception station
Weighbridge 1
Receiving Hopper & Feed conveyor 1
Palm kernel silo or Bin ( 250 mt ) 1
Pneumatic conveyor 1
Crusher / Breaker Mill 2
Screw Conveyor 1
Bucket Elevator 1
Horizontal Screw Conveyor & Feed chutes 1

3 Pre - Pressing station


Kernel Hopper & Steel structure 8
Vibro Feeder & Metal trap 8
Pre - Press Expeller 8
Scraper conveyor 1
Breaker mill 1
Cross Bucket conveyor 1
Screw Conveyor 1
PALM KERNEL OIL MILL ________ 9 .

ITEM. DETAILS QUANTITY

4 Finish - Pressing station


Hopper & Steel structure No.2 6
Vibro Feeder & Metal trap No.2 6
Final Press Expeller 6
Scrapper conveyor No.2 1
Breaker mill No.2 1

5 PK Meal Bulk Storage


Bucket Elevator 1
Screw Conveyor 1
Meal Bulk Silo 1

6 PK Oil Clarification
Oil Gutter 1
Oil Transfer Tank & Pumps 2
Filter Pressure Press 2
Solids discharge tray and chute 2
Circular Vibrating screen 2
Oil Purifier 1
Vacuum Dryer & pumps 1
Piping, Valves, Fittings & insulation Lot

7 Electrical works
Main switch gear and MCC Lot
Cable & wiring to motors Lot
Lighting & power points Lot
Stand by Diesel generating set - 300 kw 1

8 Fire Protection System


Alarm system Lot
Fire hose reel system 4
Fire Hydrants 4
Fire fighting equipment Lot

9 Shipping & Insurance 600 mt

10 Commissioning & Training of operators 10 days

11 Operation & Maintenance Manuals 3 sets

12 As built Drawings 3 sets


PALM KERNEL OIL MILL ________ 10 .

4.3 SPECIFIED OFFER.

The offer is based on the buyers invitation to bid for the specified requirement and does not include
the following :

Application and approval for Authority Licenses.


Land for the project site.
Site soil investigation and surveys.
Application and supply for site facilities such as Electrical power and water supply.
Site preparation and earthworks.
Port clearance, customs, SGS inspection.
All insurance requirements in buyers country.
All duties and taxes from or in buyers country.
Inbound transport, haulage and forwarding charges and unloading at site.
All raw material, lub-oils, fuel, management, staff and labour for commissioning & hand over of
plant for commercial operation.
All other supply and works outside the limits of the plant complex.

4.4 TIME OF DELIVERY.

We confirm a delivery time from the date of the contract award provide that all technical and
financial obligations are finalized as follow:

Eighteen months from the date of award of contract and provided we receive the proposed site three
( 3 ) months from the date of award of contract.

4.5 VALITY OF OFFER.

The price offered in this bid shall be valid for 60 days.


PALM KERNEL OIL MILL ________ 11 .

4.6 PERFORMANCE AND GUARANTEE.

We guarantee that the complete equipment, machinery and plant supplied by us for the proposed
project are brand new and of first class quality and workmanship that is proven in operation shall be
supplied in the contract.

We guarantee that the complete equipment, machinery and plant supplied by us in the proposed
project will be able to process good quality Palm kernel in accordance to the accepted standards
after an appropriate start up time in regular uninterrupted operation of the plant.

Quality of raw material for process.

Tenera type Palm kernel of normal standard will consist and based on 1,000 kg input material are as
follows:

Oil ( including FFA ) contents 43.15%


Dry substance 43.85%
Moisture 8%
Dirt ( impurities ) at Max. 5%

Quality & Quantity of Products.

FFA increase in process 0.25%


Moisture 0.09%
Dirt 0.10%
Filtered Kernel oil 42%
PK Meal ( Moist.9% Oil 7% ) 58%

4.7 LIABILITY LIMITS.

We are not liable for personal injury and damage to property, equipment, machinery and plant or
third party claims during the execution of the contract and outside the battery limits of our scope of
supply and works and in particular will not pay for any loss of profit, compensation and production.

4.8 CONDITION OF SUPPLY.


PALM KERNEL OIL MILL ________ 12 .

Conditions of supply shall be in accordance to the IEM conditions of turnkey contract for design,
build and hand over of project.
MATRIX FOR PALM KERNEL OIL ( Expeller Press ) EXTRACTION. 04-Mar-01

x
1 PALM KERNEL PROCESSED mt
Per hour mt / hr 1 2 4 10 12 16 20
Per Day mt / day 24 hrs 24 48 96 240 288 384 480

2 Design Capacity mt per 24 hr / day 25 50 100 250 300 400 500


Raw material storage capacity mt 4 days 100 200 400 1,000 1,200 1,600 2,000
PK Oil storage capcity mt 4 days 50 100 200 500 600 800 1,000
PK Meal storage capacity mt 4 days 60 120 250 600 700 1,000 1,100

3 PRODUCTION
PKO per hour mt 42% 0.42 0.84 1.68 4.20 5.04 6.72 8.40
MEAL per hour mt 58% 0.58 1.16 2.32 5.80 6.96 9.28 11.60
PKO per Day mt 42% 10.08 20.16 40.32 100.80 120.96 161.28 201.60
MEAL per Day mt 58% 13.92 27.84 55.68 139.20 167.04 222.72 278.40

4 LOSSES
Oil in Meal mt 2% 0.48 0.96 1.92 4.80 5.76 7.68 9.60

5 UTILITIES
Power kwh 55 55 110 220 550 660 880 1,100
Water m3 0.02 0.50 1 2 5 6 8 10

6 LAND AREA
Diamensions m 40 x 80 40 x 100 40 x 120 60 x 120 60 x 120 100 x 200 100 x 200
Square area m2 3,200 4,000 4,800 7,200 7,200 20,000 20,000
Hectares ha 0.32 0.40 0.48 0.72 0.72 2 2

7 MANPOWER Persons Shifts


Manager 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Admin. Accounts Assistant 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
General clark 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Weighbridge clark 2 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Mill Supervisor 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Wireman 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Forklift Driver 2 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Fitter 2 3 6 6 6 9 9 9 9
Welder 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
Machine operator 3 3 9 9 9 9 12 12 12
General worker 3 3 9 9 9 9 12 12 12
TOTAL 18 46 46 46 50 56 56 56

8 PRODUCTION COST
General charges RM / mt 4 96 192 384 960 1,152 1,536 1,920
Direct manufacturing charges RM / mt 29 696 1,392 2,784 6,960 8,352 11,136 13,920
Sales & Distribution cost RM / mt 3 72 144 288 720 864 1,152 1,440
total 36 864 1728 3456 8640 10368 13824 17280

9 INVESTMENT Mill Capacity mt per day 25 50 100 250 300 400 500
Infrastructure 5.5% 82,500 137,500 220,000 412,500 544,500 792,000 1,072,500
Civil & Structure 22.0% 330,000 550,000 880,000 1,650,000 2,178,000 3,168,000 4,290,000
Mechanical & PI 51.0% 765,000 1,275,000 2,040,000 3,825,000 5,049,000 7,344,000 9,945,000
Electrical Works 6.0% 90,000 150,000 240,000 450,000 594,000 864,000 1,170,000
Fire Protection system 2.0% 30,000 50,000 80,000 150,000 198,000 288,000 390,000
Lab. & Workshop equipment 1.5% 22,500 37,500 60,000 112,500 148,500 216,000 292,500
Shipping & Insurance 3.0% 45,000 75,000 120,000 225,000 297,000 432,000 585,000
Commissioning & Training 0.5% 7,500 12,500 20,000 37,500 49,500 72,000 97,500
Professional Fees 3.5% 52,500 87,500 140,000 262,500 346,500 504,000 682,500
Mobilisation & Contingency 5.0% 75,000 125,000 200,000 375,000 495,000 720,000 975,000
TOTAL IN RM 100.0% 1,500,000 2,500,000 4,000,000 7,500,000 9,900,000 14,400,000 19,500,000

1500000 2500000 4000000 7500000 9900000 14400000 19500000

Perunding AME 3/4/01


220 M

WORKSHOP & STORE

SURAU 60 M

WATER
TOWER
PARKING AREA
CANTEEN &
REST ROOMS PALM KERNEL SILOS

42 M
MAIN PROCESS MEAL STORAGE 100 M
BUILDING OIL STORAGE TANKS
CAR SHED BUILDING

OFFICE & LAB.


GUARD
HOUSE OIL LOADING SHED

WEIGHBRIDGE

TNB
sub-station

P
PRRO
OPPO
OSSE
EDDP
PAALLM
M KE
ERRN
NEELL O
OIILL M
MIILLL TTYYP
PIIC
CAAL G
GEEN
NER
RAALL LLA
AYYO
OUUTT
VIEW OF A PALM KERNEL OIL MILL COMPLEX
INCLUDING THE RAILWAY SYSTEM.

VIEW OF THE EXPELLER PRESSING STATION IN OPERATION.

PERUNDING AME / 24TH MAY 1999 / NW.


REFINING PROCESS 1

AN INTRODUCTION TO REFINING PROCESS


FOR PALM OIL AND OTHER DOWNSTREAM PROCESSES.
By Noel Wambeck
20th September 1997.

Introduction.

Edible oils and fats have traditionally been refined by the process of neutralising the fatty
acid with a base such as caustic soda or alkali refining plant.

The disadvantages of such a process are the high cost of chemicals and the problem of
soapstock, which requires expensive effluent treatment.

Further, the percentage of oil loss and operational cost of production are advantages in favour
of Physical refining process.

Palm oil can be subjected advantageously to physical refining and dry fractionation processes
to produce more diversified products at competitive prices.
REFINING PROCESS 2

Our view on the general approach to a Palm Oil refining project for palm oil and other
downstream process whiles taking into consideration that the finished products will be
bottled, packed and marketed to consumers in a competitive market will require careful
planning and selection of the right process design and component equipment to process
various qualities palm oil to produce the highest quality finish products to sustain a long self
life.

The process systems discussed in this paper, are as follows :

Pre- treatment and wet de-gumming process.


Continuous Bleaching plant.
Steam Refining cum Deodorization system.
Dry Fractionation system.
The aim is to produce refined produces of high quality in terms of oil colour, odorless, blend
taste, stability for long shelf life at a reasonable cost of production.

Basic features required producing high quality products from crude palm oil and palm kernel oil.

Basic features required to produce high quality products are as follows :

It is well accepted that impurities and phospholipids that are present in the crude palm oil plays a great part in
the stability of the refined product.

Therefore it is impertinent that this impurity be removed to an absolute minimum in the pretreatment stage or
de-gumming process.

Although the dry pretreatment can handle the de-gumming process but the wet de -gumming offer a more
reliable pretreatment process of lesser quality feed crude palm oil.

To do this the crude oil needs to undergo treatment with the resultant gums washed out with diluted phosphoric
acid in hot water and than separated through centrifuge.

The pretreated oil is to be dried before the bleaching process under suitable temperature, retention period and
vacuum conditions.

A feature at the bleaching stage is to allow quick changeover of feed stock and complete drainage and having
minimum chance of contamination.

It is an established fact that steam refiner cum deodorizer process or Physical refining process combined with
the wet de-gumming and continuous bleaching process will produce a better quality product where the feed
material is heated and cooled down in the same column under similar vacuum condition and proper retention
time in the refining process will produce a refined product of a reasonable high quality and stability.

Dry fractionation process also known, as winterisation process has become a common feature in modern
refineries with the introduction of the membrane filter press resulting in yields and quality better than the
detergent process.

Manufactured fat products are generally foreseen as a requirement to ensure that freshly refined oils are
available as feed stock, which is also economical for such integration.

Ideally, the plant is to be equipped with a suitable control system to reduce the use of manpower on its
operation.

Among the control systems, the distributed and monitoring computerized control system seems appropriate for
such a plant.
REFINING PROCESS 3

A CONCEPTIONAL PROPOSAL FOR A PALM OIL REFINERY PROJECT

This proposal in brief, aims to provide guidance to those who may be involved in or a new
comer to the identification and preparation of a palm oil refinery complex project.

Our understanding is that the management have made the decision to invest in the expansion
of their manufacturing activities after having prepared a thorough project study or business
plan for a target market but require clarification on the advantages of the Palm Oil Refinery
complex.

Our view on the general technical approach to the project, will require careful planning and
selection of project site, the right process design, equipment component and system to
process various quantities, added values palm oil products to sustain a long self life, that is in
demand by the buyer.

Arguments for its economic viability, marketing requirements and corporate strategy are not
address in this paper.

The proposed project for the time being is restricted to the integration of :

A 500 mt per day (24 hours) physical refinery and 400 mt per day (24 hours)
Fractionation Plant to process crude palm oil (CPO) with the option of Palm Kernel oil
as raw material for process.

The matching of the oil palm mill capacity with the refinery is of equal importance to the
availability of the raw material for process when considering the integration.

The project business plan should have scope and potential to diversify and expand in the area
of production of various down stream palm oil based products.

1. The Products.

The proposed physical refinery and fractionation complex shall produce basic
product mix, as follows:

Palm Oil based :


Refined, Bleached and deodorized Palm Oil.
Crude Palm Olien
Crude Palm Stearin
RBD Olien
RBD Stearin
High purity FAD

Palm Kernel Based :


Refined, Bleached and deodorized Palm Kernel Oil.
Crude Palm Kernel Olien
Crude Palm Kernel Stearin
RBD PK Olien
RBD PK Stearin
High purity FAD
REFINING PROCESS 4

2. The Advantages for Project Integration.

An integrated processing complex offers several advantages including the following :

& Reduce cost in Management, administration, communication, maintenance and labour

& Reduce capital cost with common buildings to house the above.

& Reduce capital cost of plant and equipment, such as effluent treatment system, cooling
system and steam generators.

& No cost of transportation and insurance premium between processes.

& Security monitoring requirements.

The selection of a suitable processing complex site is an important exercise as it has direct
effects on the capital cost and long-term operation requirements.

3. Factors to consider for Integration.


The refinery complex should have incorporated in the initial design of the plant adequate
facilities for:

Suitable space to house the refinery, fractionation plant, infrastructure, tank farm and
appurtenances.

The proposed plant shall be designed with consideration for and incorporation of the
latest technology available in the industry.

The equipment, plant and process systems will be design for high efficiency, quality
and yields.

Consideration and the incorporation of safety aspects that comply with Occupational
Safety and health act, such as to provide for good ventilation, working space, dust free
and noise levels within permissible limits.

Consideration and the incorporation operating procedures, equipment, plant and


process systems to meet the ecological, hygienic and cleanliness of the plant on par
with good food manufacturing industrial plants standards.

The plant and process shall be environmentally friendly and that the environment
Control act requirements will be addressed in accordance to the standards prescribed.

The plant will be designed for cost effectiveness for operation and maintenance.
REFINING PROCESS 5

4. Estimated Cost of a Refinery.


The estimated cost of a Refinery complex with optimum capacities, based on the project
matrix and current ( Exchange rate at USD 1 : RM 3.80 November 1998 ) cost of material,
equipment and plant in the year 1998, are as follows:

PROCESS PLANT NOTES: COST IN RM.

1. Preliminaries. Input : 150,000 mt CPO


Soil Investigation, earth works, per year.
Piling works etc. Exclude cost of land (6 Ha)
Temporary site facilities 2,700,000

2. Infrastructure, Civil & Struct. Works and Buildings 2,600,000

3. Equipment, systems & plant


Road weighbridge 200,000
Physical refinery ( 500mt CPO per day ) 7,400,000
Dry Fractionation ( 400mt Oil per day ) 6,600,000
Mech. & PI 4,500,000
Fire fighting 600,000
Electrical works 1,500,000
Tanks Infeed / chemicals / buffer etc. 100,000
Utilities & Auxiliaries
Boiler / Diesel gen-sets / cooling system 1,800,000
Support services i.e. Lab equip & sundries 900,000
SBR effluent treatment plant 600,000

4. Bulking farm ( 6,000mt produce mix ) 5,000,000

5. Professional fees 1,500,000

TOTAL RM 36,000,000

Take note that estimates can vary extensively, depending on the location of the site, terrain,
type of soil, accessibility, selection of quality of equipment and design factors applied.

The proposed design of the complex will give a reliable, easy to operate with the best up-to-
date performances for maximum efficiency with minimum product losses and quality
products.

However, we must understand that each project, operation and commercial consideration will
defer in the actual implementation of the design for processing needs to meet the changing
requirements and conditions of management priority.
REFINING PROCESS 6

5. Selection of Process System.

Edible oils and fats have traditionally been refined by the process of neutralising the fatty
acid with a base such as caustic soda or alkali refining plant.

The disadvantages of such a process are the high cost of chemicals, the percentage of oil loss
and the problem of soap stock, which requires expensive treatment are advantages in favor of
Physical refining process.

It was in the early eighties that palm oil could be subjected advantageously to physical
refining and dry fractionation processes to produce more diversified products at competitive
prices.
The search for new markets for its products and the rapid development in the industry, found
demand of other down stream production of palm oil mid fractions, cocoa butter equivalent,
hydrogenated oils, etc.

The most complimentary extension can be in the area of valuable Red Palm Oil containing
Tocopherols (VitaminE) and derivatives with high yielding carotenoids and tocopherols.

It fulfills a vital role as a means of control on product cost without any loss of properties and
loss of performance in the product.

However, the refinery plant with the molecular distillation process required to produce such
value added products is deferred from the conventional physical refinery process and should
not be compared in terms of process utilization to produce a range of marketable products,
operation requirements and cost of investment.

Therefore the rational and final selection of process system will depend on the result of the
project study or business plan target market which dictate the products to be produced for
marketing economics and should not be based on the products that can be produced by the
process system.

The manufacturer is usually also the marketing organizer. Marketing is the first
consideration; to manufacture is a tool of the marketing organization.

The superior quality of Crude Palm Oil and its derivatives produced in the integrated
process are the marketing organization assurance for the future of its products.
REFINING PROCESS 7

6. BRIEF PROCESS DESCRIPTION.

Fig. 1 CONTINUOUS PRE-TREATMENT & BLEACHING SCHEMATIC FLOW.

1. BLEACHING CLAY DOSING STATION 6. COOLER


1A. ADDITIONAL ACTIVE CARBON DOSING 7. FILTER STATION
2. VACUUM OIL DRIER 8. SAFETY FILTER STATION
3. RECUPERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGER 9. VACUUM EQUIPMENT
4. FINAL HEATER
5. RETENTION LINE.

Fig. 2 CONTINUOUS PHYSICAL REFINING SCHEMATIC FLOW.

1. Recuperative heat exchanger 7. Vacuum equipment


2. Deareator 8. High temperature generator
3. Final heater 9. Start heater / stop cooler
4. Physical refiner / deodorizer 10. Vapour scrubber
5. Oil cooler 11. Anti oxidant equipment
6. Polishing filter
REFINING PROCESS 8

Crude oil is preheated and acid treated, allowing for sufficient holding time and washed with
hot water.

The gummy matter precipitates and preheated oil is separated through a self-flushing
centrifuge.

The pretreated oil is to be dried before undergoing the bleaching process under regulated
temperature and vacuum conditions.

Bleaching clay is dosed and mixed with pretreated oil in the reaction vessel.

Sufficient retention period is to be allowed for maximum and stabilizing effects.

The slurry is than filtered through one of the two alternative working Pressure leaf filters.

The partly bleached oil is than filled into intermediate holding tank before being processed
further at the Steam refiner.

The bleached oil is dried before being fed into the refining column.

In the column the oil is heated up to a low distillation temperature with the distillation and
deodorization effects being enhanced by injecting stripping steam.

Some heat economizing is carried out within the steam refiner.

The distillation and deodorization of the oil is to be well defined in terms of homogeneous
retention time while retaining the endogenous carotene and vitamin E in the Red Palm Oil
being process.

The refined product is cooled to storage temperature using heat exchangers internally after
which ant-oxidants treatment of the product is an essential part of the process to prevent
oxidation and to enhance its stability.

Free fatty acid vapours omitted during the distillation and deodorization stage in the steam
refiner is condensed and scrubbed through a highly efficient vapour scrubber,resulting in
clean steam vapour being removed through the ejector vacuum system.

The cooled refined oil is stored in the storage tank or transferred to the Fractionation process
or to the bottling and packing before the delivery to buyer.
REFINING PROCESS 9

FEED STOCK
INLET TO
PROCESS

1. CRYSTALLIZERS 2. REFRIGERATION UNIT 3. MEMBRANE FILTER PRESS

4. COMPRESSED AIR GENERATOR 5. LIQUID OLEIN OUTLET 6. MELTED STEARIN OUTLET

Generally, RBD palm oil is seeded, ( crude palm oil can also be used ) preheated before being
filled into one of several units of the crystallization tanks.

On reaching the required volume, the filling is cut off automatically and the crysatallization
process is activated with the programme required.

Upon completion of the crystallization cycle with well defined and uniformed crystal
formation, the slurry is filtered through the Florentine belt filter press and or membrane filter
press.

Crystallization slurry is filtered through each filtration cycle after which the press will be
inflated with air automatically to squeeze and to released any remaining liquid oil from the
solid stearine cake.

The hydraulic system of the press will operate automatically upon reaching the required
preset pressure the filter elements will open to discharge the solid stearine cake.

the cake would drop into the stearine melting tank directly below the filter press and after
which the melting stearine will be transferred to the cooler for storage in the air-conditioning
storage area or the stearine could be used as a building block for other downstream processes.

The liquid fraction of Olein is transferred to the storage tank pending delivery to customer.

Sept 1999 Noel Wambeck.


APPENDIX
PORLA GUIDELINES. 1

PALM OIL REGISTRATION & LICENSING AUTHORITY

CONTENTS

Introduction.
PORLA's Role in Quality Assurance.
Responsibilities of the Various Parties in the Export Chain.
Responsibilities of the Producer/Supplier.
Responsibilities of the Traders / Exporters.
Responsibilities of the Bulking Installation Operators.
Responsibilities of the Independent Chemist.
Responsibilities of PORLA Port Stations

Enforcement of Quality Control Practices.

Regulation and Monitoring


Monitoring of the Professional Services.
Inspection of Bulking Installations at the ports.
Inspection of Laboratories.

Implementation of Quality Control Programme

Palm Oil Surveying Course


Malaysian Palm Oil Surveyors Examination.
Recommended Practices for Surveying Palm Oil Products
Palm Oil Laboratory Accreditation.
Malaysian Laboratory Accreditation Scheme (SAMM)
PORLA GUIDELINES. 2

GUIDELINES AND CHECKLIST ON QUALITY FOR THE EXPORT OF MALAYSIAN PALM


OIL.

INTRODUCTION.

The objective of this document is to provide the guidelines and checklist for promoting quality awareness among the
exporters or suppliers of Malaysian palm oil. It will outline all the necessary actions and precautions to be taken in assuring
that the quality of palm oil products meets the quality specifications specified in their contract of sales at the point of export.

Quality assurance can be defined as `controlling the process to produce a product free of defects'. Instead of relying entirely
on inspection to assure product quality by rejecting defects, inspection is focused on the process itself that can provide
feedback so that the process can be improved and perfected, thereby ensuring quality product.

The role of Palm Oil Registration and Licensing Authority (PORLA) is to conduct inspection programmes on the quality of
oil palm products at their strategic points of processing and of the trade including at ports of export to ensure the users that
only oil palm products with the appropriate quality delivered. PORLA undertakes quality control activities starting from the
stage of planting materials right to the final point of export of palm oil products. The quality of palm oil products may suffer
most damage at certain stages of processing, handling and transportation, the inspection programmes are designed in such a
way that PORLA's Inspectors are present to conduct quality inspections at the critical point of processing, handling and
transportation.

PORLA'S ROLE IN QUALITY ASSURANCE

PORLA's function in promoting and regulating quality practices in the palm oil industry is stipulated in its Act :--

to regulate and improve the manner of storing and shipping of oil palm products;
to promote efficient handling of oil palm products;
to promote measures toward attaining a high quality for oil palm products including the laying down of standards
and the establishment of an efficient grading system; and
generally to do everything for the betterment and proper conduct of the palm oil industry.

This Act also empowers PORLA to discharge the above function through the following means:--

registration and licensing of persons in respect of all activities within the scope of functions of the Authority;
provide standard practices to be observed or avoided in the palm oil industry; and
specify and define the standards and grades of oil palm product and make provisions for giving effect to such
standards and grades, including provisions for or relating to labelling; and prescribe records to be kept and returns to
be submitted by licensees.

The Palm Oil Industry (Licensing) Regulations (Amendments) 1984 provides that any persons who move, sell, purchase,
broker, export, import, store, survey or test any oil palm product must be licensed. . In issuing the license, PORLA imposes
conditions and restrictions to regulate the trade and to promote quality practices to ensure the products or services rendered is
of the highest quality.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE PARTIES IN THE EXPORT CHAIN.

Palm oil proceeds through a series of parties namely producers or suppliers, traders and exporters before reaching the point of
export. These parties may either be separate individuals or one individual who perform all the roles or part of it.
Supplementing the export chain is the service sector namely bulk installation operators, independent surveyors and
independent chemist. While installations provide bulking, handling and storage facilities at the export point; independent
surveyor and chemist provide independent inspection and certification of product to determine the quantity, quality, loading
superintendent and confirmation required in a commercial transaction.
PORLA GUIDELINES. 3

The parties in the chain of export are legally bound to perform their contractual commitment to one another unequivocally
and efficiently. It is PORLA's policy to ensure that the palm oil products for export meet the buyer's requirements and
reasonable expectations. If the chain of obligations and responsibilities are broken or abused by the parties concerned, it will
lead to losses, disputes, arbitration or litigation and ultimately causes damage to the smooth trading of oil palm products.

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PRODUCER/ SUPPLIER

Producers adopt proper harvesting practices so that only ripe palm fruits are harvested and delivered to the palm oil mills. The
mills will inspect the quality of the raw materials (Fresh Fruit Bunch) using the " PORLA's Fresh Fruit Bunch Grading
Manual" The fruits are processed with good care and efficienly so as not to damage the quality of oil during the process of
extraction.

It is the responsibility of the producer/supplier to ensure :--

that the buyers' quality specifications are determined and confirmed before production begins.
that the refining process employed will achieve the desired contracted specifications of the buyer.
that the product has been laboratory tested and confirmed to conform to the contractual specifications for which it
was intended.
that the product is properly stored in such a manner that the product quality is maintained before being transferred or
transported to the bulking installations at the port for export.
that the movement, transport and handling of the product to the bulking installation at the port for export are carried
out in a manner that will ensure that the product quality is maintained.

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE EXPORTER/TRADER

From the mills, the palm oil products are channeled to the refiners, kernel crushers or oleochemical plants. Strict quality
control programmes are implemented to ensure that the quality is maintained in their processing of the palm oil products.

It is the responsibility of the Trader/Exporter to ensure :--

that all contracts of sales or purchases are registered with PORLA by telex or telegram not later than 4.00 p.m. a day
after the date of transaction; followed by sending a copy of the contract to be received by PORLA not later than 30
days from the date of contract.
that records of stock, sale and purchase of palm oil are properly maintained and kept for verification by PORLA
Palm Oil Inspectors.
that a monthly statement of stock, sale and purchase of palm oil is sent to PORLA not later than the seventh day of
the following month.
that the product supplied by the producer is delivered to the bulking installation at the port at least 24 hours before
shipment takes place.

that the product has been laboratory tested and certified by the supplier to be conforming to the buyers'
specifications.
that the palm oil is free from any contamination and the quality conforms to the standard that is acceptable to
PORLA.
that the product has been laboratory tested and certified by an independent chemist to be conforming to the buyer
specifications as specified in the sales contract at least 24 hours before shipment.
that the exporter declares in the Customs Declaration (CD 2) prescribed by PORLA that the quality of palm oil to be
exported conforms to the quality specifications specified in the contract of sale with the buyer.
that a sample of the palm oil is send to PORLA when required, for quality determination and verification.
PORLA GUIDELINES. 4

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE BULKING INSTALLATIONS

Bulking installation ( tank farm) operator is licensed exclusively for storing and facilitating bulk handling. It is the
responsibility of the bulking installation operator to ensure :--

that the palm oil received at the installation by lorry tankers are securely sealed. In the case of pipeline transfer, the
pipeline is clean, dry and free from any previous cargo before it was being used to transfer the oil to the installation
at the port.
that the tank used for the storage of palm oil is dry, clean, and free from any previous cargo before it was being used
to store palm oil.
that the Storage and Handling Practice as recommended by Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (PORIM) are
always complied with
that a sample is drawn upon completion of bulking and is sent to an independent laboratory to determine its quality.
that the palm oil quality conforms to the quality specifications required by the buyer before shipment.
that the palm oil installation is kept clean and all its storage facilities are in good working condition at all times.
that the oil palm product stored is free from contamination and its quality meets the standard acceptable to PORLA.
that a sample of the oil palm products stored is send to PORLA as and when required, for quality determination and
verification.
that a monthly statement of stock, bulking and despatch of palm oil is send to PORLA not later than the seventh day
of the following month.
that the records of stock, bulking and despatch of palm oil are properly maintained and kept for verification of
PORLA Palm Oil Inspectors.

Surveyor performs the final independent inspections and certifications before export. The surveyors will supervise the proper
handling procedures to determine the quantity and to draw a representative sample for ascertaining the product quality. It is
the responsibility of the palm oil surveyor to ensure:--

that the superintendent and survey of palm oil are carried out in compliance with the practices recommended in the
PORLA Standard Surveying Procedures And Practices For Palm Oil And Its Derivatives.
that the survey is carried out in accordance to the standard imposed by the Malaysian Government and international
bodies governing the surveying of palm oil products.
that the survey must be conducted by a qualified palm oil surveyor under the Malaysian Palm Oil Surveyors
Examination organized by PORLA.
that all necessary precautions and actions have been taken to prevent any mishap by the parties involved in the
loading of the palm oil from the bulking installation to the ship.
that the equipment and instruments used in surveying and sampling of palm oil are not made from copper, brass or
copper alloy that is detrimental to the quality of palm oil.
that the three previous cargoes of the nominated ship's tank are acceptable to the terms of the contract with the
buyer.
that all allocated ship tanks are clean, dry and suitable in all respect for storage and carriage of palm oil.
that the allocated ship tanks are free from any toxic or leaded material in the form of solid, liquid or gas, odor or any
material that is detrimental to the quality of palm oil.
that all samples drawn from the shore or ship tanks are kept in tightly sealed containers and are properly labelled
before being send to the laboratory for analysis.
that a sample of the palm oil is sent to PORLA when required for quality determination and verification.
that any protest,rejection, objection or reservation on any consignment surveyed including the condition and
suitability of ship's tank be reported to PORLA within 24 hours by telex or telephone and a copy of the letter of
protest,rejection, objection or reservation is sent to PORLA not later than the seventh day from the date of survey.
that the integrity and professionalism expected of a surveyor is uphold at all times.
that the details of survey are recorded in a record book or documented in a manner that it can be easily verified by
PORLA Inspector and are kept for two years from the date of survey.
that the record of survey pertaining to quantity, product type, quality and details of shore and ship tanks' condition
for each consignment is properly kept for verification by PORLA Palm Oil Inspector.
that the palm oil survey report issued to the client is a true and accurate account of the survey and is substantiated by
records and documents.
PORLA GUIDELINES. 5

that a copy of the Palm Oil Survey Report is sent to PORLA not later than the seventh day from the date of survey.
that a monthly statement of all the palm oil product surveyed is send to PORLA not later than the seventh day of the
following month.

Qualified surveyors are registered with PORLA which forms another measure of control to enhance professionalism. A
registered palm oil surveyor is required to comply to the following Surveyor's Professional Code of Ethics:--

A registered surveyor shall conduct himself in such a manner to uphold the dignity, standing and reputation of the
profession.
A registered surveyor, in discharging his duty to his employer and to the profession shall have full regard to the
public and national interest.
A registered surveyor shall discharge his duty to his employer withcomplete fidelity and shall not accept any
payment for services endered except from his employer or with his employer's permission
A registered surveyor shall not injure or attempt to injure, whether indirectly the professional reputation, prospects or
business of another registered surveyor or his company with which he is employed.
A registered surveyor shall all times ensure that he is fully equipped with the necessary recommended tools
(equipment) when conducting his work and shall always maintain a high level of technical competency, and a high
degree of professional integrity.
A registered surveyor shall not conduct any survey unless he is employed by a surveying company licensed by
PORLA for such purpose.
A registered surveyor may delegate part of his job to any person who is not a registered surveyor but under his full
supervision, and shall be fully responsible for such work carried out by the non- registered surveyor.
A registered surveyor, through his company shall not accept job appointment if such acceptance renders or would
render it difficult for him to maintain his professional independence.

A registered surveyor shall not be influenced by the interest of his client in the conduct of the survey in so far as such
interest is inconsistent with upholding the dignity, standing and reputation of the profession.
A registered surveyor shall no issue any press statement in the capacity of a registered surveyor on any matters that is
likely to injure the dignity and reputation of the profession.
A registered surveyor shall not issue any press statement whether of facts or opinion pertaining to any dispute be
tween parties in a pending arbitration action or suit of which his survey report is a relevant issue.
A registered surveyor shall assist another registered surveyor in the conduct of any joint survey between them and
shall not withhold any findings or information crucial to the survey.

RESPONSIBILITY OF INDEPENDENT CHEMIST

The laboratory is required to conduct testing of samples of palm oil products impartially and professionally using up to date
and mutually agreed methods of tests. It is the responsibly of the independent palm oil chemist to ensure :--

that the sample received for analysis is contained in new container that is properly labelled and securely sealed.
that the test methods applied in the analysis of palm oil samples are in accordance to the test method specified in the
contract between the buyer and seller; otherwise to locally and internationally recognized test methods.
that the worksheet details of analysis are recorded in a record book or documented in a manner that it can be easily
retrieved and verified byPORLA Palm Oil Inspectors and are kept for 2 years from the date of analysis.
that the integrity and professionalism expected of a chemist is uphold at all times.
that the palm oil analysis report issued to the client is a true and accurate account of the analysis and is substantiated
by records and documentary evidence.
that a copy of the analysis report issued to the client is send to PORLA not later than the seventh day after the date of
analysis.
that a monthly statement of all the analysis carried out on palm oil product is send to PORLA not later than the
seventh day of the following month.
PORLA GUIDELINES. 6

RESPONSIBILITY OF PORLA PORT STATIONS.

PORLA Inspectors are based in five Regional Offices and Branch offices throughout the country to conduct periodic spot
inspection on licensed premises within the respective regions. In addition, Port Stations equipped with labarotaries are set up
at five major Malaysian ports to ensure that oil palm products exported stringently meet the buyers' specifications. The
activities undertaken by PORLA's port stations are :

to regularly conduct sampling of palm oil products at the port installations before they are exported.
to take and test pre-shipment samples in PORLA laboratories located at the port stations so as to ensure that only
quality palm oil products that meet contractual specifications before they are allowed to be exported.
to advise exporters whose products fail to meet the contractual specifications to undertake immediate remedial
actions to ensure that their products meet the contractual specifications before export
to take random samples during loading (into vessels) for the purpose of enforcement of quality control declaration
under Regulation 3 of PORLA Quality Control Regulations.
to send samples taken to the laboratories and Chemistry Department for analysis so as to determine whether the
quality conforms to the contractual specifications as declared in the Customs Declaration Form
to monitor the analysis reports from the Chemistry Department in order to determine the monthly average quality
and also to detect palm oil quality problems faced the industry
generally to ensure that the handling, transferring, storing, transporting, surveying and shipping practices are always
in accordance with the required quality practices.

ENFORCEMENT OF QUALITY CONTROL PRACTICES

Regulation and Monitoring

Given the legislation and the tools to implement them, it is therefore imperative for PORLA ensure that practices towards
producing good quality oil palm products are promoted and good quality control activities are observed in all sectors of the
industry. PORLA enforces the Palm Oil Industry Quality Control Regulations of 1983 that provide for quality control
practices of oil palm products in the local trade and export:

It prohibits the act of contamination of any oil palm product with any undesirable matter or any foreign matter
detrimental to the quality of the oil palm product.
In the case of export, the regulations provide that all exporters must declare the contractual quality specifications in
the Custom Declaration Form
From the monthly quality statement QC/MF/1 sent to PORLA, analysis is then made to identify mills that are
producing poor quality crude palm oil.

Mills identified of this nature is given reminders to enhance their quality control process so that their products meet the
stringent standards as required by the trade.

PORLA palm oil inspectors conduct follow-up visits to the mills to check their quality records of production and
take samples of the crude palm oil for quality verification as required under the Quality Control Regulation of 1983.
Mills that fail to take corrective actions and instead, continue to produce crude palm oil not conforming to stringent
standard trade specifications are taken stern action against .
PORLA palm oil inspectors at the various regional levels also actively monitor the activity of sludge oil traders to
ensure that they do not indulge in unhealthy practices of adulterating palm oil with sludge oil.
Road blocks are regularly carried out by PORLA to check on palm oil tankers. During the check, the hatch covers
and outlet valves and the seals are inspected. The PORLA Form PL3 as required under PORLA licensing regulations
for such movements is also inspected.
Regular surveillance is also conducted to identify, locate and ambush illegal storage premises used for unauthorized
siphoning of palm oil from lorry tankers. Illegal storage premises were raided and disabled. Palm oil together with
the equipment and facilities used in their operations were seized by PORLA.
PORLA GUIDELINES. 7

Monitoring of the Professional Services

Inspection of Surveyors

PORLA's inspectors regularly check on surveyors to ensure that the records and documentation of survey carried out
are properly maintained and the reports issued fulfill the contractual requirements of the buyers/sellers.
The monthly statement QC/SV/1 submitted to PORLA on the quality and quantity of palm oil products exported is
also verified.
PORLA's inspectors at the various port stations also observe / check on the surveyors at time of actual survey, so as
ensure that they strictly follow the requirements stipulated by PORLA.

Inspection of Palm Oil Installations At The Ports

checking the condition of facilities and the handling and storage activities. i.e. physical inspection of tanks and tank
coatings The heating coils, pipelines and pumps are checked so that they are in proper working conditions and that
they do not consist of any material made of copper or copper alloy which is detrimental to the quality of palm oil
exported.
check the records of oil temperature in the tanks so as to ensure that proper heating procedures are strictly applied
during and prior to discharge of the oil from the tanks.

Inspection of Laboratories

the checking of reports of analysis issued for palm oil products.


The monthly quality statement QC/CL/1 as submitted to PORLA is also verified for its accuracy.
Collaborative test on methods of testing has been organized jointly with PORIM and FOSFA with the purpose of
achieving consistency in the various test methods employed.
licensees found not practicing quality practice in their activities or not conforming to the recommended quality
practices are advised to do so. Those found to have contravened any conditions or restrictions of the licensing
regulation are given reminders and warnings, compounded or prosecuted in court.

IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITY CONTROL PROGRAMMES

Ship/ Shore Surveyors Course

The has been held since 1987. PORLA, in co-operation with PORIM conducts the Ship-Shore Surveyors Course annually
with the objective of not only enhancing the efficiency and quality of palm oil surveying, but also promoting knowledge on
the handling, transfer, storage and transportation of palm oil.

Malaysian Palm Oil Surveyors Examination

PORLA holds the Malaysian Palm Oil Surveyors Examination that is intended to enhance the professionalism of Malaysian
palm oil surveyors. It is aimed at getting palm oil surveyors to be thoroughly knowledgeable in both palm oil survey practices
as well as understanding the physical and chemical characteristics of all oil palm products.

Recommended Practices For Surveying Of Oil Palm Products

PORLA has established stringent surveying procedures to ensure that surveying of oil palm products, is carried out
systematically and efficiently. This standard procedure covers surveying practices during loading and discharge both at the
installation and ship as well as documentation of the survey. The standards provide a yardstick to measure the quality
performance of the surveyors and to ensure that reports issued by them are supported by recorded facts obtained during
surveying.
PORLA GUIDELINES. 8

Laboratory Accreditation

PORLA in collaboration with PORIM introduced the Palm Oil Laboratory Accreditation scheme to evaluate the facilities and
competency of palm oil laboratories. The evaluation is to ensure that laboratories are manned by qualified personnel, fully
equipped to conduct tests under the normal parameters as specified in standard contracts, maintain proper records of analysis,
conduct routine maintenance and calibration of equipment and observe strictly all safety standards and requirement during
operations.

Malaysian Laboratory Accreditation Scheme (SAMM)

The Sectoral Committee on Oils And Fats of Malaysian Laboratory Accreditation Scheme housed in PORLA is entrusted
with the objective of ensuring that local independent laboratories conduct their business according to the stipulated standards,
recognized both locally and internationally.

Further Information.

The legal liabilities and palm oil quality programmes are summarized in this document. For further information, please
contact :

Palm Oil Registration And Licensing Authority


Lot 6 SS 6
Jalan Perbandaran
47301 Kelana Jaya
Tel : 03-7035544
Fax : 03-7033533
FFB GRADING MANUAL 1

PORLA FRESH FRUIT BUNCH


GRADING MANUAL

INTRODUCTION
This manual serves as a practical guide for the grading of fresh fruit bunch in the mills jointly prepared by a
working committee which comprised of representatives from the palm oil industry and was based on a study
carried out by PORLA on mills throughout Malaysia which practised fresh fruit bunch grading.
OBJECTIVE
The main aim of this manual is to improve the quality and quantity of crude palm oil and palm kernel
productions in Malaysia.

The specific objectives are as follow:

To improve the quality of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) received at the mills.
To improve the quality of Malaysian crude palm oil.
To improve the efficiency of oil and kernel extraction rates in the mills.
To ensure that the suppliers and millers obtain a fair deal from their transactions.

IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GRADING SCHEME


Site of Grading

Grading can be done anywhere inside the premises of the mill or its agent. Normally, it is best done on a
platform beside the loading ramp.

Who Can Perform The Grading

Grading can only be done by the Grading Staff of the mills or an agent appointed by the mill who has the
capability and experience in the grading of fresh fruit bunch (FFB).

Documents Required

Documents that are required for grading are the Grading Report Form (APPENDIX Xll), weighbridge ticket and
suppliers agreement documents (if any). Only fruits received from suppliers with a valid PORLA license are to
be graded.

GRADING PROCEDURES
Sampling Procedures

Select about 50-100 bunches at random as sample from each consignment to be graded.

The sample taken should represent the top, middle and bottom portion of the consignment.

The minimum sample size of each consignment to be graded should be determined based on the following
criteria :
FFB GRADING MANUAL 2

of the net weight of the consignment is less than 5 tonnes, the minimum sample size should
be 50 bunches.

If the net weight of the consignment is 5 tonnes or more, the minimum sample size should be
100 bunches.

The sample size should be economical, practical and able to detect any change in the bunch quality especially
the degree of ripeness at 95% level of confidence.

Separate the bunches that have been sampled for grading from the rest of the bunches.

Grading Frequency

The minimum grading frequency for each supplier of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) with long term contract should not
be less than 10% of the total consignments or at a ratio of 1:10 lorries. If there is variation in the quality of fresh
fruit bunches supplied or doubts regarding the bunch quality, the grading frequency should be increased to fifty
percent (50%) of the total consignments or at a ratio of 1:2 lorries.

For suppliers without a long term contract, grading should be done on all consignments.

Bunch Classifications

Fresh fruit bunch (FFB) can be classified and graded according to the following criteria:

Ripe Bunch

Ripe bunch is a bunch which has reddish orange colour and the outer layer fruitlet's mesocarp is orange in
colour. This bunch has at least 10 fresh sockets of detached fruitlets and more than fifty percent (50%) of the
fruits still attached to the bunch at the time of inspection at the mill. The bunch and the loose fruits are to be sent
to the mill within 24 hours after harvesting.

Underripe Bunch

Underripe bunch is a bunch which has reddish orange or purplish red colour and the outer layer fruit's mesocarp
is yellowish orange in colour. This bunch has less than 10 fresh sockets of detached fruitlets at the time of
inspection at the mill. The bunch and the loose fruits are to be sent to the mill within 24 hours after harvesting.

Unripe Bunch

Unripe bunch is a bunch which has black or purplish black fruits and the outer layer fruit's mesocarp is

yellowish in colour. This bunch does not have any fresh sockets of detached fruitlets at the time of
inspection at the mill. The sockets(if any) on the bunch is not due to normal ripening process.

Overripe Bunch

Overripe bunch is a bunch which has darkish red colour fruits and has more than fifty percent (50%) of
detached fruitlets but with at least ten percent (10%) of the fruits still attached to the bunch at the time
FFB GRADING MANUAL 3

of inspection at the mill. The bunch and the loose fruits are to be sent to the mills within 24 hours after
harvesting.

Empty Bunch

Empty bunch is a bunch which has more than ninety percent (90%) of detached fruitlets at the time of inspection
at the mill.

Rotten Bunch

Rotten bunch is a bunch partly or wholly and together with its loose fruits have turned blackish in colour, rotten
and mouldy.

Long Stalk Bunch

Long stalk bunch is a bunch which has a stalk of more than 5 cm in length (measured from the lowest level of
the bunch stalk).

Unfresh

Unfresh bunch is a bunch which has been harvested and left at the field for more than 48 hours before being sent
to the mill. The whole fruit or part of it together with its stalk has dried out. Normally, this type of bunch is dry
and blackish in colour.

Old Bunch

Old bunch is a bunch which has been harvested and left at the field for more than 7 days before being sent to the
mill. The fruitlets still remaining on the bunch are dry and brownish black in colour. The stalk is also dry, soft,
fibrous and blackish in colour.

Dirty Bunch

Dirty bunch is a bunch with more than half of its surface covered with mud, sand, other dirt particles and mixed
with stone or other foreign matters.

Small Bunch

Small bunch is a bunch which has small fruits and weight less than 2.3 kg. (5 lbs.)

Pest Damaged Bunch

Pest damaged bunch is a bunch with more than thirty percent (30%) of its fruits damaged by pest attack such as
rat etc.
FFB GRADING MANUAL 4

Diseased Bunch

Diseased bunch is a bunch which has more than fifty percent (50%) parthenocarpic fruits and is not normal in
terms of its size or its density.

Dura Bunch

Dura bunch has fruits with the following characteristics:


Shell thickness - 2-8 mm

Ratio of shell to fruit - 25-50%


Ratio of mesocarp to fruit - 20-60%

Ratio of kernel to fruit - 4-20%


No fibre ring around the shell
Loose Fruit

Loose fruit is a fruit detached from a fresh bunch because of ripeness and is reddish orange in colour. All loose
fruits have to be sent to the mill within 24 hours after harvesting.

Wet Bunch

Wet bunch refers to a consignment of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) which has excessive free water.

GRADING METHODS
The sample that has been selected will be graded to determine the quality of the bunches and the extraction rate
that can be given to the supplier. During grading the following practices should be carried out:

Inspection and assessment of the bunch quality.


Calculation of penalty for poor quality bunch.
Determination of the basic extraction rate.
Calculation of the awarded extraction rate.
Inspection And Assessment of the Bunch Quality

The grading of the consignment of fresh fruit bunches should be done in the presence of the supplier or his
representative such as the lorry driver or his attendant.

The lorry with the consignment of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) which has been selected to be graded is directed to
unload on the platform near the loading ramp. Ensure that the bunches are evenly laid out and no overlapping or
layering should occur.

Count the number of bunches in the consignment and calculate the average bunch weight with the following
formula:
FFB GRADING MANUAL 5

Average Bunch............Net Weight (kg) as per

Weight.....................= Weighbridge
.................................=================.
..................................Total Number of Bunches

From these bunches, select at random 50-100 sample bunches and separate them from the rest of the
bunches. Selection of the minimum sample size should be based on the net weight of the consignment.

Grade, classify and count the sampled bunches into 5 groups based on the criteria of bunch classifications:

Ripe Bunch
Underripe Bunch
Unripe Bunch
Empty Bunch
Rotten Bunch

Inspection and assessment of the bunch quality should be done quantitatively.

Record the number and the percentage of each group in the Grading Report Form as shown in APPENDIX.
The total percentages of the 5 groups must be hundred percent (100%).

Grade, classify anf count agein all the sampled bunches into 5 groups as follows :-

Long Stalk Bunch


Dirty Bunch
Dura Bunch
Old Bunch
Wet Bunch

The grading should be based on the criteria of bunch classifications.

Record the number and percentage of each group in the Grading Report Form as shown in APPENDIX Xll. The
percentages of the 3 groups of bunch quality are calculated based on the total number of sampled bunches.

Calculation of Penalty For Poor Quality Bunch

A penalty based on the discount system as shown in APPENDICES III to XI, will be imposed on the poor
quality bunches. The penalty imposed will depend on the results of the grading as stated in the Grading Report
Form. Check these results with the Penalty Appendices (APPENDIX III - APPENDIX XI) and from there get
the actual penalty value that can be imposed on each category of poor quality bunches. Book for reference :-
Refer to Fresh Fruit Bunch - Grading Manual.

Consignment of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) that has poor quality bunches and exceeding:
FFB GRADING MANUAL 6

the 20% of maximum allowable limit for empty bunches or;


the 30% of maximum allowable limit for dirty bunches should be rejected and return back to the
supplier the whole load.

In practice, it is not possible to obtain hundred percent good quality bunches and hence a reasonably good
quality consignment should comprised of the following combination of bunch quality :

Bunch Category Limit


Ripe Bunch > 90%
Underripe Bunch < 10%
Long Stalk Bunch < 5%
Unripe Bunch 0%
Dura Bunch 0%
Empty Bunch 0%
Rotten Bunch 0%
Dirty Bunch 0%
Old Bunch 0%
Wet Bunch 0%

Determination of The Basic Extraction Rate

The basic extraction rate is the theoretical extraction rate which is also the maximum extraction rate of the oil
and kernel. This extraction rate can be determined in 2 ways that is by the age of the palm and the bunch
weight.

Determination of The Basic Extraction Rate Based On The Age of The Palm

The basic extraction rate can be determined by the age of the palm provided that the information regarding the
year when the oil palm was planted is known (Refer to APPENDIX I). This method is suitable for mills that
receive fruits from their own estates.

Determination of The Basic Extraction Rate Based On The Bunch Weight

This method is suitable for mills that receive their supplies from outside estates and dealers who do not have
information regarding the age of the oil palm (Refer to APPENDIX II). The average bunch weight can be
calculated by dividing the net weight (as stated in the weighbridge slip) with the total number of bunches.

GRADING REPORT
Sample Grading Report

All observations and calculations during grading must be recorded in the Grading Report Form as shown in
APPENDIX XII.

Particulars that have to be recorded are as follow:


FFB GRADING MANUAL 7

Net weight
Number of bunches
Number and percentage of unripe bunch
Number and percentage of underripe bunch
Number and percentage of ripe bunch
Number and percentage of empty bunch
Number and percentage of rotten bunch
Number and percentage of long stalk bunch
Number and percentage of dirty bunch
Number and percentage of Dura bunch
Number and percentage of old bunch
Number and percentage of wet bunch
Observations on bunch quality
Name and signature of Grading Officer

Use separate Grading Report Form (APPENDIX ) for each grading consignment.

This form is to be filled in duplicates. The original copy is to be kept by the mill and the second copy to be
given to the supplier or its representative.

Monthly Grading Summary Report

All observations and calculations recorded in the Grading Form have to be summarised and recorded in the
Monthly Grading Summary Form

The particulars that have to be recorded are as follows:

Amount of fresh fruit bunches received


Amount and percentage of fresh fruit bunches graded
Crude palm oil produced
Oil and kernel extraction rates achieved
Average bunch weight and age of palm

Percentage and penalty (if any) for unripe bunch


Percentage and penalty (if any) for underripe bunch
Percentage of ripe bunch
Percentage and penalty (if any) for empty bunch
Percentage and penalty (if any) for rotten bunch
Percentage and penalty (if any) for long stalk bunch
Percentage and penalty (if any) for dirty bunch
Percentage and penalty (if any) for Dura bunch
Percentage and penalty (if any) for old bunch
Percentage and penalty (if any) for wet bunch
Awarded extration rate for oil and kernel given to the supplier
Name and signature of the mill manager
FFB GRADING MANUAL 8

Only one copy of this form is to be filled for record and retention by the mill.
APPENDIX I

GRADING FORM

NAME OF SUPPLIER :____________________________________________________


PHASE / LOT :____________________________________________________
PORLA LICENCE NO :____________________________________________________
DATE :____________________ TIME :_________________________
VEHICLE NO :______________ WEIGHBRIDGE TICKET NO :___________

PARTICULARS
Nett Weight Tones
Total Bunches
Average Bunche Weight Kilograms
FFB Grading NUMBER PERCENTAGE ( % )
(1) Unripe Bunches
(2) Underripe Bunches
(3) Ripe Bunches
(4) Rotten Bunches
(5) Empty Bunches
TOTAL 100%
(1) Long Stalk Bunches
(2) Dirty Bunches
(3) Dura Bunches
(4) Old Bunches
(5) Wet Bunches
TOTAL

Remarks :___________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

SIGNATURE :____________________

NAME :_________________________
BASIC EXTRACTION RATE
FOR OIL PALM MILL

TABLE I

BASIC EXTRACTION RATE FOR OIL AND KERNEL BASED ON THE


YEAR PLANTED (AGE OF PALM) TENERA (DXP) * PROGENY

PENINSULA SABAH/SARAWAK
YEAR EXTRACTION RATE EXTRACTION RATE
PLANTED OIL KERNEL OIL KERNEL
(%) (%) (%) (%)
<3 14-15 4.0-4.2 15-16 3.5-3.9
3-<4 15-16 4.2-4.5 16-17 3.9-4.2
4-<5 16-17 4.5-4.8 17-18 4.2-4.5
5-<6 17-18 4.8-5.0 18-19 4.5-4.8
6-<7 18-19 5.0-5.5 19-20 4.8-5.0
7-<8 19-20 5.0-5.5 20-21 4.8-5.0
8 - < 18 20 5.0-5.5 21 4.8-5.0
18 and above 19-20 5.0-5.5. 20-21 4.8-5.0

* For good quality FFB


PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 1

TESTING AND COMMISSIONING MANUAL FOR OIL PALM MILL.


By Noel Wambeck & Aziz Jidon
January 25th, 1999

This manual has been developed for use by a commissioning engineer and his team
assigned to test and commission an Oil Palm Mill, machinery, equipment, system and
plant.

It sets forth the standard operating requirement, test procedures, data, records required
and reporting program to be adopted by the commissioning engineer and his team in
the function of the various aspects of an oil palm mill process and systems for
commercial operation including the following :

A. Design test programme, levels of throughout, scheduling

- Quality test - 5 hours / day for 5 days processing


- Endurance test - 16 hours / day for 2 days processing

B. Monitoring testing phase

C. Monitor equipment performance

D. Analyse results of all tests

E. Ensure all problems identified during testing are corrected to standards and
specifications

F. Certify factory is operational

This manual consist of four main section and appendices as follows :

& Preparation

& Test Procedures

& Finalization

& Taking over and certification test

& Appendices.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 2

1. PREPARATION.

Prior to the actual testing a number of actions need to be taken. It is important that
these actions are completed well before any physical testing takes place and that the
members of the terms assigned to do the checking and/or testing are involved in the
pre-preparations.

1.1 Documentation & Reporting.

When construction is completed, either item by item, station by station or for the
factory as a whole, all machinery and equipment installed should be listed in a Master
list of Machinery and given an identification letter or number ( Appendix A )

With the aid of these lists (which will form part of the basic information for the future
maintenance programme) each machine and each part of the equipment should be
checked with the aid of a check list. ( Appendix B )

This checklist will also be part of the basic information for the future maintenance
programme.

A complete electric motor list should be made, including every electric motor
installed in the factory and its ancillary equipment. ( Appendix C ).

The use of computer (spread sheet) programmes will make the creating and keeping
of these valuable records a less onerous task.

These list / records shall be prepared before any actual testing of machinery and each
member of the commissioning team must have a full set of these lists for his use
during the test period.

q The identification list can at a later stage be incorporated into the spare parts
administration and the maintenance programming.

q The check list can be used at any time in the future when a periodic check on the
condition and status of the machinery is to be made.

q The list can also be used as the index for the test programme. This list should be
updated to incorporate any specific information given in the instruction
/maintenance manuals for the individual machines.

q The electric motor list must be updated to show :

a) for each motor the running current in Amperes under the no load condition
and under the full load condition and

b) the type of starter equipment used for the motor.


PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 3

All data gathered must be entered into a computer spread sheet programme and be
kept for future reference, for updating when machinery is changed, etc.

These listings will thus contain all the basic information required to set up and
organize the future maintenance and repair programmes.

1.2 Personnel.

The checking / testing should be performed by two teams (team A and B ). Each
team should consist of at least two or three members ( including the clients employee)
with a good knowledge of the process to be tested, at least two members with a good
knowledge of the mechanical equipment used in the process and at least one person with
a good knowledge and understanding of all the electrical equipment installed.

Each team must be complemented with at least two samplers. Arrangements must be
made for at least two experienced analysts in the Laboratory assisted by three sub-
samplers per day or (during the endurance test) per shift.

The tests are to be arranged over five consecutive days for five hours and followed
by two days of sixteen hours continuous processing.

1.3 Fruit delivery

Arrangements must be made to ensure the delivery of sufficient FFB to the new mill
during these periods, i.e.based on a mill with a capacity of 45mt FFB per hour the
requirement of FFB are :

5 days x 5 hours (25 hours x @ 45 ton / hr.) = 1125


2 days x 16 hours ( 32 hours x @ 45 ton/hr.) = 1440
------------------------------
total = 2565 mt FFB

or say for in round figures, a total of 2600 tons FFB.

For each of the test days, assign a team to a specific area or areas in the mill and
change this each day to obtain every ones view on the individual and the overall mill
equipment performance.

An example of the team organization is shown in Appendix D.


PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 4

2. TEST PROCEDURES.

Once the physical checks have been completed, the machinery tests for the processing
of FFB can commence.

These tests must as a minimum include the following checks :

2.1 Weighbridge.

q Test the weighbridge according to the Manufacturers specifications and


instructions from the manual.

q Check the zero adjustment and have the weighbridge certified by the appropriate
Government Inspector.

q Check and record several loads, note the accuracy of the weighing, the time
required to complete one weighing, the operation of the recording device and the
printer out put.

2.2 Loading Ramps.

q Fill the range to at least three quarter full before starting to transfer FFB into the
cages. This will show up any defects in the angle of the ramp surface and whether
the position of the tracks and cages under the ramps is correct in relation to the
ramp. Check by filling cages and note the filling and spilling of FFB.

q Check the operation of the doors or slides under the load pressure of the nearly
full ramp. If in doubt, take the Ampere readings of the drive motor(s), or if the
hydraulic ramp type is used, check the pressures, flow, filters, etc.

2.3 Rail Tracks.

q Check the alignment and the level of the tracks under full load conditions.

q Note the ease of rolling of the cages / bogies over the track.

2.4 Cage Transfer Unit

q Check the alignment and locking into the correct transfer position when unit under
full load.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 5

q Shift unit to the required rail track, note again the ease of rolling, the alignment
and the correct locking position for this track.

q Transfer the cages and check hydraulic system under full load and take Ampere
readings of motors when under full operating load.

q In the case of a gantry transfer system, perform similar checks under operating
load conditions.

2.5 Marshalling Yard.

q Check rail levels and alignment, note the alignment and the levels to the hinged
rail pieces at the sterilizers.

2.6 Cages And Bogies

q Observe operation and ease of movement, linking cages into a train and the
shunting of these trains.

q Check the bogie bearings and the wheel alignment of each full cage.

2.7 Capstans ( Winch ) And Bollards.

q Load a full train (i.e. sufficient for one complete sterilizer load) of FFB cages and
check the load on the capstan motor and record the Ampere reading.

2.8 Sterilizer Operation

q After loading of FFB close both doors and perform the same checks that should
have been performed when the sterilizer was first tested under steam pressure, i.e.,
door seals (for leaks), valves and fittings (for leaks) daeration and condenser
fittings for operation and the functioning and operation of the instrumentation,
pressure, gauges, recorders, etc.

q When under full working pressure and with a full load of FFB check the
alignment and the positions of the sterilizer support saddles and rollers.

q Check the functioning and the performance of the automatic cycle, the times and
the pressures of the various stages and the corresponding recorder readings.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 6

q Once the cycle is completed note down the full cycle time, i.e. from doors close
to doors open and check the final blow-off performance.

q Check the performance of the silencer and condensate equipment and note down
any irregularities.

q Check that the safety locking devices setting / location to prevent the doors
opening under pressure and are functioning correctly.

q The locking ring contact and door shall be not less than 75% ( 100 mm ) when the
locking device is in close position.

q After opening the doors, check that all condensate has been evacuated from the
sterilizer vessel during the blow-off.

q Check the alignment with the hinged rail pieces once more and pull the load out of
the sterilizer, note the ease of movement and operation and note down any
irregularities.

2.9 Hoisting Crane

q Check the chain alignment on the tipping rings on the fruit cage.

q Time and record the operating cycle of the crane, i.e.

a) lifting time
b) tipping time
c) lowering time
d) next cage pick up
e) total time
f) and calculate the maximum throughput per hour that can be handled by the
hoisting crane.

q Check the load on the crane travel motor and the hoist motor when under
operating load.

q Alternative : Tippler machine. Same checks as above.

2.10 Thresher machine.

q Check the tipping and spilling of sterlized fruit into and onto the thresher feeding
device.

q Note the operating speed of the feeder conveyor / device.


PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 7

q Check the threshing action of the machine by following (observing) one or more
marked bunches throughout the threshing action from entry to exit.

q Record the time it takes for one cage load to be threshed from entry to exit.

q Calculate the throughput.

q Check the effectiveness by examining all the bunches that exit the thresher.

q Check and record the full load Amperes of the thresher feeder motor and the drive
motor for the drum.

q Check the operation of the variable speed control of the thresher feeder for correct
performance, i.e. adjusting to slower or faster feeding rates as required.

2.11 Empty Bunch Handling

q Check all bunches released from the exit of the thresher and remove any bunches
that still contain fruitlets or are partially or wholly Unstripped bunches.

q Deposit these bunches in a separate cage for later checking (see Thresher
Operations).

q Check the transport of the Empty bunches on both the horizontal and the inclined
conveyor note any spillage.

q Check the operation and record the full load Amperes of the conveyor drive
motors.

q Check the conveyors and feed chutes into the hopper ( for field disposal ) or
incinerator ( production of potash ).

2.12 Incinerator.

q Check incinerator performance at earliest one whole working /processing day after
the process has started.

q Note the composition of the ashes produced and the efficiency of the incineration
process. Record the results.

q Whilst the incinerator is operating check the draught conditions and the even
burning of the material on the furnace grates.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 8

q In the event the Hopper system is in use, check operations of the top bunch
conveyor and hydraulic units and doors system.

2.13 Conveyors / Elevators

q Check the conveyor screw alignment under full load operating condition and the
clearance between the screw and the wear plates, taking particular note of the
action of the conveying material for process passing the hanger bearings.

q Check and record the full operating load Amperes on all conveyor drive motors
and the elevator drive motor.

q Check and note the feeding to the elevator boot to ensure that material for process
is not screwed past this feed chute.

q Check the pick-up and load of each elevator bucket and note the clearance of
the buckets in the elevator boot. If this clearance is excessive, measure and have a
guide plate fitted to prevent large masses of material for process remaining in the
elevator boot.

q Check the full load of the elevator drive motor again and record the result in the
check lists.

q Calculate the time required to transfer the contents of one full fruit cage to the
distributing conveyors above the digesters.

q Perform the checks as noted under conveyors (above) for the top distributing
conveyors and the return conveyors.

q Note and record the full load Amperes of the drive motors on the checklists.

2.14 Digesters.

q Check that the steam heating operates and the temperature gauges indicate the
correct temperature.

q The temperature of the digester mash should be approximately 95 degree C before


the screw press.

q With the full digester, check and record the full load Amperes of the digester drive
motor on the check lists.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 9

q Check the digesting performance by taking a number of samples from the feeder
chute to the press, after 15 minutes and 30 minutes of digesting, with the press
operating.

q Material for process should have the appearance of a fairly homogenous mash,
with virtually all fruitlets sheared and fibre and nuts clearly separate.

q Very few whole, undigested, fruits should be visible in this mash.

q Check the optional digester drainage valve is in closed position during extraction
process to prevent excess NOS in raw crude oil before clarification.

Bottom drainage of the digesters must not be allowed.

q The drainage of free oil should be done only in the event of wet expeller cake
appearance at the press discharge during start up and stoppage of the screw
presses or as a result of over dilution.

q Check the continuous filling to the full level of the digester during the operation of
the pressing.

q Check for leaks, etc., from the digester bottom and the feed chute to the press.

2.15 Pressing Operation.

q Check that the motor rotation and speed is correct for the given capacity, pulleys
and belts, gearbox is lubricated, hydraulic unit if filled and operating in the right
rotation, worm screws are correct in clearance and rotation and the hot water
spraying system is functioning.

q Ensure that the feeding rate from the digester to the press is as even as possible.

q With the press under full load, i.e. with the pressure cones in operation / closed
position, record the Amperes of the press drive motor.

(To do this check properly, operate the press in the Manual Control position).

q Switch control to automatic and observe the operation and performance of the
press and the automatic cone adjustment.

q Take samples of the expelled press cake and analyze on site for the nut / kernel
breakage and visibly dry fibre.

q Take frequent samples and have these analyzed immediately for oil loss on dry
fibre. Record the results together with the particular meter readings of the press
at the time the sample was taken.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 10

q Calculate the press through put from the receipts of the loading of FFB on the
ramp and empty Sterilized FFB Cages figures against the time recorded and note
any out of the ordinary conditions during that time.

q If dilution of press liquid is practiced, check on the dilution rates and the method
of adjustment used, record the findings.

2.16 Crude Oil Station.

q Check the free flow of the extracted and the expelled liquid mixture in the crude
oil gutters.

q Observe the flow and note any restrictions, under full flow conditions.

q If a sand trap is used, check its operation and effectiveness at least one hour after
the operation of the presses has commenced.

q Record the results.

q Check the operation and the performance of the vibrating screens

q Check that there is no carry over of liquid with these solids.

q If so, adjust the screening operation and re-check. Repeat this action until
optimum results of separating the solid from the liquid fraction of the crude oil is
obtained. (Especially if the vibro energy separator type is used, such
adjustments must be made).

q Check and record the electric motor load of the screen drive motor and record the
Amperes.

q Check the action of the crude oil pumps, transferring the crude oil to the
clarification. Ensure that an as much as possible even and steady flow to the
clarification station is achieved.

q Note and record the full load Amperes of the pump drive motors.

q If the crude oil tank is fitted with (closed) steam coils for heating, check the
performance and record the temperatures and condensate trap operation.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 11

2.17 Clarification Station.

Clarification system.

q Observe the entry of crude oil into the clarification equipment is consistent, this is
to be as smooth and as steady as possible.

q If decanters are used, check out the complete operation with the aid of the
manufacturers specific instructions contained in the operations manual.

q Observe the full load Amperes and record on the check lists.

q If static clarification is used, observe the performance and take samples of the
clarifier under flow to determine the oil on sludge percentage.

q Check all temperatures and the steam heating equipment and record the results.

q Observe and measure the thickness of the oil layer to be skimmed and adjust the
skimmers if necessary to obtain the optimum clean oil flow to the pure oil tanks.

q Take samples and have these immediately analyzed for F.F.A., moisture and dirt
content.

Purifier.

q Operate purifiers and check their performance with the aid of the manufacturers
instructions manual.

q Check and record the full operating load Amperes of the purifier drive motors.

q Take samples after the purifier and have these analyzed immediately for moisture
and dirt content.

Vacuum Oil Dryer.

q Operate the Vacuum oil dryer according to the manufacturers instructions and
record the temperature and pressure readings, both of the dryer and of the steam
ejector equipment.

q Take samples and have these analyzed immediately for moisture content only.

q From the results of the analyzed samples as shown above, a picture can be
formed of the effectiveness of the various stages.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 12

q Observe the flow of sludge to the sludge tanks and the sludge separator, take
samples and analyze immediately for oil content, moisture content and solids
content.

Sludge Separator.

q Operate the sludge separators according to the manufacturers specific instructions


and take samples of the liquid after the separator, before flowing to the effluent
systems. Analyze samples immediately and record the results.

q From the results of the analyses a picture can be formed of the effectiveness of the
sludge separating process and the losses sustained.

q Check and record the full operating load Amperes of the sludge Separators.

q Where screens, pre-cleaners, rotary brushes, pumps etc., are used, check each one
and record performance and electric loads on the check lists.

q Observe all piping and fittings in the clarification station and note down any
irregularities.

q Calculate for each machine the throughput after the tests or production run has
been stopped and record findings on the checklists.

2.18 Depericarping station.

Cake Breaker :

q Check the operation by observing the action of the paddle conveyor tossing the
press cake whilst transporting it to the depericarper.

q Check and record the full operational load of the Cake breaker conveyor drive
motor and record on the check lists.

q Take samples of the mixture of fibre and nuts at the end of the Cake breaker
conveyor and have these samples analyzed immediately.

q The appearance of the mixture should be of loose, fluffy fibre and clean nuts.

q Observe the entry of the material into the depericarper and the obstruction caused
by the hanger bearings of the Cake breaker conveyor and the final screw at the
end of the conveyor.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 13

q Where the conveyor is fitted with a steam jacket, check the fittings and the
effectiveness of this steam heating.

Depericarping :

q Check the motor load of the fibre cyclone fan under full operational load
conditions and record the results.

q Perform the same for the polishing drum and the nut transport conveyors,
pneumatic transport, elevators etc. Record all findings.

q Observe the separation of fibre and nuts by taking samples of the nuts before and
after the polishing drum and samples of fibre after the fibre cyclone outlet, before
being mixed with other materials in the boiler fuel conveyors.

q Analyze the samples immediately and record the results.

q If found necessary, adjust the throat opening of the depericarper to achieve the
optimum separation of fibre and nuts under full pressing operating capacity and
not/mark the settings of this adjustable throat.

q If adjustments are made, recheck all the motor loads again on fans, conveyors etc.

2.19 Kernel Recovery.

q Check the effectiveness of the transport of nuts from the polishing drum to the
drying silos / storage bins. Record the full load Amperes of the drive motors for
conveyors, fans etc.

Nut Polishing Drum.

q Check the effectiveness of the polishing drum. Are the nuts polished ?. the
adjustment of drum speed may be required.

q Take samples of nuts before the nut bin and analyze immediately for moisture
content of nuts, broken nuts and kernel and dirt etc. in this nut material.

Nut Dryer.

q Check the performance of the nut dryer, record temperatures, fan motor loads, etc.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 14

q If a grading drum/system is installed, take samples of nuts before and after the
grading.

q Analyze immediately the compare and record the results.

Nut Cracker.

q Take samples before entering the crackers and analyze immediately, including the
moisture content of the nuts.

q Check the feed regulating devices into the crackers and record the electric motor
load of the nut crackers when in full operation.

q Approximate throughput can be calculated by feeding nuts at an established rate


into a bag or container of 50 kilograms and measure the time it takes to fill this
bag or container.

q Take samples after the crackers and analyze this cracked mixture immediately
for whole nuts, broken nuts with shell adhering, whole kernels, broken kernels and
shell content.

q Calculate the shell nut ratio.

Dry separation system ( winnowing )

q Check the performance of the primary and secondary separating columns by


taking samples after each column and analyzing these immediately for contents in
a similar way as described above.

q From the analysis results, calculate the effectiveness of the separating columns.

q If found necessary, adjust the column throats / damper to achieve the optimum
separation under the full load conditions.

q After each adjustment samples must be taken, analyzed and recorded and the
position of the adjustable throat openings must be marked and recorded.

q Take samples if the final kernel to the kernel dryers and analyze immediately
for admixture, moisture and F.F.A content.

Hydro-claybarth separartion system.

q If a clay bath or hydro cyclone is used to further separate the remainder of the
cracked mixture, follow the manufacturers instructions/recommendations to
achieve the most efficient separation.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 15

q Take samples before and after this equipment to analyze immediately and assess
the effectiveness. Record the results.

q Observe the transportation of the shell and dirt components to the boiler fuel
conveyor system. Check and record the electrical load on all motors used in this
system and record the full operational Amperes on the checklists.

2.20 Fuel Supply To Boilers.

q Observe the mixture of fibre and shell before entering the boiler fuel distributing
conveyors.

q Take samples and analyze to calculate the fibre : shell ratio.

2.21 Water Treatment.

q Check and observe the water intake and pumps, and measure the electrical load
and record.

q Check and observe the raw water treatment in flocculation tank and water clarifier
basin or tank.

q Check and observe the operation of the raw water filters and the cleaning thereof
by back washing and /or air scouring. Record the performance and the operational
procedures noted.

q Check and observe the operation of the chemical dosing pumps, the quantities of
chemicals used and the type of chemicals used. Also record the water usage.

q Check and observe the demineralization plant operation, take samples before and
after the process and have these analyzed. Compare and record the results and
assess the effectiveness of the treatment

q Take boiler feed water and boiler blow down samples and have these analyzed.

q From the results of the analyses noted above, assess or calculate the effectiveness
and the performance of the water treatment system as a whole and for the boiler
water section specifically.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 16

2.22 Power House.

q Check and observe the operation and the load of the Diesel driven electric power
generating sets. Record all the main switch board readings on separate sheets,
recordings to be taken every half hour.

q Record the incoming steam pressure and the back pressure at the back pressure
vessel every half hour throughout the operating period.

q Record all temperatures, pressures and load of the Turbine driven electrical power
generating sets. Record all main switch board readings on separate sheets,
recordings to be taken every half hour.

q Ensure that the TIME is correctly recorded since this will relate to the
readings/recordings made from the boiler equipment and will later be used for the
assessment/calculation of the overall steam generating/electrical power generating
balance.

2.23 Effluent ponding treatment system.

q During these test runs, the effluent ponds will only be filling up and their
performance cannot as yet be assessed.

q Samples of the effluent going into the ponds must however be taken and analyzed
to establish the input into the ponding system.

q An estimate of the flow rate into the ponds is also to be made.

q Proper checking of the performance and effectiveness of the ponds should start
after the normal hydraulic retention time calculated for the ponds has elapsed, i.e.
after 30 and 60 days of operation.

q The main checking at this initial stage is the performance of the cooling tower,
recycling pumps, aerators and the flow pattern, findings must be recorded.

2.24 Laboratory.

q Each team must be responsible for the analyzing and calculating of the results of
the samples their team has taken.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 17

q In this way there will be 3 sets of analyses of the same machinery and equipment,
but done at different times, under different conditions and observed/checked by
different people.

q At the end of the endurance test period, the analyses must be checked and
calculated by each team and a full report made of the teams overall findings and
observations.

q These reports must from the basis of the control and processing standards that are
to be set and maintained during the Take over certification test and the rest of
the operating life span of the mill.

The sample test and laboratory report sheet in shown in Appendix.

2.25 Crude palm oil Storage.

q During the test period, tanks will only be filling up, but tank fittings, temperature
control etc., can be checked and recorded.

q A note must be made of the method used to calibrate the storage tanks and the
figures obtained should be checked/compared against actual oil weighing.

q At the end of the 5 day test period, Team A should check and sort all data
gathered by the teams and coordinate the laboratory test results. This can be done
on day 6, when team A is not involved in the endurance test.

q Team B will continue to check the whole mill on the first shift during day 6

q Team A will continue to check the whole mill on the second shift during day 6
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 18

3 FINALIZATION.

After completion of these test periods, all data and results from all the teams and the
laboratory analysis are to be tabled in a general meeting with all participants.

(The check list can be used as the guide for the agenda of this meeting).

All problems identified must be discussed and recorded in the minutes, even if the
problem has already been solved during the test periods.

The meeting will ensure that the equipment identification list and the electric motor
lists are complete with all data that is required and make these lists available for
future reference.

3.1 Process Control And Monitoring Indicators

Enclosed are the appendices showing the suggested layout for the control and
monitoring indicators to be calculated for each of the five day @ 5 hours test period
and for each shift of the two day @ sixteen hours endurance test periods.

These reports are to be tabled at the final meeting and analyzed together with the
check lists produced by the teams and the individual analysis data calculated by the
Laboratory analysts.

These reports will also form the basic layout for the future reporting on direct mill
performance and should be incorporated into the overall mill monthly reports.

The universally recognized system of judging the overall efficiency of the milling
operation is to calculate the EXTRACTION efficiencies by the known losses.

Refer to the sample of the Extraction efficiencies form enclosed in the following page.

The comments /notes /remarks sections should have notes on individual items,
whilst the General Comment section provides space for comments on the overall
utilization, losses or quality parameters.

At the end of the meetings and if overall consensus and agreement is reached, the new
factory should be certified by the participants of the tests and the meetings as
operational.

Any non operational areas, or not yet fully operational areas (such as for instance
effluent or storage tanks etc.) must be specified and excluded from such certification.
PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 19

SAMPLE OF THE EXTRACTION EFFICIENCIES FORM.

FOR CRUDE PALM OILL :

% OIL EXTRACTED TO FFB


---------------------------------------------------------------------- x 100%
% OIL EXTRACTED + TOTAL OIL LOSS TO FFB

Where the total oil loss is the sum of :


- to F.F.B
% oil loss in empty bunch and stalks
- to F.F.B
% oil loss in press fibre
- to F.F.B
% oil loss in nuts
- to F.F.B
% oil loss in total from clarification

(This should calculated to > or +/- 92%)

FOR PALM KERNEL :

% EFFICIENCY KERNEL EXTRACTION = 100 A B C

Where :

A = % loss of kernel in shell - to total kernel

B = % loss of kernel in cyclone fibre - to total kernel

C = % loss of kernels in final cleaning - to total kernel

(This should calculate to > or +/- 92%)


PERUNDING AME - Consulting Engineers. 20

4 TAKING OVER AND CERTIFICATION TEST.

Once the new mill has been certified as operational in accordance with the test
and commissioning programme as set out above, the official hand over take
over certification test can proceed.

The procedure for this Supervision is suggested to be as :

a: Site visits by the Consultant (frequency depending on circumstances,


but not less than once per calendar month ).

b: Liaison meetings with contractor, preferably at the time of the site


visit.

c: Advice/recommendations for possible improvements, modifications


etc.

Operational procedures as applicable to each individual mill (in view of the


different types of equipment installed) will be set out in liaison with the client
and consultant and printed in the form of a Manual for Factory Operations for
the mill in question.

The layout of these procedures will follow the order of the listing of the stations
/ equipment as per the checklist produced for the Taking over certification test.

PERUNDING AME SDN BHD Consulting Engineers. 25 th January 1999.


PERUNDING AME SDN BHD - Consulting Engineers. 1

TRAINING AND MANPOWER

Please refer to the attached Training Management and Staff for Palm Oil Mill .

The detailed training programme will be formulated in liaison with the client, once the
basis for such a programme has been set out by the Consultant.

Organizational structure and a Manpower Development Plan will be closely linked to


the above and thus must await the availability of the training programme.
MASTER LIST OF MACHINERY

MASTER LIST OF MACHINERY

ITEM DESCRIPTIONS QTY UNIT POWER / KW SPEED


Unit Total RPM

PROPOSED 45 MT FFB PER HOUR IN THE FIRST STAGE AND FUTURE EXTENSION
TO 90 MT FFB PER HOUR OIL PALM MILL.

1 FRUIT RECEPTION

1.1 Weighbridge 1

1.2 F.F.B. Loading Ramp & Hopper 20 bays 5.5 x 2 11


C/w Hydraulic System

1.3 FFB Scraper bar conveyor with covered walkway 2 Nr 7.5 15

1.4 Cage Transfer Carriage No.1 1 Nr. 5.5 5.5

1.5 FFB Cages 42 Nr. 0 0

1.6 Rail Tracks 8 Lines 0 0

2 STERILISING STATION

2.1 Mobile Rail piece 6 Nr 0 0

2.2 Sterilisers - 2 DOOR TYPE 3 Nr. 0 0

2.3 Steriliser Auto Program Control 3 Nr 2.2 6.6

2.4 Steriliser Catwalk 1 Lot 0 0

2.5 Blow off Silencer 3 Nr. 0 0

2.6 Winches 6 Nr. 11 66 25

2.7 Idler Bollard 8 Nr. 0 0

2.8 Condensate Blow-down Chamber 3 Nr. 0 0

2.9 Steriliser condensate sump pump 2 Nr. 3 6 1460

2.10 Steriliser Condensate Recovery Tank 1 Nr. 0 0

2.11 Clarification waste water sump pump 2 Nr. 3 6 1460

2.12 Clarification waste water sludge tank 1 Nr. 0 0

2.13 Skimmed oil - collection tank 1 Nr. 0 0

2.14 Skimmed oil - pumps 2 Nr. 2.2 2.2 1460

2.15 Acid oil collection Tank 1 Nr. 0 0

2.16 Acid oil drumming pump 1 Nr 2.2 2.2 1460

2.17 Transfer carriage system at Loading Ramp 1 Nr. 7.5 7.5

Page 1 of 18 Perunding AME Sdn Bhd / 25 Jan. 99 / NW.


MASTER LIST OF MACHINERY

ITEM DESCRIPTIONS QTY UNIT POWER / KW SPEED


Unit Total RPM

3 THRESHING STATION

3.1 Cage Tippler machine 1 Nr. 7.5 7.5

3.2 FFB conveyor cum auto feeder for tippler 1 Nr. 7.5 7.5 2 to 10

3.3 FFB cross conveyor to Thresher No.2 1 Nr 5.5 5.5 46

3.4 Thresher No.1 with bottom screw conveyor 1 Nr.


complete with platform, handrails & walkways
a Drum drive 1 18 18 25
b Bottom screw conveyor 1 3 3 46

3.5 Recycled Bunch Elevator 1 Nr. 5.5 5.5 56

3.6 Bunch crasher with feed chute 1 Nr 22 22

3.7 Thresher No.2 for recycle bunches with bottom 1 Nr.


screw conveyor with platform, handrail & walkway
a Drum drive 1 18 18 25
b Bottom screw conveyor 1 3.75 3.75 46

3.8 Empty bunch conveyor ( 3 sections ) with support 1 lot


a Horizontal section No.1 1 5.5 5.5 46
b Inclined section 1 7.5 7.5 46
c Horizontal section No.2 1 5.5 3.75 46

3.9 E.B. Hopper c/w Hydraulic system 8 bays 7.5 7.5 46

4 PRESSING STATION

4.1 Fruit Elevator 2 Nr. 5.5 11 46

4.2 Fruit distribution conveyor c/w chutes and doors 1 Nr. 3.75 3.75 46

4.3 Fruit Return Conveyor complete with chute 1 Nr. 3.75 3.75 46

4.4 Press station structure complete with platform 1 lot 0 0 0


handrails and walkways.

4.5 Hot water tank for press station 1 Nr.

4.6 Digester - type 3500 kg cap. 3 Nr. 22 66 28

4.7 Twin Screw Presses - type P15 complete hydraulics 3 Nr. 30 90 16

4.8 Crude oil collection gutter in SS 1 Lot 0 0

4.9 Desanding tank ( sand trap ) 1 Nr. 0 0

4.10 Sand removal conveyor for sand trap 1 Nr. 3.75 3.75 46

4.12 Sand removal elevator with screen buckets 1 Nr. 3.75 3.75 56

4.13 Hopper with support for sand waste 1 Nr. 0 0

4.14 Vibrating screen - 60" Circular - double deck type 2 Nr. 3.75 7.5
complete with ms structure, platform & walkway

4.15 Screen Waste Conveyor 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 56

4.16 Crude Oil Tank with auto steam heating, insulation etc. 1 Nr. 0 0

4.17 Crude Oil Transfer Pumps with auto level switch 2 Nr. 3.75 7.5 1460

4.18 Crude Oil diluation control system 1 Nr.

Page 2 of 18 Perunding AME Sdn Bhd / 25 Jan. 99 / NW.


MASTER LIST OF MACHINERY

ITEM DESCRIPTIONS QTY UNIT POWER / KW SPEED


Unit Total RPM

5 CLARIFICATION STATION

5.1 Vertical Clarifier with stirrer, insulation & cladding 1 Nr. 3.75 3.75 25

5.2 Heating tank with pumps 1 lot 2 x 2.2kw 4.4 1460

5.3 Sludge settling tank with SS liner 1 Nr 0 0

5.4 Crude oil tank with SS liner 1 Nr. 0 0

5.5 Pumps for sludge tank 2 Nr. 2.2 4.4 1460

5.6 Steel structure for decanter & Vacuum dryer platform


complete with handrails, supports & walkways 1 lot 0 0

5.7 Desanding multi-cyclone unit & pumpset 1 Set 2.2 2.2

5.8 Sludge balance tank of SS 1 Nr. 0 0

5.9 3 Phase Decanter 1 Nr. 30 30

5.10 Solid waste Conveyor for Decanter sludge 1 Nr 2.2 2.2 56

5.11 Hopper for solid waste 1 Nr 0 0

5.12 Light Phase Tank with pumpset 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 1460

5.13 Heavy Phase Tank with pumpsets 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 1460

5.14 Balance tank with SS liner 1 Nr. 0 0

5.15 Steel Structure for Clarification Station


with 1 ton maintenance chain block 1 lot 0 0

5.16 Sludge Separator complete unit 1 Nr. 15 15

5.17 Oil Heater Tank with Pumpset c/w Level switch 1 Nr. 3.75 3.75

5.18 Oil Purifier 2 Nr. 7.5 15

5.19 Vacuum Oil Dryer with vacuum & transfer pumps 1 Nr. 2x 7.5 15

5.20 Hot Water Tank with auto steam heating 1 Nr. 0 0

5.21 Sludge Fat pit pumpsets 3 Nr 3.75 11.25

5.22 Sludge oil recovery tank 1 Nr 0 0

5.23 Pumpsets for sludge oil & Effluent waste 2 Nr 3.75 7.5

5.24 Acid oil tank 1 Nr

6 DEPERICARPING STATION

6.1 Cake Breaker Conveyor c/w 1 Nr. 11 11 62


Supporting Structures and Platform

6.2 Depericarping System Consists Of:-

a) Depericarping Column c/w Adjustable 1 Lot 1 1


Damper and Supporting Structures

Page 3 of 18 Perunding AME Sdn Bhd / 25 Jan. 99 / NW.


MASTER LIST OF MACHINERY

ITEM DESCRIPTIONS QTY UNIT POWER / KW SPEED


Unit Total RPM

b) Ducting To Cyclones And Fan 1 Lot 0

c) Fibre Cyclone 1 Nr. 0

d) Air lock c/w Drive and mounting 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 30


rollers for easy removal

e) Fan complete with Motor 1 Nr. 56 56

6.3 Depericarper Damper Control System 1 Nr.

6.4 Nut Polishing Drum 1 Nr. 5.5 5.5 30

6.5 Nut conveyor No.1 1 Nr 3.75 3.75 56

6.6 Nut Elevator No.1 1 Nr. 3.75 3.75 56

6.7 Destoning System Consists Of:-

a) Separating & Expansion column with 1 Lot 0 0


Supporting Structures

b) Ducting From Column To Cyclone and 1 Lot 0 0


Fan

c) Cyclone 1 Nr. 0 0

d) Air lock ( Inlet feed ) c/w drive 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 30

e) Airlock ( Nuts ) c/w drive 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 30

f) Cyclone 1 Nr. 0

g) Air Lock ( Cyclone ) c/w Drive 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 30

h) Fan complete with motor 1 Nr. 25 25

6.8 Destoner Damper Control System 1 Nr.

6.9 Nut conveyor No.2 1 Nr 3.75 3.75 56

7 KERNEL RECOVERY STATION

7.1 Nut Conveyor No.3 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 56

7.2 Nut Silos 2 Nr. 0 0

7.3 Nut feed conveyor to elevator 1 Nr. 3.75 3.75

7.4 Nut Elevator 1 Nr. 5.5 5.5

7.5 Nut grading drum 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 56

7.6 Nut feed conveyor to ripple mills 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 56

7.7 Nut cracking rippler mills 4 Nr. 5.5 22 30

7.8 Cracked mixture conveyor 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 56

7.9 Cracked mixture elevator 1 Nr 3.75 3.75 46

Page 4 of 18 Perunding AME Sdn Bhd / 25 Jan. 99 / NW.


MASTER LIST OF MACHINERY

ITEM DESCRIPTIONS QTY UNIT POWER / KW SPEED


Unit Total RPM

7.10 Cracked mixture dry separation system


consist of :

a) Air lock c/w Drive 2 Nr. 2.2 4.4 30

b) Winnowing Column c/w Adjustable 1 Lot 1 1


Damper

c) Ducting From Column To Cyclone and 1 Lot 0


Fan

d) Cyclone 1st stage 1 Nr. 0

e) Airlock ( cyclone ) c/w Drive 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 30

f) Fan c/w Motor 1 Nr. 11 11

g) Winnowing Column Damper Control System 1 Nr.

h) 2nd stage Winnowing Column c/w Adjustable


Damper 1 Nr. 1 1

I) Ducting From Column To Cyclone and 1 Nr. 0


Fan

j) Cyclone 2nd stage 1 Nr. 0

k) Airlock ( cyclone ) c/w Drive 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 30

l) Fan c/w Motor 1 Nr. 11 11

m) Winnowing Column Damper Control

7.11 Cracked Mixture Conveyor 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 56

7.12 Kernel conveyor 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 56

7.13 Hydrocyclone 3 stage type c/w pumps 2 Nr. 2 x 15 60

7.14 Wet Shell Pneumatic Transport System

a) Airlock c/w Drive 1 Nr. 2.2 2.2 30

b) Fan c/w Motor 1 Nr. 7.5 7.5

c) Ducting From Fan to Cyclone 1 Nr. 0

d) Cyclone 1 Nr. 0

7.15 Wet Kernel Elevator 1 Nr. 5.5 5.5 46

7.16 Wet Kernel Conveyor 1 Nr. 5.5 5.5 56

7.17 Kernel Silo c/w Fan and Feeder 2 Nr. 11 22

7.18 Dry Kernel Conveyor 1 Nr. 3.75 3.75 56

7.19 Kernel Winnowing System Consist Of:-

a) Airlock c/w Drive 2 Nr. 2.2 4.4 30

b) Column, air duct and cyclone 1 lot 0 0

c) Fan complete with motor 1 Nr. 11 11

Page 5 of 18 Perunding AME Sdn Bhd / 25 Jan. 99 / NW.


MASTER LIST OF MACHINERY

ITEM DESCRIPTIONS QTY UNIT POWER / KW SPEED


Unit Total RPM

7.20 Kernel Pneumatic transport system

a) Air lock with drive motor 2 Nr 2.2 4.4

b) Air duct & cyclone 1 lot

c) Fan complete with motor 1 Nr 11 11

7.21 Distribution conveyor on top of bulk silos 1 Nr 3.75 3.75

7.22 Kernel Bulk Silo c/w discharge Doors & Vent Fan 3 Nr 3 x 18 54

8 BOILER HOUSE

8.1 Shell Bunker with steel structure 1 Nr. 0 0

8.2 Boiler fuel distribution conveying system 1 lot

a Fuel conveyor I 1 Nr 7.5 7.5 56


b Fuel conveyor II ( double deck ) 1 Nr 7.5 7.5 56

8.3 Ground Feed Tank 1 Nr. 0 0

8.4 Boiler feed water treatment plant, consist of :

a Softener Booster Pump 2 Nr. 3.75 7.5

b Deaerator Feed Tank c/w Insulation Nr. 0 0


and supporting Structure

c Deaerator Tank Pump c/w low level alarm 2 Nr. 15 30

d Duplex Water Softener 1 Nr. 1 1

e Chemical Dosing Pump c/w dosing tank 2 Nr. 0.33 0.66

f Vacuum Deaerator 1 Nr. 0 0

g Deaerator Extraction Pump 1 Nr. 15 15

8.5 Water tube Boiler - 35,000 kg / hr @ 20.8 bar 2 Nr


complete with the following :
a FD Fan 2 Nr 60 120
b Secondary draught Fan 2 Nr 11 22
c Induced draught Fan 2 Nr 45 90
d. Soot blower system 2 Nr 7.5 15
e Feed water pump - electric 3 Nr 30 90
f Feed water pump - steam turbine 3 Nr 30 0
g Controls 3 Nr 1 1

8.6 Fuel Disposal conveyor with supporting 1 Nr. 7.5 7.5 56


structure

8.7 Fuel Return Elevator 1 Nr. 5.5 5.5 46

8.8 Boiler Blowdown Chamber 1 Nr. 0 0

8.9 Ash Removal Conveyor 1 Nr. 3.75 3.75 46

Page 6 of 18 Perunding AME Sdn Bhd / 25 Jan. 99 / NW.


MASTER LIST OF MACHINERY

ITEM DESCRIPTIONS QTY UNIT POWER / KW SPEED


Unit Total RPM

9 POWER PLANT

9.1 Turbo Alternator. 1200 kw 1 Nr. 0.5 0.5

9.2 BPR Pressure Controller 1 set 0

9.3 Back Pressure Receiver c/w Insulation, 1 Nr. 0


Operating Platform

9.4 Exhaust silencer 1 Nr 0 0

9.5 Diesel skid tank with pumpset 1 Nr. 3.75 3.75

9.6 Diesel day tank 1 Nr

9.7 Diesel genset 150 kw 1 Nr. 0.33 0.33

9.9 Diesel genset 350 kw 2 Nr. 0.33 0.66

9.10 Air compressor for pneumatic system 1 Nr 15 15

10 PALM OIL STORAGE & CPO LOADING SHED

10.1 CPO Storage Tanks - 2000mt cap. 2 Nr

10.2 CPO transfer pumps 2 Nr 15 15

10.3 CPO inspection bridge structure 1 Nr

11 N - RAW WATER TREATMENT PLANT

11.1 Raw Water Clarifier 1 Nr. 0

11.2 Clarified water concretesettling tank 1 Nr. 0

11.3 Clear Water Pump c/w Level Switch 2 Nr. 11 22

11.4 Chemical dosing pumps & mixing tanks 3 Nr 0.33 1

11.5 Pressure Sand Filters 2 Nr. 0 0

11.6 Water transfer pumps 2 Nr 15 30

11.7 Water Storage Tank with structure 1 Nr. 0

11.8 Chlorination System with dosing pumps 1 Nr. 0.33 0.33

12 FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT & SYSTEM

12.1 Hose reel points 8 Nr

12.2 Fire Hydrant 4 Nr

12.3 Emergency Diesel Pump 1 Nr

12.4 Extinguishers & Apparels Lot

a CO2 type extinguishers 6 Nr


b Dry powder extinguishers 8 Nr
c Asbestors blanket and gloves 2 Nr

Page 7 of 18 Perunding AME Sdn Bhd / 25 Jan. 99 / NW.


MASTER LIST OF MACHINERY

ITEM DESCRIPTIONS QTY UNIT POWER / KW SPEED


Unit Total RPM

13 MISCELLANEOUS

13.1 Central Monitoring, Alarm & Control System Lot 3

13.2 Coupling, belt & pulley guards 1 Lot

13.3 Maintenance Platform for Conveyor & 1 Lot


Elevator Drives

13.4 Effluent Recycling Pumps c/w Float switch 2 Nr. 15 30 1460

13.5 Surface Aerators 4 Nr. 7.5 30 1460

14 PIPING, VALVES & FITTINGS

The cost shall include pipes, elbows, tees,


reducers, flanges, nipples, coupling, steam
traps, sight glasses, sockets, gauges,
meters, air vents, sniffer valves, air release
valves, safety valves, blinds, insulation,
pipe supports and etc.for the following
services:-

14.1 Raw Water Piping:-

a) Water Clarifier to Overhead Water Tank 1 Lot

14.2 Cold Water Piping:-

a) Overhead Water Tank To Plant/Equipment 1 Lot

b) Ring Main within Factory Building with 1 Lot


50mm as main and 25mm as down comer
installed @ 18m c/c c/w valves

c) To Factory Office 1 Lot

d) To Workshop 1 Lot

e) To Canteen/Toilet/Locker Room 1 Lot

14.3 Steam Piping:-

a) High Pressure From Boiler to Engine Room 1 Lot

b) High Pressure From Boiler to Vacuum 1 Lot


Ejectors, Turbine Feed Water Pump

c) Low Pressure From Turbine to Back 1 Lot


Pressure Receiver

d) Low Pressure to and Within Sterilisation 1 Lot


Station

e) Low Pressure to and Within Steam Plant 1 Lot

f) Low Pressure to and Within Main Process 1 Lot


Building

g) Low Pressure to and Within Clarification 1 Lot


Station

h) Low Pressure to and Within CPO Storage 1 Lot


Tanks

Page 8 of 18 Perunding AME Sdn Bhd / 25 Jan. 99 / NW.


MASTER LIST OF MACHINERY

ITEM DESCRIPTIONS QTY UNIT POWER / KW SPEED


Unit Total RPM

14.4 Steam Condensate Piping 1 Lot

14.5 Sludge Oil Piping:-

a) Within Press Station 1 Lot

b) Within Clarification Station 1 Lot

14.6 Crude Oil Piping:-

a) Press station within & to Clarification station 1 Lot

b) Within Clarification Station 1 Lot

c) Clarification To CPO Tanks 1 Lot

d) CPO Tanks To Unloading Shed 1 Lot

14.7 Compressed Air To Control Valve

14.8 Diesel Oil Piping 1 Lot

14.9 Effluent piping from Sludge pit to the ponds approx. 500 M

14.10 Effluent piping from sump to recycle 1 Lot


pumps to Acidification Ponds Approx. 200 M

A Total power installed for operating machinery CONNECTED LOAD 1531.1 kW

B Allowing a load diversity factor of 65 % 1531.08 x 0.65 995 kW


to operate the mill at 45 mt FFB per hour.

C Complex street lighting and domestic use 55 kW


Total 1050 kW

D Power supply :
1. Steam Turbo Alternator 1 unit 1200 kW
2. Diesel engine Alternator 2 units 350 kW
3. Diesel engine Alternator 1 unit 150 kW Total 2050 kW

Page 9 of 18 Perunding AME Sdn Bhd / 25 Jan. 99 / NW.


Appendix B

Sheet 1 of 1

COMMISSIONING CHECK LIST OF OIL PALM MILL


This check list may not contain all of the machinery, data or items required for a
specified design of an oil palm mill but should be used as a basis for a general check list
during testing & commissioning of the machinery, equipment and plant for further
development such as processing reports and maintenance programme.

ITEM STATION / LOCATION ITEMS TO CHECK BRIEF NOTES

A. Reception area Check : condition of mill internal roads

01. Weighbridge : Condition, operational procedures


: recording methods, accuracy
02. Loading ramp : condition, operational procedures
: fruit spillage, overall cleanliness
03. Railtracks : overall condition
04. Transfer tracks : overall condition, operational procedures
05. Marshalling yard : type/condition of cage moving device
06. a) Cages : number operational
: number under repair
: total number available
b) Bogies : number operational
: total number available
07. Capstans & Ropes : condition, operational procedures

B. Sterilization :
08. Sterilizers Check : chart recorders
: door wear and door joints
: door safety devices/measure
: wear plates/internal railtracks
: hinged railpieces
: Condensate drainage
: condition silencer/pit
: condition valves, pipes, etc.
: thermal insulation
Operation : pressure, cycle times (door open/door close)
: sequence of usage, automatic system operation
09. Building : check roof, rafters, columns, floor
GENERAL COMMENT :

CHECKED BY : DATE :
Appendix B

Sheet 2 of 2

COMMISSIONING CHECK LIST OF OIL PALM MILL REMARKS

C Crane & Thresher :


10. Crane / Tippler:
condition of : Beam
: hoist cables
Drum / tippler
: tipping chains
: power cables
11. Thresher :
condition of : feeding device, RPM
: thresher drum, RPM
: bar clearance, spider arms
: threshing action, effectiveness
12. Unstripped bunch count : count 100 bunches
check : all drive units, chains and sprockets
: machinery guards

D. Empty bunch disposal system or incinerating :


13. EB conveyors. condition of : Chains, scraper bars, sprockets etc.
Drive units
: Chutes etc.
14 Incinerator : Incinerator roofs
: Incinerator grates
: External and internal brickwork
: Method of operation, sequence of usage

GENERAL COMMENT :

CHECKED BY : DATE :
Appendix B

Sheet 3 of 3

COMMISSIONING CHECK LIST OF OIL PALM MILL REMARKS

E. Extraction Station :
15. Conveyor check : Condition of bottom fruit conveyors
16. Elevator : fruit elevator chains and buckets
17. Top fruit conveyor : top fruit conveyors
: feed chutes
18. Return fruit conveyor : return fruit conveyors
check : drive units and machinery guards
19. Digestors : overall condition shaft, arms, wearplates,
pinion & rack valve and feed chute
: Steam heating, injection system & control
: Temperatures
: average throughput
: general performance (visual)
check : all drive units and machinery guards
20. Presses : Condition of worm screws, cage, cones, seals,
bearings, drive shaft, press body.
: Hot water spraying system.
Auto hydraulic system.
all drive units and machinery guards

F Crude oil :
21. Gutter check : crude oil gutters and tank
22. Crude oil tank : tank operating temperature
23. Vibrating screens : Type
: condition and operation
: solids carry over/effectiveness
: dilution rates (at screens)
: tank heating type (closed coil or live steam)
24. Crude oil pumps : type, condition, method of operation
check : all drive units and machinery guards

GENERAL COMMENT :

CHECKED BY : DATE :
Appendix B

Sheet 4 of 4

COMMISSIONING CHECK LIST OF OIL PALM MILL REMARKS

G. Clarification Station :
25. Clarifer tank check : clarifier tank operation, levels and temperatures
: underflow composition and oil content
: pure oil skimming and operational procedures
26. Sludge tank : sludge tank operation
27. Decanters : feedrates, feed temperature, electric loading
: overall condition
28. Oil Purifier : Capacity, feed temperature, electric loading
: type used, sequence of usage, condition
29. Sludge centrifuges : Capacity, feed temperature, electrical loading,
nozzle size, type used, sequence of usage,
condition
30. Vacuum Dryer : Capacity, feed temperature, vacuum, electrical
loading, condition

31. Piping, fittings, flow meters : valves, pipelines and fittings


: overall condition/operation
: station working temperature
: station overall cleanliness
: special tools for centrifuges
(available / condition)
: all drive units and machinery guards

GENERAL COMMENT :

CHECKED BY : DATE :
Appendix B

Sheet 5 of 5

COMMISSIONING CHECK LIST OF OIL PALM MILL REMARKS

H. Depericarper Station :
32. Cake breaker conveyor : condition/operation
33. Primary depericarper : ducting condition
Fan : fan condition, electrical loading
Fibre cyclone : fibre cyclone condition
Air lock : rotary sluice condition
: nut/fibre separation effectiveness
34. Nut elevators : condition chains / buckets
: electrical load
check : drives and machinery guards

I. Kernel Recovery Station :


35. Nut silos : overall condition, cleanliness
: average loading , operating temperatures
check : heaters, filters, fans
: cleaning frequency
36. Nut grading drums : drum condition, drive, machinery guards
37. Nut cracking : feeding rates and methods
: overall cracker condition
: cracker loading (electrical)
: cracker effectiveness
38. Uncracked nut conveyor : uncracked nut return, quantity, where
39. Dry separation system : Same checks for 1st & 2nd winnowing system
Feed conveyor Condition of feed conveyor & drive
Ducting Ducting condition
Fan Fan operation & condition
Cyclone Cyclone condition
Air lock Air lock condition
40 Hydro cyclones : drum condition
: Pumps condition
: water supply and waste discharge method

GENERAL COMMENT :

CHECKED BY : DATE :
Appendix B

Sheet 6 of 6

COMMISSIONING CHECK LIST OF C.P.O. MILLS REMARKS

I Continue - Kernel recovery :


40. Hydro cyclone
Separation effectiveness

41 Clay bath separators : overall operation, clay condition, qty.


: Clay condition , gravity tests,
check Pump condition
Vibrating trays or drum condition
: water supply and discharge, clay recover
42 Shell conveyor : conveyor/elevator condition
: recovery rate
Check Drive & gearmotor
43 Kernel winnowing system Separation effectiveness
Blow or fan condition
44 Kernel transport system Condition of conveying system
Or pneumatic system
Check Drives : gearmotor / fan or blower
44. Kernel silo / Bulk storage : overall condition, cleanliness
: average loading, operating temperatures
Check : heaters, fan, filters
: cleaning frequency
: conveyors, belts, etc.
: vibrating screen, secondary separation

J. Boilerhouse :
44 Fuel conveyors
Fuel : check fuel storage space
: stored fuel condition, shell content, dryness etc.
: distribution of fuel, firing method
45 Excess fuel conveyor Same checks as above

GENERAL COMMENT :

CHECKED BY : DATE :
Appendix B

Sheet 7 of 7

COMMISSIONING CHECK LIST OF OIL PALM MILL REMARKS

46. Boiler Plants Type of Boiler


Capacity per hour (MCR)
: operating pressure
: operating procedures
: Operating frequency (period before change
over)
cleaning interval : Furnace
: Tubes
: chimney and soot collectors
check : condition of : firing equipment
: fans, draught reg. and doors
: furnace and grate (visual)
: gauge glasses, indicators
: other instrumentation checks & calibration
: Frequency of regeneration
: condition pipelines, valves etc.
47. Boiler feed pumps : Elect. & turbine drives conditions
: treated water storage system/quantity
Record usage of chemicals etc.
chimney temperatures
: ash and soot removal procedures

K. Boiler Feed water plant : : chemical dosing equipment condition.


48. Chemical dosing equipment Chemical dosing equipment condation
49. Feed water pumps Feed water pump s conditions
50. Deserator plant : Deaerator condition, operation, temperature
: manual/automatic/modulated feed supply

GENERAL COMMENT :

CHECKED BY : DATE :
Appendix B

Sheet 8 of 8

COMMISSIONING CHECK LIST OF OIL PALM MILL REMARKS

L. Raw-water Treatment Plant :


51. Raw water intake pumps :
52. Intake Building :
53. Pipe line to mill :
54. Clarifier tank :
55. Sand filter Filter condition
56. Pumps Condition of pumps, seal, impeller etc
57. Treatment plant building
condition raw and treated water
chemicals used, quantities
methods of dosing etc.
frequency of cleaning

M. Engine Room :
58. Diesel drive alternators Diesel engine / Alternator condition
59. Steam turbine drive alter. : steam turbine / alternator condition
60. Electrical switchboard : overall condition, cleanliness
: condition of switch gear
: condition of instrumentation
61. Back pressure vessel : condition of pipelines, valves, fittings
: condition of instrumentation, gauges, etc.
: operational methods, pressures
: condition of safety equipment
62. Air compressors : condition, loading, operation
General : recording methods logbooks etc.
: frequency of machine rotation/usage
: availability of safety devices etc.
: overall cleanliness

GENERAL COMMENT :

CHECKED BY : DATE :
Appendix B

Sheet 9 of 9

COMMISSIONING CHECK LIST OF OIL PALM MILL REMARKS

OTHER GENERAL MILL AREAS :


N. Effluent ponding system
63. Sludge / Fat pits. Condition of sludge pits / ponds
64. Sludge oil recovery tank Any trace of oil in pond and estimated amount
65. Transfer pumps Screens, drains, pumps
66. Pipe line to ponds Aeration devices, overflow alarms etc.
67. Mixing / cooling ponds Safety measures etc.
68. Anearobic ponds
69. Faculatative ponds
70. Stablisation pond
71 Recycling pumps
72 Mechanical Aerators

O. Laboratory :
73. Equipment : Chemicals used, correctness
: sub sampling room, recording methods
: Sampling methods, analysis methods
: raw data results, data interpretation
: Accuracy, overall cleanliness
P. Produce storage :
74. Crude Palm Oil Check : oil tank temperature recording
CPO Tanks : Method of calibration, measuring devices
75. Dispatch pumps : Condition of tanks, pipelines, valves etc.
: Method of dispatch, security etc.
: Tank cleaning interval
Palm Kernel. : Condition of Bulking Silos, heating Vent etc.
: Method of dispatch, security etc.
: Cleaning interval
76. Acid Oil tank ( High FFA ) Condition of tank, pipeline, pumps
Method of dispatch, security etc

GENERAL COMMENT :

CHECKED BY
DATE
Appendix B

Sheet 10 of 10

COMMISSIONING CHECK LIST OF OIL PALM MILL REMARKS

Q. General & Administration : Check condition / availability


Perimeter fencing
Station and factory lighting
Security
Lightning protection :
Workshop equipment, material :
Stores and spare part stock :
R. Staff and labour housing :
Water supply
Electricity supply
Housing availability :
Overall power requirement :
:
S. Staff and labour :
Manager / Engineer
Assistant manager :
Shift staff :
Shift labour :
Workshop staff :
Workshop artisans :
Workshop labour :
Stores staff :
Administrative staff :

GENERAL COMMENT :

CHECKED BY : DATE :

22nd , January 1999 / Noel Wambeck.


Appendix C

ELECTRIC MOTOR LIST

1. Prepare an electric motor list, according to the code numbers of the machinery and add
the particular details for each motor, i.e.:

Example :

LR1 No. motor : -----------------------


Name : Crompton Parkinson
Type : Flanged mounted
Frame type : ---------
Power : AC 3 phase 415V, Hz 50.
Speed : 1500 R.P.M.
kW : 3kW
Amps : 15Amp
Starter : DOL
Total number : 10
Usage : Loading ramp door drive

PS1 No. motor : -----------------------


Name : Elektrim
Type : Foot mounted
Frame : ---------
Power : 3 phase, 380-415V,
Speed : 1500 R.P.M.
KW : 30kW.
Amps : 45Amp.
Starter : star-delta starter
Total number : 3
Usage : Digestor drive

Etc., etc.

2. A suitable computer programme, which can either be purchased (and then usually
needs modifications to suit the particular application) or be developed on site.

3. The motor list must have columns to record the no load and the full operational
load electric current expressed in Amperes.

4. The completed lists should be copied and made available to each member of the test
and commissioning team.
SPECIFICATIONS FOR
MACHINERY
WEIGHBRIDGE

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
ROAD WEIGHBRIDGE
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. RECEPTION ITEM No. A1

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL Scope of works include the unloading, safe keeping , assist in the
installation, testing and commissioning.

PROPRIETARY ITEM TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE CLIENT.

Function: Weighing of FFB on delivery and dispatch of CPO and kernel.

SPECIFICATIONS One (1) Load cell road weighbridge ( Pitless )


for operation on electronic system.

Capacity 50,000 kg

Platform 12 m x 3 m x 12.5 m ms constructed platform and skid resistant

Weighing system PITLESS - Load cell weighbridge

Weight display Electronic Digital Indicator with read out 0 to 50,000 kg x 10 kg

Power load 2000 watts 230 volts 50 hz AC single phase.

Electronic Printer: Laser ink jet type printer

Recording The following features shall be included.

i) Interfaces with indicator to provide digital indication and print gross,


tare and nett weight, vehicle registration number, date, time,
consecutive number and code for type of product.

ii) Push button for testing.

iii) Error indication.

Uninterruptible Power A reliable U.P.S. system shall be provided to serve as a back up


for at least 2 hours in the event of a power failure.

Tickets 5000 copies of tickets in triplicate printed to the approved format.

P.C Computer (Interface with indicator ) Intel 500 MHz Max pro Pentium processor with pre-installed
Microsoft Windows 95 and Office 2000 shall be provided

Page 1 of 2
WEIGHBRIDGE

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
ROAD WEIGHBRIDGE
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. RECEPTION ITEM No. A1

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

Sheet 2.

Keyboard The keyboard shall be full size with the Standard QWERTY layout
with all alpha, numeric, punctuation and mathematical symbol characters.

Memory / Cache Shall be adequate of at least 128 MB to cater for the required
program to effect the use of the computer for weighbridge
and the requirements of the General office use and print out format.

Colour monitor / Display 17" Sony SVGA colour monitor

Printers Good quality printer with A4 paper sheet tray one for A3 paper
Alternative for colour printer should also be included in the offer.

Drives 8.2 GB Hard drive, 3.5" 1.44 Floppy disk drive, 44x CD - ROM drive

Internal Fax / Modem Motorola 33.6 kbps

Software program a. Weighbridge Ticket printing program with printing for.


Daily, weekly and monthly summary of tonnage by
product, suppliers, vehicles, etc.
b. Fraud proof (please give details).
c. Anti virus & protection

Special Note 1. All equipment shall be tropicalised and rodent proof.

2. Calibration and testing shall be provided

3. It is the responsibility of the supplier to arrange


with the Weights and Measures Department for the stamping
of Weighbridge. Stamping fees will be borne by the Employer.

In addition to the documents as required, the supplier will supply


10 sets of weighbridge tickets 30 days after award of tender
and 4 copies of all approvals and test certificates upon delivery
or 3 months prior to commissioning whichever is earlier.

General Contractor shall provide design details of the equipment for the
consultant's approval before fabrication.

Page 2 of 2
RAIL TRACKS AND SLEEPERS

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
RAIL TRACKS & SLEEPERS
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. RECEPTION ITEM No. A2

QUANTITY / UNITS 8 SETS

GENERAL Scope of works include the fabrication, delivery, erection & installation, commissioning
handing over and guarantee

Function For conveying fully loaded 7.5 MT FFB cages from the FFB Hopper to the Steriliser
Cage transfer carriage and than to the Tippler, whereas the empty cage is conveyed
back to the FFB Hopper.

Construction As per drawing

SPECIFICATIONS Eight ( 8 ) Lines Rail Tracks including Sleepers as follows :

The tracks shall be constructed from standard mild steel rail bar, mounted
and welded to MS channel sleepers, set at 800 mm c/c which shall be laid onto the
prepared RC floor ( RC floors shall be provided by the civil works contractor )

The rails shall have section not less than 90mm x 82mm x 42mm and
weighing approx. 22 kg per meter with wheel space of 800 mm gauge.

It shall cater for the complete 90 metric tonnes FFB per hour operation of the Mill
spanning the complete length of the fruit reception area to the end of the steriliser
bay of which 2 are return tracks in accordance to the drawings.

The complete railtrack system shall be laid, aligned, levelled and well anchored
before casting into concrete such that the top of the rails is flush with the concrete
floor.

The rail system shall be properly anchored to prevent settlement thus avoiding
derailment of the 7.5 MT FFB cages during operation.

Suitable drains shall be provided to ensure that water is not trapped in the rail system.

General Contractor shall provide design details of the rail system for the Consultant's
approval before fabrication.

The contractor shall check during the installation with the civil contractor who will
provide assistance in completing the works for the marshalling yard area.

Page 1 of 1
FFB HOPPERS

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL FFB LOADING RAMP & PREPARED BY NW
HOPPERS
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. RECEPTION ITEM No. A3

QUANTITY / UNITS 8 SETS

GENERAL Scope of works include the manufacture, erection & installation


commissioning, handing over and guarantee

Function: To receive, store and load FFB into FFB CAGES

SPECIFICATIONS Fifteen ( 15 ) bays FFB Hoppers complete with hydraulic system as follows :

Type: Sloping ramp c/w hydraulic operated doors


Capacity: 30 doors x 15 tonnes FFB = 450 MT FFB.
Slope: not less than 27 deg.
Construction Material: As per drawings
Construction Details: As per drawings
Door operation: Hydraulic type, vertical stroke( top down) c/w
individual lever control located at FFB hopper's
platform as per drawings

Hydraulic System: Consist of hydraulic pump, oil tank, cylinders, tubing, lever control
releif valve, pressure gauges, pump strainer, check valve and all the
necessary accessories for completion operation of units of 15 doors.
The tank shall be interconnected.

Powerpack Double unit


Reservoir 80 litres
Pump Fix displacement low noise gear type, 23 litres/min @ 250 Bar

Relief valve Direct acting type, 120 litres/min adjustable from 0-100 Bar

Cylinder: piston type, 915mm stroke


200 bar rated pressure
300 bar static pressure

Heavy duty construction with welded cap and easily


removalbe head with air bleeding plugs at both end
63mm ID and 78 mm OD barrel

Piston road: 38mm diameter rod heat treated steel hard chrome plated
Mounting: Female clevis both ends.
Directional Control
Valve: Individual valve for each door
Tubing: seamless cold drawn hydraulic tubing, 235 N/m2 minimum
yeild strength. Flaxible hoses to be 2 -wire braided high
pressure type.

Motor: 11kw = 5.5kw x 2 415V 50 Hz TEFC IP 55 Class F


Vendor to advise .

Detail Drawings Contractor to provide detail drawing for approval by the consultant

Page 1 of 1
HORIZONTAL CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
HORIZONTAL CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. RECEPTION ITEM No. A4

QUANTITY / UNITS 1 unit

GENERAL Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation


commissioning, handing over and guarantee .

Function: To convey FFB from the Loading ramp and controlled feed into
the cross cage feed conveyor

SPECIFICATIONS One (1) unit Horizontal Conveyor suitable for 90mt FFB per hour operation
complete with steel structure, covered walkway, handrails and ladders

Type: Conveyor chain with scrapper plate


Capacity: 90mt FFB per hour

General Arrangment: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Chain: Steel c/w hardened steel flanged rollers, 150 mm pitch, 9000 kg
breaking load
Drag Plate: Mild steel or equivalent
Frame: Mild steel or equivalent
Sprocket: 12T, 150 mm pitch, grey iron
Wear Plate: Mild steel 6 mm minimum thickness or equivalent

Basic Dimension:
Width: 1200 mm
Length: 45 m
Inclination: Horizontal
Conveying Section: Top
Shaft Speed: 25 rpm
Transmission Sprocket Ratio: 1.00
Drive: Geared motor coupled conveyor shaft by tarnsmission
chain & sprocket
Speed Reducer:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 6876 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: < 1.5

Page 1 of 4
HORIZONTAL CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
HORIZONTAL CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. RECEPTION ITEM No. A4

QUANTITY / UNITS 1 unit

Sheet 2.

Motor:-
Power: 18 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, ABB Brook, Brush, ELEKTRIM


Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, Renold, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) , Renold
Conveyor & Transmission Renold, Tsubaki, PC
chain, sprocket
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-

1. Wear plate of 6mm minimum thickness to be provided for chain rails


2. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor
3. Drive end shaft fitted with flange bearings
4. Non-drive end shaft to be fitted with chain tensioning devises c/w take-up bearings

Page 2 of 4
CAGE FEED CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL
CAGE FEED CONVEYOR PREPARED BY NW

DELIVERY REVISION No.


LOCATION
DRAWING NO. RECEPTION ITEM No. A5

QUANTITY / UNITS 1 unit

GENERAL Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation


commissioning, handing over and guarantee .

Function: To convey FFB from the horizontal conveyor and controlled feed into
the FFB cages lined up in front of the sterilizer bay area

SPECIFICATIONS One (1) unit Cage feed Conveyor suitable for 90mt FFB per hour operation
complete with steel structure, covered walkway, handrails and ladders

Type: Conveyor chain with scrapper plate


Capacity: 90mt FFB per hour

General Arrangment: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Chain: Steel c/w hardened steel flanged rollers, 150 mm pitch, 9000 kg
breaking load
Drag Plate: Mild steel or equivalent
Frame: Mild steel or equivalent
Sprocket: 12T, 150 mm pitch, grey iron
Wear Plate: Mild steel 6 mm minimum thickness or equivalent

Basic Dimension:
Width: 1200 mm
Length: 30 m
Inclination: Horizontal
Conveying Section: Top
Shaft Speed: 25 rpm
Transmission Sprocket Ratio: 1.00
Drive: Geared motor coupled conveyor shaft by tarnsmission
chain & sprocket
Speed Reducer:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 2865 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: < 1.5

Page 1 of 2
CAGE FEED CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL
CAGE FEED CONVEYOR PREPARED BY NW

DELIVERY REVISION No.


LOCATION
DRAWING NO. RECEPTION ITEM No. A5

QUANTITY / UNITS 1 unit

Sheet 2.

Motor:-
Power: 7.5 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, ABB Brook, Brush, ELEKTRIM


Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, Renold, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) , Renold
Conveyor & Transmission Renold, Tsubaki, PC
chain, sprocket
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-

1. Wear plate of 6mm minimum thickness to be provided for chain rails


2. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor
3. Drive end shaft fitted with flange bearings
4. Non-drive end shaft to be fitted with chain tensioning devises c/w take-up bearings

Page 2 of 2
CAGE TRANSFER CARRIAGE No. 1

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL TRANSFER CARRIAGE PREPARED BY NW
MACHINE No.1
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. RECEPTION ITEM No. A6

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL Scope of works include the fabrication, supply, delivery, erection & installation
testing, commissioning, hand over and guarantee.

The concrete pit to house the equipment shall be constructed by others.

SPECIFICATIONS One (1) unit of Transfer Carriage Machine for handling 2 fully loaded
cages of 7mt FFB each.

The installation shall be in a r.c. pit next to the loading ramp.

Construction As per drawing in accordance to details by contractor

Details of the Cage Transfer Carriage :

Capacity 2 Units FFB cages per load of 7MT FFB each PER TRANSFER
Width 6,000 mm
Span approx. 44 metre to span 8 sets railtracks

Long Travel Speed Fast Speed = 50 m / min


Medium Speed = 12 m / min
Micro Speed = 0.5 m / min

Cage Transfer Shall be driven by chain system

Handling Capacity Calculated at 12 cages per hour ( Vendor to advise )

Control System System to enclose in close cabin via joystick controller and push button.

Drive Motor 2 x 7.5kw TEFC, IP 55 Class F ( Vendor to advise )

Power Supply 415V / 3ph / 50 Hz with 230 V control voltage.

Flexible cable of 80 metre length of PVC flat cable system

Size of Conductor 4 core 10 mm 2 flat cable.

Requirement Contractor to provide design detail of the equipment offered


for consultant's approval before fabrication.

Page 1 of 2
WINCH BOLLARDS

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
WINCH & BOLLARDS
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. RECEPTION ITEM No. A7

QUANTITY / UNITS 4

GENERAL Scope of works include the manfacture, erection & installation


commissioning, handing over and guarantee

Function: To winch 7 mt FFB Cages and bollard to act as idler for winching along the railtracks
and loading into the steriliser.

SPECIFICATIONS Four ( 4 ) units Winch (Capstan ) and Six (6) units Bollards as follows :

Type: Vertical drum motor driven steel rope winch


Pulling Capacity: 60 mt load ( 7 x 7 tonnes fully loaded FFB cages)
Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Drum: Cast iron
Shaft: EN16 Steel
Frame: Mild steel
Rope: Steel of 50m length (600 KN breaking strength)

Drum Speed: 25 rpm


DriveSystem: Motor directly coupled to gear reducer by flexible coupling
and gear reducer coupled to winch main shaft

Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 5730 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: > 1.5

Motor:-
Power: 15 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB brooks, Elektrim


Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, RENOLD, EPG ELECTROPOWER
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex)
Transmission Chain: Renold, Tsubaki
Conveyor Chain: Renold, Tsubaki, PC
Bearing: NTN, SKF, FAG

Page 1 of 1
CAGES and BOGIES

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
BOGIES & CAGES
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. RECEPTION ITEM No. A8

QUANTITY / UNITS 49

GENERAL Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery, installation


commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To contain FFB for sterilisation process

SPECIFICATIONS Forty Nine (49 ) units Cage & Bogies of the intergral type suitable for
operation on 22kg gauge railtrack.

Capacity: 7.5 MT FFB per cage.


Construction Details: As per drawings

Construction Material:-
Frame: Mild steel
Wheel: 4 nos. Cast Steel
Bush : Phosphorous Bronze having the following chemical contents: -
(with lubricating groove) BS 1400 PB2; 11.2% - 13%
Tin; 0.3% max
Zinc; 0.5% max
Lead; 0.25%-0.6%
Nickel; 0.5%
Copper; 85%
Axle: EN 9 steel
Casing: Mild steel

Basic Dimensions:

Cage Diameter: 2,400 mm


Wheel Dia: 400 mm
Wheel Base: 800 mm +0.00 mm - 3.00 mm clearance
End Plate/end plate: 4,000 mm
Pin to Pin centre: 4,200 mm

Painting: 2 coats of Apexior No.1

Page 1 of 2
STERILISER CATWALK

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME MACHINE NAME DATE: 13-May-00
STERILISER CATWALK
PROJECT CODE : OIL PALM MILL REVISION NO: 1
PREPARED
DELIVERY BY: NW
LOCATION
DRAWING No. STERILIZER STATION Item No. C4

Quantity 1 set

GENERAL Scope of works include the manufacture, erection & installation


commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: For use in operation and maintenance of steriliser valves

SPECIFICATIONS One Lot ( 1 ) Sterilser Catwalk complete with control platform,


handrails & staircase to span 3 steriliser vessels as follows :

Basic Dimensions: As per drawings


Construction Details: As per drawings
Construction Material:- Mild steel

PROVISION Provision shall be made for future expansion of the catwalk


to span 2 more sterilisers and a total of 5 Sterilisers.

OTHER REQUIREMENTS

1. Handrailing shall be 40 dia. m.s black pipe

2. Kick plate of 100mm high x 6mm thick to be provided along the platform

3. Stairways at both ends of the catwalk.

Page 1 of 1
Mobile Rail Piece

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
MOBILE RAIL PIECE
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. STERILISER STATION ITEM No. B 1.

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL Scope of works include the manufacture,delivery, erection & installation


commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To act as a bridge for FFB CAGES to move in / out of the Sterilisers

SPECIFICATIONS Two ( 2 ) units Mobile Rail Piece as follows :

Note : 2 units for operation of double door sterilizer

Basic Dimensions: As per drawings


Construction Details: As per drawings

Construction Material
Frame: Mild steel
Wheel: 4 nos. Cast Steel
Bushing: As per drawing
Shaft: Mild steel

Page 1 of 1
STERILISER

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 12-Aug-98
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
STERILISERS
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. STERILISER STATION ITEM No. B2

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the design, fabrication, delivery, erection &
installation, testing & Certification, commissioning, handing over
and guarantee
Function: To sterilise FFB using steam as sterilising medium

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity TWO (2) units Sterilisers- 2 door type as follows :
Design & Construction Code: BS 5500 or ASME for un-fired pressure vessel
General Arrangement & Asembly: as per drawings
Capacity: 7 Cages of 7MT FFB each
Outside Dia. 2,700 mm
S.H.L: 30,000 mm(excludng door collar) Length
Plate thickness: 15 mm Min.
Type of welds: Double V-butt welds
Material Standard: Carbon steel Grade 151 to BS 1501 Pt.1
Working Pressure: 3.5 kg/cm2 (dry saturated steam)
o
Working Temperature: 150 C
Compliance with local regulation: Yes
Tolerance In term Of Straightness: 10 mm (maximum deviation)
Nozzle:-
Protrusion
Users size (mm) qty (mm) Flange Material
Steam inlet 150 2 150 PN 16 API 5L Gr B Sch 40
Steam exhaust 200 1 150 PN 16 API 5L Gr B Sch 40
Condensate Outlet 100 6 150 PN 16 API 5L Gr B Sch 40
Safety Valves 80 2 150 PN 16 API 5L Gr B Sch 40
Temperature gauge 1/2" BSP 2 API 5L Gr B Sch 40
Pressure gauge 1/2" BSP 2 API 5L Gr B Sch 40
Pressure Controller 1/2" BSP 1 API 5L Gr B Sch 40

Cages rail: 800 mm c/c using 100 x 75 x 10 thk ms angle


Steam spreader: To be provided at the top of the steriliser
Saddles: To fit snugly into steriliser body with no open gap, equally
spaced, one saddle at the center remains fixed and the rest
allowed to slide on 63mm solid steel bar during expension

Insulation. The entire shell shall be lagged with a 50 mm thick rock


wool blanket and covered with 22 gauge embossed
aluminium sheet cladding. All the necessary supports,
rings, strips, fittings, etc. are to be provided.

Wear Liners
Location: 180 deg. at bottom halves throughtout
Material: mild steel
Thickness: 9 mm
Tell-tale hole: to be provided on each bottom section of steriliser shell

Page 1 of 2
STERILISER

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 12-Aug-98
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
STERILISERS
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. STERILISER STATION ITEM No. B2

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

Steriliser Doors Sheet 2.

Type: Quick opening/closing, rotating ring


Safety device: To be provided against accidental opening when under
pressure
Qty: 2 for each steriliser
Working Pressure: 3.5 kg/cm2 (dry saturated steam)
o
Working Temperature: 150 C
O.D: 2,700 mm
Design & Construction Code: BS 5500 or ASME for un-fired pressure vessel
Compliance with local regulation: Yes
Features and Accessories: -Swingjib assembly, ball bearing type and broadly spaced pivot
-Rotating locking ring c/w operating ratchet
-Rebated door seals
-Door and steriliser mating faces fitted with machined
stainless steel (EN 58J Gr 316) ring
-Handle and operating gears for easy opening and closing

Wear Plate: 4.5 mm stainless steel 304 throughtout

Testing

Type: Hydrostatic
Pressure: 1.5 x design pressure
Code & Regualations: BS 5500 or ASME for un-fired pressure vessel and local
authorities

Requirements.

The following shall be provided:-

Two (2) 150 mm diameter pressure gauge of 0 - 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi)


mounted one at each end of the vessel.

Testing After completion of installation the steriliser shall be hydrostatically


tested to 7.03 kg/cm2 (100 psi) and shall satisfy the Machinery
Department Regulations in all repsects.

Painting After the staisfactory completion of tests the external surface of the
steriliser shall be wire brushed and painted with two coats of heat
resistant paint. The interior shall be wire brushed and painted with
two coats of approved Apexior No.1.

General Contractor shall provide design details of the equipment for the
consultant's approval before fabrication.

Page 2 of 2
STERILISER AUTO PROGRAM CONTROL

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL STERILISER AUTO PROGRAM PREPARED BY NW
CONTROL SYSTEM
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. STERILISER STATION ITEM No. B3

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL Scope of works include the unloading, safe keeping, erection


installation. assist in testing & commissioning.

PROPRIETARY EQUIPMENT TO BE SUPPLIED BY CLIENT.

SPECIFICATIONS One ( 1 ) unit Sterilizer Auto Program Control System


for operation with 3 Sterilisers - 2 door type 2700mm dia x 25.2M

The System Each steriliser shall be fitted with control valves and programmer
to permit automatic sterilisation of the FFB and consists of:-

A. Programmer controller c/w control valves of 150 mm- Steam Inlet


200mm - steam exhaust and 150mm - condensate together
with pressure switches and necessary accessories.

B. A safety interlock switch for the steriliser door.

C. Circular pressure/temperature recorder of pressure/temperature


range of 4.0 kg/cm2 and 0 - 200 degree C respectively.
The recorder shall indicate a 24 hours cycle.
Each pressure/temperature recorder shall be supplied with
200 sheets of spare charts.

D. The system shall include provision to enable all three ( 3 ) sterilisers


to operate individually or synchronised to permit sequential operation
in pairs or all sterilisers together.
System shall be able to do single, double or tripple peak.

Manual over-ride operation All valves shall be equipped with a manual over-ride to permit operation:

a. In the event of failure of the automatic system

b. In the event of failure of the pneumatic system.

The steam inlet control valve shall be designed to fail shut,


all other valves to be design to fail open.
The valves shall be rotary type with an eccentric mounted disc
and teflon seal ring.

The seal ring must be pressure assisted to provide good shut


of characteristic. The valve actuator shall be pneumatic diaphragm
actuator type with a top mounted handwheel.

The handwheel shall be used only when there is a breakdown of


the automatic system.

Material of construction Material of construction of the valve shall be cast iron body,
cast steel disc and 316 (EN 58J) stainless steel shaft.
Generally all valves and actuators shall be of low maintenance
cost design.

Safety Devices The control system shall be complete with safety devices to prevent
any steam from entering the steriliser if the steriliser door is opened.

The safety devices shall include at least pneumataic kick-off as well


as an electrical kick-off device.

Page 1 of 2
STERILISER AUTO PROGRAM CONTROL

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL STERILISER AUTO PROGRAM PREPARED BY NW
CONTROL SYSTEM
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. STERILISER STATION ITEM No. B3

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

Sheet 2.

Instrument Panel A free standing type instrument panel complete with an incoming
electrical switch designed to code IP 55 to house the control
and instruments.

Indicating Lights & Stop Button Indicating lights for the starting of each programme and compeltion
of the cycle should be provided and provision should be made for
stoppage of the sterilising cycle should this become necessary.

All the pneumatic and electrical connections from the control panel
to the control valves, etc. shall be included.

Instrument air to be taken from the air compressor.


All necessary air pressure regulators and fittings should be included.

Air Compressor An air compressor capacity 600 litres/min at a delivery pressure


of 7 kg/cm2 and equipped with receiver tank, relief valves, pressure
gauge, air hose, pressure differential sensor for automatic stop/start,
, etc. shall be provided. It shall be electrically driven,
single stage and air cooled.

Manuals Equipment drawings, installation and operating instruction,


spare parts list and specification shall be provide upon commissioning.

Requirement Contractor shall provide design details of the equipment for the
consultant's approval before fabrication.

Page 2 of 2
BLOW-OFF CHAMBER

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 12-Aug-98
MACHINE NAME

PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL BLOW OFF CHAMBER PREPARED BY NW


and SILENCER
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. STERILISER STATION ITEM No. B4

QUANTITY / UNITS 3

GENERAL Scope of works include the manufacture, dlivery,erection &


installation, commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To act as silencer during blowing-off of steam from STERILISER

SPECIFICATIONS Three ( 3 ) Units Steriliser Blow-Off Chamber & Silencer

Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material Mild steel

Basic dimensions:

Base diameter 1,200 mm

Outlet 510 mm

Manhole 450 mm square

Mounting: 12 nos 15mm dia x 300 mm long holding down bolt

Flanges: To BS 4504 PN 16

Page 1 of 1
CONDENSATE BLOW-DOWN

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
BLOW DOWN CHAMBER
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. STERILISER STATION ITEM No. B5

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To receive steriliser condensate from STERILISERS


before discharging to the CONDENSATE PIT and to act
as silencer

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity TWO ( 2 ) units Condensate blow-down chamber as follows :

Construction Details: As per drawings

Construction Material Mild steel

Basic dimensions:
Base: 1500 mm square
Outlet 970 mm
Manhole 450 mm

Mounting: 12 nos 15mm dia x 300 mm long holding down bolt

Internal Baffles: 4 nos. 4.5mm plates

REQUIREMENTS
Contractor to provide details & drawings for Consultants
approval before fabrication.

Page 1 of 2
CONDENSATE RECOVERY TANK

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
CONDENSATE TANK
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. STERILISER STATION ITEM No. B6

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, erection & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee
Function: To recover oil from steriliser condensate

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Steriliser Condensate Recovery Tank as follows :
Brief Descriptions: A conical bottom and cylindrical top section supported by
steel sections, elevated from ground level. An adjustable
skimmer is to be provided for skimming oil at the top layer.
Overflow pipe for sludge underflow to be provided.

Capacity: 100 m3
Basic Dimensions: As per drawings
Construction Details: As per drawings

Construction Material:-

Tank: Mild steel


Skimer Funnel: Mild steel
Skimer Handle: Mild steel
Skimer Pipe: S.S 304 Sch 40 Pipe (inside tank only)
Overflow Pipe: ERW Sch 40
Ladder & Catwalk: Mild steel
Heating coils: ERW Sch 40
Support: Mild steel
Nozzles:-
Users Size (mm)Qty Flange Protrusion Material
(mm)
skimmed oil 100 2 PN 10 150 ERW Sch 40
drain 80 2 PN 10 150 ERW Sch 40
overflow 150 2 PN 10 150 ERW Sch 40
steam in 50 1 PN 16 150 ERW Sch 40
steam out 50 1 PN 16 150 ERW Sch 40
steam in 25 1 PN 16 150 ERW Sch 40
steam out 25 1 PN 16 150 ERW Sch 40
hot water in 25 1 PN 10 150 ERW Sch 40
Flanges: Raised face to DIN 2526

Page 1 of 1
CONDESATE PIT PUMP

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
CONDENSATE PIT PUMP
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. STERILISER STATION ITEM No. B7

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee.
Function To pump condensate water to the effluent treatment system

SPECIFICATION
Two ( 2 ) units Steriliser Condensate Pit Pump complete with flanged
drive motor, coupling and level switch as follows :

( one unit in operation and one unit on standby )

Type Centrifugal, self-priming, end-suction - Vertical mount


Connection BS 4504 PN 10

OPERATING DATA
Capacity 90 m3 per hour ( for 90mt FFB per hour operation )
Medium Steriliser Condensate
o
Temperature 100 C
Specific Gravity 0.9
Viscousity 0.08 Ns/m2
Delivery Head 420 kPa
Speed 1450 RPM (Max)
NPSH available 3 m liquid

CONSTRUCTION
Casing Cast Iron GG25
Impeller S.S AISI 304
Shaft S.S AISI 304
Sealing Mechanical
Wetted Parts S.S AISI 304
Coupling Flexible
Level Switch: Magnetic type, stainless steel float and rod, counter weight
Drive: Motor directly coupled with flexible coupling
Motor:-
Power: 5.5 kw
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V / 3-Ph / 50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent


Pump: SIHI, KSB, Warman, Southern Cross or equivalent
Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brook
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) or equivalent
Bearing: SKF, FAG
Level switch: Mobrey, BESTA

OTHER REQUIREMENTS
1. Vendor to provide technical details, cataloques, performance curve and etc.

Page 1 of 1
ACID OIL TANK

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: ######
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
ACID OIL TANK
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. STERILISER STATION ITEM No. B8

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, erection & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To receive skimmed oil from Steriliser condensate recovery tank

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) Acid Oil Tank as follows :
Capacity: 8 m3
Construction Details: As per drawing
Construction Material: Mild steel
Nozzles:

Protrusion
Users Size (mm)
Flange (mm) Material
drain 50 PN 10 150 ERW Sch 40
pump suction 50 PN 10 150 ERW Sch 40
overflow 50 PN 10 150 ERW Sch 40
vent 50 PN 10 150 ERW Sch 40

Monkey ladder from ground level to tank top to be provided

Tank plate thickness: 6 mm

Flanges: Raised face to DIN 2526

Page 1 of 1
ACID OIL PUMP

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL ACID OIL DRUMMING PUMP PREPARED BY NW
SET
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. STERILISER STATION ITEM No. B9

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, erection & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee

Function Decanting of acid oil from the collection tank and filling of drums

SPECIFICATION
Quantity Two ( 2 ) units Acid oil drumming Pumpset as follows:

Type Centrifugal, End-suction - Vertical mount

Connection Raised face flange to DIN 2526PN 10

OPERATING DATA
Capacity 15 mt per hour
Medium Acid oil
Temperature 100 oC
Specific Gravity 0.9
Viscousity 0.08 Ns/m2
Deleivery Head 100 kPa
Speed 1450 RPM (Max)
NPSH available 3 m liquid

CONSTRUCTION
Casing Cast Iron GG25
Impeller S.S AISI 304
Shaft S.S AISI 304
Sealing Mech seal
Wetted Parts S.S AISI 304
Coupling Flexible
Drive: Motor directly coupled with flexible coupling to the pump
Motor:-
Power: 2.2KW ( Vendor to advise )
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V / 3-Ph / 50 Hz
Level switches: Magnetic type with stainless steel float, stainless steel rod
and counter weight

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent


Pump: SIHI, KSB, Warman, Southern Cross
Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks, Elektrim
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex)
Bearing: SKF, FAG
Level switch: Mobrey, BESTA

OTHER REQUIREMENTS
1. Vendor to provide technical details, cataloques, performance curve and etc.

Page 1 of 1
TRANSFER CARRIAGE

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
CAGE TRANSFER CARRIAGE No.2
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. FRUIT HANDLING ITEM No. C1

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the unloading, safe keeping, assist in the
installation, testing & commissioning.

Function: To transfer 1 FFB Cages per transfer from Steriliser railtracks to


tippler railtrack

SPECIFICATION
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Cage transfer Carriage as follows :

Note that the Equipment and RC pit will be provided by others.

Brief Description: Consists of mainframe resting on 4 wheels that travel


along the pits on railtrack. The drive wheels (at diagonal
positions) are driven by hydraulic motors which receive
hyadrualic oil from hydraulic pack. The cages are moved
in and out of the car by drag chain conveyor mounted on
the car main frame. The movement of the chain is by
hydraulic motor which receives the oil from the same
hydraulic pack. Sizing of hydraulic system shall be by the
Contractor.
FFB Cage Data:-
Capacity: 7 tonnes FFB
Hook to Hook: 4,400 mm
Cage Diameter: 2,400 mm
Wheel Dia: 404 mm
Wheel Base: 700 mm
End Plate/end plate: 4,000 mm
Full Wt: 9,000 kg

CONSTRUCTION & MATERIAL


Type: Pit and fully hydraulic operated
Size: 1 no. 7 tonnes FFB cages at one time transfer
Arrangment: Generally as per drawing
Capacity: 15 cages / hr
Loading 10 tons ( cage + 7 tons FFB )

Basic Dimensions:
Width: To suit cage size and operating platform
Carriage Length:
Pit depth: 1,200 mm
Long Travel Speed:-
Fast: 50 m/min
Medium: 12.5 m/min
Creep: 0.5 m/min
Long Travel Drive: By hydraulic motors fixed on carriage wheels at diagonal position

Wheel Diameter: Vendor to advice

Cage In/Out Speed: 15 m/min

Page 1 of 2
TRANSFER CARRIAGE

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
CAGE TRANSFER CARRIAGE No.2
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. FRUIT HANDLING ITEM No. C1

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

Continue . Sheet 2.
Cage In/Out Transfer: By conveyor chain & hook system operated by hydraulic
motor
Control System: Via joysticks controller and push button, located in an
enclosed cabin mounted on the Carriage together with
hydraulic pack

Construction Material:-
Frame: Mild steel
Platform and Catwalk: Mild steel chequered plate
Wheel: 4 nos. Cast Steel
Cabin Roof: Spandek

Hydraulic System: Consist of hydraulic pump, oil tank, hydraulic motor, tubing,
lever control, releif valve, pressure gauges, pump strainer,
check valve and all the necessary accessories for complete
operation

Power Cable to Hydraulic Pack: P.V.C insulated flat flexible cable c/w hanger and supports
Motor:-
Power: 2 x 7.5kw ( Vendor to advice )
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivlent

Motor: Crompton, Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks, Elektrim


Hydraulic System: Rextroth or Vickers
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN
Chain: Renold, Tsubaki and PC chain

OTHER REQUIREMENTS

1. Vendor to furnish technical specifications, drawings and catalogues of equipment


2. Handrailing of mild steel 40dia. black pipe to be provided for platfrom
3. Hydraulic equipments and accessories shall be of standard model and commonly available
4. Carriage position locks by mean of hydraulic cylinders or other means to be provided
5. The scope of supply shall also include hyadraulic pack, PVC insulated flat flexible, control
panel, hyadrualic tubing and equipments
6. Power supply to the control panel is excluded
7. Mode of operation shall be semi-auto with limit switches to control each mode

Page 2 of 2
WINCH and BOLLARDS

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OILPALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
WINCH & BOLLARDS
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. FRUIT HANDLING ITEM No. C2

QUANTITY / UNITS 4 sets

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To winch FFB Cages from the sterliser & along the railtracks

SPECIFICATIONS Four ( 4 ) Sets Winch / Capstan and Six (6) Bollards as follows :

Type: Motor driven steel rope winch


Pulling Capacity: 60 Tons = 7 cages x 7 tonnes fully loaded FFB cages
Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Drum: Mild steel
Shaft: EN16 Steel
Frame: Mild steel
Rope: Steel of 50m length (600 KN breaking strength)
Drum Speed: 25 rpm
DriveSystem: Motor directly coupled to gear reducer by flexible coupling
and gear reducer coupled to winch main shaft

Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 5730 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: > 1.5
Motor:-
Power: 15 KW ( Vendor to advise )
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.


Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks, Elektrim
Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, RENOLD, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex)
Transmission Chain: Renold, Tsubaki
Conveyor Chain: Renold, Tsubaki, PC
Bearing: NTN, SKF, FAG

Requirement Contractor to provide drawing with full details of offered equipment

Page 1 of 1
TIPPLER

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
FFB CAGE TIPPLER
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. FRUIT HANDLING ITEM No. C3

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To rotate FFB cage and discharge into hopper than to


FRUIT FEEDING CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One (1) unit Tippler complete with drive as follows :
Type: Rotating
Capacity: To handle 7MT FFB Cage
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Frame & Structures Mild steel
Sprocket Mild steel
Drive Chain: Steel c/w hardened steel rollers or equivalent
Final Speed: 2 rpm
Tippler Control: Hydraulic control lever
Drive System: Hydrualic power pack drives a hydraulic motor directly
coupled to a gear box. The output shaft of the gearbox is
fitted with duplex sprocket which in turn drives the tippler
through chain and sprocket.
Gear box:
Input speed: # rpm
Output speed: 20 rpm
Output torque: # Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: < 1.5

Motor:-
Power: 8 KW Vendor to advise
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

Hydraulic System: Consist of hydraulic pump, oil tank, hydraulic motor, tubing,
lever control, releif valve, pressure gauges, pump strainer,
check valve and all the necessary accessories for complete
operation

Chain & Sprocket:


Pitch 50 mm
Type Duplex

Page 1 of 2
TIPPLER

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
FFB CAGE TIPPLER
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. FRUIT HANDLING ITEM No. C3

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

Sheet 2.
APPROVED MAKES

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush


Gear reducer: SUMITOMO, HANSEN, Renold , EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Chain: Renold, Tsubaki and PC Chain
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN
Hydraulic Equipment: Rextroth or Vickers

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-

1. Vendor to furnish technical specifications, drawings and catalogues


2. Tippler supports to be provided and bolted securely on foundation
3. Tippler shall be able to rotate at 180o
4. Lever control to be located near Tippler

Page 2 of 2
FRUIT FEED CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
FRUIT FEED CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. FRUIT HANDLING ITEM No. C4

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation


commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To convey sterilised fruit bunches from TIPPLER to Thresher

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One (1) unit Fruit Feed Conveyor with drive as follows :

Type: S - type conveyor with scrapper plate on twin flanged roller chain
Capacity: 45 MT FFB PER HOUR.
Construction Details: As per drawings

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Chain: Steel c/w hardened steel flanged rollers, 150 mm pitch, 15,000 kg
breaking load
Drag Plate: Mild steel or equivalent
Frame: Mild steel or equivalent
Sprocket: 12T, 100 mm pitch, grey iron
Wear Plate: Mild steel 6 mm minimum thickness or equivalent

Basic Dimension:
Width: 1,200 mm
Length: Check drawing
Inclination: approx. 18o
Conveying Section: Top
Shaft Speed: 5-10 rpm
Drive: Variable speed reducer coupled to conveyor shaft by transmission
chain & sprocket
Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 2 to 10 rpm
Output torque: 14,925 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: < 1.5

Motor:-
Power: 7.5 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

Page 1 of 2
FRUIT FEED CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
FRUIT FEED CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. FRUIT HANDLING ITEM No. C4

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

Sheet 2.

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, ABB Brook, Brush, Elektrim


Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, Renold, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) , Renold

Conveyor & Transmission Renold, Tsubaki


chain, sprocket
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS

1. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor

2. Drive end shaft fitted with flange bearings

3. Non-drive end shaft to be fitted with chain tensioning devises c/w take-up bearings

4. Vendor to provide full specification, drawings and catalogues of components.

Page 2 of 2
TOIP FEED CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
TOP FEED CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. THRESHING STATION ITEM No. D1

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee .

Function: To convey empty bunches from Tippler fruit feed conveyor to any of the
Thresher

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One (1) unit Horizontal Top feed Conveyor
suitable for handling 90MT FFB per hour as follows:

Type: Conveyor chain c/w scrapper plate


Capacity: 30,000 kg / hr of empty bunches
General Arrangment: As per drawing

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Chain: Steel c/w hardened steel rollers, 100 mm pitch, 8000 kg
breaking load
Drag Plate: Mild steel or equivalent
Frame: Mild steel or equivalent
Sprocket: 12T, 100 mm pitch, grey iron
Wear Plate: Mild steel 6 mm minimum thickness or equivalent
Basic Dimension:
Width: 760 mm
Length: mm
Inclination: Horizontal
Conveying Section: Top
Shaft Speed: 25 rpm
Transmission Sprocket Ratio: 1.00
Drive: Geared motor coupled conveyor shaft by tarnsmission
chain & sprocket
Speed Reducer:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 2865 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: < 1.5
Motor:-
Power: 7.5 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.


Motor: Crompton Parkinson, ABB Brook, Brush, Elektrim
Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, Renold, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) , Renold
Conveyor & Transmission Renold, Tsubaki, PC
chain, sprocket
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. Wear plate of 6mm minimum thickness to be provided for chain rails
2. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor
3. Drive end shaft fitted with flange bearings
4. Non-drive end shaft to be fitted with chain tensioning devises c/w take-up bearings

Page 1 of 2
THRESHER STRUCTURE

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
THRESHER MACHINE
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. THRESHING STATION ITEM No. D2

QUANTITY 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To thresh sterilised fruit bunches

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One (1) Thresher with platform, supporting structure, handrails
stairways and drive as follows:
Type: Rotating Drum
Capacity: 45 MT FFB PER HOUR.
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Shaft: EN 16 Steel
Boss: Carbon steel
Rim: Carbon steel
Frame: Carbon steel
Supporting struct : Mild steel
Plaform Mild steel chequered plate of 6mm thick
Handrail: 40mm dia.black pipe
Structure bolts & nuts: High tensile

Drum Speed: 22 rpm


Drum Basic Dimension: 2,100 mm Diameter
6,300 mm Length

Drive System: Motor coupled to gear reducer by fliud coupling and gear
reducer output shaft connected to thresher shaft by triplex
chain / sprocket system
Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 8404 Nm (min)
Overhung load: To be within the permissible limit depending on the
sprockets used for further speed reduction
Design Service Factor: > 1.5 (min)
Sprocket:-
Ratio: 1.14
Type: Triplex
Motor:-
Power: 18kw ( Vendor to advise )

Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

Page 1 of 2
THRESHER STRUCTURE

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
THRESHER MACHINE
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. THRESHING STATION ITEM No. D2

QUANTITY 1

Sheet 2.
APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, ABB Brook, Brush, Elektrim


Gear reducer: Sew, HANSEN, SEW, Renold, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) , Renold
Conveyor & Transmission Renold, Tsubaki
chain, sprocket
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-

1. Vendor to furnish details drawing and specifications of selection of gear reducers, fluid coupling,
chain and sprockets
2. Inlet and outlet chute made from 6mm thk. m.s plate shall be provided

Page 2 of 2
BOTTOM SCREW CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
BOTTOM SCREW CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. THRESHING STATION ITEM No. D 3.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee

Function: To convey fruitlets from THRESHER to Fruit Elevator

SPECIFICATIONS
One (1) Bottom Screw Conveyor as follows :

Type: Full flight screw


Size: 600 mm dia.
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Casing: Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Wear plate: Mild steel with 6mm minimum thickness fitted thoughout
the conveyor extended at least 100mm above the center
line of the conveyor
Screw Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Shaft: Seamless API 5L, Gr.B Sch 80 pipe
Hanger bearing: Bronze bushing c/w C.I housing, grease nipple and cup

Conveyor Speed: 56 rpm


Drive System: Geared motor directly coupled with flexible coupling
to the shaft.
Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 56 rpm
Output torque: 640 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: > 1.5
Motor:-
Power: 3.75 kw
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, ABB Brook, Brush


Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, Renold, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) , Renold
Conveyor & Transmission Renold, Tsubaki
chain, sprocket
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor

2. Hanger bearing shall be fitted at 3m c/c maximum spacing

3. Flange bearings to be fitted at both end of the conveyor

4. Conveyor shall be mounted on rollers and able to slide sideway for easy removal during
maintainance

5. Contractor to provide detail drawing and specification of equipment offered.

Page 1 of 1
HORIZONTAL E.B.C

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL HORIZONTAL EMPTY BUNCH PREPARED BY NW
CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. THRESHING STATION ITEM No. D4

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee .

Function: To convey empty bunches from THRESHER to


EMPTY INCLINED BUNCH CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One (1) unit Horizontal Empty Bunch Conveyor
suitable for handling 90MT FFB per hour as follows:

Type: Conveyor chain c/w scrapper plate


Capacity: 30,000 kg / hr of empty bunches
General Arrangment: As per drawing

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Chain: Steel c/w hardened steel rollers, 100 mm pitch, 8,000 kg
breaking load
Drag Plate: Mild steel or equivalent
Frame: Mild steel or equivalent
Sprocket: 12T, 100 mm pitch, grey iron
Wear Plate: Mild steel 6 mm minimum thickness or equivalent
Basic Dimension:
Width: 760 mm
Length: mm
Inclination: Horizontal
Conveying Section: Top
Shaft Speed: 25 rpm
Transmission Sprocket Ratio: 1.00
Drive: Geared motor coupled conveyor shaft by transmission
chain & sprocket
Speed Reducer:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 2865 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: < 1.5
Motor:-
Power: 7.5 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz
APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.
Motor: Crompton Parkinson, ABB Brook, Brush, Elektrim
Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, Renold, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) , Renold
Conveyor & Transmission Renold, Tsubaki, PC
chain, sprocket
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. Wear plate of 6mm minimum thickness to be provided for chain rails
2. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor
3. Drive end shaft fitted with flange bearings
Page 1 of 2
HORIZONTAL E.B.C

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL HORIZONTAL EMPTY BUNCH PREPARED BY NW
CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. THRESHING STATION ITEM No. D4

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

4. Non-drive end shaft to be fitted with chain tensioning devises c/w take-up bearings

Page 2 of 2
UNSTRIPPED BUNCH ELEVATOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL UNSTRIPPED BUNCH PREPARED BY NW
ELEVATOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. THRESHING STATION ITEM No. D5

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation commissioning
handing over and guarantee.

Function: To convey unstripped bunches from H.E.B Conveyor to Thresher No.2

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Unstripped Bunches Conveyor as follows :
Type: Double conveyor chain c/w buckets
Capacity: 90 MT FFB per hour.
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Casing: Mild steel with 6mm minimum thickness
Sprocket 12T, 150 mm pitch, grey iron
Bucket: Mild steel
Chain rail: Mild steel angle
Wear plate: Mild steel with 10mm minimum thickness
Chain: Steel c/w hardened steel flanged rollers, 150mm pitch
15000 kg breaking load
Drive: Geared Motor coupled to elevator shaft by chain & sprocket
Shaft Speed: 25 rpm
Transmission Sprocket Ratio: 1
Speed Reducer:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 2865 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: > 1.5

Motor:-
Power: 7.5 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, ABB Brooks, Brush, Elektrim


Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, Renold, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Transmission Chain: Renold, Tsubaki
Conveyor Chain: Renold, Tsubaki, PC
Bearing: NTN, SKF, FAG

OTHER REQUIREMENTS
1. Miantenance door shall be provided at the elevator booth
2. Top cover shall be bolted for ease of maintenance
3. Take-up bearing with adjustable bolt and screw shall be provided at the bottom booth for chain tightening
4. Mild steel outlet chute shall be provided
5. Plumber block bearing shall be fixed at the top booth

Page 1 of 1
THRESHER No. 2

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL THRESHER MACHINE No.2 PREPARED BY NW

DELIVERY REVISION No.


LOCATION
DRAWING NO. THRESHING STATION ITEM No. D6

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation, commissioning,
handing over and guarantee.

Function: To thresh unstripped bunches

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Thresher No.2 for Unstipped Bunches as follows:
Type: Rotating Drum
Capacity: 90MT FFB per hour
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Shaft: EN 16 Steel
Boss: Carbon steel
Rim: Carbon steel
Frame & Structure: Carbon steel
Drum Speed: 22 rpm
Drum Basic Dimension: 2,200 mm diameter
5,000 mm length
Drive System: Motor coupled to gear reducer by fliud coupling and gear reducer output shaft
connected to the thresher shaft by triplexchain / sprocket system

Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 8404 Nm (min)
Overhung load: To be within the permissible limit depending on the sprockets used for further
speed reduction
Design Service Factor: < 1.5 (min)

Sprocket:-
Ratio: 1.14
Type: Triplex
Motor:-
Power: 15 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent


Motor: Crompton Parkinson, ABB Brook, Brush Elektrim
Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, SEW, Renold, EPG ElectroPower.
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) , Renold
Conveyor & Transmission Renold, Tsubaki
chain, sprocket
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. Vendor to furnish selection of gear reducers, fluid coupling, chain and sprockets
2. Inlet and outlet chute made from 6mm thk. m.s plate shall be provided

Page 1 of 4
BOTTOM FRUIT CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL BOTTOM FRUIT CONVEYOR PREPARED BY NW
FOR THRESHER No.2
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. THRESHING STATION ITEM No. D7

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation,
commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To convey fruitlets from Unstripped Bunch Thresher to the fruit


Elevator Via Bottom cross conveyor.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One (1) Bottom Fruit Conveyor as follows :

Type: Full flight screw


Size: 600 mm dia.
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Casing: Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Wear plate: Mild steel with 6mm minimum thickness fitted thoughout
the conveyor extended at least 100mm above the center
line of the conveyor
Screw Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Shaft: Seamless API 5L, Gr.B Sch 80 pipe
Hanger bearing: Bronze bushing c/w C.I housing, grease nipple and cup

Conveyor Speed: 56 rpm


Drive System: Geared motor directly coupled with flexible coupling
to the shaft.
Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 56 rpm
Output torque: 938 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: > 1.5
Motor:-
Power: 5.5 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brook, Brush


Gear reducer: SUMITOMO, HANSEN, Renold
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) , Renold
Conveyor & Transmission Renold, Tsubaki
chain, sprocket
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor
2. Hanger bearing shall be fitted at 3m c/c maximum spacing
3. Flange bearings to be fitted at both end of the conveyor
4. Conveyor shall be mounted on rollers and able to slide sideway for easy removal during maintainance

Page 1 of 1
BOTTOM CROSS FRUIT CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
BOTTOM CROSS CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. THRESHING STATION ITEM No. D8

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation, commissioning,
handing over and guarantee 12 months.

Function: To convey fruitlets from Thresher bottom fruit conveyor to fruit elevator

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Bottom Cross Fruit Conveyor as follows :

Type: Full flight screw


Size: 600 mm dia.
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Casing: Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Wear plate: Mild steel with 6mm minimum thickness fitted thoughoutthe conveyor extended
a least 100mm above the centerline of the conveyor

Screw Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness


Shaft: Seamless API 5L, Gr.B Sch 80 pipe
Hanger bearing: Bronze bushing c/w C.I housing, grease nipple and cup
Conveyor Speed: 56 rpm
Drive System: Geared motor directly coupled with flexible coupling to the
shaft.
Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 56 rpm
Output torque: 938 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: < 1.5
Motor:-
Power: 5.5 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, ABB Brook, Brush, Elektrim


Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, Renold, EPG ElectrolPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) , Renold
Conveyor & Transmission Renold, Tsubaki
chain, sprocket
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor
2. Hanger bearing shall be fitted at 3m c/c maximum spacing
3. Flange bearings to be fitted at both end of the conveyor
4. Conveyor shall be mounted on rollers and able to slide sideway for easy removal during maintainance

Page 1 of 1
INCLINED E.B.C

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
INCLINE EMPTY BUNCH CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. EMPTY BUNCH DISPOSAL SYSTEM ITEM No. E1

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation


commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To convey empty bunches from the horizontal bunch conveyor to the empty bunch hoppers.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Inclined Empty Bunch Conveyor complete with covered walkway, handrails,
chutes, steel structure and drive shall be suitable for handling 90mt FFB per hour opration.

Type: Conveyor chain with scrapper plate


Capacity: 25,000 kg / hr of empty bunches
General Arrangment: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Chain: Flanged roller chain of 150mm pitch of Cast steel or equivalent, 8000 kg breaking load

Drag Plate: Mild steel section


Frame: Mild steel
Sprocket: 12T, 150mm pitch grey cast iron
Wear Plate: Mild steel 6 mm minimum thickness
Inclination: 15 deg.
Conveying Section: Top
Shaft Speed: 15 rpm
Transmission Sprocket Ratio: 1.67
Drive: Geared motor coupled conveyor shaft by tarnsmission
chain & sprocket
Speed Reducer:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 4202 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: < 1.5
Motor:-
Power: 11 KW Vendor to advise
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent


Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brook, Elektrim
Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, Renold, EPG Electropower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) or equivalent
Drag Chain: Renold, Tsubaki, PC Chain
Bearing: SKF, FAG

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. Wear plate of 6mm minimum thickness to be provided for chain rails
2. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor
3. Drive end shaft fitted with flange bearings
4. Non-drive end shaft to be fitted with chain tensioning devises c/w take-up bearings

Page 1 of 1
UNSTRIPPED BUNCH ELEVATOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
UNSTRIPPED BUNCH ELEVATOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. EMPTY BUNCH DISPOSAL SYSTEM ITEM No. E2

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation, commissioning
handing over and guarantee.

Function: To convey unstripped bunches from H.E.B Conveyor to Thresher No.2

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Unstripped Bunches Conveyor as follows :
Type: Double conveyor chain c/w buckets
Capacity: 90 MT FFB per hour.
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Casing: Mild steel with 6mm minimum thickness
Sprocket 12T, 150 mm pitch, grey iron
Bucket: Mild steel
Chain rail: Mild steel angle
Wear plate: Mild steel with 10mm minimum thickness
Chain: Steel c/w hardened steel flanged rollers, 150mm pitch
15000 kg breaking load
Drive: Geared Motor coupled to elevator shaft by chain & sprocket
Shaft Speed: 25 rpm
Transmission Sprocket Ratio: 1
Speed Reducer:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 2865 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: > 1.5

Motor:-
Power: 7.5 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent


Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush
Gear reducer: SUMITOMO, HANSEN, Renold, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Transmission Chain: Renold, Tsubaki
Conveyor Chain: Renold, Tsubaki, PC
Bearing: NTN, SKF, FAG

OTHER REQUIREMENTS
1. Miantenance door shall be provided at the elevator booth
2. Top cover shall be bolted for ease of maintenance
3. Take-up bearing with adjustable bolt and screw shall be provided at the bottom booth for chain tightening
4. Mild steel outlet chute shall be provided
5. Plumber block bearing shall be fixed at the top booth

Page 1 of 1
BUNCH CRUSHER

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
BUNCH CRUSHER
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. EMPTY BUNCH DISPOSAL SYSTEM ITEM No. E3

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, supply, installation, erection, testing
commissioning, handing over and guarantee

Function: Crushing of the bunches for the removal of fruitlets and dewatering of bunches

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Bunch Crusher complete with support, chutes and drive, as follows:

Unit Capacity 12MT Bunches per hour. ( 45mt FFB per hour )

Diamension
Weight Approx 2,500 kg

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Construction Robust construction with parts in contract with bunch
from special wear resistance steel.

Drive system The drive system shall consist of a motor coupled to gearmotor with pulley and
belt transmission.

An arrangement with the use of a fluid coupling can also be considered.

Motor Approx. 22kw 415 V 3 Ph 50 HZ TEFC IP55 Class F

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.


Motor: Crompton Parkinson, ABB Brook, Brush, Elektrim
Gear reducer: Sew, HANSEN, Renold, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) , Renold
Conveyor & Transmission Renold, Tsubaki
chain, sprocket
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. Vendor to furnish details drawing and specifications of selection of gear reducers, fluid coupling,
chain and sprockets

2. Inlet and outlet chute made from 6mm thk. m.s plate shall be provided

Page 1 of 1
TOP EMPTY BUNCH CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
TOP EMPTY BUNCH CONVEYOR

DELIVERY REVISION No.


LOCATION
DRAWING NO. EMPTY BUNCH DISPOSAL SYSTEM ITEM No. E4

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To convey empty bunches from Inclined EB Conveyor


to the EB Hoppers.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One (1) unit Top Empty Bunch Conveyor
suitable for handling 90MT FFB per hour as follows:

Type: Conveyor chain c/w scrapper plate


Capacity: ### kg / hr of empty bunches
General Arrangment: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Chain: Steel c/w hardened steel rollers, 100 mm pitch, 6800 kg
breaking load
Drag Plate: Mild steel or equivalent
Frame: Mild steel or equivalent
Sprocket: 12T, 100 mm pitch, grey iron
Wear Plate: Mild steel 6 mm minimum thickness or equivalent
Basic Dimension:
Width: 760 mm
Length: mm
Inclination: Horizontal
Conveying Section: Top
Shaft Speed: 25 rpm
Transmission Sprocket Ratio: 1.00
Drive: Geared motor coupled conveyor shaft by tarnsmission
chain & sprocket
Speed Reducer:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 2865 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: < 1.5
Motor:-
Power: 7.5 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

Page 1 of 2
TOP EMPTY BUNCH CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
TOP EMPTY BUNCH CONVEYOR

DELIVERY REVISION No.


LOCATION
DRAWING NO. EMPTY BUNCH DISPOSAL SYSTEM ITEM No. E4

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

Sheet 2.

APPROVED MAKES

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, ABB Brook, Brush, Elektrim


Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, Renold, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex) , Renold
Conveyor & Transmission Renold, Tsubaki, PC
chain, sprocket
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-

1. Wear plate of 6mm minimum thickness to be provided for chain rails

2. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor

3. Drive end shaft fitted with flange bearings

4. Non-drive end shaft to be fitted with chain tensioning devises c/w take-up bearings

Page 2 of 2
Empty bunch Hoppers

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL EMPTY BUNCH HOPPERS & PREPARED BY NW
STRUCTURE
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. EMPTY BUNCH DISPOSAL SYSTEM ITEM No. E5

QUANTITY / UNITS 16

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the design, manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To receive, store and unload empty bunches into trucks.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity Sixteen ( 16 ) bay Empty Bunch hoppers as follows :

The hopper shall be of mild steel construction and doors


will be operated hydraulically.

Type: Sloping ramp c/w hydraulic operated doors


Capacity: 10,000 kg per Hopper
Slope: 27 deg

Construction Material:
Construction Details:
Door operation: Hydraulic type, vertical stroke( top down) c/w
individual lever control located at hopper's
platform as per drawings
Hydraulic System: Consist of hydraulic pump, oil tank, cylinders, tubing, lever
control, releif valve, pressure gauges, pump strainer, check
valve and all the necessary accessories for completion
operation of each 16 sets of doors. The tank shall be
interconnected.
Powerpack: Double unit
Reservoir: 80 litres capacity with epoxy coating
Pump Fix displacement low noise gear type, 23 litres/min @ 250 Bar

Relief valve Direct acting type, 120 litres/min adjustable from 0-100 Bar

Cylinder: piston type, 915mm stroke


200 bar rated pressure
300 bar static pressure
Heavy duty construction with welded cap and easily removable
head with air bleeding plugs at both end

Piston road: 38mm diameter rod heat treated steel hard chrome plated
Mounting: Female clevis both ends.
Directional Control
Valve: Individual valve for each door
Tubing: seamless cold drawn hydraulic tubing, 235 N/m2 minimum
yeild strength. Flaxible hoses to be 2 -wire braided high
pressure type.
Motor: 2 x 5.25 kw TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

Detail Drawings Contractor to provide detail drawing for approval by the consultant

Page 1 of 2
FRUIT ELEVATOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
FRUIT ELEVATOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F1

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee 12 months.

Function: To convey loose fruits from THRESHER CONVEYOR


to TOP DISTRIBUTING CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity Two ( 2 ) unit Fruit Elevator.
Type: Double conveyor chain c/w buckets
Capacity: 45 MT FFB per hour.
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Casing: Mild steel with 6mm minimum thickness
Sprocket 12T, 150 mm pitch, grey iron
Bucket: Mild steel
Chain rail: Mild steel angle
Wear plate: Mild steel with 10mm minimum thickness
Chain: Steel c/w hardened steel flanged rollers, 150mm pitch,
15000 kg breaking load
Drive: Geared Motor coupled to elevator shaft by chain & sprocket
Shaft Speed: 25 rpm
Transmission Sprocket Ratio: 1
Speed Reducer:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 2865 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: > 1.5

Motor:-
Power: 7.5 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.


Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks , Elektrim
Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, Renold, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Transmission Chain: Renold, Tsubaki
Conveyor Chain: Renold, Tsubaki, PC
Bearing: NTN, SKF, FAG

OTHER REQUIREMENTS
1. Miantenance door shall be provided at the elevator booth
2. Top cover shall be bolted for ease of maintenance
3. Take-up bearing with adjustable bolt and screw shall be provided at the bottom booth for chain
tightening
4. Mild steel outlet chute shall be provided
5. Plumber block bearing shall be fixed at the top booth

Page 1 of 1
FRUIT FEED CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
FRUIT FEED CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 2.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To convey loose fruit from FRUIT ELEVATOR to Digesters

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Fruit feed conveyor as follows :
Capacity: 45 MT FFB per hour.
Type: Full flight screw
Size: 600 mm dia.
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing
Construction Material:
Casing: Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Wear plate: Mild steel with 6mm minimum thickness fitted thoughout
the conveyor extended at least 100mm above the center
line of the conveyor
Screw Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Shaft: Seamless API 5L Gr B Sch 80 pipe
Shaft joint: Solid carbon steel
Hanger bearing: Bronze bushing c/w C.I housing, grease nipple and cup

Conveyor Speed: 56 rpm


Drive System: Geared motor directly coupled to conveyor shaft by
flexible coupling
Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 56 rpm
Output torque: 938 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: > 1.5
Motor:-
Power: 5.5 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks, Elektrim


Gear reducer: SEW, Renold,HANSEN, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: FAG, SKF, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-

1. Four ( 4 ) mild steel outlet chutes c/w rack & pinion sliding doors with chain operated to be
provided at inlet to 3 digesters and blank space.
2. One mild steel chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor to recycle the excess fruit
to FRUIT ELEVATOR
3. Hanger bearing shall be fitted at 3m c/c maximum spacing or as indicated
4. Flange bearings to be fitted at both end of the conveyor and one of them shall be roller thrust
Page 1 of 2
FRUIT FEED CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
FRUIT FEED CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 2.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

5. Top of the conveyor shall be covered with 3mm thk m.s plate

Page 2 of 2
RETURN FRUIT CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
RETURN FRUIT CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 3.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery


installation, commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To convey excess loose fruit from Fruit Feed Conveyor to


Fruit Elevator

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One (1) unit Return Fruit Conveyor as follows :
Capacity: 45 MT FFB per hour.
Type: Full flight screw
Size: 600 mm dia.
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Casing: Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Wear plate: Mild steel with 6mm minimum thickness fitted thoughout
the conveyor extended at least 100mm above the center
line of the conveyor
Screw Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Shaft: Seamless API 5L Gr B Sch 80 pipe
Shaft joint: Solid carbon steel
Hanger bearing: Bronze bushing c/w C.I housing, grease nipple and cup

Conveyor Speed: 56 rpm


Drive System: Geared motor directly coupled to conveyor shaft by
flexible coupling
Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 56 rpm
Output torque: 640 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: > 1.5
Motor:-
Power: 3.75 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks, Elektrim


Gear reducer: SEW, Renold,HANSEN, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: FAG, SKF, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. One inlet appreture for the overflow of digested material to be conveyed to the fruit elevator.
2. One MS chute flange to be provided at the end of the conveyor for attachment of
the return fruit chute to the elevator.
3. Hanger bearing shall be fitted at 3m c/c maximum spacing or as indicated
4. Flange bearings to be fitted at both end of the conveyor and one of them shall be roller thrust

Page 1 of 2
RETURN FRUIT CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
RETURN FRUIT CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 3.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

5. Top of the conveyor shall be covered with 3mm thk m.s plate cover.

Page 2 of 2
Recycle Chute

SPECIFICATION SHEET
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED BY NW
RECYCLE CHUTE
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 4.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery, installation,
commissioning, handing over and guarantee

Function: To convey excess loose fruit from Fruit Feed Conveyor to Fruit Elevator

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Recycle Chute of mild steel

General Arrangement: As per drawing


Construction Details: As per drawing
Construction Material:
Casing: Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Supports : M. S. Channels & Angle iron

Page 1 of 1
DIGESTER

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED
DIGESTER ( 3500 m3 )
DELIVERY REVISION No.

DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F5

QUANTITY / UNITS 3

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the unloading at site, safe keeping
installation, assist in testing and commissioning.

Function: Digestion of loose fruitlets before screw press oil extraction.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity Three ( 3 ) units Digesters as follows :
Unit Capacity 15MT Fresh Fruit Bunches ( FFB ) per hour.
or not less than 3,500 liters per hour.

Diamension approx. 4000 mm H x 1300 mm D

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Construction The cylindrical portion shall have a 12mm thick mild steel shell
with a 9mm thick mild steel liner.

The shell insulated with rockwool at density of 90 kg / m2 and


covered with 22 gauge embossed stainless steel sheet.

Heating by steam injection and control by a thermostatic valve.

Chute from digester to screw press to be fabricated from 4 mm


thick stainless steel sheet with sight glass, flanged door
oil filled pocket for temperature gauge.

Drive system Motor is connected to a fluid drive coupling and then to the
vertically mounted gear reducer as shown in the drawing.

Motor approx. 22kw 4 pole, TEFC, IP 55 class F


415 V 3 phase 50 Hz.

Gear reducer Ratio 40:1 service factor 1.5 ( min )

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks, Elektrim


Gear reducer: SEW, Renold,HANSEN, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: FAG, SKF, NTN

Page 1 of 1
TWIN SCREW PRESS

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED
TWIN SCREW PRESS ( TYPE P15)
DELIVERY REVISION No.

DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 6.

QUANTITY / UNITS 3

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the unloading at site, safe keeping, insatallation
assist in testing and commissioning.

Function: The extraction of crude palm oil by screw pressing.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity Three ( 3 ) units Twin Screw Presses as follows :

Unit Capacity 15MT Fresh Fruit Bunches ( FFB ) per hour.

Diamension Approx. 4600mm L x 1100mm W x 1400mm H


Weight Approx 4,500 kg

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Construction Robust construction with parts in contract with press mash
& fibre from special wear resistance steel.

Strainer & Cage The holes of the strainer and press cage shall have taper holes no larger than 3 x 2 mm
with 6 mm C/C and the cage plate of 12 mm thickness supported by ribs.

Drive system The drive system of he twin screw press shall consist of a
motor directly coupled to a gearmotor with pulley and belt
transmission to the drive shaft of the screw press.

An arrangement with the use of a fluid coupling can also


be considered.

Motor Approx. 22kw 415 V 3 Ph 50 HZ TEFC IP55 Class F

Hydraulic Cone Control The hydraulic cone control shall be automatic with the
cones sliding in and out, maintaining a consistent pressure.

The feedback of the pressure in the main hydraulic motor drive


shall be used to control the hydraulic cylinder driving the
adjustable cones and its motion shall stepless.

Preformance a. Oil loss on press fibre shall not exceed 7% Oil / Dry matter
b. Oil loss on Nuts shall not exceed 1% Oil / Dry matter
c. Broken Nuts in press fibre shall not exceed 12%
d. NOS in Sludge shall not exceed 10% Oil / Dry matter.

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks, Elektrim


Gear reducer: SEW, Renold,HANSEN, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: FAG, SKF, NTN

Page 1 of 1
PRESS STRUCTURE

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PRESS STRUCTURE PREPARED

DELIVERY REVISION No.

DRAWING NO. 'PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 7.

QUANTITY / UNITS 3

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery


Installation, commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To support equipment which include 4 presses, 4 digesters,


digester feed conveyor, fruit return conveyor, Hot water tank
and Oil launder.

SPECIFICATIONS

Quantity Lot - Press Structure with platform and necessary stairways.

Plateform The chequered plates for the platform shall be 6 mm thick


and toe plate of 100mm x 6 mm

Stairways The chequered plates are to be secured to the supporting


structure by stitch welding and all necessary stairways shall
be provided as shown in the drawing.

Chain Block At the top of the structure a cross beam with a 3 ton chain
block shall be provided for maintenance of the digester & Press.

General Arrangment: As per drawing


Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Structures: Mild steel sections
Plaform Mild steel chequered plate of 6mm thick
Handrail: 40mm dia.black pipe
Structure bolts & nuts: High tensile

OTHER REQUIREMENTS

1. Handrail of 40 mm black pipe shall be 900mm high with intermediete poles at 2000 c/c

2. 100mm high kick plate to be provided around the platform

3. Hoist beam and 3 ton chain block shall be installed as shown in the relevant drawings

Page 1 of 2
CRUDE OIL COLLECTION GUTTER

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 2-Oct-98
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
CRUDE OIL GUTTER
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 8.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery, installation,
commissioning, handing over and guarantee .

Function: To collect crude oil ex-SCREW PRESSES and channel it to Sand trap

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) Crude Oil Collection Gutter as follows :

The cude oil pipe shall be a stainless steel pipe of 200 mm dia.
It shall have sufficient gradient to allow a full flow and drainage
of the crude oil mixture.

The outlet oil drain from the digester and press drain funnel and
interconnecting pipes to crude oil gutter shall be included.

Provision for hot water and steam blowing of the crude oil gutter.

General Arrangment: As per drawing

Construction Details: As per drawing


Construction Material: PIPE S.S AISI 304
Thickness: 4.5 mm

Size: 200 mm Dia.

Page 1 of 1
SAND TRAP

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
SAND TRAP TANK
DELIVERY REVISION No.

DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 9.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery, installation,
testing, commissioning and guarantee.

Function: To receive oil from CRUDE OIL GUTTER and trap the sand

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantiry One ( 1 ) Sand Trap as follows :

The sand trap tank shall have a capicity of approximately


7 m 3 and of vertical cylindrical construction.

Internal buffling shall be provided to allow for non-turbulent


flow of crude oil to the top of the tank whereby allowing
the sand and heavy solid particles to settle to the bottom.

The crude oil overflow pipe shall be connected to the crude


oil tank.

Capacity: 7 m3
Basic Dimensions: As per drawing

Construction Material:-
Tank: Mild steel
Close Steam Coil: 50mm dia. S.S 304 seamless sch 10S
Nozzles:-
Protrusion
Purpose Size (mm) qty (mm) Flange Material
Drain 80 1 150 PN 10 API 5L Gr B Sch 40
Overflow 150 1 150 PN 10 API 5L Gr B Sch 40
Steam inlet 50 1 150 PN 16 SS 304 Sch 10S
Cond.Outlet 50 1 150 PN 16 SS 304 Sch 10S
Hot water 25 1 150 PN 10 GI Class C BS 1387

Tank plate thickness: 6 mm


Flanges: Raised face to BS 4504

Page 1 of 1
CIRCULAR VIBRATING SCREEN

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OILPALM MILL PREPARED NW
CIRCULAR VIBRO SIEVE SCREEN
DELIVERY REVISION No.

DRAWING NO. 'PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 10

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery, installation, testing
commissioning and guarantee.

Function: Screening of crude oil before clarification process.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity Two ( 2 ) units Circular Vibrating screens as follows :

Type Double deck circular vibro sieve screens.

Screen area not less than 1.6 m2

Diameter 60 inchs.

Unit Capacity : Diluted crude oil of equivalent to 16 m3 / h

CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL.


Construction Bottom supporting assembly supported by springs which shall give the required vibrations.

The cylindrical deck body (wetted part) to fabricated from stainless steel
304 (EN 58B) or equivalent.

The first and second deck shall be equipped with mesh 20 and 40 stainless
steel screen respectively

Variable weights at the lower end of the motor shaft for varying
the amplitude of vertical vibration.

Variable weights at the upper end of the motor shaft for varying the horizontal
conveying so as to screen solids to the periphery for discharge

The design fittings of the sieve screen shall be so as to facilitate easy assembling
and dismantling of the screen box for screen cloth changes, cleaning and inspection

Contractor shall provide details of and specify vibrating screen make, type, model, country
of origin, capacity , motor etc

Vibro Motor. 3.75 kw 415 V, 3 phase 50 Hz TEFC, IP 55 Class F

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks, Elektrim


Gear reducer: SEW, Renold,HANSEN, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: FAG, SKF, NTN

Page 1 of 1
VIBRATING SCREEN STRUCTURE

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
VS STRUCTURE
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 11.

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL Scope of works include the design, fabrication, delivery,


installation, testing, commissioning and guarantee.

Function: To support 2 circular vibrating screens

SPECIFICATIONS

General Arrangment: As per drawing


Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Structures: Mild steel sections
Plaform Mild steel chequered plate of 6mm thick
Handrail: 40mm dia.black pipe

OTHER REQUIREMENTS

1. Handrail shall be of 40mm black pipe, 900mm high with intermediete poles at 2000 c/c
2. 100mm high kick plate to be provided around the platform

Page 1 of 1
SCREEN WASTE CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
SCREEN WASTE CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 12

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery
installation, commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To convey vibrating screen reject of solid waste to FRUIT ELEVATOR.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Screen Waste Conveyor as follows :

Type: Full flight screw


Size: 300 mm dia.
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Casing: Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Wear plate: Mild steel with 6mm minimum thickness fitted thoughout
the conveyor extended at least 100mm above the center
line of the conveyor
Screw Stainless steel 304 of 6mm minimum thickness
Shaft: Seamless API 5L Gr B Sch 80 pipe
Hanger bearing: Bronze bushing c/w C.I housing, grease nipple and cup
Conveyor Speed: 56 rpm
Drive System: Motor directly coupled to speed reducer by flexible
coupling
Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 56 rpm
Output torque: 375 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: > 1.5
Motor:-
Power: 2.2 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks, Elektrim


Gear reducer: SEW, Renold, HANSEN
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: FAG, SKF, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-

1. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor


2. Hanger bearing shall be fitted at 3m c/c maximum spacing
3. Flange bearings to be fitted at drive end of the conveyor
4. Roller thrust bearing shall be fitted at discharge end

Page 1 of 1
CRUDE OIL TANK

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
CRUDE OIL TANK
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 13.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery, installation


commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To receive oil from VIBRATING SCREEN

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Crude oil tank as follows :

Capacity: 7 m3
Basic Dimensions: As per drawing
Construction Details:- As per drawing

Construction Material:-
Tank: Stainless steel 4.5mm plate
Close Steam Coil: 25mm dia. S.S 304 seamless sch 10S
Live steam injection: 25mm dia. S.S 304 seamless sch 10S
Insulation: 80mm thk Rockwool c/w 0.7mm thk aluminium cladding
Nozzles:-

Protrusion
Purpose Size (mm) Qty Flange (mm) Material
drain 80 3 PN 10 150 API 5L SEAMLESS SCH40

pump suction 80 3 PN 10 150 API 5L SEAMLESS SCH40

vent 150 1 PN 10 150 API 5L SEAMLESS SCH40

hot water inlet 25 3 PN 10 150 API 5L SEAMLESS SCH40

crude oil inlet 200 1 PN 10 150 API 5L SEAMLESS SCH40

steam inlet 50 3 PN 16 150 SS 304 SCH10S

steam condensate 50 3 PN 16 150 SS 304 SCH10S

recycle 50 1 PN 10 150 API 5L SEAMLESS SCH40

Flanges: Raised face to BS 4504

Page 1 of 1
CRUDE OIL PUMP

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
CRUDE OIL PUMP
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 14

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery
installation, commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function To transfer the crude oil to the clarification station

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity Two ( 2 ) units Crude Oil Pump as follows :

Type Centrifugal, End-suction


Connection Raised face flange to BS 4504 PN 10

OPERATING DATA

Capacity 45 MT / hr
Medium Crude Oil
o
Temperature 90 C
Specific Gravity 0.9
Viscousity 0.1425 Ns / m2
Deleivery Head 35 m liquid
Speed 1450 RPM (Max)
NPSH available 3 m liquid

CONSTRUCTION

Casing Cast Iron GG25


Impeller S.S AISI 304
Shaft S.S AISI 304
Sealing Mechanical seal
Wetted Parts S.S AISI 304
Coupling Flexible
Level Switches: Magnetic type, with stainless steel float & rod and counter
weight
Drive: Motor directly coupled with flexible coupling to the pump
Motor:-
Power: approx. 3.75 kw Vendor to advice
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

OTHER REQUIREMENTS

1. Vendor to provide technical details, cataloques, performance curve and etc.

Page 1 of 1
OVERHEAD HOT WATER TANK

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
HOT WATER TANK
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 15

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery


installation, commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: Heating tank of water for extracted crude oil dilution

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Overhead Hot water tank as follows :

Capacity: 4 m3
Basic Dimensions: As per drawing
Construction Details:- As per drawing

Construction Material:-
Tank: Stainless steel 4.5mm plate
Close Steam Coil: 25mm dia. S.S 304 seamless sch 10S
Live steam injection: 25mm dia. S.S 304 seamless sch 10S
Insulation: 80mm thk Rockwool c/w 0.7mm thk aluminum cladding
Level switch Level limit switch for feed water inlet
Control Thermostatic control valve for steam coil

Nozzles:-
Protrusion
Purpose Size (mm) Qty Flange (mm) Material
vent 150 1 PN 10 150 API 5L SEAMLESS SCH40
hot water inlet 25 3 PN 10 150 API 5L SEAMLESS SCH40
and outlet 50 1 PN 10 150 API 5L SEAMLESS SCH40
steam inlet 25 3 PN 16 150 SS 304 SCH10S

Flanges: Raised face to BS 4504

Page 1 of 1
SAND TRAP CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
SAND TRAP CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 16

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the manfacture, erection & installation


commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: TO convey trap sand for disposal

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Sand trap Conveyor No. 1 as follows :

Capacity: 1,000 kg / hr of sand material


Type: Full flight screw
Size: 200 mm dia.
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Casing: Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Wear plate: Mild steel with 6mm minimum thickness fitted thoughout
the conveyor extended at least 100mm above the center
line of the conveyor
Screw Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Shaft: Seamless API 5L Gr B Sch 80 pipe
Shaft joint: Solid carbon steel
Hanger bearing: Bronze bushing c/w C.I housing, grease nipple and cup
Conveyor Speed: 56 rpm
Drive System: Geared motor directly coupled to conveyor shaft by
flexible coupling
Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 56 rpm
Output torque: 375 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: > 1.5
Motor:-
Power: 2.2 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks, Elektrim


Gear reducer: SEW, Renold, HANSEN, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: FAG, SKF, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-

1. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor c/w sliding door
2. Hanger bearing shall be fitted at 3m c/c maximum spacing or as indicated
3. Flange bearings to be fitted at both end of the conveyor and one of them shall be roller thrust
4. Top of the conveyor shall be covered with 3mm thk m.s plate

Page 1 of 2
STRAINER BUCKET ELEVATOR

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
BUCKET ELEVATOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 17.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: Conveyor to drain the solid waste in buckets, while in motion and thereafer
unloading onto trailer or truck for field disposal.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One (1) Bucket Elevator ( strainer ) complete with drive as folows:

Type: Double conveyor chain c/w buckets


Capacity: 1,000 kg material per hour.
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Casing: Mild steel with 6mm minimum thickness
Sprocket 12T, 100mm pitch, grey iron
Bucket: Mild steel
Chain rail: Mild steel angle
Wear plate: Mild steel with 10mm minimum thickness
Chain: Steel c/w hardened steel flanged rollers, 100mm pitch.
3600 kg breaking load
Drive: Geared Motor coupled to elevator shaft by chain & sprocket
Shaft Speed: 25 rpm
Transmission Sprocket Ratio: 1
Speed Reducer:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 1000 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: > 1.5
Motor:-
Power: 3.75 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.


Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks, Elektrim
Gear reducer: SEW, HANSEN, Renold, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Transmission Chain: Renold, Tsubaki
Conveyor Chain: Renold, Tsubaki, PC
Bearing: NTN, SKF, FAG

OTHER REQUIREMENTS
1. Miantenance door shall be provided at the elevator booth
2. Top cover shall be bolted for ease of maintenance
3. Take-up bearing with adjustable bolt and screw shall be provided at the bottom booth for chain tightening
4. Mild steel outlet chute shall be provided
5. Plumber block bearing shall be fixed at the top booth

Page 1 of 1
AUTO DILUTION SYSTEM

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
CRUDE OIL DILUTION SYSTEM
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 18.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the unloading, safe keeping, installation supervision
assist in the testing and commissioning.

Function Controlled dilution of raw CPO and water for effective clarification

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One (1) Crude Oil Dilution System as follows:-

Construction The Automatic Crude Oil Dilution system shall handle viscous slurry
nature of crude oil at temperature range: 70 C - 90 C. It shall be of proven
make and currently in operation.

The Automatic Crude Oil Dilution System consists of PID controller that
automatically modulates 50mm hot water valve to dilute crude oil to pre-set density.

Crude oil from buffer tank is gravity feed and pass through density cell for
continuously crude oil density.

Scope of supply shall include:

1 Density cell c/w positive cell fluid retainer and signal conditioning.

2 Microprocessor based controller with PID control and I/P conversion.

3 50mm dia. modulating control valve for hot water.

4 Crude Oil R.S.G. recorder.

5 Installation & Operating instructions, service manual and buffer tank drawing.

6 Testing and commissioning.

Page 1 of 1
WATER COLLECTION TANK

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
WATER COLLECTION TANK

DELIVERY REVISION No.


LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 19.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery, installation


commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: Tank to collect condensate water from all equipment and piping system

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Water Collection tank as follows :

Capacity: 2.25 m3
Basic Dimensions: As per drawing
Construction Details:- As per drawing

Construction Material:-
Tank: Mild steel 5mm plate
Insulation: 80mm thk Rockwool c/w 0.7mm thk aluminum cladding
Level switch Level limit switch for level control

Nozzles:-
Protrusion
Purpose Size (mm) Qty Flange (mm) Material

Water inlet 50 3 PN 10 150 API 5L SEAMLESS SCH40


and outlet 50 1 PN 10 150 API 5L SEAMLESS SCH40

Flanges: Raised face to BS 4504

Page 1 of 1
PUMP SET - WATER COLLECTION TANK.

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PUMP FOR WATER PREPARED NW
COLLECTION TANK
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. PRESS STATION ITEM No. F 20

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery , installation


commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function To recycle the condensate water to the Hot water tank crude oil
dilution tank, vibrating screen and clarification station.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity Two ( 2 ) Pump set with level switch for water collection tank as follows :
Note : One unit on standby.

Type Centrifugal, End-suction


Connection Raised face flange to BS 4504 PN 10
Control Level switch

OPERATING DATA

Capacity 15 MT / hr
Medium WATER
o
Temperature 100 C
Specific Gravity 1
Deleivery Head 30 m liquid
Speed 1450 RPM (Max)
NPSH available 3 m liquid

CONSTRUCTION

Casing Cast Iron GG25


Impeller S.S AISI 304
Shaft S.S AISI 304
Coupling Flexible
Level Switches: Magnetic type, with stainless steel float & rod and counter
weight
Drive: Motor directly coupled with flexible coupling to the pump
Motor:-
Power: approx. 3.75 kw Vendor to advice
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

OTHER REQUIREMENTS

1. Vendor to provide technical details, cataloques, performance curve and etc.

Page 1 of 2
VERTICAL CLARIFIER

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
VERTICAL CLARIFIER
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 1.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, Fabrication, delivery, installation, testing
commissioning and guarantee.

Function: Static separation of crude oil from sludge

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Vertical Clarifier Tank as follows :
Capacity: 120 m3
Basic Dimensions : As per drawing
Construction Details:- As per drawing

Construction Material:-
Tank body: Mild steel cylindrical section and SS 304 conical section
Close Steam Coil: 50mm dia. S.S 304 seamless sch 10S
Open Steam Coil: 50mm dia. S.S 304 seamless sch 10S
Skimmer: S.S 304
Sludge Underflow Pipe: S.S 304 seamless sch 10S
Hot water Coil: 50mm dia. S.S 304 seamless sch 10S
Stirrer: S.S 304
Baffles: S.S 304
Supporting Structures: Mild steel
Insulation: 50mm thk Rockwool c/w 0.7mm thk aluminium cladding

Nozzles:-
Users Size Qty Flange Protrusion Material
mm mm
Drain 100 1 PN 10 150 API 5L Gr B, seamless Sch 40
Sudge Overflow 150 1 PN 10 150 SS 304 Sch 10S
Oil outlet 150 1 PN 10 150 API 5L Gr B, seamless Sch 40
Vent 100 1 PN 10 150 API 5L Gr B, seamless Sch 40
Hot water in 50 1 PN 10 150 SS 304 Sch 10S
Steam in 50 2 PN 16 150 SS 304 Sch 10S
Cond. out 50 1 PN 16 150 SS 304 Sch 10S
crude oil in 80 1 PN 10 150 SS 304 Sch 10S
Rec.oil in 65 1 PN 10 150 SS 304 Sch 10S
Temp.Gauge 3/4" BSP 1 100
Temp.Controller 3/4" BSP 1 100
Manhole as per drawing
Stirrer as per drawing
Flanges: Raised face to BS 4504

Page 1 of 2
PURE OIL TANK

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
PURE OIL TANK
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 2.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, Fabrication, delivery
installation, testing, commissioning and guarantee.

Function: To receive oil from VERTICAL CLARIFIER

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) Unit Pure Oil Tank as follows :
Capacity: 30 m3
Basic Dimensions: As per drawing
Construction Details:- As per drawing

Construction Material:-
Tank body: Mild steel
Steam Coil: 50mm dia. API 5L,Gr B seamless sch 40
Cover: Mild steel
Insulation: 50mm thk Rockwool c/w 0.7mm thk aluminium cladding

Nozzles to be provided:-
Size Protrusion
Users (mm) Qty Flange (mm) Material
drain 100 1 PN 10 150 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
oil inlet 150 1 PN 10 150 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
vent 100 1 PN 10 150 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
steam inlet 50 1 PN 16 150 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
cond.oulet 25 1 PN 16 150 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
oil outlet 100 1 PN 10 150 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
temp.gauge 3/4" BSP 1 80 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
temp.control 3/4" BSP 1 80 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless

Flanges: Raised face to BS 4504


Level Indicator: Mechanical type with SS float and string

Page 1 of 1
SLUDGE TANK

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
SLUDGE OIL TANK
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 3.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL Scope of works include the Design, Fabrication, delivery


installation, testing , commissioning and guarantee

Function: To receive Sludge phase from VERTICAL CLARIFIER

SPECIFICATIONS One ( 1 ) unit Sludge Tank as follows :

Capacity: 30 m3
Basic Dimensions: As per drawing
Construction Details:- As per drawing
Construction Material:-
Tank body: Mild steel
Steam Coil: SS AISI 304 seamless sch 10S
Cover: Mild steel
Insulation: 50mm thk Rockwool c/w 0.7mm thk aluminium cladding

Nozzles to be provided:-
Size Protrusion
Users (mm) Qty Flange (mm) Material
drain 100 1 PN 10 150 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
sludge inlet 150 1 PN 10 150 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
vent 100 1 PN 10 150 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
steam inlet 50 1 PN 16 150 SS 304 seamless Sch 10S
cond.oulet 25 1 PN 16 150 SS 304 seamless Sch 10S
sludge outlet 100 1 PN 10 150 SS 304 seamless Sch 10S
temp.gauge 3/4" BSP 1 80 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
temp.control 3/4" BSP 1 80 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless

Flanges: Raised face to BS 4504


Level Indicator: Mechanical type with SS float and string

Page 1 of 1
DESANDING CYCLONE

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
MULTI DESANDING CYCLONE
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 4.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the design, manufacture, delivery


installation supervision, testing, commissioning and guarantee.
The installation on elevated platform will be provided by others.

Function: desanding of crude oil before clarification process.

SPECIFICATIONS

Quantity One ( 1 ) Desanding cyclone system, delivered in module


assembly, mounted in a m.s. frame complete with 3 cyclones
control valves, connecting pipes, booster pump, solids collecting tank
and control unit to be link with PLC and Central Control station
via the LAN networking.

The starter board, local switch and air supply will be provided by others

Capacity 45 m3 Sludge mixture per hour with solid contents of 15%

Performance Removal of sand and solid mattter above 50 micron of not less than 75%
of the total input sand and solid matter, operating at full capacity.

Vendor to provide details on wear parts and running hours

Discharge head 3 kg / cm3

Scope of supply a. Desanding cyclone assembly, mounted in m.s. frame


b. Auto program control unit
c. Set of control valves
d. Solid matter collecting tank with water flushing system.
e. Booster feed pump
f. Set of piping connections and fixtures.
g. Set of standard tools
h. Set of standard spares
I. Flow indicator
j. Installation & Operation instruction, service and parts manuals
k. Testing, commissioning and training of 3 operators

Page 1 of 2
DESANDING CYCLONE

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
MULTI DESANDING CYCLONE
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 4.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

Sheet 2.

Material for Cyclones Abrasion resistance ceramic

System for discharge of dirt Discharge via a stainless steel collecting tank

Control Panel Control panel using microprocessor- based control for operation.

Control Valve Mark Control, Valtac, Keystone, bailey, Kitasawa or equivalent

Booster pump motor 3.75 kw 415V / 3-Ph / 50Hz Contractor to provide detail requirements

Test on completion : Samples shall be taken for the inlet feed and outlet discharged material
and analysed for quality and quantity of solid matter.

The results shall be statistically analysed by taking the mean average


and standard deviation.

Approved Makes Specified or Equivalent.

Valves Mark Control, Valtac, bailey, Kitasawa, Keystone, Klinger


Motor Brook Crompton, ABB, Brush, Marelli
Pump SIHI, Vogel, KSB, Grundfos, Robuschi, Allen Gwynnes, Ajax

Requirement Contractor to provide design details of equipment offered


for consultant's approval before fabrication.

Page 2 of 2
PRE - CLEANER PUMP

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
SLUDGE OIL TRANSFER PUMP
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 5.

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the Purchase, delivery, installation


testing, commissioning and guarantee.

FUNCTION To pump the sludge oil from the sludge oil tank to the
multi desanding cyclone

SPECIFICATIONS.
Quantity Two ( 2 ) units Sludge Oil Transfer Pumps as follows:
Type Centrifugal, End-suction
Connection BS 4504 PN 10

OPERATING DATA
Capacity 45 m3 per hour of Sludge Oil
Medium Sludge Oil
o
Temperature 105 C
Specific Gravity 0.86
Viscousity 0.1425 Ns/m2
Deleivery Head 30 m liquid
Speed 1450 RPM (Max)
NPSH available 3 m liquid

CONSTRUCTION
Casing Cast Iron GS-C25
Impeller S.S AISI 304
Shaft S.S AISI 304
Sealing Mechanical seal
Wetted Parts S.S AISI 304
Coupling Flexible
DriveSystem: Motor directly coupled with flexible coupling
Motor:-
Power: approx. 3.75 kw Vendor to advice
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins.,
415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent


Pump: KSB, SIHI, Robuschi, Warman or equivalent
Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks, Elektrim
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN
Mechanical seal: Crane, Burgman

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. Vendor to provide technical details, cataloques, performance curve and etc.

Page 1 of 1
SLUDGE BUFFERTANK

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
SLUDGE OIL TANK
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 6.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the Design, Fabrication, delivery, installation, testing
commissioning and guarantee.

Function: Buffer tank to feed the decanter or sludge separator

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Sludge buffer tank as follows :
3
Capacity: 4 m
Basic Dimensions: As per drawing
Construction Details:- As per drawing

Construction Material:-
Tank body: Stainless steel 304, 3mm thick
Steam Coil: SS AISI 304 seamless sch 10S
Cover: Mild steel
Insulation: 50mm thk Rockwool c/w 0.7mm thk aluminium cladding

Nozzles to be provided:-
Size Protrusion
Uses (mm) Qty Flange (mm) Material
drain 100 1 PN 10 150 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
sludge inlet 80 1 PN 10 150 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
vent 100 1 PN 10 150 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
steam inlet 50 1 PN 16 150 SS 304 seamless Sch 10S
cond.oulet 25 1 PN 16 150 SS 304 seamless Sch 10S
sludge outlet 100 1 PN 10 150 SS 304 seamless Sch 10S
temp.gauge 3/4" BSP 1 80 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless
temp.control 3/4" BSP 1 80 API 5L, Gr B Sch 40 seamless

Flanges: Raised face to BS 4504


Level Indicator: Mechanical type with SS float and string

Page 1 of 1
SLUDGE SEPARATOR

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
SLUDGE SEPARATOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 7.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the unloading at site, safe keeping, installation
assist in testing and commissioning.

Function: Centrifugal Separation and recovery of Oil from Sludge from the under
flow of the sludge tank or working in series with the decanter.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) Sludge Separator in module form complete with interconnecting
pipes, valves and fittings ready for start up.

Material to process Sludge with 15% NOS from underflow of CS tank


Capacity 36 m3 per hour ( Rate at 0.8 of 45 MT FFB per hour )

Capacity of each Separator Performance will be based on operating without Decanter.


Input feed rate 9 m3 Crude oil & Sludge mixture per hour

Discharge head 3 kg / cm3

CONSTRUCTION
All bowl parts in contact with oil or sludge shall be in stainless steel.

System for Cleaning: The nozzle holders shall be easily removable from the outside
without dismantling the centrifuge.
A cleaning system shall be provided that the bowl internals can
be cleaned by intermittent flushing without dismantling the unit.
Scope of supply:
a. Motor complete with fluid coupling
b. Set of flexible connections
c. 2 Sets of Special tools for maintenance
d. Set of standard spares
e. Complete automated cleaning system
f. Flowmeter for incoming sludge
g. 3 Sets of Installation, Operation & Service Manual

Operation of the automated cleaning system at regular intervals


shall necessitate cleaning of the bowl parts by dismantling of
the centrifuge after only 150 hours of operation.

For sludge as the processing medium the waste water ex


separator shall have an oil loss not exceeding 12% oil/Nos.

Motor 11kw 415V, 3Ph, 50 HZ 4-pole, TEFC, Class F, IP 55


( Vendor to advise )

Page 1 of 1
3 PHASE DECANTER

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
DECANTER ( 3 PHASE )
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 8.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the unloading at site, safe keeping, installation, assist in
testing and commissioning.

Function: Separation of Oil, Light phase and Sludge from Raw Sludge oil from the underflow
of the CS tank

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit 3 Phase Decanter System complete in module form as follows :
The unit shall be supplied complete with inter-connecting pipes, valves and fittings
ready for start up.

Capacity 15 m3 Sludge oil with 20% NOS per hour

Discharge head 3 kg / cm3

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Construction: All decanter parts in contact with oil or sludge shall be in s.s. AISI 306
and scroll conveyor with tips protected with tungsten carbide tiles.

The works for the Mechnical Contractor shall also include the following :

a. Mounting and Installation of the decanter equipment


b. Flow meter and regulated with an isolating valve.
c. A 75mm solenoid valve to shut off the feed when power is cut
d. Connections of a 50mm socket for hot water feed.
e. Steel structure with platform, handrailings, stairways and ladder.
f. A 3 ton chain block mounted on a overhead I-beam for maintenance
g. Suitable discharge chutes for solid waste to conveyor.
h. Drawing and detail specification of mounting platform & structure

Power 45kw 415V 3phase 50 HZ TEFC IP55 Class F


Vendor to advise details of power requirements.

Requirements Contractor to co-ordinate with equipment supplier for full details

Page 1 of 1
DECANTER WASTE CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
CONVEYOR ( DECANTER SOLID )
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 9.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scipe Scope of works include the Design, Fabrication, delivery, installation,
testing, commissioning and guarantee

Function: To convey decantered solid waste material to hopper for field disposal.

SPECIFICATIONS
Qunatity One (1) unit Screw Conveyor for decanter solid waste as follows:
Capacity 6000 kg solid waste per hour ( 90mt FFB per hour )
Type: Full flight screw
Size: 300 mm dia.
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Casing: Mild steel of 6mm minimum thickness
Wear plate: Mild steel with 6mm minimum thickness fitted thoughout
the conveyor extended at least 100mm above the center
line of the conveyor
Screw Stainless steel 304 of 6mm minimum thickness
Shaft: Seamless API 5L Gr B Sch 80 pipe
Hanger bearing: Bronze bushing c/w C.I housing, grease nipple and cup
Conveyor Speed: 56 rpm
Drive System: Motor directly coupled to speed reducer by flexible
coupling
Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 56 rpm
Output torque: 640 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: > 1.5

Motor:-
Power: 3.75 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent


Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush, ABB Brooks, Elektrim
Gear reducer: SEW, Renold, HANSEN, EGP ElectoPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: FAG, SKF, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor
2. Hanger bearing shall be fitted at 3m c/c maximum spacing
3. Flange bearings to be fitted at drive end of the conveyor
4. Roller thrust bearing shall be fitted at discharge end

Page 1 of 1
DECANTER LIGHT PHASE TRANSFER PUMP

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
LIGHT PHASE TANK & PUMP
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 10.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of work include the Design, Fabrication, delivery, installation,
testing, commissioning and guarantee.

Function To receive the underflow from the decanter

SPECTIFICATION
Quantity One ( 1 ) units Decanter Light Phase Tank & Transfer Pump
Tank Volume 200 litres
Material Stainless Steel
Construction As per drawing

Pump Type Centrifugal, End-suction


Connection Raised face flange toBS 4504 PN 10

OPERATING DATA
Capacity 15 M3 per hour.
Medium Sludge Oil - Light phase
o
Temperature 99 C
Specific Gravity 0.9
Viscousity 0.0798 Ns/m2
Deleivery Head 20 m liquid
Speed 1450 RPM (Max)
NPSH available 3 m liquid

CONSTRUCTION
Casing Cast Iron GS-C25
Impeller S.S AISI 304
Shaft S.S AISI 304
Sealing Mechanical seal
Wetted Parts S.S AISI 304
Coupling Flexible
DriveSystem: Motor directly coupled with flexible coupling

Motor:-
Power: approx. 3.75kw Vendor to advice
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent.


Pump: KSB, SIHI, Robuschi, Warman
Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brook
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: NTN, FAG, SKF

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. Vendor to provide technical details, cataloques, performance curve and etc.

Page 1 of 1
DECANTER HEAVY PHASE TRANSFER PUMP

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
DECANTER HP TRANSFER PUMP
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 11.

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL
Scope Scope of work include the Design, Fabrication, delivery
installation, testing, commissioning and guarantee.

Function To receive the heavy phase liquid from the decanter

SPECTIFICATION
Quantity Two ( 2 ) units Decanter Heavy Phase Transfer Pump
Type Centrifugal, End-suction
Connection Raised face flange toBS 4504 PN 10

OPERATING DATA
Capacity 15 M3 per hour.
Medium Sludge Oil
o
Temperature 90 C
Specific Gravity 0.9
Viscousity 0.0798 Ns/m2
Deleivery Head 20 m liquid
Speed 1450 RPM (Max)
NPSH available 3 m liquid

CONSTRUCTION
Casing Cast Iron GS-C25
Impeller S.S AISI 304
Shaft S.S AISI 304
Sealing Mechanical seal
Wetted Parts S.S AISI 304
Coupling Flexible
DriveSystem: Motor directly coupled with flexible coupling

Motor:-
Power: approx. 3.75kw Vendor to advice
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES
Pump: Robuschi, Warman
Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brook
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: NTN, FAG, SKF

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. Vendor to provide technical details, cataloques, performance curve and etc.

Page 1 of 1
SLUDGE SETTLING TANK

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
SLUDGE SETTLING TANK
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 12.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, fabrication, delivery
installation, testing, commissioning and guarantee.

Function: To receive sludge from various tank for recovery of Oil

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Sludge / Oil recovery settling Tank as follows :
3
Capacity: 20 m
Basic Dimensions: As per drawing
Construction Details:- As per drawing

Construction Material:-
Tank body: Mild steel
Steam Coil: API 5L Gr B seamless Sch 40
Open channel: Mild steel

The following nozzles to be provided:-

Size Protrusion
Users (mm) Qty Flange (mm) Material
drain 80 PN 10 150 API 5L Gr B seamless Sch 40
pump inlet 80 PN 10 150 API 5L Gr B seamless Sch 40
steam inlet 50 PN 16 150 API 5L Gr B seamless Sch 40

Flanges: Raised face toBS 4504

Requirement Contractor to provide full details for approval by consultant.

Page 1 of 1
SLUDGE SETTLING TANK PUMP

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
SETTLING TANK PUMP
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 13.

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, fabrication, delivery
installation, testing, commissioning and guarantee

Function To pump the recovered oil from the Sludge settling tank

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity Two ( 2 ) units Recovery Oil Pump as follows:
Type Centrifugal, End-suction
Connection BS 4504 PN 10

OPERATING DATA
Capacity 15 mt/hr
Medium Crude Oil
o
Temperature 90 C
Specific Gravity 0.86
Viscousity 0.1425 Ns/m2
Deleivery Head 20 m liquid
Speed 1450 RPM (Max)
NPSH available 3 m liquid

CONSTRUCTION

Casing Cast Iron GS-C25


Impeller S.S AISI 304
Shaft S.S AISI 304
Sealing Mechanical seal
Wetted Parts S.S AISI 304
Coupling Flexible
DriveSystem: Motor directly coupled with flexible coupling
Level Switch: Mercury type with SS float and rod

Motor:-
Power: 2.2 kw ( Vendor to advice )
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins.,
415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent

Pump: Robuschi, Warman or equivalent


Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN
Mechanical seal: Crane, Burgman
Level switch: Mobrey, BESTA

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-

1. Vendor to provide technical details, cataloques, performance curve and etc.

Page 1 of 2
OIL HEATER TANK

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
OIL HEATER TANK
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 14.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the Design, Fabrication, delivery


installation, testing, commissioning and gurantee.

Function: To heat the Clean CPO before Vacuum drying process.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Oil heater Tank as follows:
3
Capacity: 1.5 m
Basic Dimensions: 1 m (W) x 1 m (L) x 1.5 m (H)

Construction Material:-
Contruction Tank body: Stainless steel 4mm thick sheet ( AISI 304 )
Steam Coil: API 5L Gr.B Seamless Sch 40
Level switch Mercury type with ss float and rod.

The following nozzles to be provided:-


Protrusion
Users Size (mm) Flange (mm) Material
drain 50 PN 10 150 API 5L Gr.B Seamless Sch 40
steam inlet 50 PN 16 150 API 5L Gr.B Seamless Sch 40
cond.outlet 25 PN 16 150 API 5L Gr.B Seamless Sch 40
pump inlet 50 PN 10 150 API 5L Gr.B Seamless Sch 40

Flanges: Raised face to BS 4504

Page 1 of 1
OIL PURIFIER

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 10-Oct-99
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
OIL PURIFIER
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 15.

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the unloading at site, safe keeping


installation, assist in testing and commissioning.

Function: Clarification of the crude oil by removing dirt from oil.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity Two ( 2 ) unit Oil Purifiers as follows :

Unit capacity : 6,000 liters per hour of crude palm oil

System for High speed centrifuge with solids ejecting disc stack type
separation

Discharge system Sliding bowl bottom automated to discharge at regular intervals


by a discharge programme.
The intervals for discharge shall be easily variable by setting
the timing device.

Material of All parts in contact with oil shall be in stainless steel.


construction

Scope of supply Unit shall be completed with the following:-

Flanged motor
Built-on feed pump
Set of flexible connections
Set of standard tools
Set of standard spares
Flow indicator
Thermometer
Strainer
Automatic discharge system
Installation instruction, service and operation manuals

Test on completion : Samples shall be taken for the inlet feed and outlet waste water
and analysed for oil content.
The results shall be statistically analysed by taking the mean
average and standard deviation.

Performance Dirt content of purified oil not more than 0.01%

Motor : Approx. 7.5kw 4 pole TEFC, IP55 Class F


415V, 3-Ph , 50Hz

OTHER REQUIREMENTS :
1. Vendor to provide technical details, catalogues, performance curve etc ..

Page 1 of 1
OIL HEATER PUMP

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
CPO TRANSFER PUMP
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 16.

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL
Scope Scope of work include the Design, Fabrication, delivery,
installation, testing, commissioning and guarantee.

Function To heat the Oil before Vacuum drying process

SPECIFICATION
Quantity Two( 2 ) unit CPO Transfer Pump as follows :

Type Centrifugal, End-suction


Connection Raised face flange toBS 4504 PN 10

OPERATING DATA
Capacity 15 M3 per hour.
Medium Sludge Oil
o
Temperature 90 C
Specific Gravity 0.9
Viscousity 0.0798 Ns/m2
Deleivery Head 20 m liquid
Speed 1450 RPM (Max)
NPSH available 3 m liquid

CONSTRUCTION
Casing Cast Iron GS-C25
Impeller S.S AISI 304
Shaft S.S AISI 304
Sealing Mechanical seal
Wetted Parts S.S AISI 304
Coupling Flexible
DriveSystem: Motor directly coupled with flexible coupling

Motor:-
Power: approx. 3.75kw Vendor to advice
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent


Pump: Robuschi, Warman
Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brook
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: NTN, FAG, SKF

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-

1. Vendor to provide technical details, cataloques, performance curve and etc.

Page 1 of 1
VACUUM OIL DRYER

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 10-Oct-99
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
VACUUM OIL DRYER
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 19.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the unloading at site, safe keeping
installation, assist in testing and commissioning.

Function: Drying of Purified CPO by removing the moisture

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) Vacuum Oil Dryer as follows :

Capacity 15 metric ton per hour of Crude Palm Oil

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
Construction Constructed from mild steel and conforming to the latest
standards for pressure vessels standards for and
Factories & Machinery Regulations.

Vacuum provided by means of mechnical pump.

Vacuum Pump Type: Multi-stage centrifugal, horizontal


Contruction: cast iron casing and impeller
Sealing: mechanical seal
Capacity: As per vaccum dryer
Head: shall be able resistance of 100 mm pipe, 300m long, 4 elbows,
Motor 11kw 415V/3Ph/50Hz, S.C TEFC, Class F Ins., IP 55

Scopeof supply Vacuum dryer vessel with spray nozzle assembly, sight glasses,
vacuum pressure gauge, float type liquid level control valve,
illumination of the intervals of the dryer
Feed tank with stainless steel float.
Multi-stage Vacuum Pump
Transfer oil pump c\w motor, coupling and base plate.
Certification from the Factories and Machinery Department.

Performance Moisture content in dried oil does not exceed 0.09% at 90oC.

Tests on completion Samples shall be taken at hourly interval for inlet and outlet oil
and analysed for moisture content.

The results shall be statistically analysed by taking the mean


average and standard deviation

Page 1 of 1
HOT WATER TANK

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 10-Oct-99
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
HOT WATER TANK
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 20

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the Design, fabrication, delivery


installation, testing, commissioning and guarantee

Function: To provide hot water for dilution purposes

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Hot Water Tank as follows :
Capacity: 15 m3
Basic Dimensions: As per drawing
Construction Details:- As per drawing

Construction Material:-
Tank: Mild steel
Steam Coil: Carbon steel seamless Sch 40
Insulation: 50mm thk Rockwool c/w 0.7mm thk aluminium cladding

The following nozzles to be provided:-

Users Size Protr'n Qty Flange Material


mm
Water inlet 100 150 1 PN 10 GI Class C to BS 1387
Water outlet 100 150 1 PN 10 GI Class C to BS 1387
Overflow 80 150 1 PN 10 GI Class C to BS 1387
Drain 80 150 1 PN 10 GI Class C to BS 1387
Temp.gauge 3/4" BSP with copper pocket
Temp.controller 3/4" BSP with copper pocket

Flanges: Raised face to BS 4504

Page 1 of 2
CLARIFICATION STRUCTURE

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 10-Oct-99
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
CLARIFICATION STRUCTURE
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 21

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, fabrication, delivery
installation, testing, commissioning and guarantee

Function: To support equipment, tanks and vessels

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Clarification Steel structure with Chain block,
and roller for maintenance of centrifugal equipment, stairways
platform, walkways, handrails and ladder.

General Arrangment: As per drawing


Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Structures: Mild steel sections
Plaform Mild steel chequered plate of 6mm thick
Handrail: 40mm dia.black pipe
Structure bolts & nuts: High tensile steel
Chain block beam Mild steel I beam to suit

OTHER REQUIREMENTS

1. Handrail shall be 40 mm black pipe 900mm high with intermediete poles at 2000 c/c

2. 100mm high kick plate to be provided around the platform

3. A 3 ton Chain block c/w I-beam shall be provided for maintenance of Separators and Purifier

Page 1 of 1
SLUDGE PIT PUMP

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 10-Oct-99
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
SLUDGE PIT PUMP
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 22

QUANTITY / UNITS 2

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the purchase, delivery, installation
testing, commissioning and guarantee.

Function: To pump Oil from Sludge pit to the Sludge recovery tank

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity Two ( 2 ) units Sludge pit pump as follows :
Type Centrifugal, self-priming, Vertical mount
Connection Raised face flange to BS 4504

OPERATING DATA
Capacity 30 MT/hr
Medium Crude Oil
o
Temperature 100 C
Specific Gravity 0.9
Viscousity 0.0798 Ns/m2
Deleivery Head 200 Kpa
Speed 1500 RPM (Max)
NPSH available 3 m liquid

CONSTRUCTION
Casing Cast Iron GG-25
Impeller S.S AISI 304
Shaft S.S AISI 304
Sealing Mechanical seal
Wetted Parts S.S AISI 304
Coupling Flexible
DriveSystem: Motor directly coupled with flexible coupling
Motor:-
Power: approx. 3,75 kw Vendor to advice
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz
APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent
Pump: Robuschi, Warman, CK Pump
Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brook
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: NTN, SKF, FAG

OTHER REQUIREMENTS
1. Vendor to provide technical details, cataloques, performance curve and etc.

Page 1 of 1
SLUDGE RECOVERY TANK

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 10-Oct-99
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
SLUDGE OIL RECOVERY TANK
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. CLARIFICATION STATION ITEM No. G 23.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, fabrication, delivery
installation, testing, commissioning and guarantee

Function: To recover oil from clarification and other process waste water

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Sludge Oil Recovery Tank as follows :
A conical bottom and cylindrical top section supported by
steel sections, elevated from ground level. An adjustable
skimmer is to be provided for skimming oil at the top layer.
Overflow pipe for sludge underflow to be provided.

Capacity: 150 m3
Basic Dimensions: As per drawings
Construction Details: As per drawings

Construction Material:-
Tank: Mild steel
Skimer Funnel: Mild steel
Skimer Handle: Mild steel
Skimer Pipe: S.S 304 Sch 40 Pipe (inside tank only)
Overflow Pipe: API 5L Gr.B Sch 40
Ladder & Catwalk: Mild steel
Heating coils: S.S 304 Sch 10S Pipe
Support: Mild steel
Nozzles:-
Users Size (mm) Qty Flange Protrusion Material
(mm)
skimmed oil 100 2 PN 10 150 API 5L Gr.B Sch 40
drain 80 2 PN 10 150 API 5L Gr.B Sch 40
overflow 150 2 PN 10 150 API 5L Gr.B Sch 40
steam in 50 1 PN 16 150 API 5L Gr.B Sch 40
steam out 50 1 PN 16 150 API 5L Gr.B Sch 40
steam in 25 1 PN 16 150 API 5L Gr.B Sch 40
steam out 25 1 PN 16 150 API 5L Gr.B Sch 40
hot water in 25 1 PN 10 150 API 5L Gr.B Sch 40
Flanges: Raised face to BS 4504

Page 1 of 1
CAKE BREAKER CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
CAKE BREAKER CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. DEPARICARPER STATION ITEM No. H 1.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the manufacture, delivery & installation
testing, commissioning, handing over and guarantee
Function: To break up pressed cake from SCREW PRESSES and
convey to the DEPRICARPING COLUMN

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Cake Breaker Conveyor complete with supports
and inspection walkway with handrails and ladders.

Type: Paddle c/w short section of auger conveyor at the end of


the conveyor to act as airlock
Capacity: 45 MT FFB per hour.
Diameter: 700 mm

Construction Material:
Shaft: SANVIK low alloy steel pipe, supported by thrust roller
bearing at lower end and hanger bearing at 2.5m c/c along
the conveying section
Paddle: Mild steel paddle with H.T.S rod or equivalent
Casing: Mild steel minimum thickness 6mm or equivalent
Top cover: Steel mesh for the entire conveyor
Hanger Bearing: Railko bush c/w cast iron housing, grease nipple and cup
protuding out of the conveyor casing
Thrust Bearing: To be fitted at the drive-end
Shaft to shaft jointer: Solid mild steel
Screw (auger): Mild steel screw 6mm minimum thickness welded to mild
steel solid shaft
Connecting piece to
Depricarper Column: Canvas c/w mild steel holder rings
o
Inclination: 6
Conveyor Speed: 69 rpm
Drive: Geared motor directly coupled by flexible coupling
Variable Speed Reducer:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 69 rpm
Output torque: 1038 Nm (min)

Design Service Factor: < 1.5


Motor:-
Power: 7.5 KW Vendor to advise.
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent


Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush
Gear reducer: SUMITOMO, HANSEN, Renold, SEW, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

OTHER REQUIREMENTS:-
1. Wear plate thickness 6mm minimum to be provided
2. Side plate of minimum 300mm high to be provided for the entire length of the conveyor except
at the full flight screw section
3. Conveyor supporting structures c/w platform , walkways, stairways and handrails are to be provided
4. Detail design by the contractor shall be first approved by the consultant before fabrication.

Page 1 of 1
DEPRICARPING SYSTEM

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL DEPARICARPER WINNOWING PREPARED NW
SYSTEM
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. DEPARICARPER STATION ITEM No. H 2.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To separate the nut and fibre using air separation method

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) Depericarping system complete with :

Separation column, support, ducting and adjustable damper,


fibre cyclone, airlock, fan

Separation capacity: 45 MT FFB per hour.

Depricarping Column
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing
Construction Material: Mild steel

Ducting
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing
Construction Material: Mild steel
Basic Dimensions:
Diameter: 600 mm
Thickness 6 mm

Fibre Cyclone
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing
Construction Material: Mild steel

Wear liner: 4.5mm thk to be provided at the inlet volute of the cyclone

Page 1 of 2
DEPRICARPING SYSTEM

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL DEPARICARPER WINNOWING PREPARED NW
SYSTEM
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. DEPARICARPER STATION ITEM No. H 2.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

Sheet 2.
Airlock
Type: Rotary vane
Quantity: 1
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing
Construction Material: Mild steel
Diameter: 600 mm
Drum Speed: 30 rpm
Drive System: Motor directly coupled to speed reducer by flexible coupling

Motor:-
Power: 2.2 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

Fan
Type: Cetrifugal
Flowrate: 42,000 m3/hr
Static Pressure: 150 mm wg
Construction Material:
Casing: Mild steel
Impeller: Carbon steel (self-cleaning type)
Shaft: Carbon steel
Pulley: Cast iron

Speed: Vendor to advice (not more than 1500 rpm)


Drive System: Motor coupled to fan shaft by fluid coupling then
to belt and pulley
Belt guard: To be provided
Type of Mounting: Floor
Baseframe: Common baseframe to be provided

Motor:-
Power: approx. 36 kw - Vendor to advice
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush


Fan: Novenco, James Hawden, Chicago
Coupling: Transfluid, Renold, Fenner
Bearing: NTN, SKF, FAG

OTHER REQUIREMENT
Contractor to provide detail design for approval by consultant.

Page 2 of 2
DEPERICARPER CONTROL SYSTEM

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
DAMPER CONTROL SYSTEM
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. DEPARICARPER STATION ITEM No. H 3.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the unloadfing, safe keeping, assisting in the testing
installation and commissioning.

Function System to monitor and control of kernel or Nuts losses in the fibre cyclone
by controlling the air flow rate in the Depericarper Column.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One (1) Depericarper Damper Control System as follows:-

The control shall be based on the following process variables :

a. Number of Presses in operation

b. Predetermined separation air velocity in the Depericarper column.

The supply shall consist of :

1. PLC unit system.


The PLC shall be link to the Central control station via LAN networking

2. Damper pneumatic actuator

3. Air flow meter.

The air flow meter shall measure the air flow rate and compare it with the set value.
It will sent a signal to the PLC which in turn automatically adjust the damper
accordingly to the set value of the air flow rate.

4. Installation & Operating instructions, service manual and buffer tank drawing.

5. Testing, commissioning and training of operator.

Manuals Equipment drawings, installation and operating instruction, spare parts list
and specification shall be provide upon commissioning.

General Contractor shall provide design details of the equipment for the
consultant's approval before fabrication.

Page 1 of 1
NUT POLISHING DRUM

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
NUT POLISHING DRUM
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. DEPARICARPER STATION ITEM No. H 4.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the design, fabrication, delivery
installation, testing and guarantee.

Function: To polish nuts from DEPERICARPER COLUMN

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Nut Polishing Drum complete as follows :

Type: Rotating Drum


Capacity: 9,000 kg/hr of nuts
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material:
Shaft: EN 16 Steel
Hub: Carbon steel
Drum Casing: Carbon steel
Frame & Structure: Carbon steel
Basic Dimensions: 1,200 mm dia. 4,500 mm long
Drum Speed: 25 rpm
Drive System: Geared motor coupled to drum shaft by spocket
and chain drive
Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 25 rpm
Output torque: 2101 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: < 1.5 (min)
Motor:-
Power: 5.5 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush


Gear reducer: SUMITOMO, HANSEN, Renold, SEW, EPG ElectroPower
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: SKF, FAG, NTN

Page 1 of 1
INCLINE NUT CONVEYOR

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
INCLINED NUT CONVEYOR
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. DEPARICARPER STATION ITEM No. H5

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee.

Function: To transfer nuts from NUT POLISHING DRUM to destoning system

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) unit Inclined Nut Conveyor as follows :

Type: Full flight screw with round casing only at the end of the conveyor

Capacity 7,500 kg nuts per hour.


General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing

Construction Material: Mild steel


Diameter: 300 mm
Conveyor Speed: 56 rpm
Drive System: Geared motor directly coupled to conveyor shaft by
flexible coupling
Gear box:
Input speed: 1450 rpm
Output speed: 56 rpm
Output torque: 375 Nm (min)
Design Service Factor: < 1.5 (min)
Motor:-
Power: 2.2 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent


Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush
Gear reducer: SUMITOMO, HANSEN, SEW, Renold, Benzler SALA
Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold
Bearing: NTN, SKF, FAG

OTHER REQUIREMENTS :

1. Mild steel outlet chute to be provided at the end of the conveyor


2. Hanger bearing shall be fitted at 3m c/c maximum spacing
3. Flange bearing to be fitted at drive end of the conveyor.
3. Roller thrust bearing to be fitted at discharge end of the conveyor
4. Saddle supports to be provided

Page 1 of 1
DESTONING SYSTEM

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
DESTONING SYSTEM
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. DEPARICARPER STATION ITEM No. H 6.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL

Scope Scope of works include the Design, manufacture, delivery & installation
commissioning, handing over and guarantee

Function: To separate the nut and stone using air separation method

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity One ( 1 ) Destoning System consisting of :

Expansion column, support, ducting, nut discharge chute,


cyclone, airlock and fan

Capacity: 9,000 kg / hr of nut

Separation & Expansion Column


General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing
Construction Material: Mild steel

Ducting
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing
Construction Material: Mild steel
Basic dimensions:
Diameter: 450 mm
Thickness: 6 mm

Cyclone
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing
Construction Material: Mild steel
Basic dimensions: As per drawing

Airlock
Type: Rotary vane
Quantity: 1
General Arrangement: As per drawing
Construction Details: As per drawing
Construction Material: Mild steel
Diameter: 300 mm
Speed: 30 rpm
Drive System: Motor directly coupled to speed reducer by spocket & chain
Motor:-
Power: 2.2 KW
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

Page 1 of 2
DESTONING SYSTEM

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL PREPARED NW
DESTONING SYSTEM
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. DEPARICARPER STATION ITEM No. H 6.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

Sheet 2.

Fan
Type: Centrifugal
Flowrate: 20,404 m3/hr
Static Pressure: 250 mm wg

Construction Material:
Casing: Mild steel
Impeller: Carbon steel
Shaft: Carbon steel
Pulley: Cast steel
Speed: Vendor to advice (not more than 1500 rpm)
Drive System: Motor coupled to fan shaft by fluid coupling then by
belt and pulley
Belt guard: To be provided

Type of Mounting: Floor


Baseframe: Common baseframe to be provided
Motor:-
Power: Approx. 22 kw Vendor to advice
Type: TEFC 4-pole, S.C, IP 55, Class F Ins., 415V/3-Ph/50 Hz

Supporting Structures

Construction details: as per drawing


Material: mild steel

APPROVED MAKES Specified or Equivalent

Motor: Crompton Parkinson, Brush


Gear reducer: SUMITOMO, HANSEN, Renold, SEW, EPG Electropower
Fluid Coupling: Fenner (Fenaflex), Renold, Transfluid
Bearing: NTN, SKF, FAG
Fan: Novenco, James Hawden, Chicago
Transmission Belt: Fenner

Page 2 of 2
DESTONER DAMPER CONTROL SYSTEM

SPECIFICATION SHEETS
PROJECT NAME DATE: 13-May-00
MACHINE NAME
PROJECT CODE OIL PALM MILL DESTONER DAMPER CONTROL PREPARED NW
SYSTEM
DELIVERY REVISION No.
LOCATION
DRAWING NO. DEPARICARPER STATION ITEM No. H 7.

QUANTITY / UNITS 1

GENERAL
Scope Scope of works include the unloading, safe keeping, assisting in the
testing, installation and commissioning

Function System to monitor and removal of stones from the transported Nuts
by controlling the air flow rate in the Destoner Column.

SPECIFICATIONS
Quantity

The control shall be based on the following process variables :

a. Number of Presses in operation

b. Predetermined separation air velocity in the Destoner column.

The supply shall consist of :

1. PLC unit system.


The PLC shall be linked to the Central control station via LAN networking.

2. Damper pneumatic actuator

3. Air flow meter.

The air flow meter shall measure the air flow rate and compare it with the set value.
It will sent a signal to the PLC which in turn automatically adjust the damper
accordingly to the set value of the air flow rate.

4. Installation & Operating instructions, service manual and buffer tank drawing.

5. Testing, commissioning and training of operator.

Manuals Equipment drawings, installation and operating instruction,


spare parts list and specification shall be provide upon commissioning.

General Contractor shall provide design details of the equipment for the
consultant's approval before fabrication.

Page 1 of 1