2 vistas

Cargado por pavizz

paper

- Catalo inverter Hyundai
- mudadla2015
- CompetitiveAnalysisToshibaMTX3RDrive
- Cv 21618623
- Fuzzy Logic Control Cho IM Dung Ds1104
- Parnu2011_winter_165-168
- comparision of simulation results three level and five level inverter and hardware implementation of single phase three level inrter
- Multilevel Inverters-A Comparative Study of Pulse Width Modulation Techniques
- EE2304 SET 1
- SA8281
- MB9B500-AN706-00036-1v0-E
- 88307a.ppt
- MODELING & ANALYSIS OF STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM.pdf
- PULSE WIDTH MODULATION TECHNIQUES.docx
- Current Control using Artifical Neural Network for SPV Grid Connected System
- Singh 2014
- A-Novel-Single-Phase-Five-Level-Inverter-With-Coupled-Inductors-And-Closed-Loop-System.pdf
- LC-043
- Finite Element Analysis of 3-Phase IM With PWM Inverter
- 9 Rich Bhargawa

Está en la página 1de 6

Annegret Klein-Hessling, Bernhard Burkhart, Rik W. De Doncker

Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University

Jaegerstrasse 17/19, 52066 Aachen, Germany

post@isea.rwth-aachen.de http://www.isea.rwth-aachen.de

AbstractSwitched reluctance machines receive increased at- In addition, the use of a boost converter might have ad-

tention by the automotive industry because of their cost efficiency. vantages because it is able to eliminate the effects of a

However, the comparatively larger inverter is a disadvantage of dc-link voltage level variation due to the battery state of

this machine type. This paper evaluates the effects of the usage

of a dc-dc converter to reduce the size of the dc-link capacitor by charge (SOC) [3]. Common 400 V automotive batteries suffer

active filtering of the source current. The active filter is compared a voltage drop of around 100 V in the discharge state. On

to a passive filter. Besides, the influence of a variable dc-link SRMs in single-pulse operation this might have a considerable

voltage level on the machine is investigated. effect on the machine efficiency.

II. ACTIVE F ILTERING U SING A DC-DC C ONVERTER

I. I NTRODUCTION

An equivalent circuit model of the proposed filter topology,

Switched reluctance machines (SRMs) need a comparatively the battery, the cable and the SRM inverter is shown in Fig. 1.

large dc-link capacitor to smoothen the dc-link voltage due The battery is modeled as an ideal voltage source ubat and

to the high amount of magnetization energy that oscillates an internal resistance Ri,bat . The cable which connects the

between the dc-link and the machine [1]. A high ripple on the battery with the inverter is assumed as series connection of a

dc-link voltage is unwanted to avoid the risk of over voltage resistance Rcable and an inductance Lcable . The SRM inverter

across the semiconductor. A ripple on the dc-link voltage also consists of a dc-link capacitance CDC and an asymmetric half

results in a source current ripple, if the dc-link is directly bridge with the switches S1 and S2 .

connected to a voltage source (e.g. a battery). This current The dc-dc converter consists of two switches SDC,1 and

ripple produces ohmic losses on the internal resistance of the SDC,2 , an inductance LDC and an input capacitance Cin . The

source. For a 20 kW-SRM in an automotive application these depicted dc-dc converter in Fig. 1 is a boost converter, hence

losses can reach a few hundreds watts. uin < uDC . To allow the SRM being operated in motor and

A large dc-link capacitor increases the size, weight and generator mode the dc-dc converter has to be bidirectional.

prize of the SRM inverter compared to inverters for conven- When the SRM operates as a motor the current through

tional three phase drives based on an induction machine or the inductor (iL > 0) is controlled with the switch SDC,1 .

synchronous machine. Recent publications recommend phase When the SRM operates as a generator the current (iL < 0)

switching techniques to minimize the size of the dc-link ca- is controllable with the switch SDC,2 . Hence, the energy

pacitor [1], [2]. These switching techniques aim to commutate flow between the battery and the dc-link capacitor can be

the magnetization energy stored in one phase to the next active controlled.

phase without buffering it in the dc-link capacitor. However The aim of the boost converter is to supply the SRM

the switching techniques assume an overlap between the SRM converter with a reference dc-link voltage uDC and simulta-

phases. This assumption is only fulfilled by SRMs with at least

three phases. Additionally, the current in the SRM has to be

still active controllable. Therefore, these switching techniques

are not applicable for a two-phase SRM and/or an SRM in

single-pules operation.

[2] additionally proposes a passive input filter to reduce

the ripple on the source current. The presented passive input

filter consists of an inductance LDC and a dc-link capacitance

CDC .

The active filter proposed in this paper is a bidirectional dc-

dc boost converter. The converter switches allow to actively

control the current between the dc-link and the voltage source

and, therefore, the switches are reducing the ripple on the

source current. Fig. 1. Equivalent circuit of SRM with proposed active filter

neously filter the source current ibat . Filtering of the source For simplification voltage drops across the switches and

current means holding the current through the inductor iL diodes are not considered in the shown equation but used in

on a nearly constant level and therefore suppress greater the controller. The duty cycle for in the next PWM step k + 1

oscillation on the source current. This can be achieved by can be determined by solving the equation for d. As mentioned

controlling the average dc-link voltage uDC instead of the before, only one switch of the bidirectional dc-dc converter is

instantaneous dc-link voltage uDC . In a stationary operating controlled. For a positive current iL the duty cycle d is > 0

point the instantaneous dc-link voltage then is periodic with and is applied on SDC,1 . Vice versa, in the case of a negative

the electric frequency of the SRM times the number of SRM current the switch SDC,2 has to be used and the calculated

phases. duty cycle is < 0.

The control of the dc-link voltage is shown in Fig. 2. At

The usage of the measured voltages uin (k) and udc (k) at

the start of each voltage period the average reference dc-link

the end of the last PWM step k is another simplification. It

voltage uDC is compared with the actual average voltage of the

assumes that the voltages between two PWM steps do not vary.

last period uDC . The difference is the input to a PI-controller

This does not necessary apply for the dc-link voltage. The

which provides the reference value for the inductor current

difference between udc (k) and udc (k + 1) depends on CDC

iL . Afterwards a current controller determines the switching

and the length of the PWM period T . To improve the PWM

signals for the boost converter.

current controller the voltage udc (k+1) can be predicted. With

The current through the inductor can either be controlled by

this an average voltage within the PWM step can be calculated

hysteresis control or pulse-width modulation (PWM). Figure 3

and used in (2).

depicts the two approaches. For hysteresis control only the

instantaneous current iL is required. Dependent on the current The PWM current controller provides a constant switching

the states of the switches are chosen. Therefore the switching frequency. At the same time compared to the hysteresis

frequency is not constant. The maximal switching frequency approach the measurement and calculation effort for the in-

depends on the hysteresis width I, the boost inductance LDC stantaneous values is higher. Additionally, the ripple on the

and the voltages uDC and uin . current is not constant.

For the PWM approach before each PWM period T the duty

To reduce the current through the inductor and increase

cycle d has to be calculated. The current through an inductor is

the effective total switching frequency it is possible to use

determined by the integration of the voltage across it divided

an interleaved dc-dc converter [4]. The interleaved dc-dc

by its inductance:

converter consists of multiple single dc-dc converter connected

Zt in parallel as depicted in Fig. 4.

1

iL (t) = iL (t0 ) + uL ( ) d (1) For an interleaved dc-dc converter the PWM current control

LDC

t0 approach is recommended. When phase shifting the PWM

With this equation the predicted current in the next discrete periods of each individual phase one to each other, the total

PWM step k + 1 can be determined. switching frequency of the converter can be increased by

keeping the switching frequency of each phase unchanged. In

iL (k + 1) contrast, when applying a hysteresis current controller to each

dT (1 d)T phase, due to the variable switching frequency, the positive and

iL (k) + uin (k) + (uin (k) uDC (k)) (2) negative peaks of the single phases do not necessarily overlap

LDC LDC

each other.

Fig. 3. Approaches for current controller Fig. 4. Equivalent circuit of active filter with interleaved dc-dc converter

III. S IMULATION R ESULTS a dc-link capacitance of Cdc = 1 mF experience a similar

voltage ripple of approximately 20 %. Due to the 2-phase SRM

For the comparison of the different topologies simulations

the ripple appears twice per electric period of the SRM.

are carried out using MATLAB Simulink [5] coupled with

Since the active filter is a dc-dc boost converter the average

PLECS [6]. The SRM is modeled by look-up tables obtained

dc-link voltage of the active filter (uDC = 335 V) is higher

from a stationary 2D finite element analysis (FEA)

than the voltage of the other topologies. The filter ability of

A 2-phase SRM with rated speed of 7500 rpm at 22 kW the dc-dc converter can only be used if udc > uin . Otherwise,

for a range extender application is used. Therefore, the SRM the diode of switch SDC,1 conducts and the current iL is no

operates as a generator and the source current is negative. The longer actively controllable.

rated dc-link voltage of the SRM is 300 V. At rated speed the The ripple on the dc-link voltage has only a slight influence

SRM operates in single-pulse operation [7]. on the SRM behavior. Due to the higher voltage at the

The active filter is compared to two topologies: a con- unaligned position ( = 180 el) the phase can be magnetized

ventional dc-link capacitor and a passive filter as presented a little faster. The influence of the average dc-link voltage level

in [2]. The passive filter consists of a dc-link capacitor and an on the SRM behavior will be discussed in section III.B.

inductor in series with the cable connecting the battery and

the SRM inverter. For all topologies a real cable and a battery A. Influence of Different Operating Points

with an internal resistance are modeled. The passive filter is designed for one specific operating

The comparison of the resulting battery currents ibat and point. In this paper for a better comparison between the

the dc-link voltages udc for the rated operation point of the topologies the passive filter is designed for the rated operating

SRM is shown in Fig. 5. It depicts the simulation results for point of the SRM. In [2] a design for the worst operating

two dc-link configurations: reduced capacitance (Cdc = 1 mF) point is recommended. For the observed SRM in this paper

and needed capacitance (Cdc = 5 mF). Only the larger dc-link this operating point would be at low speed and high power.

capacitance suppresses the battery current reversal. The ripple The design for this point would result in a big value for the

on the current however is still around 75 %. inductance or the capacitance. A big inductance limits the

The passive filter is able to reduce the current ripple with dynamic behavior of the SRM, e.g. during speed up. Fast

the reduced capacitance of Cdc = 1 mF to the same level as changes of the SRM load are no longer possible because of

a 5 mF dc-link capacitance without any filter. The active filter the slower current gradient (diL/dt 1/LDC ).

decreases the current ripple on the battery current even further. A comparison of the resulting battery current ibat and the

In this simulation an active filter with two dc-link phases is dc-link voltage udc for two different speeds for the passive and

used. In this case the dc-dc converter and the SRM inverter the active filter is displayed in Fig. 6. The mechanical input

can be build up using two B6 modules. For the dc-dc converter power of the switched reluctance generator for all operating

the PWM current control is applied. points is 22 kW. It can be seen, that in case of the passive

The comparison of the dc-link voltages shows that only the filter the current ripple increases with decreasing speed. At

topology with the big capacitance reduces the ripple to about 4500 rpm the peak current reaches up to 0 A while the peak-

4 % of the average voltage uDC = 310 V. All topologies with to-peak ripple is about 200 % of the average source current.

50 0

Current ibat in A

Current ibat in A

0 no filter:

CDC = 1 mF 50

50

no filter: 100

100

CDC = 5 mF

150 150 passive filter: 4500 rpm

passive filter: 7500 rpm

0 90 180 270 360 passive filter: 0 90

CDC = 1 mF active filter: 4500 rpm

LDC = 100 H active filter: 7500 rpm

Voltage uDC in V

Voltage uDC in V

350

350

325 active filter:

CDC = 1 mF

300 LDC = 100 H 300

Cin = 0.1 mF

275 250

0 90 180 270 360 0 90 180 270 360

Electrical Position in el Electrical Position in el

Fig. 5. Influence of different filters on source current and dc-link voltage at Fig. 6. Influence of variable speed on active and passive current filter at

mechanical input power Pmech = 22 kw and speed n = 7500 rpm mechanical input power Pmech = 22 kW

The same simulations are carried out for the active filter. The SRM losses are determined by a coupled 2D-FEA sim-

In this case the different operating points have no influence ulation using MATLAB Simulink [5] and FLUX 2D [10]. The

on the ripple of the battery current. The battery current stays simulation considers copper losses Pcu including eddy current

nearly constant for both speeds. The ripple in the dc-link losses in the windings [8] and iron losses Pfe in the rotor

voltage is affected similar for both filters by the different and stator [11]. Due to the non-sinusoidal flux waveforms for

operating points. Therefore, the big advantage of the active the iron loss calculation the improved generalized Steinmetz

filter compared to the passive filter is, that its behavior and equation (iGSE) is used [12].

filter capability is independent of the operation point. The losses in the semiconductor of the SRM inverter Pinv

are calculated according to data sheets provided by the manu-

B. Influence of DC-Link Voltage on SRM facturer. Switching and conduction losses in the switches and

diodes are considered. The modeled SRM inverter is based on

Besides filtering the source current, the dc-dc converter can HybridPACK Light IGBT modules provided by Infineon [13].

be used to adjust the dc-link voltage level. The average dc-link The resulting total losses of the SRM and the SRM inverter

voltage has an influence on the phase current iph and the phase for the rated operating point at a mechanical input power of

flux linkage ph of the SRM. Both values are important for 22 kW and 7500 rpm are shown in Fig. 8. The copper and

the losses occurring in the SRM and, therefore, the efficiency the inverter losses are strongly dependent on the rms current

of the drive system. and, therefore, are reduced by higher voltages. The iron losses

Figure 7 shows the effect of the different dc-link voltages depend on the peak flux-linkage and the gradient of the flux

on the trajectories of phase current and phase flux-linkage for linkage d/dt. According to the observation from Fig. 7 the

one electrical period at the rated operating point (7500 rpm, iron losses increase with increased dc-link voltage level.

22 kW). The SRM is rated for a battery with a voltage of 300 V. In total the overall losses decrease with an increasing dc-

The minimum voltage at a low SOC level is assumed to be link voltage level. Between 200 V and 300 V the efficiency

200 V. 400 V is assumed to be the maximum boosted voltage improves by 1.6 % and stays nearly constant up to 400 V

of the dc-dc converter. Each operating point is optimized for when exceeding 300 V. If only the SRM and its inverter are

the best efficiency as presented in [9]. The gradient of the flux considered it is recommended to operate the SRM at a dc-link

linkage is proportional to the dc-link voltage. Therefore, the voltage of 300 V or higher.

conduction time per period increases with decreasing dc-link

voltages. The efficiency optimization of the parameters results C. Influence of DC-Link Voltage on DC-DC Converter

in an increased free-wheeling time with increasing the dc-link Similar to the SRM and its inverter the efficiency of the

voltages. dc-dc converter also depends on the choice of the average dc-

Due to the efficiency optimization the peak value of the link voltage. As visible in (2) the current through the inductor

phase currents remain nearly constant for the different voltage depends on the input voltage uin and the difference between

levels. The rms value of the phase current however increases the input voltage and the dc-link voltage u = uin uDC .

for decreased dc-link voltages, as a longer conduction time is The inductor current and dc-link voltage trajectories for

required. a battery voltage of ubat = 200 V at 22 kW and 7500 rpm

for different levels of average dc-link voltages are shown in

400

Fig. 9. The PWM current control approach with a switching

frequency f = 15 kHz for all cases is chosen.

Current iph in A

udc = 300 V

200 udc = 200 V

100

2000 Pinv

0

Pfe

0 90 180 270 360 1500

Losses P in W

Pcu

Flux Linkage ph in Vs

0.1 1000

0.05 500

0

0

0 90 180 270 360 200 250 300 350 400

Electrical Position in el

DC-Link Voltage UDC in V

Fig. 7. Phase current and flux-linkage trajectories for different dc-link voltages

at mechanical input power Pmech = 22 kw and 7500 rpm Fig. 8. Influence of different dc-link voltage on SRM losses

The average inductor current iL is independent of the the inductors consist of iron losses and copper losses. For

average dc-link voltage. It is determined by the battery voltage, the simulation, inductors with ferrite cores and litz wire are

the mechanical power of the SRM and the number of dc- considered. The flux density in the inductor is calculated

dc converter phases. The ripple on the current increases with with an analytical approach. Due to the non-sinusoidal current

the voltage difference u because the gradient diL/dt during waveform again the improved generalized Steinmetz equation

the current decreasing time is proportional to this difference. (iGSE) is used [12]. For the copper loss calculation of the

The gradient of the current during the increasing time is windings eddy currents are neglected because litz wire is

proportional to the input voltage (eq. (2)), hence this gradient used. For the considered operating points the copper losses

is constant for all cases. clearly dominate the iron losses. Therefore, the inductor losses

Figure 9 also shows that the ripple on the dc-link voltage increase only slightly with the increasing average dc-link

depends on the average dc-link voltage level. The ripple voltage as the rms inductor current slightly increases with the

decreases at increased voltage levels. higher current ripple.

The resulting inductors losses PL as well as the losses in In total, the losses in the dc-dc converter are mainly de-

the IGBTs and diodes of the dc-dc converter are depicted in termined by the switching losses. The switching losses also

Fig. 10. The semiconductor losses are separated into switching depend on the switching frequency of the converter. Figure 11

losses Psw and conduction losses Pcond . The switching losses shows this dependency for a battery voltage of 200 V and

of the IGBTs depend on the switching frequency, the voltage an average dc-link voltage of 235 V. This average dc-link

across the device and the instantaneous current during turn- voltage is the minimum value for which at ubat = 200 V

on and turn-off. The switching frequency is the same for the necessary condition uDC > uin is always fulfilled. At

all investigated average dc-link voltage levels. The negative around 90 el and 270 el the voltage difference u becomes

current peaks and the voltage difference between input and nearly zero. Therefore, the gradient of the inductor current

dc-link voltage increase for higher average dc-link voltages becomes also very small. This results in reduced switching

(Fig 9). Therefore also the switching losses of the IGBTs losses. Additionally, a decreased switching frequency reduces

increase. the switching losses. The reduction of the switching frequency

The conduction losses are mainly affected by the rms is limited by the saturation of the inductor at the negative peak

current through the semiconductors. The duty cycle determines current.

the ratio of the period in which the switch is closed and current

is conducted through it. The average absolute duty cycle |d| per D. Total Efficiency of the Electric Drive Train

electrical period decreases with increasing the average dc-link At a switching frequency of 6 kHz the efficiency of the

voltage. Therefore, according to the duty cycle the conduction dc-dc converter is above 99 %. Figure 12 presents the total

losses of the IGBT decrease while the conduction losses of losses of the electric drive train comprising a dc-dc converter,

the diode increase for an increasing dc-link voltage. The total a machine inverter and an SRM (solid lines). For each set of

semiconductor losses of the inverter increase for an increased voltage levels (ubat , udc ) the switching frequency is adapted

dc-link voltage. to minimize the dc-dc converter losses without operating the

Similar to the losses in an SRM the losses occurring in inductors in saturation. Additionally, the occurring losses in

the drive train with a big capacitor and without the use of

the dc-dc converter are shown in Fig. 12 (dashed line). The

Current iL in A

25

400

50

Psw,IGBT

75 Psw,diode

udc = 400 V 300

PL

Losses P in W

udc = 350 V

0 90 180 Pcond,diode

udc = 300 V

200 Pcond,IGBT

udc = 250 V

Voltage uDC in V

400

100

300

0

200

250 300 350 400

0 90 180 270 360

Average DC-Link Voltage uDC in V

Electrical Position in el

Fig. 9. Inductor current trajectories for different average dc-link voltages at Fig. 10. Semiconductor losses for different average dc-link voltages at

ubat = 200 V ubat = 200 V

Current iL in A

A range extender in an electric car is mostly operated when

25 the SOC and the battery voltage are at low level. Therefore, it

50

can be assumed that the system efficiency is not reduced with

the additional dc-dc converter.

75

IV. C ONCLUSION

0 90 180 270 360 The investigations in this paper have shown that by using

Electrical Position in el a dc-dc converter it is possible to actively filter the source

400

current. By this measure the size of the dc-link capacitor can

f = 6 kHz

be reduced by 80 %. Contrary to the behavior of a passive

f = 9 kHz

filter, the operating point of the SRM has no effect on the

f = 12 kHz

300 filter quality. Additionally, the investigations have shown that

f = 15 kHz

Losses P in W

independent of the state of charge of the battery improves the

200 Psw,IGBT

efficiency of the switched reluctance machine and its inverter.

Psw,diode The total efficiency of the electric drive train, therefore,

100 PL remains nearly unchanged despite the extra losses in the dc-dc

Pcond,diode

converter.

0 Pcond,IGBT ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

6 9 12 15 The research was funded by the German Federal Ministry

Switching Frequency f in kHz of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) within the public

project HiREX (FKZ: 01MY14003A). The work was addition-

Fig. 11. Inductor current and total converter losses for different switching ally supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) as

frequencies at ubat = 200 V and udc = 235 V

part of the post graduate program mobilEM (GRK 1856).

R EFERENCES

2125 w/o converter [1] C. R. Neuhaus, N. H. Fuengwarodsakul and R. W. De Doncker, "Control

Scheme for Switched Reluctance Drives with Minimized DC-Link Ca-

Total Losses P in W

2000 with converter: 2557-2564, 2007.

ubat = 200 V [2] W. Suppharangsan and J. Wang, "A new switching technique for DC-

ubat = 225 V link capacitor minimisation in switched reluctance machine drives," 5th

1875 IET International Conference Power Electronics, Machines and Drives

ubat = 250 V (PEMD), pp. 1-61, 2010

ubat = 275 V [3] H.-C. Chang and C.-M. Liawl, "An Integrated Driving/Charging Switched

1750 Reluctance Motor Drive Using Three-Phase Power Module," IEEE Trans-

ubat = 300 V

actions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 1863-1775, 2011.

200 250 300 350 400 [4] B. A. Miwa, D. M. Otten and M. E. Schlecht, "High efficiency power fac-

tor correction using interleaving techniques," Applied Power Electronics

Average DC-Link Voltage uDC in V Conference and Exposition (APEC), pp. 557-568, 1992.

[5] Matlab Simulink, MathWorks,

http://de.mathworks.com/products/simulink/ (October 2016).

Fig. 12. Total losses (converter and SRM) for different battery voltages [6] Plecs, Plexim, http://www.plexim.com/plecs/ (October 2016).

[7] A. Klein-Hessling, B. Burkhart and R. W. De Doncker, "The Effect

of Excitation Angles in Single-Pulse Controlled Switched Reluctance

Machines on Acoustics and Efficiency," 17th International Conference

investigated battery voltage levels are marked as dots on this on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), pp. 2661-2666, 2014.

dashed trajectory. The horizontal gaps between the dots and [8] M. Schenk, "Simulative Untersuchung der Wicklungsverluste in Geschal-

starting points of the trajectories with dc-dc convert result form teten Reluktanzmaschinen," Phd-Thesis, Shaker Verlag, Aachen, Ger-

many, 2016.

the condition uDC > uin . [9] B. Burkhart, A. Klein-Hessling, S. A. Hafeez and R. W. De Doncker,

For a battery voltage of ubat = 200 V and an average dc- "Influence of Freewheeling on Single Pulse Operation of a Switched

link voltage udc between 240 V and 350 V the losses with the Reluctance Generator," 19th International Conference on Electrical Ma-

chines and Systems (ICEMS), pp. 1-6, 2016.

use of a dc-dc converter are lower than the losses without the [10] Flux 2D, Cedrat,

use of a converter (dot at 200 V on w/o converter trajectory). http://www.cedrat.com/en/software/flux.html (October 2016).

Therefore, for this operating points besides reducing the size [11] A. Klein-Hessling, B. Burkhart and R.W. De Doncker, "Iron Loss

Redistribution in Switched Reluctance Machines Using Bidirectional

of the capacitor the dc-dc converter increases the efficiency of Phase Currents," 8th IET International Conference Power Electronics,

the electric drive train. Machines and Drives (PEMD), 2016.

For higher battery voltages the losses with a dc-dc converter [12] K. Venkatachalam, C. R. Sullivan, T. Abdallah and H. Tacca, "Accurate

prediction of ferrite core loss with nonsinusoidal waveforms using only

are higher than without a dc-dc converter. In the worst case (at Steinmetz parameters," IEEE Workshop on Computers in Power Electron-

ubat = 300 V) the absolute difference between the efficiencies ics, pp. 36-41, June 2002.

with and without converter is = 0.56 % (P = 123 W). [13] HybridPack Light, Infineon, http://www.infineon.com/ (October 2016).

- Catalo inverter HyundaiCargado porJose Villalobos Coral
- mudadla2015Cargado porKRISHNA PRASAD
- CompetitiveAnalysisToshibaMTX3RDriveCargado porchadjitsu1
- Cv 21618623Cargado porLucian Mihai Biltiu
- Fuzzy Logic Control Cho IM Dung Ds1104Cargado porQuan Nguyen Duc
- Parnu2011_winter_165-168Cargado porthienvuong90
- comparision of simulation results three level and five level inverter and hardware implementation of single phase three level inrterCargado porSwaroopaKunsoth
- Multilevel Inverters-A Comparative Study of Pulse Width Modulation TechniquesCargado porIJSER ( ISSN 2229-5518 )
- EE2304 SET 1Cargado porkaliappan45490
- SA8281Cargado porRadharaman Das
- MB9B500-AN706-00036-1v0-ECargado porsanthi_manoj_204
- 88307a.pptCargado pormalini72
- MODELING & ANALYSIS OF STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM.pdfCargado poresatjournals
- PULSE WIDTH MODULATION TECHNIQUES.docxCargado porNeejan Jack
- Current Control using Artifical Neural Network for SPV Grid Connected SystemCargado porGRD Journals
- Singh 2014Cargado porIzza Anshory
- A-Novel-Single-Phase-Five-Level-Inverter-With-Coupled-Inductors-And-Closed-Loop-System.pdfCargado porIJSTR Research Publication
- LC-043Cargado porchanxi9
- Finite Element Analysis of 3-Phase IM With PWM InverterCargado porsajs201
- 9 Rich BhargawaCargado porkurukuruddinpuru
- 12.pdfCargado porVishuddhanand
- Analysis of Output Current Ripple of Three-Phase PWM Inverter Under Discontinuous Modulation TechniquesCargado porSherif M. Dabour
- ee366-chap-5-3Cargado porMichael Adu-boahen
- InnCargado porVenkata Krishna Andey
- Cascaded Nine Level Inverter Using Pulse Width Modulation And Hybrid PWMCargado porAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Three Phase InverterCargado porvarsha
- PWM VetorialCargado porrocasoju
- ISTEC GA XVIII Experimental Platform in Digital Control of DC DC ConvertersCargado porrmsharma1970
- Pulse Width Modulation InverterCargado porARVIND
- Soft Starter WorkingCargado porPavan Kumar

- Project Duration Forecasting - Walt LipkeCargado porJose Andrew Garcia Ibarra
- SAP IS UCargado poryarrapradeep
- 01-05 Typical BSS Conversion Tasks (BTS3606AE)Cargado porSunil Kumar Karna
- case studyCargado porDarshit Pachchigar
- Methanol ToxicityCargado poralaamed
- RizalCargado porRenzen20
- AlgoSec Firewall Analyzer DatasheetCargado porGaston Acevedo
- Sralxd Sb2 Inst ManCargado porsinasabikona
- Sporty GameCargado porsimona_betty
- 2013 Jhpiego Mini-University AgendaCargado porJhpiego_2013
- task3eat lesson planCargado porapi-325339089
- Did Protestantism Create DemocracyCargado porcoachenko
- Observational Study DesignCargado porIfanda Ibnu Hidayat
- Biochemistry of GlycoproteinCargado porMahathir Mohmed
- jehovah is not the name of the most high its yahuwahCargado porapi-231781675
- 135_10- Speakout Upper-Intermediate 2nd. Audio ScriptsCargado porLicEmmanuelGonzálezHernández
- New Microsoft Office Word DocumentCargado porMani Kandan
- hannahcornwellresume 2Cargado porapi-383563858
- Coagulopathy of Chronic Liver DiseaseCargado porHarish Puttagunta
- Impact of a Water JetCargado porAnirban Sardar
- Labs and DiagnosticsCargado porJae Kim
- Menn, Aristotle and Plato on God as NousCargado porMaribel Ramírez
- Hms Cyclone PlantCargado porrichard gutierrez
- Fishing Tools RCJBCargado porEdwin MP
- Mana Khemia - Al RevisCargado porMauricio Botero
- SAP Recipe ManagmenetCargado pordcm0907
- Final Copy ResumeCargado pors516680
- oral submucous fibrosisCargado porvishalzenia
- Symfony Reference 2.5Cargado porniurkam
- Cell EnvelopeCargado porBayu Agustinus