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R i n a B e l l A b ra h a m

Ro m a C a g u i m b a l
C r i s t i n e Pe a r l d e C a s t ro
E l o i s a M a r i e M a ra s i ga n
To m C h r i s t o p h e r Pa rm a
R i n a B e l l A b ra h a m
Ro m a C a g u i m b a l
C r i s t i n e Pe a r l d e C a s t ro
E l o i s a M a r i e M a ra s i ga n
To m C h r i s t o p h e r Pa rm a

The authors wanted to express their deepest gratitude to the authors and publishers of
the books and articles used in making English Grammar in Progress possible.

The authors would also like to thank:

Mrs. Maricris Ascan and family for their limitless support.
BatStateU Family for believing that the authors can make it.
All the friends that light up their loads.

Deepest gratitude are bestowed to:

Inay and Tatay

My sisters and brother

Mama and Papa

Rhea Jane

Inay and Tatay

Carla and Christian

Inay and3Tatay
My sisters and brother
This book is designed to test and improve the students language proficiency by
supplying the students with the basic knowledge in grammar including grammar rules,
instructions and practices. It provides students with exercises in applying such gram-
mar rules aiming to enhance the students confidence in using the language in their
everyday lives.

The authors made use of techniques that will make the students easily acquire the
grammar points necessary in communication

Check It Out!!!


This provide test that will measure the students knowledge on

what they Armchair
already know in grammar.

Grammar in Action

Provides the students with activi- ties

to be answered within a given time.


Mastery Test This contains discussions on

the given topic.

Title Page
Title Page i
Acknowledgement iii
Preface v
Table of Contents vii
Noun 1
Pronoun 19
Verb 35
Simple Tenses 47
Subject Verb Agreement 57
Adjectives 65
Adverbs 75
Clauses and Phrases 85
Basic Sentence Pattern 101
Common Mistakes in English Grammar 107
Bibliography 116

After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:

Identify what nouns are;

Classify the kinds, plural and possessive forms of nouns;

Write and use the plural of a noun;

Write and use the possessive form of a noun; and

Assay if a word is a noun

Check It Out!!!

Direction: Encircle the nouns in the puzzle below and write it on the space provided.
Then, classify them accordingly.


Noun Classification Noun Classification


Direction: Underline the nouns that can be found in the selection.

This I Believe
Albert Einstein

My political idea is democracy. Everyone should be respected as an individual, but

no one idolized. It is an irony of fate that I should have been showered with so much un-
called-for and unmerited admiration and esteem. Perhaps this adulation springs from the
unfulfilled wish of the multitude to comprehend the few ideas which I, with my weak pow-
ers, have advanced.
Full well did I know that in order to attain my definite goal, it is imperative that
one person should do the thinking and commanding and carry most of the responsibility.
But those who are led should not be driven, and they should be allowed to choose their
leader. It seems to me that the distinctions separating the social classes are false; in the
last analysis they rest on force. I am convinced that degeneracy follows every autocratic
system of violence, for violence inevitably attracts moral inferiors. Time has proved that
illustrious tyrants are succeeded by scoundrels
What is truly valuable in our bustle of life is not the nation, I should say, but the
creative and impressionable individuality, the personality he who produces the noble and
sublime while the common herd remains dull in thought and insensible in felling.

Grammar Armchair

Nouns are words used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract
Nouns may be classified according to the following groups:
A. Proper Nouns - Proper noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The
names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organisations, religions,
their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns.
B. Common Nouns - Common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a gen-
eral sense -- usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence.
C. Concrete Nouns - Concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you
can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell.
D. Abstract Nouns - Abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not per-
ceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun.

E. Countable Nouns - Countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a
plural form, and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count. You can make a countable
noun plural and attach it to a plural verb in a sentence. Over the course of twenty-seven years,
Martha Ballad delivered just over eight hundred babies.

F. Non-Countable Nouns - Non-countable noun (or mass noun) is a noun which does not
have a plural form, and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count.
A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence.
G. Collective Nouns - Collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, or per-
sons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group
as a whole is generally as one unit. You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order
to maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and
is roughly the opposite of a countable noun.

Grammar in Action
Exercise A
Circle the nouns in each of the following sentences.
1. Melissa used a red crayon and a black pen to complete her drawing.
2. George Washington was the first President of the United States.
3. Many people are fascinated by the art of the Incas.
4. The airplane taxied down the runway on its way to Florida.
5. The telephone was an important invention in the history of technology.6. Laughter is the
best medicine when you have a case of the blues.
7. An apple is a good snack according to nutritionists.
8. The Middle East is often in the news these days.
9. The guillotine is a machine invented by a doctor named Guillotine.
10. The usher collected our tickets and let us into the theatre.
Exercise B
In each sentence, underline the common nouns and circle the proper nouns.
1. The Stanley Steamer was his favourite automobile.
2. Sports are quite exciting in the mountains.
3. Nellie would rather read poems than novels.
4. Mr. Putnam will tour the valleys of the Loire and the Rhine.
5. Kathleen Ross was our excellent fielder.
6. Be sure to bring paint, scissors, and paper for Art I.
7. Do you prefer Superman, Spiderman, or Wonder Woman?
8. Muffin was the tiniest dog in the show.9. Riverside Pool echoed with the yells of my little
10. Woof-Woof Unlimited sells clothing for dogs.

Exercise C
In the following exercise, try to match the collective noun to the animal with which it belongs.
1. pride kangaroos
2. school ferrets
3. pack fish
4. army parrots
5. cete lions
6. mob seals
7. crash dogs
8. cast pigeon
9. flock ants badgers


Think of a man or woman of principle whom you know and admire. Write a profile of
his/her character in paragraph of not more than 20 sentences. Underline the nouns and identi-
fy what type of noun each one is.


Direction : Fill in the puzzle with the plural form of each word.

2 Tooth. 1 Man.
7 Wife. 3 Hammer.
8 Snake. 4 Bush.
10 Party. 5 Foot.
12 Leaf. 6 Bench.
13 Box. 9 Girl.
16 House. 11 Story.
17 Finger. 14 Shoe.
19 Knife. 15 Sock.
20 Basket. 18 Goose.

Grammar Armchair

Rules for Forming Plural Nouns

To form the plural of nouns, follow the rules below.

1. Add s to most nouns.

girl/girls bicycle/bicycles printer/printers

2. Add es to nouns ending is s, x, z, ch, or sh.

class/classes ax/axes buzz/buzzes church/churches wish/wishes

3. For nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y to i and add es.

fly/flies party/parties daisy/daisies

4. For nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel, add s.

monkey/monkeys valley/valleys

5. For nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, add es.

hero/heroes potato/potatoes

6. For nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel, add s.

Oreo/Oreos radio/radios patio/patios

7. For musical terms ending in o, add s.

solo/solos alto/altos piano/pianos

8. For nouns ending in f or fe, usually change the f or fe to ves.

leaf/leaves shelf/shelves wolf/wolves

Exceptions: chief/chiefs chef/chefs safe/safes

9. Add s to the end of singular nouns ending in ful.

cupful/cupfuls spoonful/spoonfuls

10. Change the spelling of some words.

cactus/cacti mouse/mice goose/geese woman/


11. Leave some nouns as they are.

sheep/sheep deer/deer fish/fish moose/moose

12. Add s to the most important noun in a hyphenated word.

editor-in-chief/editors-in-chief brother-in-law/brothers-in-law

13. Add s to proper nouns which do not end in s. Add es to proper nouns which do
end in s.

Mr. and Mrs. Walker/the Walkers Mr. and Mrs. Ross/the Rosses

Grammar in Action

Direction: Choose the correct form of the noun in each sentence.

1. I have three (child, children).

2. There are five (man, men) and one (woman, women).
3. (Baby, Babies) play with bottles as toys.
4. I put two big (potato, potatoes) in the lunch box.
5. A few men wear (watch, watches).
6. I put a (memo, memos) on the desk.
7. I saw a (mouse, mice) running by.
8. There are few (bus, buses) on the road today.

Directions: Make the singular nouns into plural nouns. Directions: Make the singular nouns
into plural nouns.
1. box = __________________________ 7. class = ____________________________
2. church = _______________________ 8. shop = ____________________________
3. wish = _________________________ 9. glass = ____________________________
4. lake = __________________________ 10. city = _____________________________
5. bunny = ________________________ 11. friend = ___________________________
6. house = ________________________ 12. fox = _____________________________

Directions: Read each sentence and circle the correct plural form of the word in parentheses
1. We had to buy ( nailes, nails ) at the hardware store.
2. Please put the empty ( boxes, boxes ) in the house.
3. The ( dishs, dishes ) in the sink need to be washed.
4. My mother used ten ( matchs, matches ) to light the fire.
5. Sara bought some new ( dresses, dresss ) today.
6. Our sun is a ball of hot ( gases, gasss ).
7. There were many ( flyes, flies ) at the beach.
8. The bird spread its ( winges, wings ) before it flew into the air.
9. I like to read the ( funnyes, funnies ) in the newspaper.
10. I made three ( wishes, wishs ) last night


List down at least 10 examples for each rule in the pluralisation of nouns.


Grammar Armchair

Possessive Nouns
A possessive noun is a noun that names who or what owns or has possession of some-
In most cases, for singular nouns to show that possession, we add an apostrophe and an
a (s). For plural nouns we simply an apostrophe except for those few plural nouns that do not
end in s.

Grammar Rules for Possessive Nouns

Five basic grammar rules cover the majority of instances where writers encounter pos-
sessive nouns.

Rule #1: Making singular nouns possessive

Add an apostrophe + s to most singular nouns and to plural nouns that do not end in s.

English has some words that are plural but do not add an s. Words like children,
sheep, women and men are such words. These plural words are treated as if they were singular
words when making noun possessives.


Singular nouns: kittens toy, Joes car, MLBs ruling

Plurals not ending in s: womens dresses, sheeps pasture, childrens toys

Rule #2: Making plural nouns possessive

Add an apostrophe only to plural nouns that already end in s.

You dont need to add an extra s to plural nouns that already end with the letter s.
Simply tuck the apostrophe onto the end to indicate that the plural noun is now a plural pos-
sessive noun.


Companies workers

Horses stalls

Countries armies

Rule #3: Making hyphenated nouns and compound nouns plural

Compound and hyphenated words can be tricky. Add the apostrophe + s to the end of
the compound words or the last word in a hyphenated noun.


My mother-in-laws recipe for meatloaf is my husbands favourite.

The United States Post Offices stamps are available in rolls or in packets.

Rule #4: Indicating possession when two nouns are joined together

If two nouns share ownership, indicate possession only once, and on the second noun.
Add the apostrophe + s to the second noun only.


Jack and Jills pail of water features prominently in the nursery rhyme.
Abbot and Costellos comedy skit Whos On First is a classic act.

Rule #5: Indicating possession when two nouns are joined, and ownership is separate

When two nouns indicate ownership, but the ownership is separate, each noun gets
the apostrophe + s. The examples below may help you understand exactly what this means.


Lucys and Rickys dressing rooms were painted pink and blue. (Each owns his or her own
dressing room, and they are different rooms).
Senator Obamas and Senator Clintons educations are outstanding. (Each senator owns his or
her education, but they attained separate educations).

Grammar in Action

Direction: Fill the gaps with the possessive case of nouns. Decide whether you have to
use 's or an of phrase.

1. The boy has a toy. It's the .

2. Peter has a book. It's .

3. The magazine has my picture on its cover. My picture is on .

4. Our friends live in this house. It's .

5. There is milk in the glass. It's .

6. This house has a number. What is ?

7. The walk lasts two hours. It's .

8. John has a sister, Jane. Jane is .

9. The film has a name, "Scream". "Scream" is .

10. This school is for girls only. It's a .

Direction: Change the phrases to possessive nouns
the cheering of the children _______________________________
the laughter of the men __________________________________
the horn of the oxen _____________________________________
the jump rope of the girls ________________________________
the howling of the dogs __________________________________
the singing of the choirs _________________________________
the handbags of the women ______________________________
the cheese of the mice __________________________________

Direction: Write the singular and plural possessives form of the italicized nouns.


Write a 10 sentence paragraph about the advantage and disadvantages of technology

in education. Be sure to use the singular and possessive nouns in your sentences.

Mastery Test

Underline the nouns that can be found in the selection below.

Bienvenido Santos

At the meaning of the Local Catholic Action Committee held that Sun-
day morning at the Bishops Palace immediately after the High Mass, Mr. Conrardo Ara-
bia, who has an old government employee as well as chairman of the CAC for the past
five years, mentioned casually the need for a particular retirement system for the Church,
patterned after the civil service. The committee had met to discuss the final details of the
welcome program for the first Bishop of the diocese ever to reside in town.
The bishops Palace stood outside the Cathedral grounds. Formerly the mansion
of a Chinese dry goods merchant, it was now ready for its distinguished resident. It still
smelled of paint and varnish, but the transformation was complete. The ground floor,
formerly a recreation hall and bar, had been partitioned to serve as officers of the Chan-
cery. File cabinets and chairs stood in appropriate corners. A huge mahogany table cov-
ered with glass occupied an inner compartment for the Bishop himself. On a wall was a
colored painting of His Holiness Pope. Typewriter under black leathery hoods, looking
like Monks asleep at their desks, bookcases with jacket gay leathery volumes, had re-
placed the open bar and the wine shelves; religious calendars, each page crowded with
pictures of saints and fish in red, now hung on the walls where colourful targets for ar-
chery practices used to be. On the first floor, the guest room adjoining the sala was now a
chapel, beautiful with imported rugs and carrying and gleaming pews. From where he
sat, Mr. Arabia could see the altar gravely austere in its simplicity, and the chandeliers.
Resplendent in the day time.
Father Simplicio Ruivivar had been parish priest of the town for nearly half a
century anfd he was not strong enough anymore to carry on the growing complexities of
his job. Grown fast and habitually shabby, he waddled about with effort. Old age had im-
paired his senses. There were old priest who knew when it was time for them to retire
and keep to corner, who allowed younger priest to take over their tasks even while they
continued to be normal, at least, parish priest. But Father Ruivivar refused to acknowl-
edgement what was obvious to everybody, that he was too old for this job. His retort
every time someone in the parish dared to brook him or express contrary opinion: Who
are you to say so? You think you are wise, but I am old. Remember, didnt baptize you
myself? assumed a meaning beyond its implication, indeed, he was a priest grown too
old for his job.

I. Classify the following nouns accordingly.
_____ 1. Love _____11. Hacienda Luicita
_____2. Sack of rice _____12. train
_____3. Market _____13. A kilo of cotton
_____4. Steve Jobs _____14. subway
_____5. Happiness _____15. Channel Bag
_____6. SM Hypermart _____16. governor
_____7. Sugar _____17. Jessica Soho
_____8. Sweetness _____18. books
_____9. Fear _____19 .hate
_____10. Trainor _____20. Water

II. Write the following nouns in their plural form.

_____1. Fact _____11. cupful

_____2. Cameo _____12. knife
_____3. Lasso _____13. appendix
_____4. Ally _____14. ghetto
_____5. Dwarf _____15. radius
_____6. Mouse _____16. scenery
_____7. Child _____17. lion
_____8. Axis _____18. flash
_____9. Man _____19. louse
_____10. Son-in-law _____20.buoy
IV. Add an appropriate nominal qualifier to indicate the plural form of the non-
count nouns.
1. Corn 6. Thunder
2. Dust 7. Work
3. Oil 8. Grass
4. Rice 9. Bread
5. Tea 10. Paper

V. For each of the following, write the singular and possessive forms.

Singular Possessive Plural Possessive

the front of the ox ________________ ________________
the iPod of the woman ________________ ________________
the watch of the teenager ________________ ________________
the label of the box and the ________________ ________________
the dialysis machine in the ________________ ________________
the tooth of the crocodile ________________ ________________
the curriculum of the nurse ________________ ________________
the office of the editor-in- ________________ ________________
the bikes of Mitch and Rose ________________ ________________
the requirement of Mathe- ________________ ________________
matics subject

Write two sentences for each of the rules in forming the possessive form of a noun.





Write the correct form the possessive noun in the blank in the blanks to correctly complete
the sentences.

None of the __________ (9) Be careful, the ________ edges are very
(computers) (knives)
processors are fast enough for this game. sharp.
The lawyer proved that his ______ (10) Our _________ batteries only last for a
(client) (cellphones)
rights were violated. couple of hours.
The ___________ glass was shattered (11) There is a telephone in my __________
(windows) (parents)
shattered by the earthquake. bedroom.
The __________ pages had been (12) When the ________ long hand reaches
(textbook) six,
extensively marked up. (clock)
put down your pencils.
You also need to paint the ___________ (13) Shelby pulled back the drapes to let the
(windows) ________ light in.
frames. (sun)
The __________ manuals can be found on (14) All of _____________ menus can be
(programs) found
the shelf. (restaurants)
in this book.
The _________ surfaces need to be (15) The ____________ bindings are starting
(desks) to
cleaned with soap and water. (books)
fall apart.
The _________ lecture notes are available (16) The ___________ solutions are staring us
(professors) (problems)
online. in the face!

Singular Possessive Plural Possessive

Christian duty
Brother opinion
Church congregation
Mother garden
Family yard
Worker uniform
Day rest
Money worth

After dealing with this chapter, the students must be able to:

Familiarize with the different kinds of pronouns;

Identify the different kinds of pronouns in a sentence;

Determine the cases of pronouns

Identify the pronouns antecedent isn a sentence

Check It Out!!!

Underline the pronouns that you found in the song entitled Lean on Me.

Lean on Me
B y: B ill W it h er s

Sometimes in our lives We all need somebody to lean on

We all have pain I just might have a problem that
We all have sorrow you'd understand
But if we are wise We all need somebody to lean on
We know that there's always to-
morrow Second Verse
Lean on me, when you're not
strong If there is a load you have to bear
And I'll be your friend That you can't carry
I'll help you carry on I'm right up the road
For it won't be long I'll share your load
'Til I'm gonna need If you just call me
Somebody to lean on (Chorus)
Call me (if you need a friend)
Call me (call me)
Please swallow your pride Call me (if you need a friend)
If I have things you need to bor- Call me (if you ever need a friend)
row Call me (call me)
For no one can fill those of your Call me
needs Call me (if you need A friend)
That you won't let show
[ Lyrics from: http://
lean-on-me-lyrics.html ]
You just call on me brother, when
you need a hand (Chorus)

Grammar Armchair

Pronouns comes from the two words pro which means for and noun. A pronoun is
traditionally defined as a noun replacement.
A pronoun is used in place of a noun or a whole noun phrase, that is also known as
nounsubstitutes. Pronouns are commonly used.

1. In place of a noun or noun phrase that has already been mentioned, when the repeti-
tion of the noun or noun phrase would be very strange.
Mandy has to go the airport. Can you give her a lift?

2. When we know perfectly well who or what to referred to. When, foe example, I use
the pronoun I, it is because it would be unusual to referred to myself by name.
Im sorry Im late.

3. When the name of someone to our office yesterday.

Shes the woman who came to our office yesterday.


An antecedent is a noun phrase that gives it meaning to another noun phrase in the
sentence. Antecedents usually occurs before the pronoun.

Here are some examples:

Adeline bit her lip.

Adeline = antecedent; her = personal pronoun.

Our carnivorous friends will not attend the picnic be-

cause they despise tofu hotdogs and black bean burgers.

Friends = antecedent; they = personal pronoun.

When Kris sprained his ankle, Coach Ames replaced him with Jasper,
a much slower runner.

Kris = antecedent; him = personal pronoun.

Eating with your mouth closed has several benefits. Most im-
portantly, it keeps people from turning away in disgust.

Eating with your mouth closed = phrase as antecedent; it = personal pronoun.

Karline hopes that her roommates remember to walk the new pup-
py . It will mean less urine to mop up when she gets home.
Grammar in Action

Direction: Underline the correct pronoun in each sentence below.

1. During early rehearsals, an actor may forget (his or her, their) lines.
2. The Washington team was opportunistic; (it, they) took advantage of every break.
3. A person needs to see (his or her, their) dentist twice a year.
4. The committee members put (its, their) signatures on the document.
5. If any one of the sisters needs a ride, (she, they) can call me.
6. When someone has been drinking, (he or she, they) may drive poorly.
7. If the board of directors controls the company, (it, they) may vote for a raise.
8. Neither the pilot nor the attendants gave (his or her, their) opinion about the mishap.
9. Each of these companies had (its, their) books audited.
10. Some of the china has lost (its, their) luster.

Proofread each sentence for errors in pronoun/antecedent agreement. Correct the in-
correct pronouns. Write a C next to sentences that use correct pronoun/antecedent
1. One of the boys had tears in their eyes.
2. Somebody left their books on the counter.
3. A student should see an advisor if they have any questions.
4. Any injured athlete should see a trainer as soon as they are injured.
5. Many of us love the movies, but you seldom have time to go to them.
6. Everyone has his or her own way of studying.
7. Teachers are responsible for providing their students with accurate grades.
8. Someone had blocked the driveway with their car.
9. When I asked the teacher why I failed the test, he said that I had not studied the proper ma-
10. Each woman must do their best to take care of their health.
11. Each of the apartment owners had his or her apartment repainted.
12. As the weather got colder everyone wished they had brought a coat.
13. Everyone gets angry when someone accuses him or her of voting for the wrong candidate.
14. Jill told Reagan that she had to get more sleep.
15. A person needs to learn how to read or you will not do very well in school.

Grammar Armchair

Case refers to the form a word takes and its function in a sentence. The English language
has just three cases: subjective, possessive and objective.
Most nouns, many indefinite pronouns and it andyou have distinctive forms only for
the possessive case. For most nouns and indefinite pronouns, that form usually is indicated
by an apostrophe: John's coat; states' powers; someone's house; another's task. For it. the
possessive is formed by adding s; for you the possessive is formed by adding r or rs to
the word.
(Never use an apostrophe to form a possessive for it, you or the personal pronouns noted
Six personal pronouns have a distinctive form for each of the three cases:
I, we, he, she,who and they are the forms used for subjects and subject comple-
Subjects He and I were great friends. We grew uptogether. They lived next
door. Who teaches that course?
Complements of the subject The ones responsible are Joe and she. It is I. Joe Smith,
that's who.
My/mine, our/ours, his, her/hers, their/theirs and whose are the formsused to
show ownership.
Before noun My car broke down. Our boat leaks.His dog is ugly. Her back is
wet. Their name is Mudd.Whose job is that?
Possessors in the noun position Mine is green. Ours is over there.His looks
heavy. Hers was last inline. Theirs sank yesterday.Whosewill be chosen?
Me, us, him, her, them and whom are the forms reserved for use as objectsof
verbs or prepositions.
Sue likes me. Elaine drove to the airport to meet us. For him this is no problem. Sam
wanted her to leave. Jim was introduced to them. Finding whom I was looking for, I re-
turned to my favorite pastime.

Grammar in Action

Determining the Case of Pronouns

Underline the correct form from the choices given in the parenthesis.
1. (Who, Whom) did you say you saw at the park.
2. If it is (he, him), why dont you bother to tell us.
3. (Whoever, Whomever) you vote will represent us in Congress.
4. Philippines and (you, yourself) are the official candidates.
5. Are you astonished at (us, our) winning the Championship.
6. Theres enough for you and (she, her) to fix your relationship.
7. That is one beautiful lady (who, whom) I like so dearly.
8. The box should be returned to either Joan or (me, myself).
9. Between you and (I, me), they should not be here at all.
10. They triumphantly won at least two or more games than (we, us).


Write an essay about your prized possession as of this moment. Take

note to use pronouns and cases of pronouns and underline it.
Grammar in Action

Choose the correct pronoun for each sentence below. Read the entire sentence before making
your choice.

1. Five of (we, us, ourselves) took a cab to the play.

2. Are you and (they, them, themselves) attending the meeting.
3. No one is more concerned about the matter than (she, her, herself).
4. (Who, Whom) can I go out with tonight?
5. Margaret and (I, me, myself) hope to be roommates.
6. The committee told Smith and (they, them, themselves) to write a new resolution.
7. Is he the one for (who, whom) the note is intended?
8. We discovered that it was (they, them, themselves) who started the fire.
9. Everyone asked Joan and (he, him, himself) to speak at the convention.
10. A person as young as (she, her, herself) should not be given too much responsibility.

Grammar Armchair

Types of Pronoun

There five types of pronoun

1. Personal Pronoun 6. Indefinite
2. Possessive Pronoun 7. Reciprocal
3. Reflexive Pronoun 8. Interrogative
4. Relative Pronoun
5. Demonstrative Pronoun

Personal Pronouns
Personal pronoun describes a particular person or thing or group.

Personal pronoun describes the person speaking (I, me, we, us), the person spoken to (you),
or the person or thing spoken about (he, she, it, they, him, her, them).
He helps poor.
The pronoun he in above sentence describes a person who helps poor.

Possessive Pronouns
Possessive Pronoun indicates close possession or ownership or relationship of a thing/
person to another thing/person.
e.g. yours, mine, his, hers, ours, theirs, hers,

This book is mine.
The pronoun mine describes the relationship between book and a person (me) who pos-
sesses this book or who is the owner of this book.

Reflexive Pronoun.

Reflexive pronoun describes noun when subjects action affects the subject itself.
e.g himself, yourself, herself, ourselves, themselves, itself are reflexive pronouns.

Reflexive pronouns always act as objects not subjects, and they require an interaction be-
tween the subject and an object.

Reciprocal Pronouns.
Reciprocal Pronouns are used when each of two or more subjects reciprocate to the other.
Reciprocal pronouns are used when two subjects act in same way towards each other, or,
more subjects act in same way to one another.
For example, A loves B and B love A. we can say that A and B loves each other.
There are two reciprocal pronouns
Each other
One another.

Demonstrative Pronouns.

Demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun that points to a thing or things.

e.g. this, that, these, those, none, neither
These pronouns point to thing or things in short distance/time or long distance/time.
Short distance or time: This, these.
Long distance or time: That, those.
Demonstrative pronouns this and that are used for singular thing while these or those
are used for plural things.
Relative Pronouns

Relative Pronoun describes a noun which is mentioned before and more information is to
be given about it.
Relative pronoun is a pronoun which joins relative clauses and relative sentences.

For example, It is the person, who helped her.

In this sentence the word who is a relative pronoun which refers to the noun (the per-
son) which is already mentioned in beginning of sentence (It is the person) and more in-
formation (he helped her) is given after using a relative pronoun (who) for the noun (the
Similarly, in above sentence the pronoun who joins two clauses which are it is the per-
son and who helped her.

information (he helped her) is given after using a relative pronoun (who) for the noun (the
Similarly, in above sentence the pronoun who joins two clauses which are it is the per-
son and who helped her.

Indefinite Pronouns

Indefinite pronoun is used when you do not know or do not need to say precisely who or what
you are referring to.

Many are called, but few are elected.
Each of us has his own share of protecting the environment.

Singular indicators: anybody, anymore, anyone, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, somebody,
someone, something, another, each, either, neither, nobody, nothing, none, one.

Plural indicators: all, any, both, enough, few, more, none, plenty, several, some

Portion Indicators: all, any, enough, less, little, more, much, none, plenty, some.

Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative pronoun allows us to build a question around the thing that the pronoun refers

Who is dancing with Helen in the movie?
Which of these development theories would you recommend for reading?
Whose are these artefacts?

Grammar in Action

Circle any pronouns that you see in the narrative below.

Jane and Jack went out to play. It was a hot Saturday afternoon as they played ball. After
playing with the ball, they went on the swings in the backyard. Jane ran ahead of Jack.

I wonder where she is going, Jack said quietly. Waiting for a moment, Jack then ran after
Jane quickly. Wait for me! he yelled. As Jane looked back, she smiled sweetly. I will meet
you at the top of the hill, she yelled back as she kept running. Jack was out of breath, but
he still managed to catch up with her.

Hey, he said panting. You run fast, he continued.

I know! said Jane giggling loudly as she poked Jacks arm playfully and he laughed as

In each of the following sentences a pronoun has been highlighted. What type of pronoun is

1. Let's contact one another once we've made some progress.

2. She wants to do it herself.

3. I can't find them.

4. I can't believe it's finally ours.

5. The girl who usually cuts my hair has won the lottery.

6. He wants to go to Scarborough.

7. Why are you shouting at me?

8. Jim gave me the last copy.

9. Nobody said a word all night.


Write your plan and highlight the pronouns by underlining it and the antecedents by
writing it in bold letters.

Grammar in Action

Directions: Choose the correct pronoun in each sentence below.

1. During early rehearsals, an actor may forget (his or her, their) lines.

2. The Washington team was opportunistic; (it, they) took advantage of every break.

3. A person needs to see (his or her, their) dentist twice a year.

4. The committee members put (its, their) signatures on the document.

5. If any one of the sisters needs a ride, (she, they) can call me.

6. When someone has been drinking, (he or she, they) may drive poorly.

7. If the board of directors controls the company, (it, they) may vote for a raise.

8. Neither the pilot nor the attendants gave (his or her, their) opinion about the

9. Each of these companies had (its, their) books audited.

10. Some of the china has lost (its, their) luster.

Direction: Look for the pronouns in the poem and box it out.
The Lovers Death
By Ricardo Demetillo

He who had lived the earth with a firm love

Is now, being infirm, laid in the earth
That covers him with green grass quietly.
Once when he walked the fields, he suddenly knelt
And with an avid gesture clasped the earth.
His sun-lit fingers sifted dust.
Lovers would write their incoherent view
On passionate pages; but he, on pads of meadow,
Wrote with his plow a tongue tied love.
Fields understood, for when the harvest ripened,
Fruits lay like brown breasts for his hands to pluck,
And he with lightness, touched each pregnant stalk.
His house was quiet, like the one who closed.
The gate-behind him when the lamplight glowed
He knew no womans touch except the earths.
We thought it fitting that the sun should touch
With quite fingers the rice-fronds in the field
When he, after a fever, gave himself to dusk.
We could not salvage breath, but we could swathe
His body and lay it in the earth he loved
He may returned and beckon from sheaf.

Mastery Test

Write an A over the antecedent for the pronoun choice in parentheses, then write S or P
next to the number of the sentence to indicate singular or plural. Finally, circle the pro-
noun that agrees with its antecedent.

____ 1. A reporter talked to Mrs. Bea Zwack after (her, their) home was struck by a tor-
____ 2. Jack Zwack spent most of (his, their) time cleaning up the yard.
____ 3. Nick, Mack, and Patty Zwack are staying with (his or her, their) neighbors for the
time being.
____ 4. The Zwacks now have a healthy respect for tornadoes and (its, their) power.
____ 5. The reporter finally submitted (her, their) assignment to the editor of the paper.
____ 6. The newspaper featured tornadoes on (its, their) front page.
____ 7. Subscribers that read the story and saw the pictures realize that (he or she, they)
could have been the victims of the storm.
____ 8. A mature person is responsible for (his or her, their) actions.
____ 9. The detective told (his or her, their) chief that (he or she, they) had caught the
____ 10. Each of the Olympic champions proudly wore (his, their) medal.
____ 11. Either the professional craftsmen or the amateur woodworkers enjoyed working
with (his or her, their) hands.
____ 12. Almost anybody who has worked with wood would say that woodworking
soothes (his or her, their)s spirit.
____ 13. Each of the Hopi Indian fathers carved (his, their) daughter a kachina doll from
cottonwood root.
____ 14. Every one of the Iroquois carvers used basswood for (his or her, their) healing
ritual mask.
____ 15. One of the wooden masks from the Pacific Northwest shows by (its, their) detail
the customs of the tribe.
____ 16. Each of my sisters has tried (her, their) hand at whittling.
____ 17. Neither cut (herself, themselves).
____ 18. Everybody used to buy (his or her, their) tobacco at the store with the carved
wooden Native American in front.
____ 19. Anybody who likes (his or her, their) home uncluttered with detail would appre-
ciate the simple wooden furniture made by the Quakers.
____ 20. Everyone, including Queen Victoria, wished (he or she, they) could own the fancy
Victorian furniture painstakingly carved by William Bartels.

Box the correct pronoun from the choices given in brackets.
1. How many times has Bill told a lie to (his / him) father?
2. Where did Sally go with (she / her) friends yesterday?
3. I love going to the park with Mark, even though (he / him) is a little odd.
4. The cat was taking care of (its / his) young.
5. The dog was chasing (her / its) tail.
6. Many students wonder where (they / them) will end up after college.
7. A parent always wonders if (he or she / they) are doing the best for the kids.
8. How many times did Mr., Johnson have to tell you to stay out of (his / he / him) yard?
9. I dont know whats gotten into the dogs but (them / they) have been barking all day.
10. Look at the mother and father bird building (their / its) nest in the tree.

Proofread each sentence for errors in pronoun/antecedent agreement. Correct the

incorrect pronouns. Write a C next to sentences that use correct pronoun.

1. One of the boys had tears in their eyes.

2. Somebody left their books on the counter.
3. A student should see an advisor if they have any questions.
4. Any injured athlete should see a trainer as soon as they are injured.
5. Many of us love the movies, but you seldom have time to go to them.
6. Everyone has his or her own way of studying.
7. Teachers are responsible for providing their students with accurate grades.
8. Someone had blocked the driveway with their car.
9. When I asked the teacher why I failed the test, he said that I had not studied the proper
Each woman must do their best to take care of their health.
10. Each of the apartment owners had his or her apartment repainted.
11. As the weather got colder everyone wished they had brought a coat.
12. Everyone gets angry when someone accuses him or her of voting for the wrong candi-
13. Jill told Reagan that she had to get more sleep.

14. A person needs to learn how to read or you will not do very well in school.
15. The children insisted on doing it theirselves.

Fill in the correct personal pronouns.
1. She is very handsome. I envy _____.
2. They are not reliable. He doubts ______.
3. I taught her. ________ learned it from ______.
4. We asked for his advice. ______ advised ______ not to come.
5. He dislikes her, and ______ hates ______; its evident.
6. You should be there on time. I want _____ to come on time.
7. She is English; _____ gave me lessons in English.
8. They are our friends. We invited _____ to the party.
9. It was him who wrote this letter. I recognized _____ by _____ handwriting.
10. Did you see the snake? Yes, I saw _____ and _____ saw _____.
Fill in the correct possessive pronouns.
1. This book belongs to me. This is _____ book.
2. Whose book is that? It is not _____.
3. The cat ate _____ food.
4. She took out _____ purse and gave it to me.
5. A friend of _____ gave me that toy.
6. This is their car. That car is _____ too.
7. May I introduce to you one of _____ colleagues?
8. Has anyone here lost _____ books?
9. Every season is beautiful in _____ own way.
10. They would like a house of _____ own.
Fill in the correct demonstrative pronoun.
1. What is _____?
2. _____s how he does it.
3. They talked about _____ and _____.
4. _____ is his book, isnt it?
5. _____s why they accepted his proposal.

6. _____ is Ann speaking.
7. After _____ they decided not to come.
8. _____ will do.
9. Ill take _____ books.
10. Hes been waiting _____ three weeks.

Somewhere Down the Road

By: Nina

______ had the right love Will come to see

At the wrong time
Guess ______ always knew inside
______ wouldn't have ______ for a long time ______ belong with ______
Letting go is just another way to say
I'll always love ______ so
______ dreams of ______
Are shining on distant shores
______ had the right love
And if they're calling you away
At the wrong time
______ have no right to make you stay
Maybe we've only just begun
Maybe the best is yet to come
But somewhere down the road 'Cause
______ roads are gonna cross again
______ doesn't really matter when Somewhere down the road
But somewhere down the road ______ roads are gonna cross again
______ know that heart of ______ ______ doesn't really matter when
Will come to see But somewhere down the road
______ you belong with ______ ______ know that heart of yours
Will come to see
Sometimes good-byes are not forever That ______ belong
______ doesn't matter if you're gone With ______
______ still believe in ______ together
______ understand more than you think
______ can
______ have to go out on ______ own
So ______ can find ______ way back home

And somewhere down the road

______ roads are gonna cross again
______ doesn't really matter when
But somewhere down the road
______ know that heart of ______

Ve r b s
After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:

Learn the various types of verbs

Improve their skills in using verb in a sentence

Construct meaningful sentences and composition employing correct verb use

Check It Out!!!

Direction: Look for the verbs in the selection and write it on a piece of paper.


As seemingly everyone on the planet knows, Steve Jobss defining quality was per-
fectionism. The development of the Macintosh, for instance, took more than three years, be-
cause of Jobss obsession with detail. He nixed the idea of an internal fan, because he thought
it was noisy and clumsy. And he wanted his engineers to redesign the Macs motherboard,
just because it looked inelegant. At NeXT, the company Jobs started after being nudged out
of Apple, in 1985, he drove his hardware team crazy in order to make a computer that was a
sleek, gorgeous magnesium cube. After his return to Apple, in 1997, he got personally in-
volved with things like how many screws there were in a laptop case. It took six months un-
til he was happy with the way that scroll bars in OS X worked. Jobs believed that, for an ob-
ject to resonate with consumers, every piece of it had to be right, even the ones you couldnt

This perfectionism obviously had a lot to do with Apples success. It explains why
Apple products have typically had a feeling of integrity, in the original sense of the word;
they feel whole, rather than simply like collections of parts. But Jobss perfectionism came at
a price, too. It could be literally expensive: back in the eighties, Jobs insisted that in maga-
zine ads and on packages the Apple logo be printed in six colors, not four, which was thirty
to forty per cent more expensive. And there were more important costs: Jobss vision re-
quired Apple to control every part of the user experience, and to make everything it possibly
could itself. Its hardware was proprietary: the company had its own Mac factory and favored
unique cables, disk drives, and power cords, rather than standardized ones. Its software was
proprietary, too: if you wanted to run Apple software, you needed to own an Apple comput-
er. This made Apples computers more expensive than the competition. It also made them
hard to customize, which businesses didnt like. So, while Apple changed the world of com-
puting in the eighties, with machines that were more user-friendly and powerful than your
typical I.B.M. clone, most users never touched a Macintosh. They ended up with P.C.s in-

When Jobs returned, he still wanted Apple to, as he put it, own and control the pri-
mary technology in everything we do. But his obsession with control had been tempered: he
was better, you might say, at playing with others, and this was crucial to the extraordinary
success that Apple has enjoyed over the past decade. Take the iPod. The old Jobs might well
have insisted that the iPod play only songs encoded in Apples favored digital format, the
A.A.C. This would have allowed Apple to control the user experience, but it would also have
limited the iPod market, since millions of people already had MP3s. So Apple made the iPod
MP3-compatible. (Sony, by contrast, made its first digital music players compatible only
with files in Sonys proprietary format, and they bombed as a result.) Similarly, Jobs could
have insisted, as he originally intended, that iPods and iTunes work only with Macs. But
that would have cut the company off from the vast majority of computer users. So in 2002
Apple launched a Windows-compatible iPod, and sales skyrocketed soon afterward. And,
while Apples designs are as distinctive as ever, the devices now rely less on proprietary
hardware and more on standardized technologies.

Grammar Armchair

Verbs carry the idea of being or action in the sentence. It can be an action word, and
auxiliary or a linking verb.

1. Action Verb. States the action performed by the subject. This can be transitive, which requires
a direct object or intransitive, which does not need direct object and can stand alone as a predicate.
George plays basketball every weekend.
The choir sings well.

2. Linking Verb. Connects the subject to its complement which can be a predicate noun or predi-
cate adjectives. Verbs which appeal to senses are considered linking verbs. The commonly used linking
verbs are the formed.

Jenny feels good upon seeing her high school friends.

Ted is a physician.
The children are excited to see the clown.

3. Auxiliary Verb. It may be formed from have, may be, shall, will, might, must, do and appears
before the main verb in a verb phrase. The commonly used auxiliary verbs are:

Lucky is doing his assignment.
The going will have their vocation in Vigan.
She has been working in the university since 2003.
She could have done better if she studied her lessons.

Grammar in Action

Underline the action verbs in the following sentences.

1. I assumed that you would bring your swimsuit because the invitation stated "pool par-
2. As I walked home, I noticed a box of abandoned kittens on the sidewalk.
3. Many people have the ill-conceived notion that "natural" means pesticide-free.
4. They will close the theater for two weeks while workers install the new seats.
5. Let's go downtown and spend some time at the museum.

6. Alex's laptop wouldn't reboot after the unexpected power surge at the office earlier in
the day.
7. Brush corn on the cob with butter and salt, wrap it in heavy-duty aluminum foil, and
roast it on the grill for a delicious treat.
8. Uncle Drew cast his fishing line off the edge of the pier.
9. Lexi considered Morgan to be her best friend.
10. Marcia watched the squirrel hop from limb to limb.

Determine whether the boldfaced verbs in the following sentences are action or linking
1. "It appears that the only solution to this problem is starting over," said Trudy.
2. "The group appears dismayed at that prospect," she thought to herself.
3. Dennis was asked to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that the butler did it.
4. There was no doubt in his adversary's mind that his argument would prove faulty.
5. The sign says to stay behind the line when viewing the work of art.
6. We stayed quiet while the tour guide explained the painting.
7. We tasted the orange sherbet and ordered a pint to take home.
8. We decided that it tasted delicious.
9. Mom's chicken and dumplings taste too salty for some reason.
10. Charlotte grew green and yellow peppers in her container garden.

Grammar Armchair

Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary Verbs are the verbs be, do, have, will when they are followed by another verb
(the full verb) in order to form a question, a negative sentence, a compound tense or the pas-

The verb "be"

The verb be can be used as an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this
verb for compound tenses and the passive voice. Note that be is an irregular verb:
Simple Present:
I am, he/she/it is, we/you/they are
Simple Past:
I/he/she/it was, we/you/they were
Past Participle:

You can tell that in the following sentences be is an auxiliary because it is followed
by another verb (the full verb). (For progressive forms use the "-ing" form of the full verb;
for passive voice, use the past participle of the full verb.)

Progressive Forms
Present Progressive:
He is playing football.
Past Progressive:
He was playing football.
Present Perfect Progressive:
He has been playing football.
Past Perfect Progressive:
He had been playing football.
Simple Present/Past:
The house is/was built.
Present/Past Perfect:
The house has/had been built.
Future I:
The house will be built.
"be" as a full verb

The verb be can also be a full verb. In this case, it's not followed by another verb. If be is
used as a full verb, we do not need an auxiliary in negative sentences or questions.
positive sentence:
They are fifteen years old.
negative sentence:
They are not fifteen years old.
Are they fifteen years old?

The verb "have"

The verb have, too, can be used both as an auxiliary and as a full verb. As an auxiliary we
use this verb to form compound tenses in active and passive voice. (Use the past participle of
the full verb.)

Compound Tenses - Active Voice

Present Perfect Simple:
He has played football.
Past Perfect Simple:
He had played football.
Present Perfect Progressive:
He has been playing football.
Past Perfect Progressive:
He had been playing football.
Compound Tenses - Passive Voice
Present/Past Perfect:
The house has/had been built.
Note that have is an irregular verb, too:
Simple Present:
I/we/you/they have, he/she/it has
Simple Past:
I/he/she/it/we/you/they had
Past Participle:

"have" in positive sentences

As a full verb have indicates possession. In British English, however, we usually use have
got (have being the auxiliary, got the full verb).
full verb:
I have a car.
auxiliary verb:
I have got a car.
"have" in negative sentences and questions

When we use have as a full verb, we must use the auxiliary do in negative sentences and
questions. If we use have got, however, we do not need another auxiliary.
have as a full verb:
I do not have a car.
Do I have a car?
have as an auxiliary verb:
I have not got a car.
Have I got a car?

The verb "will"

The verb will can only be used as an auxiliary. We use it to form the future tenses.

The auxiliary verb "will"

Future I:
He will not play football.
Future II:
He will have played football.
The verb will remains the same for all forms (no "s" for 3rd person singular). The short
form for negative sentences is won't.'
I will, he will
I will not = I won't

The verb "do"

The verb do can be both an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use do in negative
sentences and questions for most verbs (except not for be, will, have got and modal verbs) in
Simple Present and Simple Past. (Use the infinitive of the full verb.)

The auxiliary "do" in negative sentences

Simple Present:
He does not play football.
Simple Past:
He did not play football.
The auxiliary "do" in questions
Simple Present:
Does he play football?
Simple Past:
Did he play football?

Grammar in Action

Fill in each blank space with the correct auxiliary verb:

1. ________ the teacher explain this properly?

2. ________ the professor angry?
3. ________ you spoken to him before he called you?
4. If you ________ told me, I would have never found out.
5. ________ they seeing each other?
6. ________ they continue seeing each other?
7. ________ you learn anything?
8. ________ he in my American History class?
9. I realized that I ________ learned a thing (= anything).
10. ________ your sister living in Paris for a while?

Identify the action verbs in the following sentences.

1. I assumed that you would bring your swimsuit because the invitation stated "pool party."
2. As I walked home, I noticed a box of abandoned kittens on the sidewalk.
3. Many people have the ill-conceived notion that "natural" means pesticide-free.
4. They will close the theater for two weeks while workers install the new seats.
5. Let's go downtown and spend some time at the museum.
6. Alex's laptop wouldn't reboot after the unexpected power surge at the office earlier in the
7. Brush corn on the cob with butter and salt, wrap it in heavy-duty aluminum foil, and roast
it on the grill for a delicious treat.
Determine whether the boldfaced verbs in the following sentences are action or linking verbs.

1. "It appears that the only solution to this problem is starting over," said Trudy.
2. "The group appears dismayed at that prospect," she thought to herself.
3. Dennis was asked to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that the butler did it.
4. There was no doubt in his adversary's mind that his argument would prove faulty.
5. The sign says to stay behind the line when viewing the work of art.
6. We stayed quiet while the tour guide explained the painting.
7. We tasted the orange sherbet and ordered a pint to take home.
8. We decided that it tasted delicious.

The verb do is irregular:
Simple Present:
I/we/you/they do, he/she/it does
Simple Past:
I/he/she/it/we/you/they did
The full verb "do"

As a full verb we use do in certain expressions. If we want to form negative sentences or

questions using do as a full verb, we need another do as an auxiliary.
positive sentence:
She does her homework every day.
negative sentence:
She doesn't do her homework every day.
Does she do her homework every day?

Sentences without the auxiliary "do"

In the following cases, the auxiliary do is not used in negative sentences/questions:

the full verb is "be"

I am not angry. / Are you okay?
the sentence already contains another auxiliary (e.g. have, be, will)
They are not sleeping. / Have you heard that?
the sentence contains a modal verb (can, may, must, need, ought to, shall, should)
We need not wait. / Can you repeat that, please?
the question asks for the subject of the sentence
Who sings that song?

Grammar in Action

The following sentences are taken from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Underline
the auxiliary verb in each sentence.
1. Tom was swimming in bliss.
2. Well, Ive been pretty much so, too, Huck.
3. I been creeping all over, ever since I got here.
4. The boys were subdued by these solemnities, and talked little.
5. Now the raft was passing before the distant town.
6. Well, hes mended kites for me, Huck, and knitted hooks on to my line.

7. Daily Muff Potters gratitude made Tom glad he had spoken; but nightly he wished he had
sealed up his tongue.
8. Aunt Polly was vexed to think she had overlooked that bit of circumstantial evidence, and
missed a trick.
9. Theyre coming right toward the door.
10. The family were still at table, but they had finished breakfast.

Read the selection below. Underline the auxiliary verb, box the linking verb and encircle
the action verb

The Other Woman

by Virgilio Samonte
It is almost a month since my uncle died. Nana Cecilia, his widow, has made up
with my maiden aunt Cora, and now stays with her in San Nicolas. The suspicions -- for
they proved to be mere suspicions after all -- she had entertained concerning Nana Cora
and my late uncle, were dispelled at his death. I don't know the truth myself up to now. But
I don't want to know. What matters now is that they are no longer young.

Loida, I learned some time ago, is gone from the old house in Laoag. She stayed
there for some days after my uncle's burial, and no one could make her go away then. No
one knows where she had gone. Anyway it does not matter. She does no t matter anymore.

As for the old house, it now stands bleak and empty, except for the thick, gathering
shadows and the inevitable dust; the bats hanging from the tattered eaves like the black
patches; the mice scampering freely within ; cockroaches and lizrds; and perhaps ghosts.
The flower-laden cadena de amor, draped heavily on the rotting bamboo fence surrounding
it, it is a huge funeral wreath around the deserted house.

The same sense of desolation seemed to enshroud the old house even then, about a
month ago, when I arrived from the city. I had come ahead of my father after we received
the wire from Nana Cecilia, saying that my uncle was seriously ill, and that she needed my
f a t h e r ' s a s s i s t a n c e .

It was a cold grey dawn, and the clatter of the calesa as it left me, sounded loud
and sharp in the yet deserted streets. the old house seemed to loom bigger than the others
in the neighborhood, and it seemed to stand apart, squat and dark; light filtered through
the closed or half opened windows of the other houses where early breakfast fires were al-
ready burning. The large, gnarled trunk of an acacia tree beside it, rose like a phantom, its
foliage blotting out a portion of the sky overhead. i knocked for what it seemed a long time
on the closed door, the sounds echoing hollowly within as though the house was a huge,
empty shell before I heard muffled footsteps coming down the stairway. Light glimmered
through the cracks of the door. The sliding bar was moved noisily and then the door
opened slowly, grating on the scattered pebbles on the cement floor.

Mastery Test

Spot the verb used in the sentences and write whether it is Tr(Transitive), Intr(Intransitive),
LV(Linking Verb), or Aux V(Auxiliary Verb).
Electric Love
Verb Kind
_____ _____ 1. Some people still believe in love at first sight.
_____ _____ 2. The internet has introduced a new way of meeting the love of ones
_____ _____ 3. The story of Garth and Pituca explains this phenomenom.
_____ _____ 4. Garth Fairlight is a Londoner.
_____ _____ 5. Pituca Chang hails from California.
_____ _____ 6. They started to like each other through as online game.
_____ _____ 7. According to them, they fell genuinely in love long before they
met face to face.
_____ _____ 8. It seems unbelievable.
_____ _____ 9. In the online fantasy world, they appeared as avatars or cartoon
versions of themselves.
_____ _____ 10. They communicated by typing messages.
_____ _____ 11. Their story sounds like a fairytale.
_____ _____ 12. They are now engaged to be married in real life.
_____ _____ 13. Though unusual, online relationships are becoming rampant.
_____ _____ 14. One may not know it.
_____ _____ 15. He or she might already be chatting with a future lifetime partner.
Identify whether the sentences use a linking verb(LV) or an auxiliary verb(aux V).
_____ 1. His passion is creating masterpieces for the museum.
_____2. The removed sculptor is creating his twentieth masterpiece.
_____3. He was last seen painting the sidewalks in Manhattan.
_____4. His preferred activity is painting the sidewalks in Manhattan.
_____5. The babys habit is nibbling his little fingertip.
_____6. Amiels greatest joy is seeing his kids happy and healthy.
_____7. The president is now seeing the fruits of his labor.
_____8. Their only pressure is serving their countrymen.
_____9. The organization is serving the people to the best of their abilities.
_____10. His task is implementing the plans previously agreed upon.


Write a two paragraph essay using action and linking verb with the theme How To
Make Your Life Interesting. Each paragraph must contain a minimum of 7 sentences and
maximum of 15 sentences.


Direction: In ten minutes time, encircle the verb in the puzzle below

Verb Verb Verb Verb

S i m p l e Te n s e s

After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:

Distinguish the various types of simple sentences

Apply the rules of verb tenses in writing

Check It Out!!!

Direction: Write down the verbs you can see on the article below. Identify whether
its on past, present pr future tense of the verb

Growing Up Gaga

One year ago this month, Lady Gaga arrived for an interview in the dark, oak pan-
eled lobby of the Roosevelt Hotel, a massive Spanish-style place in the tourist dis-
trict of Hollywood that was supposed to make the area chic but has largely failed. Just
Dance, the lead single off her first album, The Fame, had reached No. 1 in Australia, Sweden,
and Canada in early 2008, but in March 2009, she was still an up-and-coming artist in Amer-
ica: a few thousand MySpace plays, a generic website, and a short tour as the opening act for
New Kids on the Block. Gaga had a video, though. My colleagues at radio in those three
countries agreed to support her if I made a video, says Martin Kierszenbaum, the president
of A&R at her label, Interscope. The Just Dance video, shot a few miles from the Roosevelt,
features Gaga shimmying with a disco ball in her hands while her friends drape themselves
on a couch nearbythough most of those people were extras, not real friends. She didnt
know many people on the West Coast. I dont like Los Angeles, she told me. The people
are awful and terribly shallow, and everybody wants to be famous but nobody wants to play
the game. Im from New York. I will kill to get what I need.

Before the meeting, I assumed that someone with a stage name like Lady (her given
name is Stefani Joanne Germanotta) was going to be a bit standoffishthats the strategy
employed by most nervous young musicians on the occasion of their first real interview, in
any case. But I never thought she was going to actually be Lady Gaga. These days, very few
artists play the media like Bob Dylan, or stay in character as Devos Mark Mothersbaugh did
in his early career. In the age of VH1s Behind the Music, tabloid culture, and reality televi-
sion, musicians are aware that they should show themselves to journalists in as much mun-
dane detail as they can muster. But Lady Gaga is my name, she said, amazed that I would
have thought otherwise. If you know me, and you call me Stefani, you dont really know me
at all.
Direction: Write the past tense of the verb.

1.. rise ______________ 6. fix ________________

2. swim ______________ 7. am ________________
3. call _______________ 8. talk _______________
4. is ________________ 9. run _______________
5. write _____________ 10. eat ______________

Grammar Armchair

Simple Tense

Verb tense tells you when the action happens. There are three main verb tenses: pre-
sent, past, and future. Each main tense is divided into simple, progressive, perfect, and per-
fect progressive tenses.

Perfect Pro-
Simple Progressive Perfect
am/is/are fin- have/has fin- have/has been
Present finish
ishing ished finishing
was/were fin- had been fin-
Past finished had finished
ishing ishing
will be finish- will have fin- will have been
Future will finish
ing ished finishing

Things to remember about simple tense:

a. Present tense is the original verb form.

b. Past tense has a few patterns.
c. Future tense needs will (shall) + verb.

run I will see a movie tomorrow.

I run a marathon this year. (present) know

I ran a marathon last year. (past)
I will run a marathon next year. (future) I know it.
I knew it the day before yesterday.
eat I will know it by tomorrow.

I eat lunch now. learn

I ate lunch an hour ago.
I will eat lunch in one hour. I learn English.
I learned English the last two years.
see I will learn English next year.

I see a movie once a week.

I saw a movie yesterday.
Direction: Write down the proper tenses of the verb.

Past Present Future












Write a minimum of 3 paragraph article/essay about one of your most memora-

ble experience during your childhood. Observe correct use of verbs.

Grammar in Action

Grammar in Action

Fill the gaps with the correct tenses.

1. I (learn) English for seven years now.

2. But last year I (not / work) hard enough for English, that's

why my marks (not / be) really that good then.

3. As I (pass / want) my English exam successfully next year, I

(study) harder this term.

4. During my last summer holidays, my parents (send) me on a

language course to London.

5. It (be) great and I (think) I

(learn) a lot.

6. Before I (go) to London, I (not / enjoy)

learning English.

7. But while I (do) the language course, I (meet)

lots of young people from all over the world.

8. There I (notice) how important it (be)

to speak foreign languages nowadays.

9. Now I (have) much more fun learning English than I (have)

before the course.

10. At the moment I (revise) English grammar.

11. And I (begin / already) to read the texts in my English

textbooks again.

12. I (think) I (do) one unit every


13. My exam (be) on 15 May, so there (not / be)

any time to be lost.

14. If I (pass) my exams successfully, I (start)

an apprenticeship in September.

15. And after my apprenticeship, maybe I (go) back to London

to work there for a while.

Fill the gaps with the correct tenses.

1. They (build) a new power station at the moment.

2. When I was buying the stamps somebody (call) my name.

3. 'What time (Kevin come) ?' 'An hour ago.'

4. I (not go) to the cinema last night. I was too tired.

5. Carol invited us to the party but we (not go) . We had other

things to do.
6. I saw Bridget at the museum when I was going to the restaurant but she (not see)


7. 'Where (your parents live) ?' 'In a village near London. They
have always lived there.'

8. She speaks English but she (not speak) French.

9. Jeff is from London. He (live) there all his life.

10. My favourite country is Canada. I (be) there four times.

11. I (never eat) bananas.

12. 'How long (you study) Photography?' 'For one year.'

13. 'Where are you going on holiday?' 'I don't know. We (not decide)


14. Who (invent) the washing machine?

15. 'Where's Jill?' 'She (have) lunch at the moment.'

16. (Terry work) ? No, he is on holiday.

17. Somebody (steal) my sunglasses at the swimming pool last week.

18. (she wear) the nice jacket when you saw her?

19. Where (be) you yesterday?

20. As you (see / can) , I (become) a real

London fan already.


Brainstorming: making a Sensory Table

Before you begin to write your personal narrative, complete the following table that would
help you recall all the significant details you may want to add your own story. The table should con-
tain details that appeal to your five senses. This is similar to the you table completed at the beginning
of the lesson. Recall the complete sentence you wrote after filling out that table. Write it on the space
below and then proceed to write your sensory details.

Sentence: ___________________________________________________________________

Senses Descriptive Sensory Details


Mastery Test

Review the past tense by changing the verb inside the parenthesis to complete each sentence.
I (enjoy) ________ biking with my cousins in Baguio.
I (look) ________ sad when my father (go) ________ on a business trip.
I was glad when he (laugh) ________ at my joke.
I (dream) _______ of being an Olympic swimmer when I was five years old.
I (see) _______ my old playmates during my birthday last year.

Choose the word that would best complete each sentence. Then change the form of your chosen verb to
the simple past tense.
I (make, wish, feel) ________ for a baby sister to be my playmate.
Last night, I ( cry, show, pray) ________ for my mother to get better.
I (want, start, give) ________ to live with my cousins in Pangasinan last summer.
For one year, I (cover, smell, ask) ________ with joy when I was announced as the winner.

Complete the paragraph below by changing each verb in the parenthesis to the simple past tense.
It was July. Luis (walk0 ________ home from school very slowly. As he (cross) ________ the
small bridge leading to his house, he (observe) ________ how strong the rain was the night before. Scat-
tered leaves lay all over the path. Trees were bent sideways. As he (approach) ________ his house, he
(pause) ________ to talk to his neighbour, Mang Rod.
we had such strong rain last night, didnt we, Mang Rod?
We sure did! Im glad no one got hurt.
Luis (wave)________ good-bye and (turn) ________ to walk indoors. He could smell the fried
chicken his mother was cooking.

Read the short paragraph below. Notice how simple past tense is used to describe and narrate an event
that was completed in the past. You may underline the verbs to guide you.
My father To the Rescue
I stepped on a very sharp twig. I almost fainted in pain. I lifted my foot and saw that the twig
planted itself firmly on the sole of my right foot. The twig was like a small sharp arrow. I pretended to
be a shoulder wounded in battle. But the pain was too much to ignore. Then my father walked up from
behind me and lifted me in his arms. I smiled at him weakly. He placed me on a very big log and rubbed
my right shin briskly. Then he pulled the twig out with one sudden movement. I did not feel any pain at
all. My father laughed and called me a brave little soldier!
Now write your own paragraph . Use the simple past tense to describe your feelings for some-
thing that happened to you in the past. Try to express your feelings clearly so that others may under-
stand you easily.

Choose the correct form of the verb in the parenthesis. Encircle your answer.
1. Either the cabinet members or the president (is, are) going to be transported to a safer
2. (Is, Are) my partner or my brothers in the sect going to win this fight?
3. Every morning, the sheriff (take, takes) time to review all the reports.
4. One of my uncles (is, are) leaving for Italy soon.
5. Not only the trees but also the plants (was, were) destroyed when the storm came.
6. Peters fish and fried rice, my favourite dish, (remind, reminds) me of my childhood days in
7. A large number of sharks (was, were) seen sprawling the eastern coast.
8. Several of these lessons (need, needs) revision.
9. The owner of the house and host (welcome, welcomes) visitors at the garden.
10. The Liwanags and the Cruzats (entertain, entertains) the idea of leaving the village.
11. Neither the crocodiles nor the monkey (was, were) saved from the fire.
12. The number of casualties (was, were) relatively small.
13. A number of trucks (line, lines) up in this avenue every afternoon.
14. The committee (is, are) in favor of sending help to the refugee camps.
15. The group of choir directors (is, are) directly responsible for the delay.
16. The goose, as well as the ducks, (cross, crosses) the stream every spring.
17. Only one of the relatives (is, are) allowed to enter the emergency room.
18. All applicants but Pearson (is, are) accepted for the internship training.
19. The manager, together with the board of directors, (decide, decides) on matters affecting
the cooperative.
20. Attending the assembly (is, are) council presidents from Luzon and Mindanao.

Write the correct form of the verb in parenthesis on the space provided.
1. Most people (to visit) ________ Palawan.
2. They (to like) ________ its breath-taking views
3. They (to call) ________ Palawan the countrys best natural frontier.
4. Either parents or children (to enjoy) ________ this paradise.
5. If one (to visit) ________ bat Island, one (to get) ________ the surprise of his life- thou-
sands of bats land on the mangroves by day and fly by groups at night.
6. Lagoons and caverns (to make) ________ tourists wonder especially when they (to see)
________ the stalactites looking like chandeliers.
7. One who (to go) ________ to Palawan (to have) ________ many places to really spend time
to enjoy nature.
8. The visitor, along with friends, (to get)________ to see the Crocodile Farming Institute.
9. Either boating or island hopping (to make) ________ the tourists day.
10. Others (to prefer) ________ to go to Butterfly Garden with its dazzling species of butter-

S u b j e c t Ve r b
After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:

Analyze the subjectverb agreement through given examples

Apply the rules on subjectverb agreement in exercises
Construct an essay using the principles in the agreement of the subject and verb.

Grammar Armchair

Is, or are? Go, or goes? Whether a verb is singular or plural depends on any one of a compli-
cated set of factors. Here is a roster of rules for subject-verb agreement (or Here are some
rules . . .):
1. Use verbs that agree with a subject, not with a noun that is part of a modifying
phrase or clause between verb and subject:
The pot of eggs is boiling on the stove.
2. Use singular or plural verbs that agree with the subject, not with the complement of
the subject:
My favorite type of movie is comedies, but Comedies are my favorite type of movie.
3. Use singular verbs with singular indefinite pronouns each, the -bodies, -ones,
and -things (anybody, everyone, nothing), and the like:
Neither is correct. (And, just as in rule number 1, the presence of a modifier is irrelevant:
Neither of them is correct.)
4. Use plural verbs with plural indefinite pronouns:
Many outcomes are possible.
5. Use singular verbs with uncountable nouns that follow an indefinite pronoun:
All the paint is dried up.
6. Use plural verbs with countable nouns that follow an indefinite pronoun:
All the nails are spilled on the floor.
7. Use plural verbs with compound subjects that include and:
The dog and the cat are outside.
8. Use plural verbs or singular verbs, depending on the form of the noun nearest the
verb, with compound subjects that include nor or or:
Either the dog or the cats are responsible for the mess. (Either the cats or the
dog is responsible for the mess is also technically correct but is awkward.)
9. Use singular verbs with inverted subjects that include singular nouns:
Why is my hat outside in the rain?
10. Use plural verbs with inverted subjects (those beginning with the exple-
tive there rather than the actual subject) that include plural nouns:
There are several hats outside in the rain.
11. Use singular or plural verbs with collective nouns depending on meaning:
His staff is assembled, but Staff are asked to go to the conference room immediately. (In
the first sentence, the emphasis is on the body of employees; in the second sentence, the focus
is on compliance by each individual in the body of employees.)
12. Use singular verbs for designations of entities, such as nations or organizations, or
compositions, such as books or films:
The United Nations is headquartered in New York.
13. Use singular verbs for subjects plural in form but singular in meaning:

Physics is my favorite subject.
14. Use singular or plural verbs for subjects plural in form but plural or singular in
meaning depending on the context:
The economics of the situation are complicated, but Economics is a complicated topic.
15. Use plural verbs for subjects plural in form and meaning:
The tweezers are in the cupboard.
16. Use plural verbs in constructions of the form one of those (blank) who . . .:
I am one of those eccentrics who do not tweet.
17. Use singular verbs in constructions of the form the only one of those (blank)
who . . .:
I am the only one of my friends who does not tweet.
18. Use singular verbs in constructions of the form the number of (blank) . . .:
The number of people here boggles the mind.
19. Use plural verbs in constructions of the form a number of (blank) . . .:
A number of people here disagree.
20. Use singular verbs in construction of the forms every (blank) . . . and many a
(blank) . . .:
Every good boy does fine; Many a true word is spoken in jest.

Grammar in Action

Directions: Encircle the correct verb in the sentences below.

1. Each of the girls (look-looks) good on skis.

2. Everybody (was-were) asked to remain quiet.
3. Neither of the men (is-are) here yet.
4. (Is-Are) each of the girls ready to leave?
5. Several of the sheep (is-are) sick.
6. Some members of the faculty (is-are) present.
7. Nobody in the class (has-have) the answer.
8. Each of the girls (observe-observes) all the regulations.
9. All of the milk (is-are) gone.
10. Most of the seats (was-were) taken.
11. Statistics (is-are) interesting subject. It (is-are) often misleading.
12. Every single knife, fork and spoon (has, have) to be encountered.
13. The sheep (stray-strays) when the gate is open. She (stray-strays) when the
gate is left open.
14. The committee (is-are) meeting today.
15. Building a good marriage and building a god log fire (is-are) similar in many

In the blank, use the correct present tense form of the infinitive given at the begin-
ning of each sentence.
to have:
The cracked windshield, in addition to the torn upholstery and rusted body,
__________ made Ruths old car difficult to sell.
to be:
This week's National Inquisitor claims that there __________ photographs of
the Loch Ness Monster eating Elvis.
to work:
At Titos Taco Palace __________ friends who will stuff double meat into our
burritos for free.
to crawl:
On the tables in the library __________ the many germs that have escaped in
the hot breath of hardworking students.
to be:
None of this breakfast that Lilly Mae cooked __________ fit to eat.
to taste:
None of these chocolate-broccoli muffins __________ good, either.
to have:
The whole red ant colony, including the queen and all of her drones,
__________ swarmed over Tommy's feet, stinging his ankles.
to make:
Fifteen gallons of chocolate milk __________ Herbert the elephant a happy
to hope:
Everyone on the roller coaster, including Martha and Angie, __________ that
the hot dogs, onion rings, funnel cake, and cotton candy will stay down during
the twisting ride to come.
to bother:
Neither Fred's ratty clothes nor his sullen attitude __________ Esmeralda,
who lets Fred pick up the check every time they dine out.
to hug:
That pair of jeans __________ the curves of Hannahs body as nicely as tinfoil
on a baked potato.
to annoy:
Neither the coughing muffler nor the squeaky brakes __________ Ruth as
much as the broken radio in her old car.
to get:
Florida alligators usually __________ severe indigestion after eating poodles.
to cling:
Every cat hair, candy wrapper, and loose thread __________ to the super-
charged polyester pants that Theodora loves to wear.
to know:
Any one of Ms. Orsini's students __________ the rules that govern subject-
verb agreement


Identify and revise the subject-verb agreement errors in this passage:

Uncle Stanley and his girlfriend, Kira, is coming to visit me next weekend. Unfortu-
nately, neither of them are very interesting. Every time they visit, Kira sleeps about eighteen
hours a day, and Stanley tells childhood stories over and over. There is only about three sto-
ries in his entire repertoire, and, although he finds them amusing, neither his stories nor his
one and only joke are funny at all. I try to get him to discuss other topics, but economics are
his only real interest, and I dont find that topic very interesting either. I hate to admit it, but I
hope the days they spend with me passes quickly.


Direction: Create a paragraph regarding poverty in the country. Observe proper use of
subjectverb agreement.

Mastery Test

Directions: In the blank, use the correct present tense form of the infinitive given at the
beginning of each sentence.

to take: The shine on my hardwood floors __________ abuse from the ragged toenails of
Floyd, my dog.
1. to have: Neither of those students __________ a clue about the rules governing subject-
verb agreement. Pity them both during the quiz.
2. to make: Patience and compassion, in addition to a wallet bulging with money,
__________ everyone want Jordan as a friend.
3. to require: Statistics __________ so much homework that Michelle's poor fingers have
permanent indentations from the calculator pads.
4. to come: The committee ___________ from all parts of the city, so we usually have to
start late because so many members get stuck in traffic.
5. to believe: The committee ___________ that waiting until everyone arrives is more im-
portant than starting on time.
6. to be: When Dad is angry, there __________ fire flickering in his eyes as well as smoke
escaping from his ears.
7. to brighten: When Matthew is having a bad day, old episodes of The X-Files always
__________ his mood.
8. to hit: Each of those opera singers regularly ___________ notes high enough to break
glass and rupture eardrums.
9. to be: Either the fried oyster sandwich or shrimp pizza __________ the best choice for
lunch at Crusty's Seafood Restaurant.

Underline the correct form of the verb that agrees with the subject.
1. The English Club, as well as the Chemistry Society (need, needs) to submit a
financial report.
2. Four and four (is, are) eight.
3. Forty percent of the students (is, are) in favor of changing the policy.
4. My pants (was, were) torn.
5. Somebody (has, have) left his wallet.
6. The jury (take, takes) their seats in the courtroom.
7. One of the instructors (has, have) written a letter of recommendation for her.
8. Everybody (is, are) required to bring the requirements.
9. The scholarship is awarded to the student who (need, needs) financial assistance most.
10. Neither the people nor the President (has, have) a voice in this matter.
11. One half of the sugar (is, are) brown.
12. The general, with the soldiers (is, are) entering at this moment.
13. My adviser and my friend (is, are) coming to visit me soon.
14. The committee (is, are) composed of prominent people in the community.
15. Five times two divided by two (is, are).
16. Forty percent of the student body (is, are) in favor of changing the policy.
17. Measles (is, are) a dangerous disease for pregnant women.

18. Either my father or my brothers (is, are) attending the meeting.
19. The mayor together with his followers (are, is) distributing relief goods to the typhoon
20. Andy or his sister (are, is) going to be responsible for this.
21. Economics (has, have) developed very fast in the last few years.
22. They (complain, complains) about their living conditions.
23. Both Lex and Sam (was, were) selected as contractors of the new project.
24. Neither husband nor wife (want, wants) to take a vacation.
25. Survey (show, shows) that one fourth of the viewers (prefer, prefers) programs on Sci-
ence and Technology.
26. Everybody in the court (is, are) requested to keep silent during the trial.
27. One of the moral obligations (is, are) to help the needy.
28. His physical stamina (is, are) wonderful.
29. His dedication and courage (have, has) won him a medal of honor.
30. Several have, has) indicated their attention to help.
31. Half of the fortune they inherited (is, are) gone.
32. The secretary and treasurer (is, are) here to see the president.
33. A flock of birds (is, are) flying in the sky.
34. The basketball team (has been, have been) practicing all week.
35. Some of the information (is, are) exaggerated.
36. Husband and wife (has, have) many things in common.
37. He is one of the students who (has, have) no assignment.
38. None of them (know, knows) the lesson.
39. Therein (lie. lies) the truth of the whole matter.
40. Andrew, like Jun, (appreciate, appreciates) Philippine products.


Describe your own perspective on the use of social networking sites in bullying and
other online crime. Observe the proper use subjectverb agreement.


After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:

Familiarize with the different types of adjectives

Determine the appropriate degree of adjectives to be used in a given context

Check It Out!!!

Direction: Underlined the adjectives in the following paragraphs.

A Friendly Clown
On one corner of my dresser sits s smiling toy clown on a tiny unicycle- a gift I re-
ceived last Christmas from a close friend. The clowns short yellow hair, made of yarn, co-
vers its ear but it is parted above the eyes. The blue eyes are outlined in black with thin,
dark lashes flowing from the brows. It has three red cheeks, nose, lips and its broad grin
disappears into the wide, white ruffle around its neck. The clown wears a fluffy, two-tone
nylon costume. The left side of the outfit light blue and the right side is red. The two colors
merge in a dark line that runs down the center of the small outfit. Surroundings its spokes
on the wheels of the unicycle gather in the center and expand to the black tire so that the
wheel somewhat resembles the inner half to a grapefruit. The clown and unicycle together
stand about a foot high. As a cherished gift from my good friend Tran, this colourful figure
greets me with a smile every time I enter my room.

The Magic Metal Tube

By Maxine Hong Kingston

Once in a long while, four times so far me, my mother brings out the metal tube
that holds her medical diploma. On the tube are gold circles crossed with seven red lines
each joy ideographs in abstract. There are also little flowers that look like gears for a
gold machine. According to the scraps of labels with Chinese and American addresses,
stamps, and postmarks, the family airmailed the can from Hongkong in 1950. It got crushed
in the middle, and whoever tried to peel the labels off stopped because the red and gold
paint come too, leaving silver scratches that rust. Somebody tried to pry the end off before
discovering that the falls apart. When I open it, the smell of China flies out, a thousand-year
-old bat flying heavy-headed out of the Chinese caverns where bats are as white as dust, a
smell that comes from long ago, far back in the brain.

Grammar Armchair

An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quanti-

fying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.
In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives:
The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops.
Mrs. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper.
The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea.
The coal mines are dark and dank.
Many stores have already begun to play irritating Christmas music.
A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard.
The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots.
An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clausefunctioning as an adverb. In
the sentence
My husband knits intricately patterned mittens.
for example, the adverb "intricately" modifies the adjective "patterned."
Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. In the sen-
Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden under her pillow.
for example, both highlighted adjectives are past participles.
Grammarians also consider articles ("the," "a," "an") to be adjectives.

Grammar in Action

In the following sentences, underline each adjective. Then circle the word it describes or
modifies it.
1. Most new Presidents are cautious when they deal with Congress.
2. The window of the store was full of attractive new clothes.
3. The blue ribbon was given to the best gardener.
4. Several tall boys are members of the team this year.
5. That program is a good comedy.
6. Little work can be done on the project now.
7. The long trip on the famous Orient Express took one from Paris to Istanbul.
8. Two people can set up camp in a short time.
9. Because she was energetic, Sally jogged for two hours.
10. Some authors attract the attention of the reader with the first paragraph.
11. The new neighbors are friendly.
12. The melon was large and sweet.
13. Joyce is never conceited about winning.
14. A hundred people turned up for the first meeting.

15. Many students study foreign languages.
16. The teacher sounded angry when he spoke to the noisy students.
17. The woman seems worried about finances.
18. Karen is popular with old and young people.
19. Those long questions were hard for me.
20. Much rain fell during the month of June.


Your mind may be full of ideas right now about what you can do to show your power
and energy as a young person. Remember that before you start doing anything for others, you
must understand who you are and how you see yourself. In this way, your efforts are more fo-
cused and more organized.
Writing a simple profile or character sketch about yourself may be a start in getting to know
yourself more deeply. A character sketch is a description of the qualities one sees in a person.
Answer the question below as many ideas as you can. Spend 15-20 minutes in doing this;
What are the things you enjoy doing the most?
What do you have that it is most important to you?
What are the things you can do very well?
What have you always wanted for yourself?
What do you need right now to make your life better?

Grammar Armchair

Possessive Adjectives
A possessive adjective ("my," "your," "his," "her," "its," "our," "their") is similar or identi-
cal to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or
a noun phrase, as in the following sentences:
I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the textbook.
In this sentence, the possessive adjective "my" modifies "assignment" and the noun phrase
"my assignment" functions as anobject. Note that the possessive pronoun form "mine" is
not used to modify a noun or noun phrase.
What is your phone number.
Here the possessive adjective "your" is used to modify the noun phrase "phone number";
the entire noun phrase "your phone number" is a subject complement. Note that the pos-
sessive pronoun form "yours" is not used to modify a noun or a noun phrase.
The bakery sold his favourite type of bread.
In this example, the possessive adjective "his" modifies the noun phrase "favourite type of
bread" and the entire noun phrase "his favourite type of bread" is the direct object of
the verb "sold."
After many years, she returned to her homeland.
Here the possessive adjective "her" modifies the noun "homeland" and the noun phrase

"her homeland" is the object of the preposition"to." Note also that the form "hers" is not
used to modify nouns or noun phrases.
We have lost our way in this wood.
In this sentence, the possessive adjective "our" modifies "way" and the noun phrase "our
way" is the direct object of the compound verb"have lost". Note that the possessive pronoun
form "ours" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases.
In many fairy tales, children are neglected by their parents.
Here the possessive adjective "their" modifies "parents" and the noun phrase "their parents"
is the object of the preposition "by." Note that the possessive pronoun form "theirs" is not
used to modify nouns or noun phrases.
The cat chased its ball down the stairs and into the backyard.
In this sentence, the possessive adjective "its" modifies "ball" and the noun phrase "its ball"
is the object of the verb "chased." Note that "its" is the possessive adjective and "it's" is
a contraction for "it is."

Demonstrative Adjectives
The demonstrative adjectives "this," "these," "that," "those," and "what" are identical to
the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases, as
in the following sentences:
When the librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of books.
In this sentence, the demonstrative adjective "that" modifies the noun "cord" and the noun
phrase "that cord" is the object of the preposition "over."
This apartment needs to be fumigated.
Here "this" modifies "apartment" and the noun phrase "this apartment" is the subject of the
Even though my friend preferred those plates, I bought these.
In the subordinate clause, "those" modifies "plates" and the noun phrase "those plates" is the
object of the verb "preferred." In theindependent clause, "these" is the direct object of the
verb "bought."
Note that the relationship between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun
is similar to the relationship between a possessive adjective and a possessive pronoun, or to
that between a interrogative adjective and an interrogative pronoun.

Interrogative Adjectives
An interrogative adjective ("which" or "what") is like an interrogative pronoun, except
that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own (see also demonstra-
tive adjectives and possessive adjectives):
Which plants should be watered twice a week?
Like other adjectives, "which" can be used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. In this exam-
ple, "which" modifies "plants" and the noun phrase "which plants" is the subject of the com-
pound verb "should be watered":
What book are you reading?
In this sentence, "what" modifies "book" and the noun phrase "what book" is the direct ob-
ject of the compound verb "are reading."

Indefinite Adjectives
An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun, except that it modifies a noun,
pronoun, or noun phrase, as in the following sentences:
Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed.
The indefinite adjective "many" modifies the noun "people" and the noun phrase "many peo-
ple" is the subject of the sentence.

Grammar in Action

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of adjectives in brackets

1. Michael is the ______ staff in the company. ( senior)
2. The price of most products is ______ during festive seasons. ( high )
3. In Siberia, you may experience the ______ climate on earth. ( hostile )
4. Even though you have retired, you have to be as ______ as before. ( active )
5. Among the staff, Jenny is the ______ employee. ( patient )
6. Today's dishes are definitely ______ that yesterday's. ( tasty )
7. The road here is much ______ than all the other roads. ( broad )
8. Children are ______ to diseases than adults. ( prone )
9. It is ______ to wear a life-jacket when traveling in a speed boat. ( safe )
10. No one has ever explored the ______ part of the jungle. ( wild )

Look at the adjective in bold print in each sentence. Write the word it modifies in the

_______________ 1. A large crowd waited at the bus stop.

_______________ 2. The roasting sun beamed down on them.
_______________ 3. One man, hot and tired, leaned against the bench.
_______________ 4. A child sat in a very small patch of shade.
_______________ 5. A European couple talked quietly in German.
_______________ 6. The day was very humid.
_______________ 7. A boy played his miniature radio.
_______________ 8. Two men balanced a heavy box of groceries.
_______________ 9. Huge and green, the bus roared toward the stop.
_______________ 10. The passengers, relieved, began to board.
In the spaces list the adjectives and say whether they are common or proper.

_______________ 1. The American South has interesting attractions.

_______________ 2. The beautiful Mississippi River runs through several states.
_______________ 3. South Carolina is famous for its magnificent gardens.
_______________ 4. The English colonies founded the fascinating city of Charleston.
_______________ 5. Austin is the capital city of Texas, but Houston is larger.
_______________ 6. Texan food is known for its spicy flavours and generous portions.
_______________ 7. Floridas wetlands are home to many unusual animals and birds.

_______________ 8. These include lovely butterflies and dangerous alligators.
_______________ 9. Louisiana boasts the French city of New Orleans and famous jazz
_______________ 10. Cotton is an important crop in the south.
Adjectives answer the questions: What kind? Which one? How many? How much?

What kind? blue dress, old car

Which one? these books, every woman
How many? sixty cents, several answers
How much? no time, great confidence

Exercise B

Look at the adjective in bold print in each sentence. Write the question it answers (which
how many, how much, or what kind) in the blank.

_______________ 1. This bicycle is blue and white.

_______________ 2. That one is made of aluminum.
_______________ 3. There are two reflectors at the rear.
_______________ 4 The fenders have several dents.
_______________ 5. The powerful brakes work quickly.
_______________ 6. This style is more reliable.
_______________ 7. But that type costs less.
_______________ 8. A comfortable seat is necessary.
_______________ 9. A ten-speed requires less work on hills.
_______________ 10. Some bikes are racing dreams.


Describe what someone in your family looks like to an artist. Underline the adjectives used.

Mastery Test

Decide whether you have to use a little or a few:

1. Can you please buy _______ apples.
2. We need _______ water.
3. I have _______ money left.
4. I take _______ sugar with my coffee.
5. We had _______ pints of beer there.
6. You have _______ time left.
7. There are _______ chairs in the room.
8. He only spent _______ dollars there.

Decide whether you have to use some or any:

1. Is there _______ milk left?
2. There is _______ juice in the bottle.
3. Do you have _______ coffee?
4. I dont have _______ money left.
5. She has _______ money.
6. Do you know _______ of these singers?
7. I dont know _______ of them.
8. I know _______ of them.

Adjectives make stories more exciting. They add the descriptions that help paint
pictures in our minds. Stories without adjectives can be simple and boring. Read the
story below. Then rewrite it using at least one adjective for each noun. Use
sensory and descriptive language that helps the story come alive.

It was a day. The alarm rang. I jumped out of bed and got dressed. I put on a pair of
pants and a shirt. I added some socks and shoes, and then I was almost ready to leave. I
some juice in a cup and ate a piece of toast. I hurried out the door to go to school. I ran to
class in a building on the campus. There were students in my class. I sat next to one. I
wrote in
my notebook and on the board. I looked at my books, pens, and pencils. Later, I got paper
and paint from the cupboard to make a project. The teacher gave us homework. After
school, I
walked home through the neighborhood. The boys yelled to me. I went into my house to
do my
homework. I finished in two hours. I played with the kids until dinner.


After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:

Define what adverbs are and tell what parts of speech they define

Use adverb properly

Distinguish between adjective and adverb

Grammar Armchair

Adverbs are words that modify

a verb (He drove slowly. How did he drive?)
an adjective (He drove a very fast car. How fast was his car?)
another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. How slowly did she
As we will see, adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions some-
thing happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases
not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word
is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives:

Kinds of Adverbs
Adverbs of Manner Adverbs of Place
She moved slowly and spoke quietly. She has lived on the island all her life.
She still lives there now.

Adverbs of Frequency Adverbs of Time

She takes the boat to the mainland every day. She tries to get back before dark
She often goes by herself. It's starting to get dark now.

Adverbs of Purpose
She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the rocks.
She shops in several stores to get the best buys.


Many adverbs are formed from adjectives and end in -ly. Here are some tips to help you form
adverbs and spell them correctly:
The basic rule is that -ly is added to the end of the adjective:
adjective adverb
quick quickly
sudden suddenly
straight- straightfor-
forward wardly

If the adjective has two syllables and ends in -y, then you need to replace the final -
y with -ily:
adjective adverb
happy happily
hungry hungrily
lazy lazily
If the adjective ends with a consonant followed by -le, replace the final -e with -y on
its own:
adjective adverb
terrible terribly
comforta- comfortably

Grammar in Action

Underline the adverbs in the following sentences and state their kinds. You
must also mention the question these adverbs answer.

1. The umbrella was kept there.

2. Uncle Peng often goes to the club.
3. Petu ran quickly to catch the ball.
4. Bowbow went out.
5. Teddy went to the circus yesterday.
6. Mrs. Cow rang the bell twice.
7. King will buy some meat tomorrow.
8. Piggy rarely makes mistakes.
9. The child slept soundly.

Direction: Complete the table below

Comparative Superlative
more complicated

The Difference between Adjectives and Adverbs

The Basic Rules: Adjectives

Adjectives modify nouns. To modify means to change in some way. For example:
"I ate a meal." Meal is a noun. We don't know what kind of meal; all we know is that
someone ate a meal.
"I ate an enormous lunch." Lunch is a noun, and enormous is an adjective that modifies it. It
tells us what kind of meal the person ate.
Adjectives usually answer one of a few different questions: "What kind?" or "Which?" or
"How many?" For example:
"The tall girl is riding a new bike." Tall tells us which girl we're talking about. Newtells
us what kind of bike we're talking about.
"The tough professor gave us the final exam." Tough tells us what kind of professor we're
talking about. Final tells us which exam we're talking about.
"Fifteen students passed the midterm exam; twelve students passed the final ex-
am." Fifteen and twelve both tell us how many students; midterm and final both tell
us which exam.
So, generally speaking, adjectives answer the following questions:
What kind of?
How many?
The Basic Rules: Adverbs
Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. (You can recognize adverbs easily

because many of them are formed by adding -ly to an adjective, though that is not always the
case.) The most common question that adverbs answer is how.
Let's look at verbs first.
"She sang beautifully." Beautifully is an adverb that modifies sang. It tells us how she sang.
"The cellist played carelessly." Carelessly is an adverb that modifies played. It tells ushow the
cellist played.
Adverbs also modify adjectives and other adverbs.
"That woman is extremely nice." Nice is an adjective that modifies the
noun woman.Extremely is an adverb that modifies nice; it tells us how nice she is. How nice is
she? She's extremely nice.
"It was a terribly hot afternoon." Hot is an adjective that modifies the nounafter-
noon. Terribly is an adverb that modifies the adjective hot. How hot is it? Terribly hot.
So, generally speaking, adverbs answer the question how. (They can also answer the ques-
tions when, where, and why.)
Some other rules:
Most of the time, adjectives come before nouns. However, they come after the nouns they
modify, most often when the verb is a form of the following:
Some examples:
"The dog is black." Black is an adjective that modifies the noun dog, but it comes after the
verb. (Remember that "is" is a form of the verb "be.")
"Brian seems sad." Sad is an adjective that modifies the noun Brian.
"The milk smells rotten." Rotten is an adjective that modifies the noun milk.
"The speaker sounds hoarse." Hoarse is an adjective that modifies the noun speaker.
Be sure to understand the differences between the following two examples:
"The dog smells carefully." Here, carefully describes how the dog is smelling. We imagine
him sniffing very cautiously.
"The dog smells clean." Here, clean describes the dog itself. It's not that he's smelling clean
things or something; it's that he's had a bath and does not stink.


Create a feature article about your favorite vacation place/area. Underline the adjective used
and encircle the adverb used.

Grammar in Action

Underline the adjectives and identify the word it modifies.

1. The old house had been empty for several years.
2. The second team played during the last quarter.
3. The new coach seems pleasant and competent.
4. The old elephant was suffering from a bad toothache.
The enormous jet can not land at the regular airport.
5. A magnetic field surrounds the entire earth.
Page 5 of 16 6. The new atomic submarines are spacious and comfortable.
7. The water in the lake tastes salty.
8. Many young Americans are making important scientific discoveries.
9. The two men in the other car seemed angry.
10. Most European students can speak the English language.
11. This little book contains some big ideas.
12. A cold wind drove the deep snow into the huge drifts.
13. Some small economy cars are neither small nor economical.
14. This new arrangement is good for all of us.

For each question, you will be asked to select the most appropriate order of modifiers or the
only appropriate placement of modifier(s). Submit the form using the SUBMIT APPLICA-
TION button at the end of the exercise. Your score will be returned to you in a few seconds.

1. Select the sentence in which usually appears in an appropriate position.

A. She usually shops for clothes at the local thrift store.
B. Usually she shops for clothes at the local thrift store.
C. She shops for clothes at the local thrift store usually.
D. Either "A" or "B" is fine.

2. Select the sentence with the most appropriate order of adverbial phrases.
A. She leaves the island during the months of December and January after dark.
B. She leaves the island after dark during the months of December and January.
C. Either "A" or "B" is fine.

Grammar Armchair

Let's suppose that you want to talk about when something happened or will happen, or that you
want to tell someone how to do something that must be done in steps and each of those steps
should be done in a specific order. In either of these two situations, you must use signal words to
help the person you are talking to understand the order of the process. These signal words are
called adverbials of time and sequence. They are also sometimes referred to as time-order signal
Adverbials of time and sequence help us understand the time relationship between sentences and
ideas. Adverbials of time and sequence fall into two groups. The first group consists of time expres-
sions of more than one word. Time expressions of more than one word generally introduce a sen-
tence and are followed by a comma. Here's a list of the most common ones:

by + time By seven o'clock, the theater was full.

at + time At around three o'clock, the band walks through the door.

after + time After five o'clock, the students go home.

before + time They all arrived before noon.

after + noun After about twenty minutes, I had to see her again.

before + noun Before the movie, we went out for dinner.

during + noun During the movie, the people kept talking.

Time signal words are useful in many types of narratives. Below are four paragraphs using
time signal words. Read the paragraphs and try to guess what they are talking about. The time sig-
nal words have been underlined.

1. They're easy to make! First, put some of your favorite ice cream in a bowl. Then, pour two table-
spoons of chocolate syrup on the ice cream. Next, cover the ice cream and chocolate with whipped
cream. Finally, sprinkle chopped nuts on the whipped cream and top it off with a cherry.
2. To get there go straight two blocks and then turn right. Follow that street for two blocks. Look
for a tall gray building on the left. Then, turn left and go three more blocks and it will be the blue
house on the southwest corner.
3. The first thing you see is a big map on the wall in front of you. Then, if you look to the right,
you will see a large sofa. Then, as you look around the room you will notice a cute little plastic
chair in the far corner.
4. I usually get up at around 7a.m. The first thing I do after getting up is drink a cup of cof-
fee. While I'm drinking my coffee, I check my e-mail. Then, I eat breakfast. After breakfast, I take
a shower and get dressed.

Write at least three paragraph about your daily routine. Observe proper use
sequences of adverbs.

Mastery Test

Complete the sentences with the best adverb.

Hint: Not every adverb is needed.

slowly carefully beautifully well loudly carelessly easily excited-

ly finally suddenly quickly quietly

1. Come here ____________. You have to see this!

2. We knew that she had got the job when we saw her _________ talking on the phone.
3. He ______________ put the vase on the table. It fell to the floor.
4. Sharon is throwing a party on Saturday. She ___________ finished her PhD.
5. Lets walk ________________. I dont want to be the first one at the meeting.
6. Alex _____________ put up the bookshelves. It was too difficult for me to do on my own.
7. Every thing happened so ______________. We had to move to California in less than a
8. Why does he always have to talk so ____________. You can hear him in the next room!
9. Although she speaks five languages, she did not do ___________ on the translation exam.
10. I was so surprised. His new apartment was _____________ decorated.

II. Adverb or Adjective?

Complete the sentence using an adjective or adverb.

To make adverbs we often add ly at the end of an adjective (words that describe a noun)

Example: beautiful (adjective) girl (noun)

beautiful + ly = beautifully (adverb)

1. Hes always in a rush. I dont understand why he walks so ____________ (quick/quickly).

2. I prefer studying in the library. Its always_______________ (quiet/quietly).
3. Michael __________ (happy/happily) took the assistant job. He had been looking for a
position all summer.
4. Marta dances _____________ (beautiful/beautifully). Shes been taking ballet since she
was five years old.
5. They speak French very ____________ (good/well). They lived in France for two years.
6. My neighbor always plays ___________ (loud/loudly) music on the weekends. Its so
7. Please be __________ (careful/carefully) in the hallway. The walls have just been paint-
8. Dan is very smart, but he is not a very___________ (good/well) student.
9. He reacted __________ (angry/angrily) to the news. I have never seen him so upset.
10. We didnt ______________ (complete/completely) understand the teachers instructions.
Most of us did not finish the assignment.

A. Identifying Adjectives and Adverbs (4 points each)
Select the letter of the term that identifies each italicized word.
a. predicate adjective c. definite article e. demonstrative adjective
b. indefinite article d. proper adjective f. intensifier
_____ 1. Jeremy found the filmstrip rather dull and boring.
_____ 2. A movie would have been more fun.
_____ 3. Jeremy fell asleep at the end.
_____ 4. The filmstrip was narrated by a Canadian professor.
_____ 5. He spoke too softly.
_____ 6. That visitor enjoyed the filmstrip.
_____ 7. He is very enthusiastic about photography.
_____ 8. I think he really liked those pictures at the end of the filmstrip
B. Adjectives and Adverbs as Modifiers (4 points each)
Select the letter of the word or phrase that each italicized word modifies.
_____ 9. There is a great new video game at the arcade.
a. There b. new c. game
_____ 10. It looks quite challenging but fun.
a. It b. looks c. challenging
_____ 11. Starblaster is the name of this game.
a. Starblaster b. name c. game
_____ 12. Tommy can play the game betterthan I can.
a. Tommy b. can play c. game
_____ 13. He goes to the arcade and practices hard every weekend.
a. goes b. practices c. weekend
_____ 14. I almost never beat Tommy when we play Starblaster.
a. never b. beat c. playSelect the letter of the form that correctly completes each sentence.
_____ 15. Jim Thorpe was one of the _____ American athletes of all time.
a. most great b. greater c. greatest
_____ 16. Thorpe competed _____ in the 1912 Olympics.
a. successfully b. successful c. most successful

Clauses and
After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:

Differentiate the kinds of clauses and phrases

Construct sentences using the different sentence patterns

Check It Out!!!

Grammar Armchair

Independent Clauses
Independent Clauses could stand by themselves as discrete sentences, except that when
they do stand by themselves, separated from other clauses, they're normally referred to simply
as sentences, not clauses. The ability to recognize a clause and to know when a clause is capa-
ble of acting as an independent unit is essential to correct writing and is especially helpful in
avoiding sentence fragments and run-on sentences..
Needless to say, it is important to learn how to combine independent clauses into larger
units of thought. In the following sentence, for example,
Bob didn't mean to do it, but he did it anyway.
we have two independent clauses "Bob didn't mean to do it" and "he did it any-
way" connected by a comma and a coordinating conjunction ("but"). If the word
"but" is missing from this sentence, the sentence would be called a comma splice:
two independent clauses would be incorrectly connected, smooshed together, with
only a comma between them. Furthermore, a long series of clauses of similar struc-
ture and length begins to feel monotonous, leading to
what is called "Dick and Jane" or primer language (after the kind of prose that we find in
first grade textbooks or "primers"). (See the section on Avoiding Primer Language for ad-
vice and exercises on combining sentences.) It would also be helpful at this time to review
the section on Punctuation Between Two Independent Clauses.
Clauses are combined in three different ways: coordination, subordination, and by
means of a semicolon. Coordination involves joining independent clauses with one of the
coordinating conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, for, yet, and sometimes* so. Clauses thus connect-
ed are usually nicely balanced in length and import.
Ramonita thought about joining the church choir, but she never talked to her
friends about it.
Subordination involves turning one of the clauses into a subordinate element (one
that cannot stand on its own) through the use of aSubordinating Conjunction (sometimes
called a dependent word) or a Relative Pronoun. When the clause begins with a subordi-
nating word, it is no longer an independent clause; it is called a dependent or subordinate
clause because it depends on something else (the independent clause) for its meaning. There
are other ways of combining ideas by turning independent clauses into various kinds of
modifying phrases. Again, see the section onAvoiding Primer Language.
Although Ramonita often thought about joining the choir, she never talked to her
friends about it.
Ramonita never talked to her friends about joining the choir, because she was
afraid they would make fun of her.
Yasmin is Ramonita's sister. Yasmin told Ramonita to join the choir no matter
what her friends said.
Joining these with the use of a relative clause:
Yasmin, [who is] Ramonita's sister, told Ramonita to join the choir. . . .
Semicolons can connect two independent clauses with or without the help of
a conjunctive adverb (transitional expression). Semicolons should be used sparingly and
only when the two independent clauses involved are closely related and nicely balanced in
terms of length and import.
Ramonita has such a beautiful voice; many couples have asked her to sing at their
Ramonita's voice has a clear, angelic quality; furthermore, she clearly enjoys using
Dependent Clauses
Dependent Clauses cannot stand by themselves and make good sense. They must be
combined with an independent clause so that they become part of a sentence that can stand
by itself. (Review the section on Commas Usage for advice and plenty of exercises on the
punctuation requirements when dependent and independent clauses are combined.) Unlike
independent clauses, which simply are what they are, dependent clauses are said to perform
various functions within a sentence. They act either in the capacity of some kind of noun or
as some kind of modifier. There are three basic kinds of dependent clauses, categorized ac-
cording to their function in the sentence. Remember that a dependent clause always contains
a subject and a verb, but it cannot stand by itself.

Adverb clauses provide information about what is going on in the main (independent) clause:
where, when, or why. "When the movie is over, we'll go downtown." or "John wanted to write a
book because he had so much to say about the subject."

Adjective clauses work like multi-word adjectives. "My brother, who is an engineer, figured it
out for me." or "The bridge that collapsed in the winter storm will cost millions to replace." A
special kind of adjective clause begins with a relative adverb (where, when, andwhy) but none-
theless functions as adjectivally.

Noun clauses can do anything that nouns can do. "What he knows [subject] is no
concern of mine." or "Do you know what he knows[object]?" or "What can you
tell me about what he has done this year [object of the preposition "about"]?"

Grammar in Action

Determine whether the underlined word groups are dependent clauses, independ-
ent clauses, or not a clause.

1. Although it was raining, Maria went for a jog at Civitan Park.

2. Brianna eats chocolate whenever she gets a poor grade in math.

3. After the flood, the family moved into a temporary shelter.

4. While walking at the park, John saw a raccoon eating potato chips.

5. Students enrolled in bachelor's and associate's degree programs must pass the Re-
gents' Test as a graduation requirement.

6. Students who fail to show up for the Regents' test must enroll in the Regents' reme-
diation courses.

7. When you finish your homework, please take the dog for a walk.

8. After Juan completed the assignment, he swam laps at the gym.

9. Christa left home at 4:00 a.m. since she had to drive to Atlanta for a meeting.

10. Before completing the assignment, Evan decided to eat a quick lunch.

Try remembering one of your experiences in childhood where you played a prank to
some one. Write down why and how it happened and what is the effect of your prank. Retell
it by writing an essay and underline the independent clause one and the dependent clause

Read the selection below. Pick clause and try to add another clause to make a new sentence.

Can You Die of a Broken Heart?

By Eric Metcalf, MPH

Once the Nashville, Tenn., resident went to the hospital, doctors began running tests. They
told Lisa that instead of a heart attack, she actually had a different type of heart problem called
stress cardiomyopathy. This problem -- which is also dubbed "broken heart syndrome" -- may
be the real issue in some cases that initially appear to be a heart attack.
Understanding broken heart syndrome requires understanding how the body reacts to stress -
- and a bit of knowledge about Japanese octopus-fishing gear.

A Troubled Mind May Lead to a Broken Heart

The term "broken heart syndrome" came about after researchers noticed that many people
with the condition were grieving, says Ilan Wittstein, MD, a Johns Hopkins University cardi-
ologist who's been studying the condition for a decade.
"The first several patients we saw, many of them had [just experienced] the death of a loved
one, a spouse, a parent. Some people started having symptoms at a funeral," he tells WebMD.
But other patients had just gone through a trauma like a car accident or a mugging. Another
woman landed in the intensive care unit on her 60th birthday after being startled by well-
wishers shouting "Surprise!" Wittstein says.
These types of events can trigger your sympathetic nervous system, which is also called your
"fight or flight" mechanism, says Peter Shapiro, MD, a professor of clinical psychiatry at Co-
lumbia University who studies emotional issues in heart disease.
Your body unleashes a flood of chemicals, including adrenaline, he says. This sudden flood can
stun your heart muscle, leaving it unable to pump properly.
So even though broken heart syndrome may feel like a heart attack, it's a very different prob-
lem that needs a different type of treatment.

Grammar Armchair

Subordinate clauses that describe nouns and pronouns

A subordinate clause may give your listener or reader more information about a noun or pro-
noun in the sentence. Here are some examples, with the subordinate clause in italic:
The book that Michael wrote is on the best seller list. (that Michael wrote describes
the noun book)

Anyone who knows Michael well will read the book. (who knows Michael
well describes the pronoun anyone)
The book includes some information that will prove embarrassing to Michaels
friends.(that will prove embarrassing to Michaels friends describes the
noun information)

You dont need to know this fact, so skip to the next paragraph. Still here? Okay then. Subor-
dinate clauses that describe nouns or pronouns are called adjectival clauses or adjective claus-
es. Happy now?

Subordinate clauses that describe verbs, adjectives, or adverbs

Subordinate clauses also can describe verbs, adjectives, or adverbs. The subordinate clauses
tell you how, when, where, or why. Some examples, with the subordinate clause in italic, are as
Because Michael censored himself, the book contains nothing about the exploding
doughnut. (Because Michael censored himself describes the verb contains)

We will probably find out more when the movie version is released. (when the movie
version is released describes the verb will find)

The government may prohibit sales of the book wherever international tensions
make it dangerous. (wherever international tensions make it dangerous describes the
verbmay prohibit)

Michael is so stubborn that he may sue the government. (that he may sue thegovern-
ment describes the adverb so)

More grammar terminology, in case youre having a very dull day: Subordinate clauses that
describe verbs are called adverbial clauses or adverb clauses. Subordinate clauses that describe
adjectives or adverbs (mostly in comparisons) are also adverbial clauses. Adverbial clauses do
the same job as single-word adverbs. They describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.

Subordinate clauses that act as subjects or objects inside another clause

This one is a bit more complicated: Subordinate clauses may do any job that a noun does in a
sentence. Subordinate clauses sometimes act as subjects or objects inside another clause. Here
are some examples, with the subordinate clause in italics:
When the book was written is a real mystery. (When the book was written is the
subject of the verb is)

No one knows whom Michael hired to write his book. (whom Michael hired to
write his book is the object of the verb knows)

Michael signed copies for whoever bought at least five books. (whoever bought
at least five books is the object of the preposition for)

Stop now or risk learning more useless grammar terms. Noun clauses are subordinate clauses
that perform the same functions as nouns subjects, objects, appositives, and so on.

Check out the italicized clause in each sentence. Subordinate or independent? You decide.
A. Even though Michael hit a home run, our team lost by more than 50 runs.

B. Eggworthy danced for a while, but then he said that his head was splitting and
sat down.

Answer: In sentence A, the italicized clause is subordinate. In sentence B, the italicized clause
is independent.

Grammar in Action

Identify the underlined clause in each of the following sentences.

Write SUB for subordinate clause and IND for dependent clause.
1. Every day teachers throw away hundred of sheets of paper that they should be recycling.
2. Since landfills are getting full, our school doesn't need to be contributing to the problem.
3. If our teachers recycled in their classrooms, it would set a good example for students.
4. Students who may never see an example of recycling at home could learn about it.
5. Once these students learn to recycle, they can show their family how to do it.
6. If every student taught their family to recycle, it would reduce the waste going to landfill
7. If you model recycling in your neighborhood, more neighbors will join in and start recycl
8. Although you may only think of recycling paper, many other items can be recycled.
9. Some communities recycle glass and plastic which must be put in separate bins.
10. Make sure you rinse out containers that you recycle so you won't attract bugs.
11. Ask you local waste management company if they have special bins for each kind of wast
12. Before you know it, you will place your waste in the recycling bin without even thinking.


Being a college student, you have hard time on managing your schedule because of the
requirements and study habits you need to comply with. Write an essay on how a student
should manage time and prioritize things. Encircle the subordinate clause used.

Check It Out!!!
Read the selection below. Underline the noun phrase, encircle the verbal phrase, box the
prepositional phrase.
Modern-Day Narcissus: The Selfie Obsession
by Nicky Day
We are all familiar with various legends of the ancient Greeks, such as The Mino-
taur and Hercules, and yet one that keeps circulating my brain is the story ofNarcissus. He had the
possession of great beauty, yet disdained those who praised him and ironically had never seen his
own reflection. This is until the day he visits a stream out of thirst and sees his image for the first
time in the waters ripples. Narcissus falls in love with his image and fears drinking the water as it
distorts the picture he adores. There are different versions of the myth, some proclaim that Narcis-
sus dies of thirst, others say he drowned and there are descriptions of the nymph Echo repeating the
words Narcissus voices to his reflection, so that he believes it to be a real entity. In the Roman ver-
sion, Narcissus turns into a flower so that he can finally be praised by all; hence we still call the
plant Narcissus by this name today. Most notably though, the myth has resulted in the term
narcissist becoming part of our everyday language, an adjective that refers to a person who is so
enamoured with there own sense of being that they pay little attention to the emotions of those
around them. They are self-involved and focus upon their own image just as Narcissus became ob-
sessed with his reflection in the stream.
What is tragic about this myth is that it is more than ever a story that projects the dark
shadows of our reality today. We have become a civilisation that has created our own streams to fall
into through the establishment of online media and communication. For example, the birth of the
Selfie, an image that a person takes of themselves, demonstrates a similar fixation with ones own
reflection to that of Narcissus. The Urban Dictionary defines the Selfie as: A picture taken of your-
self that is planned to be uploaded to Facebook, MySpace or any other sort ofsocial network-
ing website. The term planned here disturbs me greatly, as photography no longer seems to be a
form of art that captures moments, but instead solely captures you, regardless of where you are or
who you are with. It is as if people are no longer comfortable with simply experiencing the present,
we have to constantly define ourselves through vain portraits of ones being. Moreover, the ability
to tag yourself on sites such as Facebook, places your image as the centre of that photograph. By
placing your name upon your physical form, we suggest that this is the product of your complete
identity, this is who you are. Furthermore, as the business has developed, Facebook is starting to
encourage its users to list their favourite books, music, television programmes, sports, thereby so-
lidifying your identity as a product of the external world. Like how Narcissus world becomes fo-
cused upon his self through his obsession with his reflection, our lives are fast becoming centred
upon our physical presence in the world we exist in.

Grammar Armchair


A phrase is a group of related words (within a sentence) without both subject and verb. For
example, He is laughing at the joker.
A phrase functions as a noun, verb, adverb, adjective or preposition in a sentence. The func-
tion of a phrase depends on its construction (words it contains). On the basis of their func-
tions and constructions, phrases are divided into various types i.e. noun phrase, verb
phrase, adverb phrase, adjective phrase, appositive phrase, infinite phrase, participle
phrase and gerund phrase.

Noun Phrase
A noun phrase consists of a noun and other related words (usually modifiers and deter-
miners) which modify the noun. It functions like a noun in a sentence.

A noun phrase consists of a noun as the head word and other words (usually modifiers and
determiners) which come after or before the noun. The whole phrase works as a noun in a
Noun Phrase = noun + modifiers (the modifiers can be after or before noun)
He is wearing a nice red shirt. (as noun/object)
She brought a glass full of water. (as noun/object)
The boy with brown hair is laughing. (as noun/subject)
A man on the roof was shouting. (as noun/subject)
A sentence can also contain more noun phrases.
For example. The girl with blue eyes bought a beautiful chair.

Prepositional phrase.
A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, object of preposition(noun or pronoun)
and may also consist of other modifiers.
e.g. on a table, near a wall, in the room, at the door, under a tree

A prepositional phrase starts with a preposition and mostly ends with a noun or pronoun.
Whatever prepositional phrase ends with is called object of preposition. A prepositional
phrase functions as an adjective or adverb in a sentence.
A boy on the roof is singing a song. (As adjective)
The man in the room is our teacher. (As adjective)
She is shouting in a loud voice. (As adverb)
He always behaves in a good manner. (As adverb)

Adjective Phrase.
An adjective phrase is a group of words that functions like an adjective in a sentence. It
consists of adjectives, modifier and any word that modifies a noun or pronoun.
An adjective phrase functions like an adjective to modify (or tell about) a noun or a pronoun
in a sentence.

He is wearing a nice red shirt. (modifies shirt)
The girl with brown hair is singing a song. (modifies girl)
He gave me a glass full of water. (modifies glass)
A boy from America won the race. (modifies boy)

Prepositional phrases and participle phrases also function as adjectives so we can also call them
adjective phrases when they function as adjective. In the above sentence The girl with
brown hair is singing a song, the phrase with brown hair is a prepositional phrase but it
functions as an adjective.

Adverb Phrase
An adverb phrase is a group of words that functions as an adverb in a sentence. It consists of
adverbs or other words (preposition, noun, verb, modifiers) that make a group with works
like an adverb in a sentence.
An adverb phrase functions like an adverb to modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb.

He always behaves in a good manner. (modifies verb behave)
They were shouting in a loud voice. (modifies verb shout)
She always drives with care. (modifies verb drive)
He sat in a corner of the room. (modifies verb sit)
He returned in a short while. (modifies verb return)
A prepositional phrase can also act as an adverb phrase. For example in above sentence He
always behaves in a good manner, the phrase in a good manner is a prepositional phrase
but it acts as adverb phrase here.

Verb Phrase
A verb phrase is a combination of main verb and its auxiliaries (helping verbs) in a sen-
He is eating an apple.
She has finished her work.
You should study for the exam.
She has been sleeping for two hours.

According to generative grammar, a verb phrase can consist of main verb, its auxiliaries, its
complements and other modifiers. Hence it can refer to the whole predicate of a sentence.
Example. You should study for the exam.
Infinitive Phrase
An infinitive phrase consist of an infinitive(to + simple form of verb) and modifiers or other
words associated to the infinitive. An infinitive phrase always functions as an adjective, ad-
verb or a noun in a sentence.

He likes to read books. (As noun/object)
To earn money is a desire of everyone. (As noun/subject)
He shouted to inform people about fire. (As adverb, modifies verb shout)
He made a plan to buy a car. (As adjective, modifies noun plan)

Gerund Phrase
A gerund phrase consists of a gerund(verb + ing) and modifiers or other words associated
with the gerund. A gerund phrase acts as a noun in a sentence.

I like writing good essays. (As noun/object)
She started thinking about the problem. (As noun/object)
Sleeping late in night is not a good habit. (As noun/subject)
Weeping of a baby woke him up. (As noun/subject)

Participle Phrase
A participle phrase consists of a present participle (verb + ing), a past participle (verb
ending in -ed or other form in case of irregular verbs) and modifiers or other associate
words. A participle phrase is separated by commas. It always acts as an adjective in a sen-

The kids, making a noise, need food. (modifies kids)
I received a letter, mentioning about my exam. (modifies letter)
The table, made of steel, is too expensive. (modifies table)
We saw a car, damaged in an accident. (modifies car)

Absolute Phrase
Absolute phrase (also called nominative phrase) is a group of words including a noun or pro-
noun and a participle as well as any associated modifiers. Absolute phrase modifies (give in-
formation about) the entire sentence. It resembles a clause but it lack a true finite verb. It is
separated by a comma or pairs of commas from the rest sentence.

He looks sad, his face expressing worry.
She was waiting for her friend, her eyes on the clock.
John is painting a wall, his shirt dirty with paint.

Grammar in Action

Instructions: Identify the underlined phrase or clause.

1. Steven's book, which made Oprah's Book Club this month, is not in any stores.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
2. While preparing for the speech, Joe couldn't help but worry about his entrance.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
3. Ahmad wants to visit Quebec, but he will need to wait for his next vacation.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
4. Hoping for a miracle, the doctors continued the surgery.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
5. Our boss supports donating time to charity.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
6. Melanie hoped to find a cure for the disease, but she tried to be realistic.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
7. After the banquet, the cooks will take a well-deserved break.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
8. Joey is hoping for a change to play pool with his uncle.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
9. The dog that Sam chose from the litter seems to be healthy.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
10. Sam Smith, who recently spoke to the youth group, excels at motivating young people.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
11. Pushed beyond endurance, the runner dropped the baton.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
12. The shoes he saw in the catalogue are available down the street.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase

13. The reporter crouched behind that tree got the best picture of the arrest.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
14. Keith tried supporting both teams, but his heart was with Oregon.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
15. Katrina, who resented being left at home, drew on the walls with her crayons.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
16. Arnold hoped to find an answer to the funding shortfall.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
17. Pressed for time, the agent ran the red light.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
18. His uncle thinks that working for the government is the key to stability.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
19. Richard's chance to make his point slipped away.
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase
20. Is it possible that Joshua will compete against that man?
a. prepositional phrase b. participial phrase c. gerund phrase d. infinitive phrase


Write your stand about the Sin Tax Law. Defend your answer. Underline the
phrases used.

Mastery Test

In the following sentences, underline the dependent clauses.

(2 points each item 20 points total)
1. Pasadenas Tournament of Roses has been held annually since it was established in 1890.
2. The spectators also enjoy the bands that march by at intervals.
3. The Rose Queens who ride the floats are important parts of the pageant.
4. The spectators know which ones won prizes.
5. Floats that are entered by commercial firms are judged separately.
6. After the parade is over, the floats are left on display.
7. A group of officials decide who will be the Tournament Queen.
8. Because she works hard, the girl selected to be queen deserves the honor.
9. Some years ago the length of the parade had to be limited because the parades were be-
to take too much time.
10. Officials recommended that the parade should not take over two hours to pass any giv-
point along the route.

Write P for phrase, IC for independent clause, and DC for dependent clause.
(1/2 point each item 10 points total)
_____ 1. In the house _____ 11. Driven by desire

_____ 2. Who drive the cars _____ 12. That swings open

_____ 3. It was fun _____ 13. One third failed

_____ 4. During the night _____ 14. Which was wrong

_____ 5. The yellow ball in the street _____ 15. Except her

_____ 6. After sitting in the sun _____ 16. As it began

_____ 7. Half of the girls passed _____ 17. Because I failed

_____ 8. Listen carefully _____ 18. While singing

_____ 9. The nice child in class _____ 19. Fishing is fun

_____ 10. While I slept _____ 20. Fishing at noon

For each of the examples below, identify each clause as an independent or dependent
clause. If it is a dependent clause, add to the clause to make it an independent one. For sentenc-
es that contain both an independent and dependent clause, underline the dependent clause.

While Wendy was at her doctors appointment.

William takes his dog, Sparky, for a walk around the block every evening around 7 oclock.
Before Wanda makes coffee in the morning.
Exercising first thing in the morning both invigorates my body and refreshes my mind.
While Wallace loves mountain biking, it is a difficult activity to engage in during the win-
ter months.
Because it is dark out when I arrive at the office.
Even though Wade tries to arise early every morning, including on the weekends.
He sometimes does not set his alarm on Sundays.
Whenever it is snowing heavily.

After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:

Develop an awareness of the common mistakes in English grammar

Know what correct English grammar is

Check It Out!!!

Job Well Done

(OTJ Movie Review)
by Philbert Ortiz Dy

The films greatest asset is its unstoppable forward momentum. The film just keeps
moving forward, never stopping too long to explain entirely whats going on, relying on clev-
er narrative parallels to fill out the details of this somewhat intricate plot. The film begins
with a killing and never lets up on the intensity, every scene bearing a palpable sense of dan-
ger: whether it be the overt threat of bullets flying in the air, or the more subtle dread of being
discovered that dominates most of the characters. The film never lets the audience forget that
the characters are basically under the thumb of more powerful forces, and though they have
some degree of autonomy, their lives arent fully under their control.

The local cut is a little different from what was shown internationally. This version
includes a couple of scenes that look into the home life of SPO1 Acosta, an extra sex scene,
and an additional final scene. These additions, though generally well done, fit kind of awk-
wardly into the narrative, and only provide marginal benefit. But the story remains intact, and
despite the diversion, its still a propulsive piece of entertainment that also serves as a rather
dark examination of the intractability of corruption in our society. Stunning production values
make it a real treat for the senses. Dix Buhays cinematography makes the shadows of Metro
Manila feel equally menacing and seductive. A powerful musical score underlines the growing
d e s p e r a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s .
Joel Torre has long been one of the finest actors in this country, but few films have
provided the actor with a role meaty enough to really make use of his talents. But On The
Job exploits every last bit of the actors inherent gravity, Torre exuding a world-weariness
that goes well beyond his years. Gerald Anderson proves to be a bit of a revelation in this film.
The young actor displays a strangely charming nihilism in his performance, a heady mix of
attitude and naivet that is worth exploring further. Joey Marquez is perfect in his role as an
honest cop, alternating between bursts of weary humor and righteous anger. Piolo Pascual is a
bit outclassed by his co-stars, but he delivers on his end as well.

On The Job is a real treat, if only because it is the rare local mainstream film that
treats its audience as adults. Its pleasures are complex and heady, built on an expertly con-
structed sense of atmosphere, incredible production values and a story that bucks the expecta-
tions of its viewers. I think I prefer the international cut, which ends on a more powerful im-
age, but this local version is still more than worth anyones time. Hopefully, On The Job is just
the start of a change in the local mainstream.

Grammar Armchair

Basic Sentence Patterns

Subject + intransitive verb
Elizabeth swims.
Dolphins leap.

Subject + transitive verb + direct object

John hated lima beans.
Books convey ideas.

Subject: + linking verb + subject complement

The sea is beautiful.
You seem worried.

Subject + transitive verb + indirect object + direct object

The writer sold his publisher a three-part story.
The pitcher threw the catcher a curve ball.

Subject + transitive verb + direct object + object complement

Samantha called her sister a baby.
The king made Gawain a knight.

Verb + subject + verb [questions]

Can Sherry play with us?
Will this train leave on time?

Verb + (other) [commands]

Leave this room immediately.
Give your exams to the proctor.

Subject (working as object) + transitive verb [passive voice]

The queen was laid to rest.
Books were read to the children.
Dinner is served at eight.

Grammar in Action
Pick five sentences each pattern from the selection below.

Different bowl of goto

By Carlo Bonn Felix D. Hornilla
It was a rainy June afternoon in my first week in a part-time job somewhere in Ortigas. My supervisor,
perhaps pitying the fresh-from-Ala-eh-country newbie, invited me to eat out with him.
Do you eat goto? he asked as we got into the company car. I nodded enthusiastically.
I consider myself a goto authority. My father, a pure-blooded son of Taysan, Batangas, put me through
two years of college by cooking goto for all sorts of peoplesecurity guards, truck drivers, construction
and factory workers, drunkards, gamblers, and such. Papa cooks our product, manages the store, and
chats with the customers; I scrub bowls and utensils stained with sebo (beef fat) and laugh at their
bawdy jokes.
Our store is not muchtiny, sawali-walled, with a malfunctioning TV set intended to entertain those
who sit at our three makeshift tables. Its a place that only we blue-collars can call comfortable. Still,
Papa and I manage to scrape out our everyday expenses from our goto earnings.
After some time, however, I felt that we could not go on with this kind of living, that I should do some-
thing to improve our situation. So shortly after my 20th birthday, I set out for what I believed was the
proverbial land of milk, honey, and money: Metro Manila.
The metropolis bore down on me like a sack of hard and heavy firewood. My Tagalog is loud and thickly
-accented Batangueo, and I felt inferior. Footbridges are unknown in my rural upbringing, and at one
point, I was forced to pay a fine of P200 to an officer for jaywalking. The claustrophobia Ive never
known to exist within me was brought to the surface by MRT rides. My cheap pair of leather shoes did
not withstand a leg-deep flood. One time, I woke to find that my favorite pair of slippers, which I had left
just outside the door, was gone. Stolen.
Even so, I could not bear to go home with nothing to show for my adventure. I needed to stay, to earn
and save money.
I miss the idle life in Batangasdays spent with easy labor, easy talk with people youve known all your
life, nights spent with friends under skies full of stars, the sound of cricket wings and bamboo creaks
lulling you to serenity. Simplicity
It was still raining when my supervisor and I arrived at his favorite eatery. I waited expectantly as he
ordered two bowls of goto. I was excited, and nostalgic. Why, come to think of it, I had lived a week
without a staple in my gustatory life.
But when the waitress served us our order, along with a platter of tofu and little pieces of cold calaman-
si, I felt insulted.
But sir, this is not goto! I told my supervisor.
What? Why? What do you mean? he said, surprised at my outburst.
Thisa bowl of rice porridge with a few slivers of ox tripe on top? This is lugaw!
It was far from the goto I know a rich stew of beef fat, heart, blood, liver, intestines and tripe, kept on
a slow simmer over a low fire, flavored with chili, ginger, onions, fish sauce and roasted garlic.
No. This is goto, my supervisor insisted. Taste it. If you dont like it, Ill order a different dish for
I forced myself to swallow a spoonful. Well, it tasted like lugaw. But then, the warmth of it, the plainness
of it, was so suited to the rainy weather that it was more than enough to warm my insides and indulge
my wanting tongue.
Bonn, my supervisor said as he squeezed calamansi over his bowl, this is the goto Ive known. This is
the goto here in Manila. I know this is different from the gotong Batangas you know, but youre in Ma-
nila now. You should expect a different bowl of goto.
He smiled at me and closed his eyes to say grace.
I suddenly understood the point of this invitation, this goto discovery, and the life lesson my supervisor
wanted me to learn. We have to eat the bowl of goto that we are served, even if it is not the one we are
accustomed to. The same can be said of life. Live the life you have, not the one you had. Embrace today.
Embrace change.
I said my prayers and thanked God for the bowl of goto in front of me.

Identify the pattern (S-IV, S-TV-O, S-LV-C, S-TV-IO-DO, S-TV-DO-OC) of each sentence.

1. The Philippines lies in the Pacific.

2. Affectionate mothers give their children warm hugs.
3. The model wore brown pants and a tweed blazer.
4. For such a small restaurant, the menu appeared extensive.
5. The storekeeper appointed me manager in her absence.

Write your own opinion on what is the song all about.

Just Give Me A Reason

Right from the start There's nothing more than empty sheets
You were a thief Between our love, our love
You stole my heart Oh, our love, our love
And I your willing victim
I let you see the parts of me Just give me a reason
That weren't all that pretty Just a little bit's enough
And with every touch you fixed them Just a second we're not broken just bent
And we can learn to love again
Now you've been talking in your sleep, oh, oh I never stopped
Things you never say to me, oh, oh You're still written in the scars on my heart
Tell me that you've had enough You're not broken just bent
Of our love, our love And we can learn to love again

Just give me a reason Oh, tear ducts can rust

Just a little bit's enough I'll fix it for us
Just a second we're not broken just bent We're collecting dust
And we can learn to love again But our love's enough
It's in the stars You're holding it in
It's been written in the scars on our hearts You're pouring a drink
We're not broken just bent No nothing is as bad as it seems
And we can learn to love again We'll come clean

I'm sorry I don't understand Just give me a reason

Where all of this is coming from Just a little bit's enough
I thought that we were fine Just a second we're not broken just bent
(Oh, we had everything) And we can learn to love again
Your head is running wild again It's in the stars
My dear we still have everythin' It's been written in the scars on our hearts
And it's all in your mind That we're not broken just bent
(Yeah, but this is happenin') And we can learn to love again

You've been havin' real bad dreams, oh, oh

You used to lie so close to me, oh, oh

This is a good place to briefly, but effectively, describe your product or services.

Check It Out!!!
Write the errors or mistakes you can find in the selection.


I am not surprise or wander why Dennis leave you.


What reason you can think about but you're very fat body. I thought before that Dennis only
use me to his toy but sooner and later I'm realize that he really can't beared or stomached to
be with you anymore because at first, Dennis say he could not stand you're habit of making
pakialam all his walks [lakad] and always calling to their house what he go home or this or
that and then say he get ashame to met iether in school or in his family and then asking you to
exercise you're ver very, very fat body but you hate it thoughth your the most preetiest girls
he knows about what do you think you are "Beautiful Girl" of Jose Marie Chan even you are
beautiful face to your think)you do not have the right to called me whatsoever or else different
name one time or the other for the real purposed to insults my personality because I'm never
call you names iether in the front of Dennis or in th backs of Dennis, but if you start already to
calling me different name, I don't have any other choice but to call you any other different
name to like you are a PIG, FAT, OBESSED, OVERWIGHT, AND UGLY SHAPE girl.
Shame to you're body that is to a BUDING. You can't not blame Dennis for exchanging you
to me because I am more sexier than you when you look to us in the mirror. I'm repeat again
that you are like Ike Lozada when she is a girl.


P.S. You say that I'm the badbreath but who is Dennis want to kissed.Me or you?You or me?
And the final is me.

Grammar Armchair


The English language has a more complex tense system than many languages do, and it can
be difficult for non-native and even native speakers to master. Several common errors in Eng-
lish grammar stem from the way that English conjugates verb tense -- that is, the way it
changes verbs to communicate past, present and future action.

Multiple Past-Tense Markers

In English, when a sentence discusses a past event, the sentence only needs one word to show
that the event is in the past. The sentence I went home, for example, only includes one past-
tense verb: went is the past tense of the verb go. But if you ask the speaker, Did you go
home? the past tense leaps from the verb go to the auxiliary verb do. Using two past-
tense markers instead of one is a common mistake in tense formation, as in the question, Did
you went home? Here, both go and do are in past tense, but only do should be.
Incorrect Tense With a Temporal Adverb
Whereas some languages use temporal adverbs like yesterday and tomorrow with the pre-
sent tense to describe a past or future action, English uses the past tense with those adverbs.
Yesterday I played, for example, is correct. A common error is using the present tense with
these adverbs: The incorrect sentence, *Tomorrow I play should be, Tomorrow I will
Incorrect Tense With Irregular Verbs
English uses many irregular verbs in which a central vowel changes when the tense shifts to
the past. For example, swim/swam/swum, drink/drank/drunk and catch/caught/
caught are the present tense, past tense and past participles for the verbs swim, drink and
catch. Common mistakes with irregular verbs include conjugating the verbs with the regu-
lar past-tense ending -ed -- to get, for example, the incorrect sentence, I swimmed yester-
day, instead of I swam yesterday -- and substituting the past participle for the past tense,
for instance, I drunk all of your orange juice this morning instead of the correct sentence I
drank all of your orange juice this morning.
Incorrect Sequence of Tenses
The tense that English uses for verbs in subordinate clauses depends on the tense of the main
verb. This connection is especially important and easily confused when youre reporting
someone elses speech. For example, if your daughter says, I have cleaned the house, you
might tell your spouse, She says that she has cleaned the house. In this sentence, the main
verb says is present tense and the subordinate verb has cleaned is in present perfect tense.
If you get home and find the house a mess, you might exclaim, But she said that she had
cleaned the house! Here, because the main verb said is past tense, the subordinate verb
must change to the past perfect had cleaned. A common error in the sequence of tenses aris-
es when speakers neglect to shift the subordinate verb: For example, She said that she has
cleaned the house" is incorrect.

Common mistakes in the use of prepositions

Although prepositions are small words, they are very important ones. In this lesson, we will
explain some common mistakes in the use of prepositions.

Incorrect: Although he is clever, he lacks of experience.
Correct: Although he is clever, he lacks experience.
Incorrect: The train is now approaching to Boston.
Correct: The train is now approaching Boston.
Incorrect: We were not allowed to enter into the house.
Correct: We were not allowed to enter the house.
The verbs lack, approach and enter are directly followed by objects without prepositions.
Other verbs that do not normally take prepositions are: discuss, marry and resemble.
Incorrect: See you on next Friday.
Correct: See you next Friday.
Incorrect: I will never forget meeting her on that afternoon.
Correct: I will never forget meeting her that afternoon.
Prepositions are not used before a number of common time expressions beginning next, last,
this, one etc.
Incorrect: Of what color are her eyes?
Correct: What color are her eyes?
Incorrect: He is of just the right height to be a good soldier.
Correct: He is just the right height to be a good soldier.
Expressions containing words like height, weight, length, size, color, age etc., are usually
connected to the subject by the verb be without a preposition.
Incorrect: I am going to home.
Correct: I am going home.
We do not use to before home.
Incorrect: To where shall I send it?
Correct: Where shall I send it to?
The structures where to?, whatlike? and whatfor? have a fixed word order. It is not
possible to move the preposition to the beginning of the clause.

Adjectives and adverbs come in three degrees of comparison: positive, comparative, andsuperla-
tive. When comparing or contrasting two or more things, we use the comparative or superla-
tive degrees. The following chart gives some examples of adjectives and adverbs in their var-
ious degrees.
positive comparative superlative
happy happier happiest
smart smarter smartest
beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
good better best
bad worse worst
sweetly more sweetly most sweetly
gladly more gladly most gladly
carefully more carefully most carefully
well better best

When using these modifiers in comparisons, avoid the following common errors.
Confusing Comparative and Superlative
Rule: When comparing or contrasting two persons, places, or things, use the comparative degree.
When comparing more three or more, use the superlative degree
Comparing two: On most women, evening gowns look more attractive than overalls.
More than two: Of all the electricians I know, you are the most attractive.
Comparing two: Marvin is wiser than Tom, but Tom is kinder.
More than two: Solomon was the wisest man of all.
A common error occurs when the degrees are confused:
Confused: Between Larry and Moe, Moe is the meanest.
Better: Between Curly and Moe, Moe is the meaner.
Doubling Up
In forming comparative and superlative modifiers, you either add an er/est ending or add the
helpers more/most. It is never necessary to use both:
Incorrect: That was my most happiest moment.
Correct: That was my happiest moment.
Incorrect: This restaurant is more better than the other.
Correct: This restaurant is better than the other.
Unbalanced Comparisons
Be sure that the items you compare are of a similar kind.
Unbalanced: Mrs. Williams tests are easier than Mr. Olsen.
Balanced: Mrs. Williams tests are easier than Mr. Olsens [tests].
Unbalanced: This coffee is better than the shop on main street.
Balanced: This coffee is better than the coffee in the shop on Main Street.
Not Using Other and Else
When comparing one of a group with the rest of the group, remember to
use other or else.
Illogical: Greg was more trustworthy than any student in class.
Logical: Greg was more trustworthy than any other student in class.
Illogical: Bill is faster than anyone on the team.
Logical: Bill is faster than anyone else on the team.
Confusing Less and Fewer
When making negative comparisons, use the adjectives less and fewer. Increasingly
these words are used interchangeably, but the traditional standard usage made a dis-
tinction that you should at least be aware of.
Traditional: Use less when comparing amounts and fewer when comparing numbers of
things that can be counted.
Aunt Martha has less patience than Uncle Henry. (Patience cant be counted.)
Aunt Martha knows fewer jokes than Uncle Henry. (Jokes can be counted.)

Grammar in Action

The following passage is not edited. It contains an error in each sentence. Identify the
word and write the correct form of it.
The city police have decided to taking stern action against drivers which attempt to overtake
in the left side
in the city roads. All drivers who violate this rule will be punish. This is a strict order issue by
the police
department for safety of all drivers.
Correction of Sentences for Practice
1. John has been working on the pilot project since two years.
2. When he entered the classroom the lecture already was beginning.
3. Rama has returned back her book in the library.
4. If Peter works hard he would get distinction in the exam.
5. They turn up with the flying colours if they practiced well.
6. If he told them about the route they would not have missed their way.
7. She would not have sent the mail if you did not instruct her.
8. If I had painted the picture well it would cost a great deal.
9. If the Manager had received your project on time he would not fire you.
10.The boy, together with his teachers and friends, are going to the ground.

11. A group of people are rushing into the hall.
12. The team is divided in different perspectives on the issue.
13. Neither the party leader nor the party workers was able to calm the distressed people.
14. Data is being collected by the media.
15. She is a real good singer.
16. All Computer science students should learn computer operating, typing, and how to
programme computers.
17. The Lawyer has been warning his clients for the last Sunday.
18. Everybody on the board have to come to the discussion sessions.
19. How could they threaten you and she for this issue?
20. She prefers studying individually than studying collaboratively.
21. He is adept at cricket, badminton, playing basket ball.
22. Neither his followers nor he were welcomed by the society.
23. Some of you will have to get their own id cards for inspection.
24. If anyone peeps into the room, capture their photographs.
25. It must have been him who has sent this mail.
26. One should respect your motherland.
27. It happen only rarely in life.
28. Children is plucking flowers in the garden.
29. They purchased a new air conditioner next month.
30. They is quarrelling over a trifle.
31. It begin to rain as soon as we stepped out of the house.
32. The mother was pray for her ailing child.
33. Among the two sisters, Habiba is a better dancer
34. The officer has given orders to his soldiers yesterday.
35. The girl sat down besides the lake.
36. The two brothers are quarrelling with one another
37. The three business partners are leading their business amicably with each other.
38. Easily, we opened the box.
39. Please write legible.
40. Everyone greatly admired my performance.
41. He did all his work satisfactory.
42. They used to played cricket during their childhood.
43. Varsha saw a lots of swans at the lake.
44. Is there some tea in the flask?
45. The building does not have much windows, and so it is dark and gloomy inside.
A pair of gloves are lying on the bed.

A. Books
A University Grammar of English by Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum. Long
man Group: Essex, England. 1993. 126.
Albert, Brother., et al. English Art and Skills.Philippines: MacMillan Company,
Ann Raimes. Keys for Writers: A Brief Handbook : Houghton Mifflin ,New York.
Blake Kathryn,. et al. I Have a Dream. In Essays. California: Library of Congress,
Burnette, Dawn. Daily Grammar Practice. Peachtree City, GA: DGP Publishing,
Dykstra, Pamela. An Easy Guide to Writing. A basic skills handbook offering stu
dents a fresh approach to writing ------. Rhythms of Writing. Houghton Miff
lin, 2000. Kischner, Michael, and Edith Wollin. Writers' Choices: Grammar to
Improve Style. Harcourt, 2002.
Forloni, Gary., Grammar and Composition IV. Anvil Publishing, Inc. Makati, 1998
Garcia-Villa, Jose. First a Poem Must Be Magical. In Pathways to Communicate
Effectively. Manila: SIBS Publishing House, n.
Haussamen, Brock. Revising the Rules: Traditional Grammar and Modern Linguis
tics. 2nd ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 2000.
Ong, Bob. Bakit Baligtad Magbasa ang Pilipino?
Williams, Joseph M. Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace. 6th ed. New York:
Longman, 2000. Devet, Bonnie. Welcoming Grammar Back into the Writing
Classroom. Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 30.1 (2002): 8-17.

B. Journal

Hornilla, Carlo Bonn Felix. A Different Taste of Goto, Philippine Daily Inquirer

C. Webliography
with-comparatives-and-superlatives/ 121

Rina Bell M. Abraham

She was born on May 25, 1992 in Putingbuhangin, San Juan Batangas. She is
the second daughter of Mr. Cholito M. Abraham and Mrs. Rechilda M. Abraham. She is
now currently taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education major in English in Batangas
State University San Juan Campus. She graduated her Secondary Level last 2008 at
Calubcub 1.0 National High School and Elementary level at Calubcub 1.0 Elementary
School last 2003 in Calubcub 1.0, San Juan Batangas.

Roma P. Caguimbal

She was born on April 26,1993 in Calubcub 2.0 , San Juan Batangas. She is the
eldest daughter of Mr. Ronilo Caguimbal and Mrs. Ma. Lourdes Caguimbal. She is now
currently taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education major in English in Batangas State
University San Juan Campus. She graduated her Secondary Level last 2009 at Calubcub
1.0 National High School and Elementary level last 2006 at Conrazon Elementary
School in Conrazon Bansud Oriental Mindoro.

Cristine Pearl B. De Castro

She was born on March 16, 1994 in San Juan District Hospital , San Juan Ba-
tangas. She is the eldest daughter of Mr. Crisencio De Castro and Mrs. Estrellita De
Castro. She is now currently taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Eng-
lish in Batangas State University San Juan Campus. She graduated her Secondary Level
last 2010 at Batangas Eastern Colleges and Elementary level at Pal-Sico Elementary
School last 2007 as Salutatorian.

Eloisa Marie M. Marasigan

She was born on February 23, 1991 in Calit-Calit , San Juan Batangas. She is
the second daughter of Mr. Jose Ferdinand Marasigan and Mrs. Rowena Marasigan.
She is now currently taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education major in English in
Batangas State University San Juan Campus. She graduated her Secondary Level last
2007 at Tipas National High School and Elementary level last 2006 at San Juan East
Central School.

Tom Christopher A. Parma

He was born on September 17, 1990 in AFP Medical Center. He is the eldest
son of Mr. Teodoro Parma and Mrs. Ma. Corazon Parma. He is now currently taking up
Bachelor of Secondary Education major in English in Batangas State University San
Juan Campus. He graduated his Secondary Level last 2007 at Joseph Marello Institute
and Elementary level last 2002 at St Theres of the Child Jesus and the Holy face School.