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Electromagnetic Waves Theory and Maxwells

Equations

Farhan Khan
Bilkent University, Ankara
Outline

Motivations Why, what, how ?

Applications

Gauss Law
Maxwells first Equation

The concept of monopole


Maxwells second equation

Amperes and Faradays laws


Maxwells third and fourth equations

Current and induction displacement current

Dynamic or time-varying electromagnetic fields


EM waves
Motivation

Modern science and technology


Einsteins relativity, Shannons information theory

Transistors store and process information

EM waves transmission of information


Physical communication through high frequency EM waves

Satellite, Cellular communication, internet, bluetooth etc.

Home appliances
Microwave oven

Work behind Maxwells equations


Gauss, Faraday, Ampre

Maxwells four equations describe the electric and magnetic fields arising from varying
distributions of electric charges and currents, and how those fields change in time.
Static charge and Electric field

Consider an amount of positive charge q enclosed by an imaginary


surface

Gauss law for electric field

Gauss law for magnetic field

Magnetic field lines coming out of the closed surface equal to the
field line going into the surface

Magnetic monopole doesnt exist


No isolated north or south pole, they always exist in pairs
Maxwells two equations in point
form

Divergence theorem
Faradays Law of EM induction

The closed path integral of Electric field intensity

The induced EMF

Time varying magnetic field induces Electric field

In the absence of a dynamic magnetic field, the path integral


is the potential difference, since closed path, the integral
becomes zero.
Ampere laws

Two factors to generate magnetic field, i.e.,


Conduction current, moving charges
Displacement current, moving or changing E field

A current carrying conductor has a magnetic field


surrounding it right hand rule

A time varying electric field is displacement current, gives


rise to magnetic field in turn anticausal
Stokes theorem and point form

Closed path integral equals the surface integral of the curl of the vector field

Point form of Amperes law

Point form of Faradays law


Maxwells equations

Integral form
Point / differential form
EM waves

By assembling all four of Maxwell's equations together and


providing the correction to Ampre's law,

Maxwell's equations could be combined to form a wave


equation.
For simplicity, E and B are along a single coordinate
direction
EM waves (contd.)

This equation has solutions for E(x) (and corresponding solutions for B(x)) that
represent traveling electromagnetic waves.
EM waves

The general solution consists of linear combinations of


sinusoidal components as shown below.
Power and frequency of EM waves

Ideally EM fields would always oscillate and EM waves


would travel to infinity once generated

Attenuation

Power traveling long distance

Frequency traveling long distance with power conserved

Low frequency more penetration, non line of sight

High frequency long distance, line of sight

Satellite, ground communication, cellular networks,


television, underwater communication
Conclusion

EM waves and importance of


wireless transmission

Electromagnetic fields

Maxwells equations and work


behind by Gauss, Faraday,
Coulomb, Ampere.

EM waves generation by
oscillating EM fields

Power and frequency


characteristics of EM waves

Applications
Thanks

Questions ?