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Title: Occupational Safety and Health Model Development for

Ethiopian Manufacturing Industries

A proposal Submitted for the Partial Fulfillments of PhD Degree in


Mechanical Engineering, Specialization in Industrial Engineering,
in the School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, in Addis
Ababa University, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology (AAiT)

By: Kassu Jilcha

Supervisor: Dr. Ing. Daniel Kitaw (Professor)

September, 2014
Submitted by

____________ ________________ ____________


Student Signature Date

Approved by

1. Dr.-Ing. Daniel Kitaw _____________ ___________

Supervisor Signature Date

2. ______________________ _____________ ___________

Co-Supervisor Signature Date

3. Dr. Daniel Tilahun _____________________ _____________


Dean, SMIE Signature Date

4. Dr:-Ing.Geremew Sahilu ____________ __________


Director post graduate program Signature Date
Contents
Acronyms ................................................................................................................................ iii
1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 4
2. Background and problem Justification ........................................................................................ 6
3. Statement of the Problem ........................................................................................................... 12
4. Objectives of the Dissertation .................................................................................................... 16
4.1. General objective ................................................................................................................ 16
4.2. Specific objectives .............................................................................................................. 16
6. Methodology (Dissertation Design) Framework ....................................................................... 16
6.1. Data Collection and Sources ............................................................................................... 17
6.1.1. Data Sources ................................................................................................................ 17
6.1.2. Data Collection Methods ............................................................................................. 17
6.2. Population and Sample Technique...................................................................................... 19
6.2.1. Selection of Representative industrial sectors.............................................................. 19
6.2.2. Questioner Survey Determination ................................................................................ 20
6.2.3. Sampling Size Determination ...................................................................................... 20
6.2.3. The Sampling Methods and Procedure ........................................................................ 21
6.3. Data Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 21
6.4. Tools and Methods.............................................................................................................. 22
7. Scope of the Study .................................................................................................................... 23
8. Significant and Outcomes of the Research ................................................................................ 24
9. Organization of the Paper .......................................................................................................... 24
10. Work Break down Schedule .................................................................................................... 25
11. Cost Breakdown ....................................................................................................................... 25
12. Reference ................................................................................................................................. 27

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List of tables

Table 1: National wide OSH Committee in industrial sectors (2012/2013) ................ 11


Table 2: population size and sample size determination .............................................. 21
Table 3: Cost break down analysis of the dissertation ................................................. 25

List of Figures

Figure 1: Comparison of occupational injuries both fatal and Non- fatal over a decade ....... 10

ii
Acronyms

AA: Addis Ababa


AACGLSA: Addis Ababa city Government labor and Social Affair
AAiT: Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
CSA: Central Statistics Agency
EU: European Union
GDP: Gross Domestic Product
GTP: Growth transformation Plan
ILO: International Labor Organization
KII: Key Informant Interview
MOI: Ministry of Industry
MOLSA: Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs
MOT= ministry of Trade
MSD: Musculoskeletal disorder
NGOs: Non-governmental Organizations
OSH: Occupational Safety and Health
OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Agency
OSHMS: Occupational safety and Health Management Systems
OS: occupational safety
SD: System Dynamics
SME: small and medium enterprise
SQC: Statistical Quality Control
TQM: total quality management
UNIDO: United Nation Industrial Development Organization
WHO: World Health Organization

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1. Introduction
Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) in general is to mean that any types of activity
under normal working circumstance free from any health problem and
hazards. Occupation is a regular activity performed. Some jobs may contain only a single
task, but many jobs are made up of multiple tasks (Cal/OSHA, 1999). Safety is a state of
being free from hazards and dangerous environments. Subsequently, health is the result
of good safety that is under the state of normal body ailment.

Ethiopian policy focuses on agricultural led industrialization giving more attention to


industrial sectors for economic development. While it is striving for industrialization, it is
also importing high technology with occupational health hazards. As a result of this OSH
has been a central issue for the international labor Organizations (ILO) ever since it
began its operations in 1919 and continues to be a fundamental requirement for achieving
the objectives of the Decent Work Agenda. Benjamin O., (2008) showed in his study
that the Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health defined the purpose of
occupational health first in 1950 and revised the definition at its 12th session in 1995 to
read as Occupational health should aim at: the promotion and maintenance of the
highest degree of Physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations;
the prevention amongst workers of departures from health caused by their working
conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from
factors adverse to health; the placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational
environment adapted to his physiological and psychological capabilities; and, to
summarize: the adaptation of work to man and of each man to his job.

Pressures from communities have led to the enactment of various safety legislations and
safety standards in different countries and regions for different industries (Krause, 1993;
Manuele, 1993; Pun and Hui, 2002). Wilkinson and Dale (1998) in their study
concluded that different international and national safety standards provide guidance to
help organizations develop their safety management systems (SMS) with respect to
varied business needs and requirements. Among multivariate manufacturing and service
industries found in developing economy, the production and productivity of most of these
industries are greatly affected by discomforted working conditions and inappropriate

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working methods such as: irresponsiveness and awareness complexity of employees, and
other related factors, employees are uncovered to occupational accidents.

Accordingly, in addition for the upset employees are exposed to fortunate pains and
sufferings, their families are also exposed to gloomy life style since his/her social and
economic foundation is cracked by the accident. The concerned organization is also
affected since it expends direct and indirect costs related to medication, pension
payments, loss of skilled manpower and damages to the properties of the organization. In
such a way, the production and productivity of the organization is affected in particular
and it also contributes for economic and social inconveniencies in the country in general.

Most of studies on developed economies focuses on the direct implementation of the


safety tools and elements developed at their home. The study has not yet shown the
implementation of safety elements and standards in gradually change in line with the
capability of the developing economies. This is one of the most difference between this
research and the previous. The other studies more focus on the management aspect and
not on the OSH problem curbing technique. They focuses on the problem occurred to
cure the injured party on workplace by the workplace incidents. This study focuses on the
preventive method before occupational disease and hazards in contact with the workers
and working environment by developing a way of preventive mechanism through model
development in line with developing economies (policy, regulation, government system,
industrialization, and infrastructure). The other most important difference between this
study and the previous once is that they focused on most developed and industrialized
countries policy, program, legislation and standards. This study will engage on the
application of occupational safety standards and criterion elements step by step for
industrialized and unindustrialized countries. Most of the studies conducted did not
validate the application of their research finding in line with developing countries but this
will validates the implementation of the OSH elements on Ethiopian manufacturing
industries.

The studies showed that in developing countries the OSH problem analysis is not the
matter of the industrial sectors rather it is the matter of productivity improvement
technique. Because the workforces in developing economies is cheap and the workers

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have no choice to leave the work place. The probability they have is to continue through
the hardship to survive. The developed economy is the reverse of this application.

The studies made by Ethiopian health sectors were also reviewed on occupational safety
and health cases focusing on the disease occurrence and its impact on the workers than on
the cause root of the problem. These studies do not show the engineering aspect of the
OSH problem solving before, at or after the occurrences of the accidents, rather than
focusing on the type of pathogenic and treatment.

The introductory parts that narrate about health matters at workplaces are all revolving
around the management and safety in addition to occupational problem intervention
system. But the studies do not narrate safety system design how to implement on the
process of occupational safety in developing economies. The theoretical investigation
followed in the literature review depicts that the only methods in gathering information.
Therefore, filling the gap exist in many researches organizations, workers, and as a whole
country will be benefited from new model to be developed in this study. The challenge of
the workplace environment will be intensively explored Thus reduction of workplace
accidents and productivity improvement will be expected.

2. Background and problem Justification


Industrialization is seen as a motor behind many of the processes usually termed
social transformation and " modernization ", [UNIDO, 2003]. In Ethiopia
industrialization has got focus on transformational for the GDP. The Ethiopia
industrialization policies and strategies showed that the most focused areas are micro and
small enterprises (MSE) and medium and large industries development. These are
expected to create jobs in urban areas and increase rural- urban and urban-to-urban
functional and economic linkages. They includes: textile and garment, leather and leather
products, sugar and sugar related industries, cement, Metal and engineering, chemical,
pharmaceutical, and agro-processing. As they are expanding and getting concern for
economic development, they also have beside occupational safety and health impacts on
the employees and surrounding.
It is estimated that more than 80% of the worlds population live in developing countries
in Africa, the Middle East, Asia and South and Central America. The developing
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countries are often financially disadvantaged, and many have largely rural and
agricultural economies like Ethiopia (85%). However, they are widely different in many
ways, with diverse aspirations, political systems and varying stages of industrial growth.
The status of health among people in the developing countries is generally lower than in
the developed countries, as reflected by higher infant mortality rates and lower life
expectancies.

Several factors contribute to the need for occupational safety and health surveillance in
developing countries. First, many of these countries are rapidly industrializing. In terms
of the size of industrial establishments, many of the new industries are small-scale
industries. In such situations, safety and health facilities are often very limited or non-
existent. In addition, developing countries are often the recipients of technology transfer
from developed countries. Some of the more hazardous industries, which have difficulty
in operating in countries with more stringent and better enforced occupational health
legislation, may be exported to developing countries (Chia, Kee-Seng, Koh, David,
2011). However; the exportation of the occupational safety and health legislation is not
supporting the developing economies status as economic and industrial development
level is different. The developed economies occupational safety and health legislation
focuses on their socio-economic development status while developing economies do not
support such legislation and even they adopt it they cannot use. Second, with regard to
the workforce, the education level of the workers in developing countries is often lower,
and workers may be untrained in safe work practices. In addition to these considerations,
there is generally a lower pre-existing level of health among workers in developing
countries.

In developing countries like Ethiopia, the nature of the occupational health effects from
workplace hazards may be different from those in the developed countries. Surveillance
programmes in developed countries may be inappropriate for developing countries, and
such systems probably cannot be adopted in their entirety for developing countries
because of the various problems which may impede surveillance activities (Chia, Kee-
Seng, Koh, David, 2011).

Occupational injury and illness are matters of health, but they are also matters of
economics, since they stem from work, and work is an economic activity. The economic
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perspective on occupational safety and health (OSH) encompasses both causes and
consequences: the role of economic factors in the etiology of workplace ill-health and the
effects it has on the economic prospects for workers, enterprises, nations, and the world
as a whole. It is therefore, a very broad perspective, but it is not complete, because
neither the causation nor the human significance of OSH can be reduced to its economic
elements (peter Dorman, 2000).

The magnitude of the global impact of occupational accidents and diseases, as well as
major industrial disasters, in terms of human suffering and related economic costs were
described by African newsletter (2009) has been a long-standing source of concern at
workplace, national and international levels. Although significant efforts have been made
at all levels to come to terms with this problem. ILO estimates that about 2.3 million
workers die each year from work-related accidents and diseases, and globally this figure
is on the increase.

In industrialized countries, stringent regulations have made it costly for industries to


operate while conforming to safety and health standards. In addition, labor costs have
increased markedly in developed countries, and there is increasing awareness among the
general public of the health risks of industry and its waste products. In contrast,
developing countries provided strong economic incentives to attract industries from
developed countries. Hazardous industries are attracted to developing countries from
developed countries because of their cheaper labor forces, lack of regulation, and poor
enforcement of any existing regulations. In addition, many countries in the developing
world have pursued a path of rapid industrialization and have been willing to welcome all
industries, however hazardous (Castleman, 1980; Jeyaratnam, 1990, 1994; Johanning et
al., 1991). The basic questions for these studies on developing economies, how to solve
and reduce burden of employees at workplace.

Many enterprises limit their productivity enhancement of employees to the


acquisition of skills. However, about 86% of productivity problems reside in the
work environment of organizations. The work environment has effect on the
performance of employees (Akinyele Samuel Taiwo, 2010). Labor is generally regarded
as the most dynamic of all the factors that are employed for the creation of
wealth, having the potential to energize and serve as catalyst to all the other
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resources (Akinyele Samuel Taiwo, 2010, Akinyele ST, 2007). Productivity is thus of
fundamental importance to the individual worker of whatever status, to the
organization whether commercial or not and to the national economy at large and
accordingly therefore, to the upliftment of the welfare of the citizen and the
reduction if not total eradication of mass poverty [Akinyele ST., 2007, Yesufu TM
2000]. Occupational safety and health is one factor to affect productivity which includes
labor management relations, social and psychological conditions of work, wage
incentives, physical fatigue, trade union practices, etc. The performance of a corporate
organization, which determines its survival and growth, depends to a large extent on
the productivity of its workforce (Akinyele Samuel Taiwo, 2010).

In developing countries including Ethiopia, the risk of having work-related injury is 10 to


20 times higher than that of developed countries [MOLSA, 2011]. A total of 962
employed workers in small and medium-scale industries were selected randomly in
Gonder [MOLSA, 2011]. The annual and two weeks prevalence rate of work-related
injury was respectively 335 and 120 per 1000 exposed workers. Out of the total work-
related injuries, 114 (35.5%) and 208 (32.4%) occurred among small and medium-scale
industrial workers, respectively. The most significant contributing factors for work-
related injuries in such small and medium industries were service duration of 5 years or
less in the present job. Increased rate of work related injury was observed when
compared with similar studies done in other researches. Preventive measures concerning
functional occupational health and safety programs are essential to safeguard the health
and safety condition of workforce in small and medium scale industries [MOLSA, 2011,
Kebede Faris, 1998]. Data on occupational obtained from local labour office shows
fluctuation from year to year in the past decade. The number of injuries (fatal and non-
fatal) increased from 1013 in 2001 to 6108 in 2010. A breakdown of injuries by major
industrial sectors reveals wide variations across different branches [MOLSA, 2011].

The figures given below do not provide complete information on occupational safety
injuries [MOLSA, 2011]. However, these indicate that there is a great OSH problems
occurring in Ethiopian manufacturing industries.

9
10000
occupational safety problem

Injuries in number
8000

6000

4000 Agriculture
Industries
2000
services
0
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
years of the incidents

Source: MOLSA (2011) and sketched by reporter


Figure 1: Comparison of occupational injuries both fatal and Non- fatal over a
decade

The analysis of the existing scenario is an appropriate situation because of the risks it
involves [International Ergonomics Association, 2010] and it helps to find the best
strategies to reduce high rate of accident in manufacturing industries.

It is clear and unfortunate that no corresponding policy consensus on OSH has emerged
in most developing countries (ILO, 2012). Because of undercounting even among
workers whose employment is covered, they estimate that as many as 2/3 of all
occupational injuries may go unrecorded (ILO, 2012, Carlos-Rivera et al. 2009).
MOLSA also reported that Ethiopian industrial sectors accidents data of 2011/2012
indicated that the most aggressive accident was registered on the manufacturing sectors
(45.2%) and followed by construction sectors (32%) and the agricultural sectors get third
in this year. Mining sectors shows a very small accident when compared with the other
sectors which are most accident receivers in realty but the problem of data recording and
data reporting mechanism of the industrial sectors culture seems weak. Accordingly, the
highest number of work accidents occurred workers age wise was between the age (25-
29) which was about 25%. The next highest number of work accidents was in the age
group of 30-34 in which accounted for 13.5% cases had been reported. The least case was
registered in the age group of 60-64 which was about 0.1 percent. This indicates that the
productive human resources are dying more that aged people as aged workers get retired.
It is not difficult to guess what it will impose on economy and society.

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As it is indicated, the following table shows among 20,054 national industries only 4.1%
of them established OSH committee at organization level which is insignificant relative
to the hazards involved in the sectors. For example, manufacturing sectors comprises
2723 organization in Ethiopia and only 5.3% of them have established OSH committee in
their own industries. Even though, they had established these committee, really they are
with full awareness and operational level is the big question that will be answer after
thorough study.

In summary, the discussion made above from MOLSA report of 2010, 2011 and 2012 is
an over view to indicate that how much the severity of problems exist in different
industrial sectors. It also showed that variation of accidents due to improper data
recording culture of industries is another area need thorough study.

Table 1: National wide OSH Committee in industrial sectors (2012/2013)


Industry category ownership OSH

Committee share
committee

Percentage
organizations

Government

Have no
private

others
No. of

Total

have
Agricultural, hunting, forestry and fishing 2956 8 2 0 10 249 2709 9.2%
Mining and quarrying 344 0 1 0 1 18 325 5.5%
Manufacturing 2723 39 18 0 57 137 2572 5.3%
Electricity, gas and water construction 411 5 9 0 14 58 348 16.7%
Constructions sectors 671 22 11 0 33 33 633 5.2%
Whole sale and retail trade 1593 13 3 0 16 77 1513 5.1%
Transport, storage and communication 518 10 7 0 17 18 497 3.6%
Finance, insurance and business services 248 10 1 0 11 34 206 16.5%
Community, social and personnel services 10586 103 5 0 108 168 10385 1.6%
Total 20054 210 57 0 267 792 19188 4.1%

Sources: MOLSA report 2012/2013

( 1000) (11,138100)
Accident severity in 2012 = = = 0.075
( (2,47659,857)

The severity of accidents is 0.075 means in each workers 1000 hours 0.075 days were
wasted. The accident frequency calculated in this year was 2255.
In general the accident severity is increasing from time to time in industrial sectors as
MOLSA report of 2012/13 indicated. In another round the cost of the unworked hours are
accelerating and economic failure is incurred to the country.

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Workplace incidents cause an enormous amount of physical, financial and emotional
hardship for individual workers and their families. Combined with insufficient workers'
compensation benefits and inadequate medical insurance, workplace injuries and illnesses
can not only cause physical pain and suffering but also loss of employment and wages,
burdensome debt, inability to maintain a previous standard of living, loss of home
ownership and even bankruptcy.

These expenditures are commonly referred to as indirect costs and can include: any
wages paid to injured workers for absences not covered by workers compensation; the
wage costs related to time lost through work stoppage; administrative time spent by
supervisors following injuries; employee training and replacement costs; lost productivity
related to new employee learning curves and accommodation of injured employees; and
replacement costs of damaged material, machinery and property.

The literature review discussion made indicate that most of the occupational problems
causes more productivity lose and high cost incurred. It was expected that when
civilization of the people increasing the occupational safety problem should reduce but it
is now in the reverse. This may be the developing economies are not familiar to how
prevent occupational safety problems before they occurrence, at occurrence, and after
occurrence and incrementally implementation of safety system in line with economic
level.

In general the literatures reviewed showed that there are multidimensional occupational
safety problems occurrence on people, machines, buildings, property, and no researchers
focused on OSH problem findings, recommendations and the researchers involved in
OSH problems studies focused most in developed economies than developing economies.
Therefore it is difficult to customize with regard to the developing economy the systems
developed for developed economy from many points of view.

3. Statement of the Problem


Occupational health remains neglected in developing countries because of competing
social, economic, and political challenges. Researchers in the developing world can
achieve tangible progress in promoting occupational health only if they end their
professional isolation and examine occupational health in the broader context of social
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justice and national development in alliance with researchers from other disciplines
(Iman A. Nuwayhid, 2004). While the need for surveillance of occupational safety and
health problems exists in developing countries, the actual implementation of surveillance
is often fraught with difficulties.

The difficulties may arise because of poor control of industrial development, the absence
of, or an inadequately developed infrastructure for, occupational health legislation and
services, insufficiently trained occupational health professionals, limited health services
and poor health reporting systems. Another major problem is that in many developing
countries, occupational health is not accorded a high priority in national development
programmes (Chia, Kee-Seng, Koh, David, 2011).

Occupational injuries pose a major public health and development problems in work
places. Workplace related injuries are by large preventable with the use of appropriate
occupational safety and health services. However; the mechanism of the prevention and
more researches were not done in the developing countries. The effects of globalization
on occupational safety and health have impact on the workforce composition and getting
increasing (Igor A, 1998: Rantanen, 1999). Making working conditions safe and healthy
is in the interest of workers, employers and governments, as well as the public at large.
Although it seems simple and obvious, this idea has not yet gained meaningful universal
recognition. Hundreds of millions of people throughout the world are employed today in
conditions that breed ill health and/or are unsafe (WHO, 1999).

JOHANNING ET AL ., (1991) in their studies concluded that developing countries


provided strong economic incentives to attract industries from developed countries while
the developed countries made stringent regulation costly. Hazardous industries are
attracted to developing countries because of their cheaper labor forces, lack of regulation,
and poor enforcement of any existing regulations. Similarly the study conducted by
JEYARATNAM (1990) concluded that in industrialized countries, stringent regulations
have made it costly for industries to operate while conforming to safety and health
standards and developing economies opposite. In addition, labor costs have increased
markedly in developed countries, and there is increasing awareness among the general
public of the health risks of industry and its waste products.

13
The magnitude of the global impact of occupational accidents and diseases, as well as
major industrial disasters, in terms of human suffering and related economic costs were
described by African newsletter (2009) has been a long-standing source of concern at
workplace, national and international levels. Although significant efforts have been made
at all levels to come to terms with this problem, ILO estimates that about 2.3 million
workers die each year from work-related accidents and diseases, and that globally this
figure is on the increase.

Research showed that the way in which safety and health and integrated into an
organization can impact significantly on wellbeing at work, including addressing
problems of worker absence through ill-health (EU-OSHA, 2012)

Many enterprises limit their productivity enhancement of employees to the


acquisition of skills. Akinyele Samuel, et al. (2010) in his studies showed that ,
however, about 86% of productivity problems reside in the work environment of
organizations. The work environment has effect on the performance of employees. The
type of work environment in which employees operate determines the way in which such
enterprises prosper.

Ethiopia is also exporting the industrialization development scenario. It is as a result of


this; suffering from accidents at workplace. The report by MOLSA (2011) showed that in
2010 in Ethiopia the highest figure of incidents in manufacturing industries was recorded
as 8,413 injuries. The agriculture sector was second in number of injuries with maximum
of 952 in 2010, followed by the service sectors which encountered 148 injuries in the
same year. Most of the injuries reported in 2010, 6,699 out of 6,745 were non-fatal; the
number of reported injuries were fluctuated over the year. The highest numbers of fatal
injuries were 78 occurred in 2007 with a general pattern of distribution similar to the non-
fatal ones. Industry had the highest number of fatal injuries. This is an appropriate
situation because of the risks it involves. As the report by of MOLSA (2011) addressed in
developing countries including Ethiopia, the risk of having work-related injury is 10 to 20
times higher than that of developed countries. The 2011 and 2012 MOLSA report also
showed that the accidents occurrence in industrial sectors are increasing and there are
data recording problems.

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The researches results have shown that workers get absenteeism from their workplace
increasing loss of production and incurring cost to any organization. The other article
proclaimed that minimizing the incidents at the source or early stages is a good
considerable to curb problems. But it is very difficult for developing economies to arrive
at the risk control without having safety system design that can guide the top
management, the workers at each levels. The developing economies like Ethiopia,
Nigeria, Sudan, and South Africa has faced the way how to record incidents and report.
They are facing improper way of minimizing incidents at work places, improper
managements of wellbeing and equipment utilization, top management commitment and
leadership absenteeism, less OSH program communication, unaccustomed workforce
training, and improper attention of government and NGOs on the society and properties.

In general the studies showed that an alarming rate of industrial accident is increasing
from time to time in developing economies as industrialization and employment is
booming up. This need the designing of evolving safety model that curb the current
existing problems throughout time series development. The Ministry of Labor and Social
Affair in Ethiopia identified the big problems by categorizing into sectors as agricultural
sector, construction sectors, small and medium scale enterprise and manufacturing
industries incidents. Therefore; the problems for the industrial sectors described will be
curbed by answering the following basic questions.
Research Questions
What are the experience of the developed and developing economies on OSH
practice and implementation phase/stage?
What are the basic accidents causing factors and effect of incidents on
productive labor and workplace environment in Ethiopian industrial sectors?
What are the basic models used for OSH by developed countries and
drawback they have to customize to developing economies and
How to develop new model that suits Ethiopian economic and technological
level to prevent incidental events occur on productive labor and working
environment (machines, buildings, etc.)?

In general the problems of occupational safety and health in developing economies need
a customized technique of prevention with regard to the industrialization development of

15
the countries. The major questions should answered accordance with the involving OSH
model design phase by phases.

4. Objectives of the Dissertation

4.1. General objective

The purpose of this study is to investigate the industrial safety and health problems and
hazards cause and effects through exhaustive work to develop involving occupational
safety and health model implementable in a stage by stage considering the safety
elements, criterions and international standards for developing economies. The elements
of safety and international safety standards will be identified and prioritized according to
the implementation phases using multi-criterions decision making tools to reach the final
stage for the industrial occupational safety and health security.

4.2. Specific objectives


The following basic specific objectives will be met at the end of the dissertation result.

To assess the previous and current practice of developed and developing countries
OSH literature review results and then compare the status of the OSH phase.
To identify the major causes of accidents factors and drawback of occupational
safety and health in Ethiopian industries
To identify and analyze the basic models used for OSH implementation by
developed countries and drawback they have to customize to developing
economies and
To develop new model that suits Ethiopian economic and technological level to
prevent incidental events occur on productive labor and working environment.

6. Methodology (Dissertation Design) Framework

The aim of this section is to present the methods and designs that will be used to collect
information. Scientific theories will be used in directing the collection and analysis of
data. In this report, empirical/realistic/ evidence will be focused in accordance with the
empirical analytical research theory and the analysis or interpretation will be done as
explained below. Random Sampling will be considered in observation and pilot test

16
implementation on some industrial sectors. The study follows explanatory and descriptive
method and then design evolving model on OSH.

6.1. Data Collection and Sources


The primary and secondary data collection methods that will be used including desk
reviews/documentary analyses, survey questionnaires, systematic observations and
reflective discussion with different representatives at industrial and service sectors and at
central level or ministries level, key informants interviews and detail interview with
selected cases.

6.1.1. Data Sources


The sources of data for this dissertation will be expected from two main sources which
are primary and secondary data. They are discussed below and the sources of data would
be:

The employees working in the selected industrial sectors


The industrial sectors management and coordinators
Some retired employees and experienced professionals
Ministry of Labor and social Affair industry relation centers
Ministry of Industry and Addis Ababa city government administration labor and
Social affairs
Statistics Agency and Ministry of finance and economics
Other additional sources will be
Focuses on literature reviewed at international and national level on OSH matter
Assessments of reports regarding industrial safety and health
Documents, magazines, journals and etc.
MOLSA reports, documents and any available studies

6.1.2. Data Collection Methods


The followings are the basic data collection methods.
i) Secondary Data
Desk review
Desk review will be conducted to collect data from various secondary sources. This
includes sources such as, reports, project documents. Secondary data are basic input for

17
the research to identify the developed and developing economies occupational safety and
health hazards condition. These data will be obtained from literatures regarding
occupational safety and health. The source which will be focused more is on reputable
journals, books, different articles, periodicals, proceedings, magazines, newsletters,
newspapers, websites and others sources. The other source would be the industrial sectors
working documents, manuals, procedures, reports, statistical data, policies, regulations
and standards. The literature review will assess different working models and software
suit to develop safety system design model in the context of Ethiopian industries (service
and manufacturing).

ii) Primary Data

It is obtained from the original source of information. Primary data are more reliable and
has high confidence level of decision making with the trusted analysis having direct
intact with the occurrence of the events.
a) Survey questionnaires
For industrial workers and heads of industries: the data collection will be made with
trained enumerators employed with structured pretested questionnaire. For each category
of strata list will be established by the assigned employed data organizer (starting list
from Ethiopian statistics agency. Then from the final selection list respondents will be
selected randomly.
It will be obtained from informal interviews, structured interview, structured questioners
with persons in charge of OSH in selected Industries around Addis Ababa from
construction sectors, small and medium scale enterprises, manufacturing industries and
service industries, and field observation or worksite assessment. The data will be
collected in accordance with the logical philosophies and practical investigative
principles.
b) Field Observations
Researcher will expect to employee some contract data collectors. The data collector
teams are expected to organize field observation through photograph, sound recorders
and video recorders. In addition to the team observation the principal researcher will
crosscheck the observed areas and trend analysis will be conducted from the observation.
To make the observation uniform check list will be prepared.

18
c) Key informant interview (KII)
KII will be conducted with the preparation of bench discussion. They are expected to be
the supervisor of the industries, line managers, production managers, and heads of
occupational safety, workshop managers, maintenance heads, and the industrial sector top
managements. The focal group discussions will be categorized into four scenarios. These
are top management level group, Middle (medium) management level, low (supervisor)
level, employee (staff) level in horizontal management line principle.
d) Selection of Case studies
A case study is a study that considers a selected representative area of the whole study to
answer the analysis inferentially. The inferential data analysis helps the researcher to
generalize the whole study depending on the case that delegates the main topics. This
research is therefore, a qualitative and quantitative as it involves case studies and
document analysis.
Some representative case companies will be selected based on the theoretical findings
which will be described in the description chapter and further explained in the data
analysis chapters when the case companies will be presented. It is based on the fact that
the level of OSH may depend on the size or functioning of an industrial sector, that is,
either manufacturing (or production) or servicing and may be to a small extend on the
geographical location. Most areas to be conducted as case companies and service
industries will be manufacturing industries.

6.2. Population and Sample Technique


Sampling technique to be used in the study is to consider multistage sampling.

6.2.1. Selection of Representative industrial sectors


To select representative industrial sectors first consider the types of industrial sectors. It
is classified into six clusters by considering random sampling techniques.
These studies classification involves that:
Food and beverage related industrial sectors
Textiles, wearing apparels, garments industrial sectors
Leather and leather products industrial sectors
wood and wood products, paper and paper products industrial sectors
coke and refined petroleum, chemical and chemical products industrial sectors

19
Basic metals and metal related products industrial sectors. The study will consider
the stratum indicated below considering the systematic selection method to get
representative sample size. The sample size calculation and stratum sample size
calculation are indicated in table 1.

6.2.2. Questioner Survey Determination


The questioner survey sample size in the stratum is determined using the formula
indicated below for strata calculation. The population size is taken randomly from the
statistics agency. The data sample will be modified throughout the study process with the
help of continues improvement. The researcher in simple random sampling technique will
select employees for questioner paper to be dispatched. The list of employees from each
industrial sectors will be taken.

6.2.3. Sampling Size Determination


Stratified random sampling method will be used to determine the sample size of each
stratum. The population size of the heterogeneous industrial sectors will be determined
nN i
ni
using the given formula. N

Where n: Total Sample size, N: Total Population size, Ni: Stratum population size,
ni : Stratum sample size
With multistage sampling a total of 6 industrial clusters and 347 questionnaire samples
will be dispatched to six stratum and selected randomly with proportion number from
each stratum of the industrial workers. The sample size at industries/ service sectors and
manufacturing levels determined using the following formula borrowed from Yamane

(1973) formula to identify proper total industries in each cluster: = .
+()

Where, n= sample size; N= total population; e= sampling error (e=0.05).The final sample
is indicated in the above table.
The population size will be considered as heterogeneous data. The population that is
estimated using stratified sampling is that the population of the stratum industrial sectors.
The industrial sectors are clusters/stratum assuming that the stratum industries are given
in the following table 2 with their sample size calculation using statistical sample
calculation formula given in Yamane (1973).

20
Table 2: population size and sample size determination
Sample size
R. no Industrial Stratum categories Population of each of stratum (ni=
stratum workers n*Ni/N)

1 Sugar, Food, beverage, tobacco 120 16


2 Textiles, wearing apparels, garments, Leather and 450
60
leather products
3 Cement and related factories 600 79
4 wood and wood products 350 46
5 chemical and chemical products 300 40
6 Basic metals and engineering related products 800 106
2,
(n= N/(1+N(e) where (e=0.05), Total 2,620347
Sugar Manufacturing industries, food, beverage tobacco products, textiles, wearing
apparel, leather and related products, wood and wood products, paper and paper products,
coke and refined petroleum, chemical and chemical products, cement and cement related
products, basic metals, computer and electronic products, maintenance of transportation
equipments, furniture manufacturings, waste collection services, repair and installation
of equipment, sewerage services, are some of the manufacturing industries. The SME,
Medium and large industrials sectors are the government policies and strategic plan of the
GTP. Therefore, these areas needs a great attention on the productivity improvement as a
result of workplace health and safety improvement. The estimated numbers of questioner
to be dispatched will be revised upon circumstances shift.

6.2.3. The Sampling Methods and Procedure


Industrial sectors lists and category establishment; using methods selection
Industrial workers population starting list and expanded list per industrial sectors
Selection of industries and serves sectors will be made randomly

6.3. Data Analysis

Data collection by itself could not be a solution for a problem. The data analysis part will
answer the basic questions raised in the problem statement parts. The detail analysis of
developed and developing countries experiences on OSH will be analyzed and
synthesized. The literature reviews will be conducted in depth and gap will be analyzed

21
in the articles. Comparisons and difference between the developed and developing
economics OSH implementation practice will be conducted.

The major causes of accidents in developing economy in industrial organizations will be


identified. The identification of the problem causes at workplace and on workers my use
the tools of SQC like fish and bone diagram, pareto analysis and ABC analysis to arrive
on the conclusion of the causes. The impacts imposed by major accidents and factors will
be analyzed and responsive solutions will be drawn from the analysis using different
software described under the tools and methods.

After identification of the causes of accidents at industrial sectors, the major issue to be
considered is to enumerate the elements of OSH and standards which are necessary for
the hierarchical development of OSH implementation. The implementation tools will be
identified and evolving OSH in stage by stage analysis will be done. This starts at very
easy and less costly criterion and OSH elements which is less resources consuming
factors.

It needs a detail analysis and synthesis depending on the type of raw data collected from
the different sources. Data collected will be analyzed in this dissertation report with the
use of system and the institutional theories which will be presented. The system theory
will be used to analyses OSH as it is a system in which different occupational safety
system have been joined together to form one. Thus it is important to analyze how the
occupational safety systems interact within the hazard factors, how they influence one
another and how this will lead to different levels of OSH system design. Influential
theory will be used to analyze the societal forces that link the needs of an industry to its
structure or organization of OSH system and eventually determine the level of OSH
models.

6.4. Tools and Methods


MATLAB Software tools: like fuzzy logic decision, neural network system and
Genetic Algorithm, will be used to generate alternative solutions for the model
development from different angles of prospects.

Multi-criteria decision making: prioritization of the OS factors evolutionarily,


integrating different factors after identifying and prioritizing, categorizing factors into
22
phase by phase changing development using clustering tools. Multi-variant tools are to be
used in the studies as tool for decision making prioritizing the safety elements causing
hazard to industrial sectors.
Statistical/include statistical quality control/ tools are also used in analyzing the
obtained data. Statistical tools like regression and correlation, poisons and exponential
models, sampling and random variables solving tools will be exhaustively used
depending on the data types. SAS and SPSS software packages will be employed to
analyses and interoperate the decision on the study.
Health & Safety Smart Planner is a software tool that can be also used to workplace
plan.
Other tools which are available and in any form that used to solve safety issues will be
used through continual improvement of the study in the research evolving activities
depending on the data types that will be obtained on the processes. Likert scale is also be
employed to prepare questioners.

7. Scope of the Study


In Ethiopia there are many work places which are risk receivers in any sectorial levels.
As a result of these wide range of OSH problems occurrence, it is difficult to solve all
problematic issues at this level. Even though it is the issue of all businesses, this
dissertation is enforced to delimit only at the selected industrial sectors which were found
more risk receivers. The most occupational hazard receivers identified during the pilot
test were manufacturing industries clustered under the methodology section in Ethiopia.
This is delimited to these sectors because the vast coverage of occupational safety and
health problems existence in Ethiopia. The study attempts to assess literatures on
developing and developed economies regarding OSH problems and compare the status
level. Having these literature as a baseline attempt to develop evolving OSH practicable
model which will be customized to other developing economies sectors with optimum
implementation cost. Each and individual sectors problem analysis will not be considered
as a critical issue. This is because the dissertation is the first and start up at Ph.D level in
Ethiopia and as a result of this it will be difficult to cover all Sevier areas of the industrial
sectors.

23
8. Significant and Outcomes of the Research
The research significance will be a startup for other researchers in Ethiopia and
developing countries as a data sources. The other importance is that it provides
implementable OSH model for manufacturing industries at low cost step by step
evolution minimizing the risk at work places and resulting improved productivity. The
research upon completion give feedback on the developing economy and developed
economy OSH problems and their model approach differences. The causes and effects of
OSH problems identification in developing countries will be one of the importance for
the whole research questions. In addition to this OSH elements and international safety
standards categorical studies and development of implementable model stage by stage for
selected industries will be the research end output. The developing economies will
benefit from this research in implementing the final output to the manufacturing
industries and may other service industries thereby extend the application to different
sectors through modifications. The research output also will target to provide directions
to legislation makers, policy reviewers, industrial top management and industrial actors.
It will serves as a basis for the review national, organizational policy and further
development of the national policy programme regarding workplace problems.

9. Organization of the Paper


The paper design will be organized in the following main chapters. The first chapter deals
with the introduction and problem approach. The second chapter focuses on different
literature review. The third chapter methodology and analysis after assessment of the
current status of the occupational safety and health in developing and developed
economies. The fourth chapter deals with state of the art of Ethiopian occupational safety
and health protection, awareness and safety system approaches. The fifth chapter foots on
the previous chapters idea and design evolutionary occupational safety and health system
model for developing economy especially Ethiopian industrial sectors and services.
Chapter six will be expected to be implementation models development and considering
training pilot tests. The last chapter will draw conclusion, recommendation and some
future study areas of the remaining parts that are not included in this dissertation. In
addition to the chapters references, appendixes/annexes will be included.

24
10. Work Break down Schedule

11. Cost Breakdown


Table 3: Cost break down analysis of the dissertation
Amount in birr
Items Unit cost Total cost
Consumable material 400.00 400.00
Stationary 4000.00 4000.00
printing, binding 5500.00 5500.00
Books, articles, journals, magazines 3500.00 3500.00
Equipment
Pilot testing stationary 4000.00 4000.00

Measuring instrument (thermometer, barometer, tonometer) 13,000.00 13,000.00


OSH Designing software CDs (SMART Occupational Health
and Safety Software, Workplace Applications occupational 3000.00 3000.00
health and safety software,etc.)
During training demonstrative sample personal protective
equipment (goggle, gloves, muffin, respirators, aprons, fall 20,000.00 20,000.00
protection, and full body suits, as well as head, eye and foot
protection, etc.)
TRAVEL/ EXPENSCES
Phase I: Industrial visits at manufacturing industries
First round transportation (AA, Dukem, Kombolcha,
Bahirdar, etc.) 2000.00 2000.00
Perdim expense (for 3-months period) 400.00/day 36,000.00
Phase II: Industrial visits at manufacturing industries

25
First round transportation (AA, Dukem, Kombolcha,
Bahirdar, etc.) 2000.00 2000.00
Perdim expense (for 3-months period) 400.00/day 36,000.00
Phase III: Industrial visits at manufacturing industries
First round transportation (AA, Dukem, Kombolcha,
Bahirdar, etc.) 2000.00 2000.00
Per-dim expense (for 3-months period) 400.00/day 36,000.00
OTHERS (LABORATORY ANALYSIS, LABOUR, WORKSHOP
PARTICIPATION, data collectors etc.
For Focal Group Discussion (FGD) tea and allowance
/participation 30,000.00 30,000.00
Data collectors employees/labor (numbers: 8 laborers) 4,000.00 32,000.00
Workshop preparation at selected industry for training
(30 top managers and industrial sectors key workers for two 60,000.00 60,000.00
days for Pilot test presentation)
Follow up the practice after pilot test 20,000.00 20,000.00
Data analysis 15,000.00 15,000.00
Document editorial 10,000.00 20,000.00
Travel to Europe/America
Flight experience 60,000.00 60,000.00
Per-dim expense for three months (5000 USD) 100,000.00 100,000.00
Insurance expense 30,000.00 30,000.00
Contingency 40,000.00 40,000.00
TOTAL AMOUNT 574,400.00

26
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