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1.

ESTIMATION OF MANGANESE DIOXIDE IN PYROLUSITE
AIM
To estimate the percentage of manganese dioxide present in the given sample of Pyrolusite
ore.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Conical flask, Burette, pipette, beaker
PROCEDURE
TITRATION - I
Standardization of Potassium permanganate
Pipette out 20 ml of std solution of 0.1N oxalic acid into a clean conical flask. Add 20ml of
8N sulfuric acid. Heat gently upto parable warm, titrate the warm solution with KMnO 4 taken
in the burette until just appearance of permanent pale pink color.
TITRATION – II
Weigh out accurately above 0.25 gm of pyrolusite ore into a clean conical flask. Add 20ml
of dilute sulfuric acid and boiled for 10 minutes. Cool the flask then add 40ml of 0.1N oxalic
acid solution through pipette and heat gently up to 30 minutes. Titrate the content of the
conical flask against already standardized KMnO 4 taken in the burette, until the appearance
of permanent pale pink colour.
Standardization of Potassium permanganate
Standard Oxalic acid Vs KMnO4
Indicator: Self
End Point: Appearance of pale permanent pink color.

S. No Volume of Std Initial Final burette Volume of Concordant
Oxalic acid burette reading value
reading KMnO4
(ml) (ml) (ml)
(ml) (ml)

01
02

Volume of Oxalic acid V1 =20ml
Strength of Oxalic acid N1 =0.1N
Volume of KMnO4 V2 =
Strength of KMnO4 N2 = V1 N1 / V2

Estimation of Manganese di oxide in Pyrolusite ore:
Standardized KMnO4 Vs Pyrolusite + Standard Oxalic acid
Indicator: Self
End point: Appearance of pale pink colour.

Sl Volume of Std Oxalic Initial Final burette Volume of Concordant
acid burette reading value
.No reading KMnO4
(ml) (ml) (ml)
(ml) (ml)

Oxalic acid consumed by MnO4 in Pyrolusite ore = 2V1 - V2
2X40-9.4
= 70.6ml
Conversion factor
1ml of 0.1N oxalic acid consumes 0.00435 gm of MnO2.
=
RESULT

Percentage of MnO2 present in the given sample of pyrolusite = %

2.ESTIMATION OF MAGNESIUM

AIM: To estimate the amount of Magnesium in the whole of the given solution of magnesium
sulphate.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Conical flask, Burette, pipette, beaker
PROCEDURE:
TITRATION 1:
Exactly 0.025 N solution of MgSO 4 7H2O is prepared in a 100 ml Standard flask.
Exactly 20 ml of this is taken in a 250 ml conical flask and diluted to about 100 ml. About 2 ml
of buffer of 10 PH and 2 to 4 drops of EBT indicator is added. The solution is warmed to 40 o C
and titrate against EDTA solution. The end point is change of color from wine red to pure blue.
The titration is repeated for concordant values. From the titre values, the strength of EDTA
solution is calculated.
TITRATION 2:
The given magnesium solution is made up to 100 ml in a standard flask a well shaken.
Exactly 20 ml of this solution is pipette out into clean conical flaks and diluted to about 100 ml.
About 2 ml of the buffer solution followed by a 3 or 4 drops of Eriochrome Black T indicator is
added to it. The solution is warmed to 40 oC and titrated against standardized EDTA solution
taken in the burette. At the end point, the wine red color changes to a pure blue. The titration is
repeated for concordance. From the titre values the strength of magnesium solution and hence its
amount is calculated.
TITRATION 1
Std EDTA Vs MAGNESIUM SULPHATE:

S. No Volume of Initial Final burette Volume of Concordant
burette reading value
MgSO4 7H2O reading EDTA
(ml) (ml)
(ml) (ml) (ml)

01
02

TITRATION 2 S.01) / 100 RESULT: Amount of Magnesium present in 100 ml of the given solution is = gm . No Volume of Initial Final burette Volume of Concordant burette reading value MgSO4 7H2O reading EDTA (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) 01 02 CALCULATIONS: Strength of EDTA Solution: 20 x N1 / Titre Value = N2 Strength of the given Magnesium solution: N2 x Titre Value / 20 = N3 Amount of Magnesium present in the 100 ml of the given solution = N3 x Atomic mass of Mg (24.

Add above 10ml of 6Nnitric acid and the flask is gently heated. Add 15ml KI and titrate against standardized thio as before using starch indicator . Burette. ESTIMATON OF COPPER IN BRASS AIM: To estimate the percentage of copper present in the given sample of brass APPARATUS REQUIRED: Conical flask. Filter the solid metastanic acid and to the filtrate add 10ml of con sulphuric acid and evaporate it.1Ncopper sulphate in to a conical flask.5g of brass sample to a clean conical flask. Immediately titrate it with thio taken in the burette. beaker PROCEDURE: TITRATION I: STANDARDIZATION OF TIOSULPHATE Pipette out 20ml of the std. then add 2ml of phosphoric acid cool the solution and transferred to a 100ml std flask make up to the mark using distilled water. until the sample is completely dissolved. add 1:1 ammonia dropwise until the appearance of blue cupric ammonium complex.then ad 2ml of precipitate just disappears. allow cooling and adding20ml of distilled water. The add 15ml of 10% KI solution. solution of 0. until the solution becomes light yellow. To the filterate add ammonia until the appearance of blue precipitate just disappears . Pipette out 20ml of this solution to a clean conical flask. pipette. Add 1ml of freshly prepared starch solution and continue the titration slowly until the solution becomes light blue . 3.Repeat the titration to confirm titre value TITRATION II: Weight out accurately about 0. Add 1:1acetic acid until the blue color just disappears.

OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION: STANDARDIZATION OF TIOSULPHATE: Sl Volume of Burette Reading Volume of Concordant thio run down value No Copper sulphate Initial Final solutio (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) Weight of watch glass (W1) gm = Weight of watch glass and sample = (W2) = Weight of the sample = (W2-W1) gm Normality of copper solution = v2XN1/20 Atomic weight of copper= equivalent weight of copper Amount of copper = (normality X atomic weight of copperX100)//1000= b gm Percentage of copper= bX100/ (w2-w1) = C% RESULT: Percentage of copper present in the given sample of brass= % .

V 2 ml of acid (vV2 ml of alkali is the same amount of acid neutralized as the normality is same for acid and alkali) = (V1 . The mixture in the flask boils slowly and the dark colour of the solution becomes colourless slowly.A few drops of Hg is added as catalyst. As the round bottom flask is heated. Caustic soda solution and a few pieces of zinc granules are added to the flask . Ammonia gas is released and it gets absorbed in the acid solution of the conical flask. ESTIMATION OF NITROGEN BY KJELDOL METHOD AIM: To estimate the amount of nitrogen by Kjeldahl Method APPARATUS REQUIRED: Kjeldahl apparatus. conical flask PROCEDURE: The Urea whose quantity of Nitrogen is to be estimated is taken in a small amount of weight 0.The condenser is fitted to the round bottom flask and a conical flask is fitted to the condenser. The unreacted acid of the conical flask is estimated by titration against standard solutions of NaOH CALCULATION: Let the weight of organic compound be w gram Volume of acid taken =V1 ml Normality of acid =N Volume of alkali of normality N required to neutralize unreacted acid =V 2 ml Volume of acid to neutralize ammonia= V1 ml of acid . .V2) ml of alkali solution of N normal. 4. After this. the flask is cooled and the content is diluted with distilled water and the mixture is transferred to a round bottom flask. A known volume of concentrated H 2SO4about 20ml is added to the organic compound and also about 8-10g of potassium sulphate is added to the kejaldahl's flask.V2) ml of N acid soln. = (V1. The flask is fitted at the mouth by a glass stopper and is kept clamped in an inclined position the Kjeldhal's flask is fitted with a safety trap and then heated in fume chamber. Amonium sulphate gets formed and the colour of the solution changes.5 to 5g in Kjeldhal's flask. the liquid begins to boil slowly.

4 x (v1-v2)/w %N RESULT: The amount of nitrogen is = gm .Now 1000 ml of (N) ammonia soln. Has 17 g NH3 ie 14 g Nitrogen So (V1-V2) ml (N) NH3 has [14 x (V1--V2) ml x 1/w x 1/1000 gram So the % of N in the w gm organic compound is 14 x (V1 -V2) x1/w x 1/1000 x 100 ie 1.

Measure the optical rotation of the given solution and find out its concentration with the help calibration curve. Knowing the optical rotation of unknown sugar solution. beaker. 14%. Plot a graph of between optical rotations and concentration. Calculate the specific rotation using the following formula [] = 100 /CL Where [] = Specific rotation. Part B Measure the optical rotation of the given sugar solution. PROCEDURE: Part A. Measure its optical rotations using a standard Polarimeter. . 10% 12%. 5. 16%) sugar solutions in different 50 ml standard volumetric flasks. the concentration of sugar solution is determined by applying the values of specific rotation from above formula. The specific rotation of sugar is a constant value. AIM: To estimate the percentage of sugar present in the given solution using Polarimeter.  = Optical rotation. 4%. C = Concentration. POLARIMETRIC ESTIMATION OF SUGAR. 6%. Prepare a known concentration of (say 2%. L = Length of Potentiometric tube in dm. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Standard volumetric flasks. 8%. Polarimeter.

RESULT: The percentage of sugar present in the given solution By calculation By graph: . 3. solution Rotation (R = r01 – r0) 1. 2. 5.OBSERVATION AND CALCULATION: Angle of Concentration of sugar rotation Specific SL No. 4.

Potassium dichromate solution in a clean conical flask and add 5ml of conc. pipette. PROCEDURE: Standardardization of sodium thiosulphate: Prepare a standard solution of potassium dichromate (i) Pipette out 20ml of std. Also the strength of the thio sulphate solution does not vary with this and this is fairly stable the excess of bromine is treated with KI. (iv) Repeat the titration for the concordant value Estimation of wrinkler’s:solution: (I) Conduct a similar experiment to standardise the bromate bromide mixture (II) Pipette out 20ml of this solution into a clean conical flask (III) Add 5ml of conc. so that the liberated iodine could be treated against sodium thiosulphate. Burette. 6. measuring flask (ii) Pipette out 20ml of the solution into stoppered conical flask . which inturn is standardised by potassium dichromate solution. (IV) End point is the disappearance of colour (V) Repeat the titration for concordant value Estimation of phenol: (i) Make up the given phenol solution into 100ml in a std. HCL and 10ml of 10%KI and titrate the liberated iodine against sodium thiosulphate solution using starch indicator. HCL and 40ml of 10% KI and titrate the liberated iodine against sodium thiosulphate in burette. Instead a mixture of bromate bromide (wrinklers solution) which readily liberates bromine in the presence of acid is used. beaker PRINCIPLE: The estimation is based on the following reaction However a standard solution of bromine is not used for this purpose. (ii) When the solution becomes pal yellow add one drop of starch indicator and continue the titration (iii) The end point is the appearance of green colour. ESTIMATION OF PHENOL AIM: To estimate the amount of phenol present in the whole of given solution APPARATUS REQUIRED: Conical flask.

HCL 10ml of 10% KI solution (vi) Titrate the liberated iodine against thiosulphate using starch indicator (vii) End point is the disappearance of colour (viii) Repeat the titration for concordant value STD DICHROMATE Vs THIOSULPHATE S. (iii) Dilute it by adding 50 ml of water (iv) Add 40ml of wrinklers solution from burette slowly with constant shaking (v) Then add 5ml of conc. V1XN1 = V2XN2 ESTIMATION OF WRINKLERS SOLUTION: .No Volume of Burette reading Volume of Concordant dichromate sodium value (ml) thiosulphate solution solution (ml) V1(ml) V2 (ml) Initial Final Strength of K2Cr2O7 (N1) = Volume of dichromate solution (V1) = Volume of sodium thiosulphate solution (V2) = Strength of thiosulphate solution (N2) = According to law of volumetric analysis.

DETERMINATION OF TOTAL RESIDUAL CHLORINE IN WATER SAMPLE .S.No Vol of Burette reading Vol of Concordant phenol Initial Final Thiosulphate Value Solution (ml) (ml) Solution (ml) V1 (ml) V2 (ml) RESULT: Amount of phenol present in the given solution = gm 7.No Vol of Burette reading Vol of Concordant Wrinklers Initial Final Thiosulphate Value Solution (ml) (ml) Solution (ml) V1 (ml) V2 (ml) ESTIMATION OF PHENOL: S.

APPARATUS REQUIRED: Conical flask. Na2S2O3 solution with 1 ml of starch indicator till the blue colour disappears.AIM:- To determine the total residual chlorine in the given water sample. Add 1 ml of freshly prepared starch and titrate till it appears steel blue. Estimation of residual Cl2: Transfer 100 ml of given H2O sample in a clean conical flask and add 10 ml of KI solution and about 3 ml of glacial acetic acid to maintain pH of 3. Add 20 ml of 10% KI solution and 20 ml of 4N H2SO4. Titrate the solution till it turns light yellow in colour. pipette. Cover the flask with stop cork and mix the solution by dil.No Volume of Burette reading Volume of Concordant dichromate sodium value (ml) thiosulphate solution solution (ml) (ml) (ml) Initial Final TITRATION I .4. beaker PROCEDURE: Standardization of thio solution: About 20 ml of std thio of K 2Cr2O7 solution taken in a clean conical flask. H2O. STD DICHROMATE Vs THIOSULPHATE S. Burette. Titrate against std.

t free Cl2 present = = Amount of Cl2 in given H2O = = RESULT:- The amount of total residual chlorine in given sample of water = ______gm 8.ESTIMATION OF RESIDUAL CL2 Indicator : Starch End point : Disappearance of blue colour Sl Volume of Burette Reading Volume of thio Concordant H2O value No Initial Final Sulphate (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) CALCULATION: Free Cl2 in 100 ml of sample = Normality of H2O w. ESTIMATION OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND AIM: .r.

Reflux blank in the same manner using distilled water instead of sample OBSERVATION: Burette Reading Sl Volume ofH2O Initial Final Volume of Concordant thio run down value No (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) CALCULATION: Quantity of ferrous ammonium sulphate added for blank = Aml Quantity of ferrous ammonium sulphate added for sample = Bml COD = ((A-B) XN FASX8X1000)/quantity of water sample taken RESULT: The amount of COD in the given water sample = 9. mix the contents before heating. Improper mixing results in bumping and sample may be blown out. To estimate the amount of chemical oxygen demand for the given water sample APPARATUS REQUIRED: Reflux apparatus. Add slowly 30ml of 8N sulphuric acid and mix thoroughly .1N potassium di chromate solution are taken in the flask together with glass beads. Reflux for a minimum period of 2hrs. ESTIMATION OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN WATER AIM To determine the amount of dissolved oxygen in the given water sample by wrinkle’s method. cool and wash the condenser with distilled water. heating mantle.titrate excesses dichromate with 0. APPARATUS REQUIRED: . After cooling to room temperature .20ml of unknown water sample .1N ferrous ammonium sulphate using ferrion indicator sharp color change from blue green to wine red indicate the end point .2gm of silver sulphate in the reflux flask.10ml of 0.connect the flask to the condenser . and burette PROCEDURE: Place o.

I Standardisation of sodium thiosulphate The burette is washed and filled with sodium thiosulphate solution. starch indicator is added. when solution turn straw yellow color. .01N potassium dichromate solution is pipette out in to a clean conical flask. Conical flask. The stopper is replaced and the flask is shaking for several times. the water sample is titrated against thio sulphate solution when the solution becomes light yellow. 20ml of 0. hence the amount of dissolved oxygen is calculated STANDARDIZATION OF SODIUM THIO SULPHATE Standard thio sulphate Vs potassium di chromate Indicator: starch End Point: Appearance of pale green color. titration is continued until the blue color is disappears . 2ml of manganese sulphate and 2ml of potassium iodide are added. beaker PROCEDURE Part . Then titration is continued till blue color becomes green Part – II Standardisation of Dissolved oxygen 100-150ml of the water sample is taken in the iodine flask. This is titrated against thio sulphate. starch indicator is added. pipette. 5ml of sulphuric acid snd 15ml of potassium iodide. Burette.

.Sl Volume of Burette Reading Volume of Concordant thiosulphate value No K2Cr2O7 Initial Final ml ml ml ml ml Volume of thio sulphate V1 = Strength of thio sulphate N1 = Volume of K2Cr2O7 V2 = Strength of K2Cr2O7 N2 = V1 N1 / V2 ESTIMATION OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN: Standardized Water Vs thio sulphate Indicator: starch End point: Disappearance of blue color.

wt.ANALYSIS OF POLYMER AIM: To determine the molecular weight using Ostwald viscometer as 1% soln is provided APPARATUS REQUIRED: . No Volume of Water Initial Final burette Volume of Concordant burette reading value ml reading thio sulphate ml ml ml ml Volume of thio sulphate V1 = Strength of thio sulphate N1 = Volume of water sample V2 = Strength of Water sample N2 = V1 N1 / V2 Amount of dissolved oxygen = NormalityX Eq. Of oxygenX1000 RESULT Amount of dissolved oxygen in given water sample = gm 10. S.

Now note the time of the flow of the solvent to lower mark. CONDUCTOMETRIC TITRATIONS AIM: To find out the strength of hydrochloric acid and acetic acid in a mixture of both (strong acid .1. viscometer PROCEDURE: Polymer soln of different concentration say 0.5%are prepared from the given polymer stock soln. Take 10mlof the solvent is taken in a viscometer and sucked through the capillary tube. from the flow time reduced. hot water. and 0.log K) k= 20x10-5 . CALCULATION: SL CONCENTRATION FLOW TIME ηrel= η/ηo ηsp=t/to-1 ηred=ηsp/c NO g/100ml (t) Sec = t/to Molecular weight of the polymer: ηi=kMa log ηi= log k + a log m log m = 1/a ( log ηi . Polyvinyl alcohol.2.76 Logm=logn-logk/a Degree of polymerization: µ = mx Dp Dp= RESULT: Molecular weight of the given polymer is = Degree of polymerization = 11.weak acid) by titrating it against sodium hydroxide solution . Now fill the viscometer with 10ml of one of the polymer concentration in to the viscometer and determine the flowtime as before . similarly the flow time of the other polymer soln are formed. 0. Viscoscity can be calculated. a = 0.

2ml (5drops). Dip the conductivity cell in it and record the reading. (See that the point foil is completely immersed in the solution). OBSERVATION: Volume of NaOH. Plot the points for observed conductance Vs the volume of NaOH added in ml. Stir the solution and record the conductance after stopping the stirring. Continue the process until the conductivity value first decreases.1N NaOH. APPARATUS: Conductivity meter. flasks. PROCEDURE: Prepare the following stock solutions in water 0.conductometrically. placed on the magnetic stirrer. magnetic stirrer etc.01N HCl. reaches a minimum. Fix the filled NaOH solution in a micro burette on a stand.. Record the points of intersection and note V1 and V2. 0. conductivity cell. 0.01N CH3COOH. Add NaOH drop wise in an increment of 0. Conductance (mho/ cm-1) ml Nature of the Graph: Conductivity (mho/ cm-1) . then increases gradually and latter increases rapidly. std.Draw straight lines passing through a maximum number of points. Pipette out 25cc of acid mixture [10cc HCl + 15cc CH3COOH] to a clean beaker.

volume of NaOH added for HCl= CALCULATION: V1 N1 = V2 N2 (HCl) (NaOH) V2 x N2 Normality of HCl N = ---------- V1 Amount of HCl present in 1 ltr = N x eq. Volume of NaOH From graph: V2. ESTIMATION OF FERROUS IRON BY POTENTIOMETRIC METHOD AIM: To determine the amount of ferrous ion present in the whole of the given solution by potentiometrically .wt of HCl = g/litre RESULT: The strength of each acid in the given mixture is Hydrochloric acid = 12.

83x100/1000 RESULT: The amount of ferrous ion present in 100ml of the given solution = gm 13. ml Volume of Di chromate(ml) Emf E/V ml V CALCULATION: Volume of Dichromate = Strength of ferrous ion = Amount of ferrous ion present in 100ml of the given soln= x55. the volume of dichromate is calculated Volume of di Conductance (mho/ cm-1) chromate. DETERMINATION OF SODIUM AND POTASSIUM BY FLAME PHOTOMETER AIM: To determine the amount of sodium and potassium using flame photometer . the addition of dichromate is continued even after the end point . beaker PROCEDURE: First a preliminary titration is carried out by adding std di chromate solution is portion of 1ml of emf of the cell is measured after addition .APPARTUS REQUIRED: Potenetiometer . micro burette.

the solution of sodium chloride is sent one by one & reading is noted The same procedure is fallowed in the determination of potassium as in the sodium DETERMINATION OF SODIUM IN WATER SL CONCENTRATION INTENSITY NO OF SODIUM .APPARATUS REQUIRED: Flame photometer. now the instrument is said to be calibrated. conical flask PROCEDURE: DETERMINATION OF SODIUM AND POTASSIUM IN WATER Sodium chloride solution of 8ppm is sent and reading is adjusted for 100.

ESTIMATION OF BARIUM AIM: To estimate the amount of barium present in the given soln . CHLORIDE PPM DETERMINATION OF POTASSIUM IN WATER SL CONCENTRATION INTENSITY NO OF POTASSIUM CHLORIDE PPM RESULT: The amount of sodium in given water = ppm The amount of potassium in the given water = ppm 14.

beaker PROCEDURE: Make up the barium salt solution to100ml in a std flask . The precipitate is formed within 15min.5N sulfuric acid . Weight the crucible & the content is determined CALCULATION: Mass of empty crucible = Mass of Barium sulfate crucible = Mass of Barium sulfate = Amount of Barium in 100ml of given solution = = RESULT: The amount of the Barium ion in the whole of the solution = gm 15. ESTIMATION OF NICKEL AIM: To estimate the amount of nickel in whole of the given solution .add 1ml con.APPARATUS REQUIRED: Conical flask.Hcl &dilute the solution to about 100ml by adding water. pipette out 20ml of this made up solution into 400ml beaker . pipette. heat the content of the beaker to boiling & added 15ml of 0. dry the precipitation air oven. Burette.

Repeat the processes for drying & cooling until const weight is obtained CALCULATION: Mass of empty crucible = gm Mass of Nickel = gm Mass of DMG= gm Amount of nickel present in 100ml of solution = = RESULT: The amount of nickel present in whole of the solution= gm 16.ESTIMATION OF ASPIRIN DRUG IN TABLETS AIM: . Add 5ml of 1:1Hcl & dilute the solution.PROCEDURE: Make up the nickel salt solution to 100ml in a volumetric flask. Add 25ml of DMG and add 1% alcoholic ammonia . Heat the contents of beaker to about 80ocover a water bath. pipette out 20ml of this made up solution in to a clean 400ml beaker with glass rod & water.

PROCEDURE: Accurately weigh the given tablet.05 alcoholic KOH solution. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Burette.1 ml nearing the end point. Standardize the pH meter using pH 4 buffer solution. Calculate the strength of acetyl salicylic acid in the given drug sample by knowing the volume of alcoholic KOH from the graph. Pipette out 20ml of the drug solution into to a clean beaker. Pipette out 20ml of the made up solution into a conical flask. Add 5 drops of thymol blue indicator and titrate it against std. beaker. Pilot Titration Volume of Alcoholic KOH pH (ml) FAIR TITRATION Volume of alcoholic KOH PH pH/V (ml) . grind it in a porcelain mortar to fine powder. pH meter etc.05 alcoholic KOH solution taken in the burette. 0. Note the pH value by the addition of each 1ml of 0. Draw a graph by plotting pH Vs the volume of std. Wash the electrodes with distilled water. The molecular weight of Aspirin is 180. repeat the experiment by adding 0. After the jump. The end point is the change of colour from yellow to blue.To estimate the amount of Aspirin in the given tablet using pH meter. Immerse the electrode in to the drug solution. pipette. Dissolve the powder in 95% ethanol and transfer the whole into a 100ml standard flask and make up to the mark using 95% ethanol. continue the addition up to a pH of 13. From the burette after well stirring. alcoholic KOH solution.

8 Normality of drug solution = V1 x N 1 ------------ N2 Weight per litre = Equivalent mass x Normality = g 56.11 x Amount of the substance in 100 ml of the solution = 56. ESTIMATION OF AMMONIA IN AMMONIUM SALTS .Equivalence point =0.11 x = RESULT: The amount of Aspirin in the given sample Using pH metric analysis = gm 17.

1 N HCl is prepared and standardized using standardized sodium hydroxide. If the vapors of ammonia ceased to come the paper does not turn black. Burette. beaker PROCEDURE: Take 0. The determination is repeated till identical results are obtained. Flask and standardized with 0. pipette. 0. TITRATION: I Std Hcl Vs ammonium chlorids . At this stage cool the solution and titrate the excess alkali with standard Hydrochloric acid solution in presence of methyl orange indicator.AIM: To estimate the ammonia in the given ammonium salt.1 N Sodium Hydroxide solution is added. A small funnel is placed in the mouth of the conical flask in order to prevent mechanical loss and the mixture is boiled till all the ammonia is evolved which is checked up by using a wet mercruous nitrate paper.1 N oxalic acid. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Conical flask.1 N Sodium hydroxide is prepared in a 250 ml std. In a Pyrex glass conical flask 0.15 grams of the given ammonium slat is taken and 50 ml of 0.

S.= z Normality of NaOH Volume of NaOH consumed: Gram equivalents of NaOH = Normality x Volume of NaOH reacted / 100 = x = Amount of ammonia Percentage of ammonia present in the sample = --------------------------------. No Volume of Initial Final burette Volume of Concordant ammonium burette reading HCl value chloride reading (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) 01 02 CALCULATION: Titre Value x Normality of HCl Volume of NaOH unreacted = ----------------------------------------. Ore Analysis .x 100 Weight of the sample taken RESULT: The percentage of ammonia present in the given sample is = % CH2307 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS LAB LTPC 0032 LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1.

Fe . Polymer analysis . 7. Potentiometry. 4. Determination of standard – electrode potential of Zn .  Estimation of manganese in pyrolusite ore. 6. 3.  Estimation of nitrogen in urea by kjeldal method. 5.  Determination of chemical oxygen demand. Gravimetric analysis  Estimation of barium in barium sulphate.  Estimation of iron. 11. Analysis of fertilizer. Copper. 12. Estimation of phenol by Iodimetry / UV-Vis Spectrometer. Water Analysis  Determination of total residual chlorine in water.  Estimation of magnesium in dolomite.  Estimation of nickel as DMG. Estimation of sodium and potassium by flame photometry. 2. 8. Analysis of alloys . Sugar Analysis . pH metry (acid – basic titration ) – not basic. 9. Conductometric Titration. 10.  Determination of dissolved oxygen. * Minimum 10 experiments shall be offered TOTAL : 45 PERIODS INDEX .

POLYMER ANALYSIS. 10. 14. 15. 9. ESTIMATION OF MAGNESIUM IN DOLOMITE ORE 3. 13. ESTIMATION OF ASPIRIN DRUG IN TABLETS 17. ANALYSIS OF ALLOYS (ESTIMATION OF COPPER IN BRASS) 4.SL CONTENT PAGE NO NO 1. POTENTIOMETRY. 12. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL RESIDUAL CHLORINE IN WATER. ESTIMATION OF PHENOL BY IODIMETRY 7. ESTIMATION OF SODIUM AND POTASSIUM BY FLAME PHOTOMETRY. 11. ESTIMATION OF NICKEL AS DMG 16. ESTIMATION OF AMMONIA IN AMMONIUM SALTS . SUGAR ANALYSIS(POLARIMETRIC ESTIMATION OF SUGAR) 6. ESTIMATION OF NITROGEN IN UREA BY KJELDAL METHOD 5. ESTIMATION OF BARIUM IN BARIUM SULPHATE. CONDUCTOMETRIC TITRATION. DETERMINATION OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN. DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND. 8. ESTIMATION OF MANGANESE IN PYROLUSITE ORE 2.