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The Originality of Aramaic Old Testament (aka Peshitta Tanakh

)

Aramaic Old Testament (known as Peshitta Tanakh) is Old Testament written in Aramaic.
There is also another Aramaic Old Testament version known as Syro Hexaplaris version
which is a translation of Septuagint.
The originality and the importance of Aramaic Old Testament (known as Peshitta Tanakh)
can be seen through its consistency by solving the contradictions between Septuagint and
Hebrew Masoretic Text (Hebrew Old Testament written several centuries after Jesus
Christ).
EDOM/ARAM
Genesis 25:21-23 (NIV) - "Isaac prayed to the Lord on behalf of his wife, because she
was childless. The Lord answered his prayer, and his wife Rebekah became pregnant. The
babies jostled each other within her, and she said, “Why is this happening to me?” So she
went to inquire of the Lord. The Lord said to her,“Two nations are in your womb, and
two peoples from within you will be separated; one people will be stronger than the other,
and the older will serve the younger."
Esau was the father of Edomites (Genesis 36:9) and Jacob became known as Israel
(Genesis 35:10). The importance of the prophesy in Genesis 25:21-23 can be seen a lot
more clear in Aramaic Old Testament (Peshitta Tanakh)
In Hebrew Masoretic Text, Aram ("Syria" or "Syrians") is mentioned 139 times while
Aram ("Syria" or "Syrians") is only mentioned 18 times in Peshitta Tanakh. On several
occasions, Edom is mentioned several times instead of Aram in Peshitta Tanakh. Edom is
mentioned 117 times in Peshitta Tanakh (Source - Vetus Testamentum - Vol. 18, Fasc. 2
(Apr., 1968), pp. 268-270).
Unlike Peshitta Tanakh, there are contradictions between Septagint and Hebrew
Masoretic Text. In some verses, it says Edom (or Idumea) in Septuagint while it says
Aram in Hebrew Masoretic Text. While in other verses, it says Aram in Septuagint while
it says Edom in Hebrew Masoretic Text.

Below are some examples.

1) 1 Kings 11:14 in Hebrew Masoretic Text, Septuagint, and Peshitta Tanakh (1 Kings
11:14 in Book "Translatio Syro Pescitto Veteris Testamenti Ex Codice Ambrosianus")
says Hadad was an Edomite and of the king's seed in Edom.

1 Kings 11:14 (JPS Tanakh translated from Hebrew Masoretic text) - "And the LORD
raised up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite; he was of the king’s seed in
Edom."

I Kings 11:14 (III Kings 11:14 in Septuagint) - "And the Lord raised up and enemy to
Solomon, Ader the Idumaean, and Esrom son of Eliadae who dwelt in Raama, and
Adadezer king of Suba his master; (and men gathered to him, and he was head of the
conspiracy, and he seized on Damasec,)and they were adversaries to Israel all the days of
Solomon: and Ader the Idumaean was of the seed royal in Idumaea."

Note . Septuagint and Vulgate Aram. and of the spoil of Hadadezer. and of the Philistines. And David made [himself] a name: and when he returned he smote Idumea in Gebelem to [the number of] eighteen thousand." 1 Kings 11:25 of Hebrew Masoretic Text contradicts 1 Kings 11:14 while 1 Kings 11:25 in Peshitta Tanakh (available in Book "Translatio Syro Pescitto Veteris Testamenti Ex Codice Ambrosianus") and Septuagint is in agreement with 1 Kings 11:14 by saying Edom. ." This contradiction is solved by Peshitta Tanakh which says Edom and it is in agreement with Septuagint for 2 Samuel 8:12-13. and from the spoils of Adraazar son of Raab king of Suba.The [Old Latin] has Edom for Aram (2 Chr 20:2). son of Rehob. even now thou art the reproach of the daughters of Syria.out of Idumea. you are now scorned by the daughters of Edom and all her neighbors and the daughters of the Philistines—all those around you who despise you."of Aram. beside the mischief that Hadad did: and he abhorred Israel. 3) 2 Chronicles 20:2 (NIV) Some people came and told Jehoshaphat."And he was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon. and of Moab. king of Zobah." Peshitta Tanakh says Edom.Hadad is Ader in Septuagint. Peshitta Tanakh says Edom." Note . and of the children of Ammon. and of Amalek. and from the Philistines. En Gedi). and from the children of Ammon. “A vast army is coming against you from Edom. most Hebrew manuscripts."before your wickedness was uncovered. and out of Moab. Hebrew Masoretic Text contradicts Septuagint and Peshitta Tanakh. 2) 2 Samuel 8:12-13 (Septuagint) . this is the mischief which Ader did. even eighteen thousand men. But in 1 Kings 11:25. Septuagint and Vulgate Aram. it says Aram and Arameans 2 Samuel 8:12-13 (Hebrew Masoretic Text) . 1 Kings 11:25 (Hebrew Masoretic Text) . even of the daughters of the Philistines that compass thee round about."So Ader returned to his country."before thy wickedness was discovered. 4) Ezekiel 16:57 (NIV) . It is already in Hazezon Tamar” (that is. [b] . But in Hebrew Masoretic Text. Ezekiel 16:57 (Septuagint) .[b] from the other side of the Dead Sea. and he was a bitter enemy of Israel.Many Hebrew manuscripts and Syriac. and from Amalec. and he reigned in the land of Edom. Even so. And David got him a name when he returned from smiting the Arameans in the Valley of Salt. most Hebrew manuscripts. and reigned over Syria'." 1 Kings 11:25 (III Kings in Septuagint) . and of all that are round about her.2 Chronicles 20:2 One Hebrew manuscript.

they exchanged turquoise. translated by William Whiston in 1737. The LORD had given Aram a victory through Naaman. 1988). Poseidonios from Apamea (ca. was respected and highly honored by his master. But Aramaic . Below are some examples from the second book of Chronicles. Chapt. 6) 2 Kings 5:1 (JPS Tanakh translated from Hebrew Masoretic Text) . the captain of the host of Syria. This man was a good soldier. But Aramaic OT does not have 2 Chronicles 28:16-22. they call themselves Arameans. because by him the Lord had given deliverance to Syria. the commander of the Aramean king's army. 1)Both Septuagint and Hebrew OT have 16 verses in 2 Chronicles Chapter 12.Most Hebrew manuscripts. Book I. and highly respected. and the man was mighty in strength.G. Additional Notes . 6." That is why Aram is Syria and Arameans are Syrians in Septuagint. Kidd. Paragraph 4) Verses that are not in Peshitta Tanakh (Aramaic OT) There are several verses in Hebrew Old Testament and Septuagint that are not in Aramaic Old Testament."The people we Greek call Syriacs. Aramaic OT only has 2 Chronicles 12:13-16.Greeks called Arameans or Aramites as "Syriacs" or "Syrians."Aram had the Aramites. Josephus wrote .5) Ezekiel 27:16 (NIV) ." [Source ." But 2 King 5:1 (of Peshitta Tanakh) has Edom instead of Aram (aka Syria) and mentions Edom throughout 2 King 5 instead of Syria in Hebrew Old Testament and Septuagint. which the Greeks called Syrians."(Antiquities of the Judeans. Posidonius (Cambridge Classical Texts and Commentaries. 955-956]." 2 Kings 5:1 (of Septuagint) .51 BC) . 135 BC . but he had a skin disease. 5)Both Septuagint and Hebrew OT have the verses 2 Chronicles 29:10-19.J. 3)Both Septuagint and Hebrew OT have the verses 2 Chronicles 9:25 & 2 Chronicles 9:29. embroidered work. pt. coral and rubies for your merchandise. 2. Aramaic OT only has 17 verses in 2 Chronicles 11. Below information about Peshitta Tanakh is from this source ." So Aramaic is also known as "Syriac." Note . 2. vol. but a leper."Naaman. But Aramaic OT does not have 2 Chronicles 9:25 & 2 Chronicles 9:29."Now Naiman. some Hebrew manuscripts and Syriac Edom. fine linen. purple fabric. 2)Both Septuagint and Hebrew OT have 23 verses in 2 Chronicles 11."Aram did business with you because of your many products. pp. was a great man before his master. 4)Both Septuagint and Hebrew OT have the verses 2 Chronicles 28:16-22.

" But Peshitta Tanakh has no such contradiction. and Marie. Compared to Peshitta Tanakh and Wycliffe’s translation. and he ceased on the seventh day from all his works which he made. and sche childide to hym Aaron.” Here is the link to check this verse . and he rested on the seventh day from all his works which he had made. Other errors corrected by Peshitta Tanakh 1) Did Moses' father marry his aunt? Exodus 6:20 (1917 JPS Tanakh English translation of Hebrew Masoretic Text) ."And Amram took him Jochebed his father’s sister to wife.” In Hebrew Masoretic Text. douytir of his fadris brother. finished his works which he had made." Exodus 6:20 (Samuel Bagster & Sons' Translation from Septuagint) . 3) Exodus 20:7 (look at the differences below) . and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made. and Mariam their sister.edu/fileadmin/imported_site/biblical_studies/wycliffe/Exo.” Let’s look at Septuagint.com/lxx/Genesis/index. And the years of the life of Amram were a hundred and thirty and seven years. Jocabed. and the years of the life of Ambram were a hundred and thirty-two years. Exodus 6:20 (John Wycliffe’s translation) – “Forsothe Amram took a wijf.http://ecmarsh.nnu.htm Genesis 2:2 (Lamsa Translation of Peshitta Tanakh) – “And on the sixth day God. the difference with Septuagint is that it says the years of the life of Ambram were a hundred and thirty-two years. and she bore him Aaron and Moses." Let’s also look at John Wycliffe’s translation."And Ambram took to wife Jochabed the daughter of his father's brother.txt Peshitta Tanakh has "Amram took his uncle's daughter Yokhaber" in Exodus 6:20. is in contradiction to Exodus 20:11 (in Hebrew Masoretic Text) where it says "six days.” Here is a link - http://wesley. and she bore to him both Aaron and Moses. and the yeeris of lijf of Amram weren an hundred and seuene and thretti.“And on the seventh day God finished His work which He had made. Peshitta Tanakh and Wycliffe’s translation agree with Hebrew Masoretic Text about Amram’s age. and Moises.OT does not have 2 Chronicles 29:10-19. Genesis 2:2 (Translation from Septuagint) – “And God finished on the sixth day his works which he made. it says "seventh day" (in Genesis 2:2). 2) Genesis 2:2 (1917 JPS Tanakh English translation of Hebrew Masoretic Text) .

For in six days Yahweh made the heavens and the earth." Through this. sanctified it}. and the sea and all things in them."Two and twenty years old was Ahaziah when he began to reign." 2 King 8:26 of Hebrew Masoretic Text. And he rested on the seventh day. . for that reason. the sea. for MarYA will not consider him innocent who swears falsely in his Name. Yahweh blessed the seventh day and sanctified it. for the Lord thy God will not acquit him that takes his name in vain. therefore the Lord blessed the seventh day. . 4) 2 Kings 8:26 & 2 Chronicles 22:2 2 Kings 8:26 (Hebrew Masoretic Text) . it says Ahaziah was 22 years old. and hallowed it. thus. and he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD."You shall not swear falsely in the name of MarYA your Alaha. we know that Athaliah was the wife of Joram and their son was Ahaziah. and his mother’s name was Athaliah the daughter of Omri.. it says Ahaziah was 42 years old. the seas and all that is with them in six days. and Ahaziah his son reigned in his stead. for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. and was buried with his fathers in the city of David.. Peshitta Tanakh clears the contradiction found in Hebrew Masoretic Text. KJV (King James Version) . and rested on the seventh day. For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth.. and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem. for MarYA made the heavens and the earth.. for he had the daughter of Ahab to wife.Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain. Alaha blessed the seventh day and made it holy {or.. and rested on the seventh day. Jehoshaphat being the king of Judah. and he reigned one year in Jerusalem.. the sea and all which is in them." 2 Kings 8:24 (Hebrew Masoretic Text) ."And Joram slept with his fathers. and he reigned one year in Jerusalem. And he walked in the way of the kings of Israel. Does Peshitta Tanakh has this contradiction? Both 2 Kings 8:26 and 2 Chronicles 22:2 (of Peshitta Tanakh) says Ahaziah was twenty- two years old when he began to reign. But in 2 Chronicles 22:2." LXX . for Yahweh will not allow to go unpunished he who takes his name in vain.. and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day.Brenton) Hebrew Masoretic .You shall not take the name of Yahweh your God in vain."Forty and two years old was Ahaziah when he began to reign. And his mother’s name was Athaliah the daughter of Omri king of Israel.Peshitta Tanakh . 5) Did Joram marry the daughter of Ahab or the sister of Ahab? 2 Kings 8:16-18 (Hebrew Masoretic Text) .. as did the house of Ahab. Thirty and two years old was he when he began to reign. and hallowed it. For in six days the Lord made the heaven and the earth.(Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat king of Judah began to reign."And in the fifth year of Joram the son of Ahab king of Israel." 2 Chronicles 22:2 (Hebrew Masoretic Text) . and all that in them is.

"Jehoiachin was eight years old when he began to reign. and he reigned in Jerusalem three months. His translation is an alright translation. for the sister of Ahab was his wife. In Peshitta Tanakh.But in 2 Kings 8:26 & 2 Chronicles 22:2. . But there are only 6000 horsemen? There is something strange here."And in the fifth year of Joram the son of Ahab king of Israel. began to reign. 7) 1 Samuel 13:5 1 Samuel 13:5 (Hebrew Masoretic Text) . thirty thousand chariots. and pitched in Michmas. it says Athaliah was the daughter of Omri and Athaliah was the mother of Ahaziah. But in 2 Kings 8:16-18. Let's look at Peshitta Tanakh. This contradiction in Hebrew Masoretic Text is cleared by Peshitta Tanakh. and his mother’s name was Nehushta the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem. This makes much more sense." Unlike 2 Kings 8:16-18 of Hebrew Masoretic Text. What does Peshitta Tanakh say about this contradiction? Both 2 Chronicles 36:9 and 2 Kings 24:8 of Peshitta Tanakh says Jehoiachin was eighteen years old. But Hebrew Masoretic Text has Beth-aven. He was thirty-two years old when he began to reign. we know that Ahab was the son of Omri. 6) Was Jehoiachin 8 years old (2Chronicles 36:9) or 18 years old (2Kings 24:8) when he began to reign? 2 Kings 24:8 (Hebrew Masoretic Text) . and people as the sand which is on the sea-shore in multitude." It says Jehoiachin was eighteen years old in 2 Kings 24:8 and Jehoiachin was eight years old in 2 Chronicles 36:9. king of Judah.000 chariots in Hebrew Masoretic Text. and he reigned three months and ten days in Jerusalem. Joram the son of Jehoshaphat." There are 30. What does Peshitta Tanakh say about this contradiction? 2 Kings 8:16-18 (Lamsa Translation of Peshitta Tanakh) . and they came up."Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he began to reign. it says Bayth-eil. In 1 Samuel 13:5 of Peshitta Tanakh." 2 Chronicles 36:9 (Hebrew Masoretic Text) . as did the house of Ahab. and he did that which was evil in the sight of the LORD. we read Athaliah was the daughter of Ahab. eastward of Beth-aven. Peshitta Tanakh points out that Joram married a sister of Ahab. and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem."And the Philistines assembled themselves together to fight with Israel. the contradictions in Hebrew Masoretic Text are cleared by Peshitta Tanakh. Lamsa translation of Peshitta Tanakh is the only current available English Translation of Peshitta Tanakh. and he did evil in the sight of the LORD. In 1 Kings 16:29-30. and six thousand horsemen. Ahab was the son of Omri and Athaliah was the daughter of Omri. it says there were 3000 chariots instead of 30. And he walked in the way of the kings of Israel. It’s not great.000 chariots. Through this.

Isaiah 66:15." It says God makes the clouds his chariot. Let's look at Peshitta Tanakh. Jeremiah 4:13.8) Psalms 104:3 (1917 JPS Tanakh translation of Hebrew Masoretic Text) ." So we see that this error in Masoretic Text is cleared by Peshita Tanakh. Who makest the clouds Thy chariot. 27th day. 9) Genesis 8:4 ."Who layest the beams of Thine upper chambers in the waters.17th day in both Peshitta Tanakh. 2 Kings 2:11-12. and Samaritan Pentateuch. . The clouds are not his chariots. There are several other errors in Hebrew Old Testament and Septuagint corrected by Peshitta Tanakh. Who walkest upon the wings of the wind. For Example."He makes his lofty dwellings in the waters and sets his chariot above the clouds and walks upon the wings of the wind. Hebrew Masoretic Text. . 2 Kings 6:17. Psalms 104:3 (Bauscher's translation of Psalms 104 of Peshitta Tanakh) . God travels on his chariots above the clouds. But in Septuagint.