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SUB Hamburg

A/670370

A STUDY OF IMMIGRATION
FROM SPAIN INTO VENEZUELA,
1948-1998

Michael Derham

With a Foreword by
Jens R. Hentschke

The Edwin Mellen Press
Lewiston*Lampeter

TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables Foreword by Jens R. Hentschke i Acknowledgements v Chapter 1: Immigration. National Identity and Nation Building 1 Distinction between political and cultural nationalism 8 Key features in the formation of identity 13 Nation building and national identity in Latin America 20 Immigration and nation-building 26 Integration of immigrants and ethnic minorities and identification with the host society 29 Immigration and national identity in Venezuela 35 Chapter 2: Immigration Policies in Venezuela 45 Immigration laws in Venezuela 47 Background during the nineteenth century 49 Gomez and Vallenilla Lanz 51 Transition period (1936-1945) 53 The Military Junta 57 The Transitional Government 70 .

Accion Democratica and Romulo Betancourt 72 Industry 74 Agriculture 77 Culture and education 79 Conclusions 83 Chapter 3: Intellectual Background to Immigration 87 Alberto Adriani 96 Arturo Uslar Pietri 101 Politics or racialism 109 The Accion Democratica trienio 112 Eduardo Mendoza Goiticoa 117 Romulo Gallegos and Positivism 132 Perez Jimenez and the New National Ideal 142 Conclusions 146 Chapter 4: Immigration Processes Between Spain and Venezuela 149 Peninsular Spain: Juan Jose Llorente 149 Canary Islands: Antonio Revelo 159 Background and secondary literature 163 Background: Post-Civil War Spain 168 Galicia: Background 180 Canary Islands: Background 182 Venezuela: Background 189 Original Spanish of Juan Jose Llorente 193 .

Original Spanish of Antonio Revelo 201 Chapter 5: Emigration from Northern Spain and the Canary Islands 205 Canarian emigration 205 Peninsular emigration 214 Living conditions 224 Employment insertion 227 Conclusions 250 Chapter 6: Questions of Integration into Venezuelan Society 257 Integration 271 Integration under Perez Jimenez 273 Integration under Punto Fijo democracy (now known as the Fourth Republic) 280 Regional clubs 285 Education 294 Hybrid society 300 National identity 309 Original Spanish of Juan Jose Llorente 313 Original Spanish of Antonio Revelo 319 Chapter 7: Alienation from Venezuelan Society 327 National identity: Canary Islands 328 National identity: Mainland 336 The Antagonistic State 339 .

Conclusions 351 Chapter 8: Conclusions and Lessons to be Learned 355 Creolisation 355 The Venezuela of Perez Jimenez 361 Democratic opposition 364 Immigrant integration 366 Marriage and children 374 Politics 382 Education 387 Urban clusters 389 Entrepreneurship 390 Nationalism and national identity 394 Alienation 403 Lessons to be learned 405 Appendix: List of Interviewees 411 Bibliography 415 Index 441 .

1 Migration figures by administrative region. educational levels. Venezuela.3 Percentage population distribution by municipality size. 1920r1980 177 4.000 inhabitants.3 Growth of education budget (thousands of Bolivares) 81 4. 1961-1971. LIST OF TABLES 2.2 Percentage residents born in province other than where censused 176 4. 1948-1960 in thousands 64 2. Spain 175 4.2 Economically active population. 1955-1994 293 . in percents 80 2.1 Return immigration in Venezuela.1 Murder rates per 1. 1881-1970 190 6.4 Population of Venezuela and Caracas.