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Electromagnetic Waves Theory and Maxwells


Farhan Khan
Bilkent University, Ankara

Motivations Why, what, how ?


Gauss Law
Maxwells first Equation

The concept of monopole

Maxwells second equation

Amperes and Faradays laws

Maxwells third and fourth equations

Current and induction displacement current

Dynamic or time-varying electromagnetic fields

EM waves

Modern science and technology

Einsteins relativity, Shannons information theory

Transistors store and process information

EM waves transmission of information

Physical communication through high frequency EM waves

Satellite, Cellular communication, internet, bluetooth etc.

Home appliances
Microwave oven

Work behind Maxwells equations

Gauss, Faraday, Ampre

Maxwells four equations describe the electric and magnetic fields arising from varying
distributions of electric charges and currents, and how those fields change in time.
Static charge and Electric field

Consider an amount of positive charge q enclosed by an imaginary


Gauss law for electric field

Gauss law for magnetic field

Magnetic field lines coming out of the closed surface equal to the
field line going into the surface

Magnetic monopole doesnt exist

No isolated north or south pole, they always exist in pairs
Maxwells two equations in point

Divergence theorem
Faradays Law of EM induction

The closed path integral of Electric field intensity

The induced EMF

Time varying magnetic field induces Electric field

In the absence of a dynamic magnetic field, the path integral

is the potential difference, since closed path, the integral
becomes zero.
Ampere laws

Two factors to generate magnetic field, i.e.,

Conduction current, moving charges
Displacement current, moving or changing E field

A current carrying conductor has a magnetic field

surrounding it right hand rule

A time varying electric field is displacement current, gives

rise to magnetic field in turn anticausal
Stokes theorem and point form

Closed path integral equals the surface integral of the curl of the vector field

Point form of Amperes law

Point form of Faradays law

Maxwells equations

Integral form
Point / differential form
EM waves

By assembling all four of Maxwell's equations together and

providing the correction to Ampre's law,

Maxwell's equations could be combined to form a wave

For simplicity, E and B are along a single coordinate
EM waves (contd.)

This equation has solutions for E(x) (and corresponding solutions for B(x)) that
represent traveling electromagnetic waves.
EM waves

The general solution consists of linear combinations of

sinusoidal components as shown below.
Power and frequency of EM waves

Ideally EM fields would always oscillate and EM waves

would travel to infinity once generated


Power traveling long distance

Frequency traveling long distance with power conserved

Low frequency more penetration, non line of sight

High frequency long distance, line of sight

Satellite, ground communication, cellular networks,

television, underwater communication

EM waves and importance of

wireless transmission

Electromagnetic fields

Maxwells equations and work

behind by Gauss, Faraday,
Coulomb, Ampere.

EM waves generation by
oscillating EM fields

Power and frequency

characteristics of EM waves


Questions ?