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The Effects of Transportation Experience on ID 117

Manufacturing Engineering and Management Freshmen

A Research Project presented to the
De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines

In Partial Fulfillment to the Requirements in
Science, Technology, and Society 2


Big-asan, Ann Dannielle C.
Cabacuñgan, Lloyd Ven Dell T.
Dela Cruz, Jon Nelson
Dy, Vincent Joshua T.
Go, Mark Patrick C.
Lee, Patricia C.
Lim, Joshua A.
Ngan, Charles
Tan Ai, Richard Josiah C.
Urbano, Intel Joseph R.
Villanueva, Joseph Gabriel G.

Submitted to:
Mr. Leal, Melanio L.

December 6, 2017


List of Figures 3
Definition of Terms 4
Acknowledgement 5

1.1 Background 7
1.2 Statement of Research Problem 9
1.3 Statement of Specific Objectives 9
1.4 Significance of the Research 9
1.5 Scopes and Delimitations of the Study 10
1.6 Philosophical Underpinning 10
1.7 Hypothesis 11


3.1 Research Design and Approach 16
3.2 Research Participants 16
3.3 Method of Data Analysis 17
3.4 Summary 26
3.5 Conclusion and Recommendations 27




Figure 3.1 Demographics - Age 22
Figure 3.2 Demographics - Gender 23
Figure 3.3 Students’ Mode of Transportation and its Associated Travel Time 24
Figure 3.4 Students’ Mode of Transportation and its Associated Sleep Duration 24
Figure 3.5 Travel Time vs Sleep Duration 30
Figure 3.6 Mode of Transportation vs Affected Factors 31
Figure 3.7 Travel Time vs Affected Factors 31
Figure 3.8 Mode of Transportation vs Grades 33
Figure 3.9 Travel Time vs Grades 34
Figure 3.10 Travel Time vs Interests 41
Figure 3.11 Mode of Transportation vs Health 42
Figure 3.12 Travel Time vs Health
Figure 3.13 Mode of Transportation vs Health 34
Figure 3.14 Travel Time vs Frequency of Stress 41


is an interdisciplinary engineering course that integrates mechanical engineering. 4|Page . computer studies and modern management into a single five-year degree program that includes one year of on-the-job training in manufacturing companies. Manufacturing Engineering and Management (MEM) . ID 117 Manufacturing Engineering and Management Students .students who enrolled in the bachelor of science manufacturing engineering and management degree program at De La Salle University’s academic year of 2017-2018. electronics engineering. 2.DEFINITION OF TERMS 1.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The group would like to acknowledge the help of Sebastian Dela Cruz. The group would also like to acknowledge Johannie Mae Uy for inspiring us to this research and for lending us her knowledge in this topic. 5|Page . 117 manufacturing engineering and management student. for helping us disseminate the survey to his fellow blockmates.

CHAPTER 1 Introduction 6|Page .

INTRODUCTION 1. they say that this is the way to reduce the traffic being experienced by everyone. with 7|Page . Commuting is common to everyone who lives on a tight budget or has a difficulty in transportation and wishes to utilize the public transportation that is provided. With that. This would mean that the person would have to take a different route. The most advised way by the government is to take public transportation to reduce the amount of private vehicles on the road to hopefully decrease the volume of cars on the road. traffic has been a growing problem in the country as the population of the nation keeps growing per year. may it be longer or shorter. In the Philippines. Thus. according to a news in 2015 by Philippine Star. This would cause the increase of public utility and private vehicles on the road that would swell up at intersections or cause road blockages as these prime locations would not be able to accommodate a large volume cars at a single time.1 Background As the Philippines growth rate increases 6.CHAPTER 1 .org/). it could be easily seen in every road despite the amount of traffic enforcers would be placed in a heavily congested intersection. Its effect towards commuters and drivers could be one of the major causes of work inefficiency. Another factor to consider would be the commute route as some routes would not be a two-way process. Moreover. The commute would highly depend on the location from the house of the commuter and their location. this would be highly troublesome towards the capital cities or major landmarks that the Philippines has (Source: http://www.9% per year.worldbank. an estimated Php 3 Billion is the cost of traffic jams per day and with the inflation rate it is higher this time. This would be most commonly used by students or the blue collar working class. Traffic has been one of the biggest environmental and stress inducing issue a country could face in terms of how individuals would go about the city to reach their destination.

1. and pedicabs. Inclusion to this would be how often they could get a ride and/or frequency of occurrences of vehicle maintenance or breakdowns that affected the travel route of the student. and welfare of these selected students. Another consideration would be the bottleneck points of Taft Avenue that are created due to improper planning or unforeseen circumstances that would be brought to the travel routes. Bus. The objective of the study would be to assess the effects of the mode of transportation and travel time to the academics. The quality and management of the vehicles used for commuting would depend on the government and the company of which the vehicles belong to. LRT. Given the choices given to MEM 117 choice given the circumstances of availability. a tricycles are not allowed on the street or there are no tricycles at all to serve the students.2 Statement of Research Problem 8|Page . may it be to go home or to go to a destination. With the conditions given to Taft Avenue. It has been replaced by a slower transportation method. it would have a different assessment as to given a different pool of possible combinations to go about the area. Other inclusions would be the happiness and opinion of the respondents towards their current travel route and the quality of the vehicles they are riding. Students from the school of De La Salle University – Manila commonly uses public transportation to go about the area around Taft. pedicabs. jeepney. The proper continuous quality check by the government or the conductors fail to have a maintaining quality and standardization as if they would implement such quality management towards their drivers. The study would be centered to manufacturing engineering and management students who are in the batch of 117. a lot would not pass as given the amount they make would not be enough to fix the looks or performance of their vehicle. socialization. The quality management of these vehicles are only inspected during the start of the registration of the vehicle.

Gather information of the ID 117 manufacturing engineering and management students on the modes of transportation they use when going to and from school. 5. and Chemistry 1. Create a qualitative survey that would know the personal stand of the participants of their total assessment of what they feel given the topic of traffic and stress.4 Significance of the Research The study would benefit the commuters and policy makers in realizing the important factors that continue to decrease work performance which that is caused by the under utilization of the resources in improving public utility vehicles. To determine if there is a correlation between modes of transportation that the participant is taking to their academic performance. Plane and Spherical Trigonometry for Engineering. Quantify the perception towards the socialization and welfare of the student through the survey. 1. 2. 4. the study aims to find the effects of the stress of experience of public transportation has towards the ID 117 manufacturing engineering and management students in terms of academics. and welfare. and their welfare. 3. To collate the students’ academic performances in the subjects Engineering Algebra 1.3 Statement of Specific Objectives 1.5 Scope and Delimitations of the Study Scope 9|Page . 1. It would provide data that would help predict what possible problems would emerge as the population of the Philippines continues to grow exponentially. Thus. socialization. What is the impact of the mode of transportation and stress towards the ID 117 manufacturing engineering and management students? 1. socialization.

have better health and would be able to socialize more due to less stress and having more time. the group has chosen to experience of a student in traffic. and jeep. Delimitations 1.7 Hypothesis Students who live near DLSU and have lesser travel time will perform better in academics. 1. Many problems are emerging because of it.6 Philosophical Underpinning Traffic is a problem that is common to most if not all. and welfare of students will help in making the research focused. The study covers the different modes of transportation such as commuting by train. 1. and academics of 117 MEM students. The study is only limited to 117 manufacturing engineering and management students. The study includes an online survey. and walking. 2. The study does not cover the professors of the subjects. 3. private vehicle. and CHEMONE of the 117 MEM students. 4. The research will focus on the effects of traffic to the socialization. Tackling on points namely academics. bus. 2. 1. The conclusions of the study will be based only on the results of the online survey. welfare. In order to further expound on the problems that are caused by traffic. 10 | P a g e . The study will focus on the three subjects namely ENGALG1. 3. ENGTRIG. socialization.

CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature 11 | P a g e .

Students suffer from stress and sleep deprivation due to the long commutes they are experiencing every day (Romero. Moreover. Low attendance can lead to low grades which may eventually affect the student’s future. al on commuting employees (Ruger. long-term memory. studies also show that students who are exposed to the pollution brought by traffic jams tend to score poorly in exams and are also prone to depression and anxiety (Romero. Being present in school is vital for educators especially the students as they are the ones who will benefit the most if they attend their classes regularly (Mugoro. 2015). 2015). 2015). 12 | P a g e . In a study conducted by Ruger et. it has been affecting Filipinos specifically the students in the National Capital Region (NCR). Researchers found out that people who are exposed to traffic noise are twenty-five percent more likely to show symptoms of depression (Poon. 2014). and attention in school as they wake up early the next day in order to get to school on time (GMA News Online. Sleep deprivation can affect their performance.CHAPTER 2 . Furthermore. 2015). It is shown that people with longer commute times are more likely to show lower health related quality of life which is caused by the higher level of stress.REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Traffic has been a problem for all Filipinos living in the cities and now a growing concern for people living in the rural areas. 2017). It is not only pollution that poses a risk to students but also the noise pollution it gives.

this paper is relevant since De La Salle University resides in the heart of the Metro (Mercurio. it is important to determine the problems that may rise in the near future especially to the students who travel to and from DLSU. Where objective stressors are travel time. The dissatisfaction of a commuter on the commute time is a stressor. and socialization. and comfort while subjective stress include mode satisfaction and travel liking. transit commuters are less stressed by having a plan b and knowing the schedule of trains which make the commute more predictable. Commuting stress is composed of objective stress and subjective stress (Legrain et al. Upon conducting a survey on driving transit and bus they have founds out that the stress of commuting is directly associated to the mode used. 13 | P a g e . 2017). With the current situation that Metro Manila ranks as the third worst city traffic in Asia. The interaction of the objective and subjective factors are the cause of stress. Transit is less stressful than driving. Driving is the most stressful. academics. 2015). With this. predictability. This paper agrees with the studies shown by the government as well as international organizations that traffic affects the students in particular in terms of their welfare.

CHAPTER 3 Methodology 14 | P a g e .

The survey were taken online through Google Forms.1 and 3. 3.1 Research Design and Approach In order to gather the necessary information from the respondents a survey was done. the group would like to gauge the students socialization skills and opportunities. The respondents are currently taking general engineering subjects namely College Algebra for Engineering (ENGALG1). aside from the transportation experience. Furthermore.2 Research Participants The research revolves around all 28 manufacturing engineering and management freshmen. 15 | P a g e . The members of the group also predicts that the freshmen students’ quiz results will range from below average to average since they might be affected by their transition from highschool to college. given the stress induced by transportation. the response rate is accepted. Data of other sources of stress would also be collected to measure the impact it has. See Figure 3. 2015).57%. With a high turnout rate of 78. on the wellbeing of the student inside campus.2 for the demographics of the respondents.CHAPTER 3 . The average response rate for internal surveys is 30% (Fryrear. Plane and Spherical Trigonometry for Engineering (ENGTRIG). This would give a clear picture on how the students’ of batch ID 117 of manufacturing engineering and management are handling their first terms in De La Salle University.METHODOLOGY 3. and General Chemistry (CHEMONE).

Demographics . welfare. With this.2 .3 Method of Data Analysis The researchers had a brain-storming on which topic will they focus. the group decided to research if the mode of transportation has an effect on the academic performance. and love life of a student. Some of the researchers are travelling at least 45 minutes to go to school.Gender 3.Age Figure 3. Since.1 .Demographics . most of the researchers were manufacturing engineering and 16 | P a g e . Figure 3.

The target turnout of the researchers were 100% however.09% when it comes to student-commuters. Figure 3. For the students who use private vehicles they have travel time of more than 1 hour.4. Graphs and charts were used to present the results of the survey and are also used to analyze the data and results.Students’ Mode of Transportation and its Associated Travel Time According to Figure 3. Sleep is said to affect the overall performance of individuals in several ways 17 | P a g e .3 . It is expected for the students who live in nearby condo to have a travel time of less than 1 hour.33% of students who live in nearby condominiums are able to sleep with an average duration of 6-8 hours while there is only 9. 54. only 22 out of 28 or 78. Refer to Figure 3. 33. people who live near the school get to sleep more compared to those who commute.55% of the student commuter have travel time of around 1 to 2. There is a significant difference between the duration of sleep between students who live in condo and students.3 for the mode of transportation and travel time of ID 117 manufacturing engineering and management students.57% of the respondents have answered. Survey question were formulated and were done through Google students they have decided to conduct their research on ID 117 manufacturing engineering and management freshmen.

18 | P a g e . cognitive skills and concentration which are all important to learning (“Why Is Sleep Important?”.5 for the correlation of travel time and sleep of ID 117 MEM Freshmen. People who have a longer time travelling will have less time and thus affect their time of sleep.4 . See figure 3. it could be seen that the travel time is negatively correlated to the sleeping hours.including attention span. 2017). Sleep deprivation also causes stress and affect the health negatively. Figure 3.Students’ Mode of Transportation and its Associated Sleep Duration From the distribution of the answers per response.

Travel Time vs Sleep Duration Figure 3.5 . 19 | P a g e .6 .7 shows that both students with short and long travel times are more concerned with their welfare. Figure 3.6 presents evidence that the main concern and the most affected factor of the mode of transportation is welfare.Mode of Transportation vs Affected Factors Figure 3. Figure 3. welfare is the main concern regardless of what mode of he or she is taking. The welfare of the person is very important as it greatly affects the other two factors. The welfare of a person greatly affects his or her performance in academics.

62.Travel Time vs Affected Factors Figure 3. 2. Figure 3. 61 and 54. 58.45 and 60.89. People who live near DLSU has a higher score on all the subjects.20%.Mode of Transportation vs Grades Students who live near the school have scores 3. respectively.55. Figure 3.7 . they have an average score of 73.50 on CHEMONE. 20 | P a g e . ENGAGL1. ENGALG1. The result show that there is no significant difference to the scores.37% higher than the average on CHEMONE.8 .05. ENGTRIG respectively. and ENGTRIG.75% and 2.10 was done on the average scores for those who live in condo and for those who commute. and students who use private vehicles obtained an a average of 68.11 and 62.8 compares the average scores of the ID 117 manufacturing engineering and management students on their quizzes on different subjects. commuters have obtained an average of 71. A one tailed t-test with significance level .

. however the t-test indicates that there is no significant difference on the scores of CHEMONE and ENGTRIG.1 shows that there is a significant difference on the scores of ENGALG1. Figure 3. Conducting a tone tailed t-test with significance level of 0.Travel Time vs Grades The students with shorter travel time has slightly better scores in all three quizzes.9 . 21 | P a g e . This is an indication of having the advantage of having more time and having less stress from commuting and traffic.

Figure 3.11 .10 . People who live nearby the university have more time to spend for their personal interest than those who commute.Travel Time vs Interests Figure 3. This is clearly due to having significant less time spent on travelling.Mode of Transportation vs Health 22 | P a g e .

Mode of Transportation vs Health 23 | P a g e . This may be due to increased exposure to pollution and urban noises. Figure 3. Figure 3. This shows the effect of stress in traffic and having more free time.Travel Time vs Health The students with less travel time says that they feel more healthy than those with longer travel time.13 .12 . People who are commuting feel less healthy than student who are living in condos and students who are using private vehicles for transport.

but most of the students are more concern on the academic workloads. Both the condominium and commuting students have similar distribution in their perception of stress. Most of the students answered that they often feel stressed.Travel Time vs Frequency of Stress The mode of transportation does not not show a strong effect to the frequency of stress on the individual. The students who live in nearby condominiums and commuters have similar distribution in the answered frequencies. Stress is caused by many factors including traffic. 24 | P a g e .14 . Figure 3.

Additionally. different modes of transportation does not necessarily affects the academics and socialization skills of an individual but what affects the most is the overall performance of an individual. it also has a little to no impact at all because it's all about how people manages their time. great attention should be given in this kind of situation because this could greatly affect the daily lives of individuals. and poor transportation system. it has little to no impact because after conducting a t-test with the gathered data. while traffic. poor transportation system. After conducting the survey and further research on the said topic.SUMMARY Traffic. 25 | P a g e . whose travel time is 1 to 2 hours. and welfare of ID 117 manufacturing engineering and management students of De La Salle University. The different modes of transportation. the group initiated a study which will discuss whether the different modes of transportation affects academics. and related environmental issues have caused serious problems affecting the daily lives of millions of citizens in Metro Manila. Overall. does not cause much impact to the academics and socialization of the students. it indicated that there were no significant differences on the scores of CHEMONE and ENGTRIG. causes deterioration on the overall performance of each individual. In line with this. resulted to shorter hours of sleep. 75% of the commuters. socialization. With regards to the academics. however. thus increasing the stress level and damaging the health of students. While for the socialization. it was found out that the modes of transportation contribute to the welfare of students. Therefore.

With this. traffic.CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the analysis of data gathered. The survey questions could also be modified by asking “How are you feeling when you are travelling going to school?” rather than asking “How is your health”. and poor transportation system. the focus of the question is narrowed down. can have either positive or negative effects on the students. the group have discovered that the different modes of transportation. it can be said that the improvement of transportation will most likely result in the holistic development of the students. causes deterioration on the overall performance of each individual. It is recommended to the proponents of the research to come up with a way on how to quantify or to fully assess key factors like health. depending on how they choose to cope up with the state of transportation. The alteration of priorities and mindset. though it affects the welfare of students. does not cause much impact to the academics and socialization of the students. 26 | P a g e . In conclusion. This just goes to show that the state of transportation directly influences the priorities and mindset of students. On the other hand.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 27 | P a g e .

& El-Geneidy. Retrieved from Stress. pollution. September 9). N.2017. 141–151. A. fatigue: How traffic jams affect your health: http://www.. The Philippine Star. Weishaar. (2014). TANZANIA. (2015). Does perceived stress mediate the relationship between commuting and health-related quality of life? Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour.2015. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. Eluru.. A.gmanetwork.1016/j. 100– fatigue-how-traffic-jams-affect-your-health/story/ [4] Mercurio. H. (2017. J.BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Rüger. November 10).005 [2] Legrain. R. Retrieved from Worst city traffic in Asia: Metro Manila ranks 3rd: http://www. https://doi.. (2017).org/ 28 | P a g e .1016/j. Retrieved from http://repository.philstar. B..001 [3] GMA News Online. must travel: The relationship between mode choice and commuting stress. Am stressed. 34. manila-ranks-3rd [5] Mugoro.08.. 50. TRANSPORT PROBLEMS FOR STUDENTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON ATTENDANCE IN COMMUNITY SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN DAR ES SALAAM CITY. M. H.trf. M. (2015. & Wiernik.out.trf.

(2017. June 07). Retrieved from Traffic congestion affecting public’s productivity. L. 2017.surveygizmo.philstar. November 25). Retrieved from The Sound of Heavy Traffic Might Take a Toll on Mental Health: https://www.philstar. from https://www. Retrieved December philippines-p3-billion-day 29 | P a g e .. What's a Good Survey Response Rate? Retrieved January 30. ( [9] Why Is Sleep Important? (2017. The Philippine Star.nhlbi. 2017 by Melissa publics-productivity-health [8] French. Foley. P. B. (2015. 2017. M.[6] [10] Metro Manila traffic costing Philippines P3 billion a day . from https://www. Retrieved December 01.nih.citylab. mental-health-traffic-study/417276/ [7] Romero. & November 30. health: http://www. September 16). (2015.. from http://www. August 17). September 05). Philippine Star. Citylab.

APPENDICES 30 | P a g e .

APPENDICES Survey Questions: 31 | P a g e .

32 | P a g e .

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34 | P a g e .

Responses: 35 | P a g e .

36 | P a g e .

37 | P a g e .