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Practical 1

Various Database
A database is a collection of related data. By data, we mean known facts that can be recorded and that have
implicit meaning.

For example, consider the names, telephone numbers, and addresses of the people you know. You may have
recorded this data in an indexed address book, or you may have stored it on a hard drive, using a personal
computer and software such as Microsoft Access, or Excel. The collection of data, usually referred to as the
database, contains information relevant to an enterprise.

A database-management system (DBMS) is a collection of interrelated data and a set of programs to access
those data. The primary goal of a DBMS is to provide a way to store and retrieve database information that
is both convenient and efficient.

A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update and administration
of databases. Well known as DBMSs includes MySQL, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase, IBM DB2 etc...
Introduction to SQL Server
Microsoft is the vendor of SQL Server.

We have different editions of SQL Server, where SQL Server Express is free to download and use. SQL
Server uses T-SQL (Transact-SQL). T-SQL is Microsoft's proprietary extension to SQL. TSQL is very
similar to standard SQL, but in addition it supports some extra functionality, built-in functions, etc.

T-SQL expands on the SQL standard to include procedural programming, local variables, various support
functions for string processing, data processing, mathematics, etc. SQL Server consists of a Database Engine
and a Management Studio (and lots of other stuff which we will not mention here). The Database engine has
no graphical interface - it is just a service running in the background of your computer (preferable on the
server). The Management Studio is graphical tool for configuring and viewing the information in the
database. It can be installed on the server or on the client (or both).
What is MySQL
MySQL is a fast, easy to use relational database. It is currently the most popular open-source database. It is
very commonly used in conjunction with PHP scripts to create powerful and dynamic server-side
applications. MySQL is used for many small and big businesses. It is developed, marketed and supported by
MySQL AB, a Swedish company. It is written in C and C++.

Reasons of popularity
MySQL is becoming so popularbecause of these following reasons:

MySQL is an open-sourcedatabase so you don't have topay a single penny to use it.
MySQL is a very powerful programso it can handle a large set offunctionality of the mostexpensive
and powerful databasepackages.
MySQL is customizable because itis an open source database andthe open-source GPL
licensefacilitates programmers to modifythe SQL software according totheir own specific
MySQL is quicker than otherdatabases so it can work welleven with the large data set.
MySQL supports many operatingsystems with many languages likePHP, PERL, C, C++, JAVA, etc.
MySQL uses a standard form ofthe well-known SQL datalanguage.
MySQL is very friendly with PHP,the most popular language forweb development.
MySQL supports large databases,up to 50 million rows or more in atable. The default file size limit
fora table is 4GB, but you canincrease this (if your operatingsystem can handle it) to atheoretical
limit of 8 millionterabytes (TB).

What is Oracle???
Oracle database is a relational database management system. It is known as Oracle database, OracleDB or
simply Oracle. It is produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation. Oracle database is the first database
designed for enterprise grid computing. The enterprise grid computing provides the most flexible and cost
effective way to manage information and applications.

Oracle was originally developed by Lawrence Ellison (Larry Ellision) and his two friends and former co-
worker in 1977. Oracle DB runs on the most major platforms like Windows, UNIX, Linux and Mac OS.

Different editions of Oracle database

Following are the four editions of the Oracle database.

Enterprise Edition: It is the most robust and secure edition. It offers all features, including superior
performance and security.

Standard Edition: It provides the base functionality for users that do not require Enterprise Edition's robust

Express Edition (XE): It is thelightweight, free and limitedWindows and Linux edition.

Oracle Lite: It is designed formobile devices.The Oracle CorporationOracle Corporation is the

largestsoftware company in the field ofdatabase business. Its relationaldatabase was the first to support
SQLwhich has since become the industrystandard.Oracle database is one of the mosttrusted and widely used
relationaldatabase engines. The biggest rival ofOracle database is Microsoft's SQLServer.