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# Electromagnetic Waves Theory and Maxwells

Equations

Farhan Khan
Bilkent University, Ankara
Outline

## Motivations Why, what, how ?

Applications

Gauss Law
Maxwells first Equation

## The concept of monopole

Maxwells second equation

## Amperes and Faradays laws

Maxwells third and fourth equations

EM waves
Motivation

## Modern science and technology

Einsteins relativity, Shannons information theory

## EM waves transmission of information

Physical communication through high frequency EM waves

Home appliances
Microwave oven

## Work behind Maxwells equations

Maxwells four equations describe the electric and magnetic fields arising from varying
distributions of electric charges and currents, and how those fields change in time.
Static charge and Electric field

surface

## Gauss law for magnetic field

Magnetic field lines coming out of the closed surface equal to the
field line going into the surface

## Magnetic monopole doesnt exist

No isolated north or south pole, they always exist in pairs
Maxwells two equations in point
form

Divergence theorem
Faradays Law of EM induction

## In the absence of a dynamic magnetic field, the path integral

is the potential difference, since closed path, the integral
becomes zero.
Ampere laws

## Two factors to generate magnetic field, i.e.,

Conduction current, moving charges
Displacement current, moving or changing E field

## A current carrying conductor has a magnetic field

surrounding it right hand rule

## A time varying electric field is displacement current, gives

rise to magnetic field in turn anticausal
Stokes theorem and point form

Closed path integral equals the surface integral of the curl of the vector field

## Point form of Faradays law

Maxwells equations

Integral form
Point / differential form
EM waves

## By assembling all four of Maxwell's equations together and

providing the correction to Ampre's law,

## Maxwell's equations could be combined to form a wave

equation.
For simplicity, E and B are along a single coordinate
direction
EM waves (contd.)

This equation has solutions for E(x) (and corresponding solutions for B(x)) that
represent traveling electromagnetic waves.
EM waves

## The general solution consists of linear combinations of

sinusoidal components as shown below.
Power and frequency of EM waves

## Ideally EM fields would always oscillate and EM waves

would travel to infinity once generated

Attenuation

## Satellite, ground communication, cellular networks,

television, underwater communication
Conclusion

## EM waves and importance of

wireless transmission

Electromagnetic fields

## Maxwells equations and work

behind by Gauss, Faraday,
Coulomb, Ampere.

EM waves generation by
oscillating EM fields

## Power and frequency

characteristics of EM waves

Applications
Thanks

Questions ?