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Analysis of related literature

Year Author Problem being Methodology Respondent Major finding Future

studied recommendation

016 2016 Jemma the writing strategies -observations with field secondary They use 5 strategies Language
simeon that ESL Seychellois notes school student to do this analysis teachers should
learners use when - audio-recording of five from age 13 to which is verbal not fear the
given a joint writing lessons. 14 years old evidence of students students' use of
task in a group work students were writing behaviours their L1 in L2
situation in class. high achievers such as classroom.
in English and brainstorming, used Language
were from a background teachers should
mixture of knowledge,use L1 discuss
middle and mediated background
upper-class strategies,peer- knowledge
socioeconomic scaffolding and use before getting
section of a of humor. students to
district on write.
Mahe. Transcribed Sense of
examples are humor use
selective that created a warm
relatively short and atmosphere in
easy to understand. class

2010 1. Terumi The Questionnaire. Three section The utility students Do not mention
Miyazoe effectiveness of from A,B and found in each of the
2. Terry Anderson three different Participants from 61 C of the same online writing
online writing students course and and observed
activities in forms have level general success
educations of a Discussion among the intermediate in making qualitative
forums,blogs and students English. changes in
wikis. students
writing abilities
2017 Daniel Examined the Writing test for Involved 303 Showed statistically Conducted
Oppenheimer persuasive and respondent unique significant outside labs in
expository writing participants improvement; an real world
samples collected over the five average improvement settings
from college calendar years from freshman to controlled by
students as part of in which senior year of 0.25 institutions
nine-year cross- collected from points for persuasive rather than by
sectional and year of 2000, writing proficiency, and experimenters.
longitudinal study 2002, 2004, 0.33 points for Colleges can
of undergraduate 2006 and expository. and should
writing 2008. These Longitudinal analyses evaluate the
performance, participants change in writing effectiveness of
conducted between included 109 performance their circular and
2000 and 2008. first year estimating the student programs, lest
students, 63 average improved other external
second years, 0.06 points per year, agencies do it
51 third years, or 0.18 points over a for them. More
57 fourth 3-year span. Welcome naturalistic
years, 5 fifth news for higher forms of written
years, 1 sixth education institutions. communication
years, and 17 that are
postgraduates becoming
from Rice increasingly
University, valued in the
houston workplace.

2010 Edoia Elola, The use of social Essay drafts, Between 19 The results of There is a need
Ana Oskoz technologies,such questionnaires, wiki drafts and 21, were differences between for more
as wikis and and chats were analyzed enrolled in an collaborative and research
chats, has to ascertain the advanced individual writing by generally in the
brought a differences between Spanish analyzing variations area of
individual and writing course. in fluency, accuracy, collaborative
renewed attention
collaborative work and to and syntactic writing and its
to collaborative explore the potential use complexity, this possible
writing. of social tools for FL shows that accuracy benefits.
writing. remained a concern
for learners writing

the analysis is about

compares learners
individual and
between Draft 1 and
Draft 2 texts a close
examination reveals
that learners had
worked on their ideas
and considered how
to express them
the analysis
examines how
learners focused on
various writing
components while
working individually
and collaboratively in
the wikis. This
consistent approach
shows that all
learners gathered the
source material for
their essay at the
initial stages of their
May 2016 Lori Czop describe how the gain insight -focused on This study Do not mention
Assaf, Liz teachers enacted into their improving illustrates the
Raffle and writing motivations, students complex
Beth instruction in actions, and writing relationships
Steinbachc their classrooms taken-for- abilities and between
granted professional teacher
assumptions. development learning,
for teacher
teachers in identity,
schools professional
- focused on development,and
writing classroom
instruction instruction.
and describe
how the
in their

Proposal Draft

Problem you want to Objective your study or Why is your proposal study Methodology Respondent/Participant
investigate why you want to study significant Who ?
this problem How many ?

The percentage of UTHM To examine the strategies Most of UTHM student still use Questionnaire 40 UTHM student from
students in writing skill for that been used by lecturer translator in their writing. FKAAS and FPTV student
English subject rate in classes.
To identify on how Uthm There are students who do not
student improve their achieve band 3 in muet due to low
writing skills . marks compared to writing,
reading, listening and speaking.
To determine the cause
that effect percentage in
writing skills for English
subject .


Instruction : Respondent are required to complete the details below.


1. To be a good writer, I would like to improve the writing skill by

2. In your opinion, what is the cause that affect the decreasing in percentage on writing
skills .


Please tick either Yes or No

1. Do you always use GOOGLE TRANSLATE or any translator apps in your writing task ?
2. Does your daily communication in English affect in your writing skill ?
3. Do you always write your writing assignment last minute ? if yes, does it affect your


Please choose two answer.

1.Importance of writing

a. Career
b. Study
c. Gain information

2.Obstacle in order to improve writing skill

a. Better in communication than writing

b. Doesnt know the grammar and spelling
c. Lack of information for the writing skill
d. Not interested in writing

3.The method that you would like to choose in improving your Writing Skill

a. Always refer to lecturer

b. By watching English movies
c. Listening English Song
d. Communicate with Foreigner student


Please mark a ( / ) on the scale suitable statement below.

Key : 1 = Strongly disagree
2 = Disagree
3= Agree
4 = Strongly agree

No. Statement 1 2 3 4

1 My lecturer provided suggested me about writing techniques and information

2 In my opinion , studying process writing is learner-centered approach

3 Writing skills are practiced by me via work group


1.What is your strategies that advantage you in scoring Writing Task?

Daily conversation in English

2. Which sources that you use to improve your writing skills

Online media


1.What is your strength that give you advantage in scoring Writing Task?

ii. Vocabulary
ii Grammar
iv.Daily conversation in English

2.Which sources that you use to improve your writing skills

i. Journal
ii. Book
iii. Articles
iv. Newspaper
v. Online media

1.What is your score in Writing Test for latest Muet ?

0 - 30
31 - 60

2.How often you practices and do exercises for writing in English Subject.

Once a week
Once a month
Four times a month


Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with
signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken language.
Writing is not a language, but a tool developed by human society. Within a language system,
writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary, grammar, and
semantics, with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols. Master can be defined as
a person with the ability or power to use, control, or dispose of something.

Mostly of the students still hard to mastering their writing skills especially in English
subject. Students reading skills is the cause that many student are also poor in writing skills. For
example, if they cannot recognize the main point of an argument in their reading, they obviously
cannot respond to this point in their writing. Most of students were rarely required to criticize an
argument, define a problem and propose a solution, shape their writing to meet their readers
needs, or revise based on feedback. The mix communications in their daily life also can affect
their writing skill. Most of students will use the words that they know than the suitable should be
used in the writing. This will make students tends to use awkward grammatical constructions to
avoid it rather than learn the contexts when its use is appropriate.


English writing skills are the medium of enhancing the critical thinking idea and also to
develop individual skills in created a good writing assessment. Unfortunately, there are majority
of the student still lacking in created a good writing task and their English literacy still at
moderate level to the ground. Teachers play the important role to ensure that students are capable
of giving their personal responses to the literary texts. Teachers strategies in teaching give a huge
impact to the student and how the strategies implied in the class could help to increase student
performance in writing skills.
This study aimed to evaluate the writing of English literacy among students FPTV and
FKAAS still at a moderate level to the ground. The study concludes with a discussion of the
implications of the findings on teaching and learning the English language, especially in the


1. To examine the strategies that been used by lecturer in classes.

2. To identify on how Uthm student improve their writing skills .
3. To determine the cause that effect percentage in writing skills for English subject.


1. Most of UTHM student still use translator in their writing.

2. There are students who do not achieve band 3 in muet due to low marks compared to
writing, reading, listening and speaking.


This study has been carried out to the top 40 students UTHM of 2 Faculty namely FPTV
and FKAAS. These students comprised of students of Year 1, 2, and 3. These students are men
and women from the nations namely Malay, Chinese and Indian and other races. The main
purpose of this study is to look at the stage of mastery of English most of the students are good
or simple. The instrument used was a matter of accurate to the background of students is given to
40 students and time given to complete the exam is 20 minutes.


Questionnaire (40 UTHM student from FKAAS and FPTV student 20 respondent
FKAAS, 20 respondent FPTV.
In order to get the objective about the research, questionnaire is use to get information about
writing problem.


1.7.1 Vocabulary

These students have a very limited vocabulary to enable them to build sentences
effectively. Because of these drawbacks, the students had to use the Malay language. Not having
a good vocabulary. This situation is avoided student of form sentences and to present ideas

1.7.2. Grammar

Grammar is too weak and could cause inefficient writing.

1.7.3. Wording and sentence structure - article

Weakness students can also be seen in terms of their ability to build sentences.

2.1 Result and Conclusion Of Questionnaire

Figure 1

Based on the questionnaire that we had done , there was 40 respondents from FKAAS
and FPTV students which completed answering the questions. From the result ,
70% respondents from FKAAS students who answer the questionnaire and the rest is FPTV

Figure 2

Figure 2 shows two chart result of gender and age of the respondents. The first chart
shows 57.5% female respondent that answer the questions while 42.5% respondent is the
malestudents. From this percentage, 23 female and 17 male respondent from FKAAS and
FPTV students was answering the questionnaire. The second chart shows result of age among
the students. Most of the student who answered the question in the 23 to 25 years old. Then,
17.5% respondents are students aged of 19 to 22 and students at the age of 26-30 only show

Figure 3 Figure 4

Figure 3 shows the race of respondents among FKAAS and FPTV students. The highest
percentages is 82.5 % which is Malays respondents is the most answer our questionnaire. From
the result shows there is no Chinese respondents so the rest is Indian and other race who
answer our questionnaire. Figure 4 gives the result of band Muet among the respondents. Based
on the result, the higher percentage shows most of the students get Band 3. Band 2 and 4 have
12.5% and 15 % respectively. Only 2.5% get Band 6. According to this result , there is no get
Band 1 because requirement for entering the university must have at least Band 2.

In order to achieve an objective of our research about writing skills among FKAAS and
FPTV students, there is some question related to our research. From the figure 5 shows the result
of writing marks in Muet among the student. Based on the figure, the highest percentage is 60%
where the students get 31-60 marks in the writing . Then, 35% students get 61-90 marks and the
rest get 0-30 marks in their writing.
Figure 5

Figure 6

The pie chart ( Figure 6 ) above shows the result based on our finding about how often
students practices and do exercises for writing in English subject. As can be seen, the result
show same percentages of 27.5% students and the lowest percentages shows 15% students
practices and do exercises once a week and once a month. A possible explanation for this might
be the students only practices and do exercise for writing during completing the project
or assignment that require them to do in English language even though not in English subject.
But the highest percentage is 30% where the students never do practices or exercise for writing.
Table 1

From the Table 1, due to our finding about the writing technique and information that
suggested to the students provided by lecturer. The majority of respondents agree when is show
57.5 % of students , follow by 32.5% strongly agree because every lecturer will help their
student in order to improve their knowledge and fix their weakness. So, they will suggested link
for online study to explore resources such as article or journal to improve their writing skills in
the areas in which they need help. Some links contain categorized study skills resources
available to students online. Only have small number where both have same percentage of
strongly disagree and disagree with our finding.

Table 2
Table 2 give the result of our finding about studying process writing is learner-centered
approach. Most of respondent was agree when it show 60% of respondents and it follow by
32.5% of respondents was strongly agree with our finding question . A possible explanation
was learner-centered teachers teach students how to think, solve problems, evaluate evidence,
analyze arguments, generate hypotheses all those learning skills essential to mastering material
in the discipline. They do not assume that students pick up these skills on their own,
automatically. A few students do, but they tend to be the students most like us and most students
arent that way. Only a small percentage of respondents did not agree with our finding

Table 3

Table 3 give the result about our finding question of writing skills are practiced by the
student via work group. The result shows most of respondent with 50% was agree with our
finding question follow by 25 % of respondent was strongly agree with it. The majority of
respondent thought that studying with a group is a great way to liven up study sessions. By
work group and studying in a group environment makes learning much more fulfilling and
enjoyable. Furthermore, work group can gives us more material and idea in our writing
skills . On the other hand, there was a small number of percentage respondent did not agree
because they preferred to study by their own.
What is interesting in this finding from the column chart 1 is that majority of the
respondent shows that the factor that give an advantage scoring in writing test are their interest,
strength in their vocabulary, grammar and conversation (in rank 3 and rank 2). Only a small
number of the respondent implied that they have more advantage with their master in vocabulary
and grammar. In addition, we could see the cause that effect their percentage in writing skill for
English subject based on this questionnaire.

Column Chart 2

The column chart 2 is quite informative in several ways. First, the data shows that the
most preferred source to improve the student writing skills is from the newspaper with 11
respondent. Next is the online media with 7 respondent and followed by the journal sources with
6 respondent then the books and articles sources. In column chart 2, there is a clear upward
movement in rank 2 and rank 3 for journal, book and articles as the source of improvement the
respondent writing skills in English subject which is the highest vote for the book with 18 vote.
Only a small number of respondent least preferred for the source of journal, book, articles,
newspaper and shockingly that the data rise in number of least preferred for online source which
is 7 vote while the other source steadily with 2 votes. This shows that the student used all the
source that state in our questionnaire as their source to improve their writing skills which fulfil
the objective number 3 for this case study.
Bar Chart 1

The data from this bar chart 1 can be connected with the data in column chart 1 which
shows the percentage in the respondent strategies that give advantage for their writing skill score.
The most important finding to appear from the data is that 42.5% of the respondent agreed that
by practicing daily conversation in English could help to improve scoring in writing skills. 40%
of the respondent agreed that by gaining interest in studying English will eventually help
increase the scoring then the number decrease to 37.5 % of respondent agreed to mastery of
grammar and lastly fall to 32.5 % which is the respondent selected the mastery in vocabulary
was the best strategies for scoring in English subject. As a result, all the student of FKAAS and
FPTV consider the strategies above help in increasing their score in writing skills.

Bar Chart 2
On average the respondents seemed to have chosen the online media sources as the most
helped their improvement on scoring the writing task in English subject with 62.5 % voted. On
the other hand, 17.5 % of the respondent pick the journal as the least favourite that help
increasing their scoring. While there is slightly fall from 42.5% of book source to the 37.5 % of
articles and ended at 32.5% for the newspaper source of improvement. In brief we could see the
effort of all the respondent in order to score marks for their writing task in English subject.

Bar Chart 3

From the bar chart 3 we can see that the main factor of majority the respondent thought
that the importance in writing was actually to gaining the more information in learning English
which 62.5 % of respondent agreed with this statement. There is significant steady in the data
of 60% of the selected multiple choice question the respondent choose that the writing skill
important in both career and for the study also. In contrast, the other 7.5% of the respondent
think that the writing are important in other reason which is not stated in detailed.

Bar Chart 4

From bar chart 4, the most important factor that appears to have dominated the causes
that affect the percentage of writing skill in English subject is the lack of information for writing
skills which 55% or 22 respondent chose to be their most factor that causing the decreasing in
their grades. Then followed by 50% of the respondents state that they doesnt know the grammar
and spelling very well and fall to 32.5% which the respondent have more better achievement in
communication than in writing. Also, 30% of the respondent actually not interesting in writing.
Shockingly the data of others is not selected by any of the respondent which this mean that all
the state answer was their biggest tread in improving their writing skill in English subject.

Bar Chart 5

Most of the respondents surveyed suggested that by watching an English movie could
actually helping to improve their English level in writing skills. Furthermore, not only by
watching English movie the respondent also suggested that by listening English music song
also will increase the understanding in English. Then followed by the 40% of the respondent
would always refer to lecturer in order to get more information and knowledge. It is obvious
from this bar chart that very few respondent choose to communicate with the foreigner

This pie chart show the percentage of respondents who use translator apps while doing
writing skills. About 80% admit that they are using google translate or any translator apps
when doing writing skills. This shows that most students frequently use translator apps rather
than using dictionary.

This pie chart show the percentage of respondent who said that communication
influence their writing skills. About 75% of students agree that communication can affect
their writing skills and another 25 % of the respondent did not agree with the statement given.

The graph shows on the responds on how to improve the writing skills.there have various
of answer on how to improve writing skills. The overall respondents said reading are one of the
factors that can improve writing skills. The other factors are communication in daily life and
always practice and know the new grammars when speaking. Next, listening to english music or
radio and watch english movies or drama also will help them to be a good writer. Last but not
least is to take tuition and do extra exercises on writing.
The graph shows opinion among respondents on causes that affect the decreasing
percentages on writing skills. The higher percentages was 5% which said lack of learning cause
the decreasing percentage on writing skills. Lack of knowledge on the topics given and practices
also the reasons that effect the decreasing percentages on writing. Next responds that we
received among respondents are lost interest in english, hard to adapt english and lack of
confidence in writing english are the other reasons that cause the decreasing percentages on
writing skills.

This study focus on how Universiti Tun Hussien Onn students improving the technical
writing skill. These survey involved FPTV and FKAAS students. Based on the objective,there
are some cases which are to define the problem of students regarding the technical writing and
the lecturers teaching technique.

Based on the results that have been collected, many students score in band three(3) , band
two(2),and band four(4) and only a few students scored band six(6). An additional, there are no
student scored in band one(1) because of University entries requirements need minimum band
two(2) in muet exam qualified to become a universitys students.

The findings of this study shows the technical writing rate among FKAAS and FPTV
students are moderate because many students failed to understand English well especially in
grammar and verb parts.


Based on this findings of the studies, this following are several recommendation to
improve writing skills among the students. During our studies , if we have a friends that good
writing skills we can ask and learn from them. The chances are pretty good if our best friend is
better writer because writing is typically considered a solitary activity, the best writers know
when its time to get much-needed feedback on their work. Besides , the students should have a
structure for drafting and re-drafting. To start with, writing will be very much easy and a work in
progress. Therefore, student will have clear an idea in order to develop their writing.
The recommendation for this study can be divided into two parts. The first part is
recommendation on the future improvement of the vocabulary or learns new words. Internet is
the fastest way to find new words and how to know the meaning of the some word, instantly.
Before this, many students find the meaning of some word using dictionary and it takes a more
time to know that meaning. Therefore, in the internet, there are also the ways how to improve
the grammar and to use a word in sentence

Furthermore, the second part of recommendation is to improve of the communication

skill and builds confidence to speak English fluently. Every day we can try to speak English
with our best friend. Practice not to use daily language in certain day. For example, Wednesday
is English day at University. Communicate with each other by using English language during
the day. An additional, add reading and writing skills by spend one hour per day to refer
newspaper article. Find the new word and find the meaning. After that, write the article again in
the correct sentences.

1. Jemma simeon (2016), Learner writing strategies of Seychellois ESL (English as a second
language) secondary school students: A sociocultural theory perspective. Volume 8, March 2016,
Pages 111.

2. Terumi Miyazo and Terry Anderson (2010), Learning outcomes and students' perceptions of
online writing: Simultaneous implementation of a forum, blog, and wiki in an EFL blended
learning setting. Volume 38, Issue 2, June 2010, Pages 185199.

3. Daniel Oppenheimer (2017), Improvement of writing skills during college: A multi-year

cross-sectional and longitudinal study of undergraduate writing performance. Volume 32, April
2017, Pages 1227.

4. Lori Czop Assaf, Liz Raffle and Beth Steinbachc (2016), how the teachers enacted writing
instruction in their classrooms.

5. Edoia Elola, Ana Oskoz (2010), Collaborative Writing : Fostering Foreign Language and
Writing Conventions Development. Volume 14, Number 3.

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