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SPANISH

Greetings and Introductions

Buenos Das Good morning.

Buenas Tardes - Good afternoon.

Buenas Noches - Good night

Hola! Cmo ests? - Hi! (Hello) How are you?

Hola! Qu tal?/ Cmo te ha ido?/ Cmo andas? - Hi! (Hello) How are things?

Estoy bien/muy bien/ bastante bien, gracias - Fine/ Very well/ Pretty well, thanks.

Quiero presentarle (te) a - I want to introduce you to (someone)

Mucho gusto conocerle. - Pleased to meet you.

Encantado (if the person is male)/Encantada (female) - Delighted to meet you.

El gusto es mo. - The pleasure is mine.

Words & Phrases for Special Moments

Felicitaciones Congratulations

Felicidades Best Wishes

Feliz Cumpleaos Happy Birthday

Feliz Navidad Merry Christmas (Nochebuena Cristmas Eve)

Feliz Ao Nuevo Happy New Year (Nochevieja New Years Eve)

Salud Cheers! (Also used as Bless You after someone sneezes)


Buen Viaje Have a good trip

Buen Provecho Enjoy your meal

Tenses
Present Indicative Tense (Present Tense)

Singular Plural

Yo (I) Nosotros/ Nosotras) (We)

T (You) Vosotros/ Vosotras (You)

l, Ella, Usted (He, She,You) Ellos, Ellas, Ustedes (They,You)

Sentences using subject pronouns with the verb HABLAR (To Speak) in the present indicative
tense:

-Yo hablo espaol bien, which means, I speak Spanish well.

-T hablas espaol bien, which means, You speak Spanish well.

-l/Ella/Usted habla espaol bien, which means, He/She/You speak Spanish well.

-Nosotros hablamos espaol bien, which means, We speak Spanish well.

-Vosotros hablis espaol bien, which means, You speak Spanish well.

-Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes hablan espaol bien, which means, They/You speak Spanish well.
Stem Changing Verbs

Irregular Verbs

There are other verbs that are only irregular when conjugated in the first-person singular in the
present indicative tense such as:

Dar = Yo Doy

Salir = Yo Salgo

Traer = Yo Traigo

Ver = Yo Veo

Poner = Yo Pongo

Saber = Yo S

Hacer = Yo Hago

Note: The present indicative tense has several uses in Spanish, it expresses an action or situation
presently occurring or that occurs often. It may also be used to express the immediate future or a
time-specific future event.

Example:
1.Mi hermano mayor toca la guitar My big brother plays the guitar. /My big brother does play
the guitar. /My big brother is playing the guitar.

2.La fiesta termina a medianoche The party ends at midnight. /The party will end at midnight.
/The party is ending at midnight.

3.Hablamos maana Well talk tomorrow.

Preterit Tense (Past Tense)

*ER & IR Verbs share the same endings in the preterit tense.

*The endings of the nosotros forms of AR & IR verbs are the same in the preterit as in the
present tense.

Sentences using subject pronouns with the verb HABLAR (To Speak) in the preterit tense:

-Yo habl espaol bien, which means, I spoke Spanish well.

-T hablaste espaol bien, which means, You spoke Spanish well.

-l/Ella/Usted habl espaol bien, which means, He/She/You spoke Spanish well.

-Nosotros hablamos espaol bien, which means, We spoke Spanish well.

-Vosotros hablasteis espaol bien, which means, You spoke Spanish well.

-Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes hablaron espaol bien, which means, They/You spoke Spanish well.

Stem Changing Verbs

Stem-changing AR and ER verbs are conjugated as regular verbs in the preterit tense. Some
stem-changing IR verbs are conjugated as regular verbs in the preterit tense but others are
changed when conjugated in the preterit tense in the third person singular and plural
(l/Ella/Usted & Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes). For example:

Spelling-Changing Verbs

Some Verbs change in spelling to preserve the sound of the infinitive.

1. Verbs ending in GAR, CAR & ZAR change only in the first-person singular (Yo).

2. There are two types of changes that occur in verbs with stems ending in vowels in the third
person singular and plural (l/Ella/Usted & Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes).

(a)Some of these verbs have a y inserted between two vowels.


Note: The Preterit Tense is used to express anything (actions, states, series of events etc) finished
in the past.

Example:

1.El ao pasado mi hermano cumpli doce aos. Last year my brother was 12 years old. / Last
year my brother turned 12.

2.Fuimos ayer mis amigos y yo a la playa. Yesterday my friends and I went to the beach.

3.Ya le ese libro. I already read that book.

Irregular Verbs

Irregular verbs are not all modified the same way in the preterit tense and there isnt really any
set rule, knowing the right modifications for irregular verbs will come by memorizing, reading
articles in the preterit tense and using irregular verbs in composition writing.

Below are lists of some irregular verbs and their modifications:

These verbs are modified differently in the Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes form:

These irregular verbs are completely modified:


Imperfect Tense

Irregular Verbs

Using the Imperfect Tense

1.To describe circumstances that existed for a period of time in the past and consistent past
actions as well as events and actions that used to occur in the past.

(a)Durante la guerra la gente no tena comida. During the war the people had nothing to eat.

(b)Mi mama siempre iba a las clases en el gimnasio. My mom would (used to) always go to the
gym.

2.To describe emotions or mental states as well as plans and intentions.

(a)Andrea estaba triste porque su to estuvo enfermo. Andrea was sad because her uncle was
sick.
(b)Lana quera llamar a su novio pero l llam antes. Lana wanted to call her boyfriend but he
called first.

3.To describe what was happening when another action occurred (note that the finished action is
in the preterit).

(a)Hablbamos de Marcus cuando l lleg. We were talking about Marcus when he showed up.

(b)Estaban en la calle frente al edificio cuando l explot. They were on the street opposite the
building when it exploded.

4.To tell time or someones age in the past.

(a)Eran las siete de la noche cuando o la noticia. It was 7pm when I eard the news.

(b)Megan tena doce aos cuando conoci a Cameron. Megan was 12 when she first met
Cameron.

Preterit Tense versus Imperfect Tense

In addition to memorizing the rules of each tense it is important to understand that the Preterit
Tense is most equivalent to the Past Tense in English. That said we have to appreciate that every
language will not be completely equivalent to English as each language is unique. In Spanish
there are two ways to speak of past events: the Preterit and Imperfect Tenses. The Preterit Tense
is used with PAST COMPLETE ACTIONS/EVENTS, which may be used to speak of the
beginning or the end of these complete actions/events in the past. On the other hand, the
Imperfect Tense is used to emphasize the DURATION OF PAST ACTIONS/EVENTS. As a
result of the nature of these tenses, in story telling the Preterit Tense is used to NARRATE and
the Imperfect Tense is used to DESCRIBE.

Future Tense

The Future Tense expresses actions that will, shall or are going to occur.
Sentences using subject pronouns with the verb HABLAR (To Speak) in the future tense:

-Yo hablar espaol bien, which means, I will speak Spanish well.

-T hablars espaol bien, which means, You will speak Spanish well.

-l/Ella/Usted hablar espaol bien, which means, He/She/You will speak Spanish well.

-Nosotros hablaremos espaol bien, which means, We will speak Spanish well.

-Vosotros hablaris espaol bien, which means, You will speak Spanish well.

-Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes hablarn espaol bien, which means, They/You will speak Spanish well.

Irregular Verbs

Other examples of the use of the Future Tense:


1.Vendrs a mi casa con Camila maana? Will you come to my house tomorrow with
Camila?

2.Los fines de semanas saldr con sus amigos? Does he go out with his friends on weekends?

3.Ser Buena mama, mi hija. - My daughter, you will be a great mom.

Conditional Mood

Sentences using subject pronouns with the verb HABLAR (To Speak) in the conditional mood:

El profesor prometi que yo hablara espaol bien, which means, The teacher promised I would
speak Spanish well.

El profesor prometi que t hablaras espaol bien, which means, The teacher promised you
would speak Spanish well.

El profesor prometi que l/ella/usted hablara espaol bien, which means, The teacher promised
he/she/you would speak Spanish well.

El profesor prometi que nosotros hablaramos espaol bien, which means, The teacher promised
we would speak Spanish well.

El profesor prometi que vosotros hablarais espaol bien, which means, The teacher promised
you would speak Spanish well.

El profesor prometi que ellos/ellas/ustedes hablaran espaol bien, which means, The teacher
promised they/you would speak Spanish well.

Irregular Verbs
Using the Conditional Mood

1.The conditional mood is used to express would (possibility) in English:

(a)Le gustara sentarse? Would you like to sit?

(b)Yo habra hecho lo mismo. I would have done the same.

2.The conditional mood is also used to refer to anticipated future actions proposed from a time in
the past:

(a)Manuel prometi que cantara conmigo en la competencia. Manuel promised he would sing
with me in the competition.

(b)Ella dijo que ira directamente a casa para estudiar. She said she would go straight home to
study.

3.The conditional mood can be used to express likelihood or probability in the past:

(a)Qu hora sera cuando comenz el evento? Seran por lo menos las ocho de la noche. What
time was it (could it have been) when the event started? It was (must have been) at least 8 in the
night.

(b)Sera muy bueno, no? It must have been really good, wasnt it?

4.The conditional is used for courtesy:

(a)Nos podra traer dos botellas de agua? Could you bring us two bottles of water?

(b)Seor, sabra usted dnde est el restaurante italiano? Sir, do you know where the Italian
restaurant is?
Present Perfect and Past/PluPerfect Tenses

To form the Present Perfect and the Pluperfect/ Past Perfect tenses in Spanish the verb
HABER is used in the present and the imperfect tenses respectively in addition to a past
participle. Before addressing the conjugations of the verb HABER we will look at forming the
past participle.

The Past Participle

To form the Past Participle generally takes the following stem changes: AR verbs end with -
ADO, -ER and IR verbs end with -IDO. For example:

1.Hablar = Hablado

2.Comer = Comido

3.Vivir = Vivido

NOTE: If an ER or IR verb ends with a, e or o before the ER or IR stem ending the -ido
ending takes an accent above the i and becomes do. For example:

1.Traer = Tra-er = Trado

2.Leer = Le-er = Ledo

3.Or = O-r = Odo

Conjugating the Verb Haber

For the purposes of forming the present and past perfect/pluperfect tenses the verb HABER is
conjugated in the present and imperfect tenses respectively.

Forming the Perfect Tenses


The Perfect Tenses are formed with conjugations of the verb HABER, which means To have
and a past participle.

The Present Perfect Tense:

The Past Perfect/PluPerfect Tense:

Note: With the Perfect Tenses the Past Participle will always end in o despite the gender or
the amount/number of the subject(s). For example:

1.La nia ha llegado tarde. The girl has arrived late.

2.El hombre ha roto el escritorio. The man has broken the desk.

3.Habamos comprado todo. We had bought everything.

4.Ya haban vendido la casa. They had already sold the house.

Using the Present Perfect and PluPerfect /Past Perfect Tenses

1.The Present Perfect Tense is used to state that an activity has recently taken place or has some
impact on the present. For example:

a.Me he graduado. I have graduated.

b.Ya han discutido y son amigos de nuevo. They have already argued and are friends again.
c.Quin te ha dado esta autoridad? - Who has given you this authority?

2.The Pluperfect/Past Perfect Tense is used to state that a past activity had taken place. For
example:

a.Ya l haba dicho a ella. He had already told her.

b.Habamos visto esta misma pelcula ayer. We had watched this same movie yesterday.

c.Haban escogido el ganador. They had already chosen the winner.

Present and Past Continuous/Progressive Tenses

To form the Present & Past Continuous Tenses the verb ESTAR is conjugated in the Present and
Imperfect Tenses respectively and used with a Present Participle. We will first address forming
the Present Participle.

The Present Participle

-To form the Present Participle usually adds ANDO to the stem of AR verbs and IENDO to
the stems of ER and IR verbs.

1.Hablar = Hablando

2.Comer = Comiendo

3.Vivir = Viviendo

-When the ER and IR verb stems end in vowels, -YENDO instead of IENDO is added.

1.Traer = Tra-er = Trayendo

2.Leer = Le-er = Leyendo

3.Or = O-r = Oyendo

-Stem changing ER and IR verbs are adjusted for sound purposes, the stem changes from E
to I or O to U.

1.Decir = Diciendo 6. Poder = Pudiendo

2.Pedir = Pidiendo 7. Seguir = Siguiendo

3.Preferir = Prefiriendo 8. Sentir = Sintiendo


4.Dormir = Durmiendo 9. Venir = Viniendo

5.Morir = Muriendo

The Present Continuous

The Present Continuous/Progressive Tense is formed by conjugating the verb ESTAR which
means To be in the Present Tense and adding the Present Participle.

The Past Continuous

The Past Continuous/Progressive Tense is formed by conjugating the verb ESTAR which
means To be in the Imperfect Tense and adding the Present Participle.

Using the Present and Past Continuous

The Continuous/Progressive Tenses is used to state that an action is taking place or is in progress
at a particular time.

For example:

Present Continuous

1.Estoy hablando. I am speaking.

2.Estn almorzando. They are having lunch

3.Estamos jugando futbol. We are playing football.


4.Qu ests haciendo ahora? What are you doing now?

5.Ests yendo para comer algo ya? Are you going to eat something right now?

Past Continuous

1.Estbamos cocinando las papas. We were cooking the potatoes.

2.Estabas leyendo cuando yo sal de la casa. You were reading when I left the house.

3.l estaba cantando para su novia. He was singing for his girlfriend.

4.Estaban caminando alrededor de la casa anoche a las nueve. They were walking around the
house at 9 oclock last night.

5.Yo estaba viendo la televisin esta maana cuando llamaste. I was watching the television
this morning when you called.

Time Expressions Using the Verb Hacer

In Spanish there are specific formats to follow for various expressions in the past:

1. For actions that began in the past and continues to the present:

Hace + time period + que + phrase in present tense

E.g. Hace tres meses que no veo a Angela. I havent seen Angela in 3 months.

2.For actions that began and continued for some time in the past:

Haca + time period+ que + phrase in imperfect tense

E.g. Haca tres meses que no vea a Angela cuando la vi ayer. I hadnt seen Angela in 3 months
when I saw her yesterday.

3.To ask how long an action, situation or an event has been going on:

Cunto tiempo hace que ?

Examples:

Cunto tiempo hace que ella est enferma? How long has she been sick?

Cunto tiempo hace que no escuchas al radio? How long have you not listened to the radio?
Or in the imperfect tense:

Cunto tiempo haca que ?

Examples:

Cunto tiempo haca que pasaba usted en Panam antes de salir? How much time had you
spent in Panama before you left.

Cunto tiempo haca que ? no vea a Ana hasta ayer? For how long had you not seen Ana
until yesterday?

4.To say ago when using the past tense

E.g. Salieron de la isla hace dos anos. They left the island 2 years ago.

Por and Para

Uses of Por

The general English translation of por and para is for however por and para in
Spanish suggest different meanings, therefore por or para is used depending on context.

Uses of POR Medium/ Source, Proportion/ Unit of measure, Cause/ Motive, Mode, In
exchange for, Substitute/on behalf of, Duration or Length of time

Examples:

(a) Medium/Source (Through/Along/By/By means of) -

1. El libro fue escrito por Daniel Vsquez The book was written by Daniel Vsquez

2. Yo enviar la carta por correo I will send the letter by post

3. Todos los domingos damos un paseo por esta calle y por el arquet Every Sunday we take a
walk along this street and through the park

4. El ladrn entr por la ventana The thief entered (got in) through the window

5. l es bien conocido por todo el pas He is well known throughout the country

(b) Proportion/ Unit of measure/Multiplication (per)

1. Uno por persona One per person


2. 20 por ciento 20 percent

3. Pagamos el alquiler por mes We pay rent per month

4. l cobra 30 dlares por hora He charges $30 per hour

5. Cinco por cinco 5 times 5 (5x5)

(c) Cause/ Motive (because of)

1. No hay clases por la lluvia There are no clases because of the rain

2. Ellos salieron del edificio por frustracin They left the building out of frustration

3. Alguien sano se enferma por beber agua contaminada Someone healthy becomes sick from
drinking contaminated ter

(d) Mode (in)

1. Por escrito In writing

2. Pensar por adelantado To think in advance

(e) In exchange for

1. Yo pague cien dlares por estaos zapatos I paid $100 for these shoes

2. Mi to cambi su carro por una motocicleta My uncle exchanged his car for a motorcycle

(f) Substitute/ On behalf of

1. Mi mama acept el premio por mi papa My mom accepted the prize on behalf of my dad

2. Maria actuar por Ana en la obra Maria will take Anas role in the play

(g) Duration/Length of time

1. Me voy ort res semanas de vacaciones I am going on 3 weeks of vacation

2. Ellos vendrn por un mes They will be coming for a month


Uses of Para

The general English translation of por and para is for however por and para in
Spanish suggest different meanings, therefore por or para is used depending on context.

Uses of PARA Purpose/In order to, Intended use, Direction/Destination, Intended recipient,
Specific time

Examples

(a) Purpose (to)/ In order to

1. Para mejorar tienes que estudiar y practicar (In order to) To improve you have to study and
practice

2. Para encontrar informacin rpidamente, usa el internet (In order to) To find information
fast, use the internet

(b) Intended use

1. Compr este libro para un regalo I bought this book for a gift

2. La mesa grande es para el comedor The large table is for the dining room

(c) Direction/Destination

1. Ellos iban para Inglaterra They were going to England

2. Empuja (t) la silla para atrs Push the chair back

(d) Intended recipient

1. El regalo es para ti The present is for you

2. Las flores son para mi mama The flowers are for my mom

(e) Specific time (by)

1. El documento debe estar listo para el 5 The document must be ready by the 5th (of the
month)

2. Tengo que contester para el miercoles I have to answer by Wednesday


Expressions using Por and Para

Ser and Estar

Ser

Ser and estar both translate in English to the verb to be and because of this it can be really
confusing deciding which of the two is more appropriate because their meanings differ in
Spanish. Here are some guidelines to help:

SER is used:

1. to connect the subject in a sentence to a noun:

a. Yo soy caribea. I am Caribbean.

b. Habana es la capital de Cuba. Havana is the capital of Cuba.

c. Andr y Norman son amigos leales. Andre and Norman are loyal friends.

2. with de to specify origin:

a. De dnde es usted? Where are you from?

b. Mi bisabuela era de Portugal. My great-grandmother was from Portugal.

c. Este jarrn es de China. This vase is from China.

3. with de to state what something is made of:

a. Estos adera son de oro. These earings are of gold.

b. Arepas son de maz. Arepas are made from corn.

c. La silla es de adera. The chair is made from wood.


4. with de to indicate ownership/possession:

a. El reloj oro era de mi to. The silver watch belonged to my uncle.

b. Estas tarjetas de crdito son de mi papa. These are my dads credit cards.

c. El vestido nuevo es de mi prima. The new dress is my cousins.

5. to state time of day or date of the month:

a. Es la una y media. Its one thirty (1:30).

b. Qu fecha es hoy? What is todays date?

c. Qu hora es? What time is it?

6. to indicate where an EVENT takes place (not to be mistaken for estar which is discussed
below):

a. La boda fue en el Hilton Hotel. The wedding was at the Hilton Hotel.

b. La fiesta ser en la casa de Mario. The party will be at Marios house.

c. La cena es en mi restaurante preferido. The dinner is at my favourite restaurant.

7. With adjectives to express a quality that is characteristic of the subject:

a. Julia es muy amable. Julia is very kind.

b. Jordn es trabajador. Jordan is hardworking.

c. Mi hermana es alta. My sister is tall.

Estar

Ser and estar both translate in English to the verb to be and because of this it can be really
confusing deciding which of the two is more appropriate because their meanings differ in
Spanish. Here are some guidelines to help:
ESTAR is used:

1. to state location or position of people, places, or objects (BUT NOT EVENTS SEE SER):

a. Mis primos estn afuera. My cousins are outside

b. En qu calle est la biblioteca nacional? On what street is the National Library?


c. Mis padres estn en el cine? My parents are at the cinema.

2. with certain weather expressions:

a. Est nublado. Its cloudy.

b. Est claro. Its clear.

3. with adjectives to express the state or condition the subject is in:

a. Estoy ontent. I am content.

b. El agua est fra! The water is cold!

c. Mi abuelo est enfermo. My grandpa is ill.

Adjectives using Ser and Estar

Note: The meaning of adjectives is modified with SER and ESTAR. Keep in mind that SER is
mainly used to describe a feature/ something that is characteristic of the subject (permanent)
whilst ESTAR is mainly used to describe a state or condition which may change (temporary).
For example:

Adjectives and Pronouns

This, That, Those & These Demontratives

Demonstratives are used to point out objects and persons while considering their distance from
the speaker. Demonstratives may fall under Adjectives as well as Pronouns.

Adjectives
Singular Plural

Pronouns

Singular Plural

NOTE: ESTO, ESO and AQUELLO are neutral terms and are used to refer to statements,
abstract ideas or something that has not yet been identified. Therefore, ESTO, ESO and
AQUELLO have neither plural nor singular, feminine nor masculine forms.

Possessive Adjectives

Possessive adjectives always correspond with the noun they modify rather than the possessor.

Examples:

1. Mi hijo My son.

a. Mis hijos My sons/children.

b. Los hijos mos My sons/children OR Sons/children of mine.


c. Las hijas mas My daughters OR Daughters of mine.

2. Tu hijo Your son.

a. Tus hijos Your sons/children.

b. Los hijos tuyos Your sons/children OR Sons/children of yours.

c. Las hijas tuyas Your daughters OR Daughters of yours.

3. Su hijo His/Her/Its/Your son.

a. Sus hijos His/Her/Its/Their/Your son/children.

b. Los hijos suyos His/Her/Its/Their/Your sons/children OR Sons/Children of his/of hers/of


theirs/of yours.

c. Las hijas suyas Your daughters OR Daughters of his/of hers/of theirs/of yours.

4. Nuestro hijo Our son.

a. Nuestros hijos Our sons/children OR Children of ours.

b. Nuestras Hijas Our daughters OR Daughters of ours.

5. Vuestro hijo Your son.

a. Vuestros hijos Your sons/children OR Sons/children of yours.

b.Vuestras hijas Your daughters OR Daughters of yours.

Direct Object Pronouns

Direct objects receive the action of the verb and generally respond to the questions of What? or
Whom? For example: He wrote the letters to Sarah; the direct object noun is letters.
Remember pronouns are words that replace nouns so changing the direct object noun letters
into a direct object pronoun, in this case them, would read as: He wrote them to Sarah. In
Spanish, direct object pronouns are consistent with the gender, person and number of the direct
object nouns they substitute.
Examples:

1. El libro? No lo necesito hasta maana. The book? No, I dont need it until tomorrow

2. Nos llamaron ayer con uena noticia. They called us yesterday with good news.

3. Los vestidos negros son tuyos? Si, los son. Are the black dresses yours? Yes, they are.

4. Te lo traigo. I will bring it to you.

5. Te dio mis llaves. He gave you my keys.

NOTE: Direct object pronouns are usually placed before a conjugated verb. In a sentence with
both a conjugated verb and an infinitive or present participle (-ando and iendo) the direct object
pronouns may either be placed before the conjugated verb or be added to the end of the verb in
the infinitive or present participle.

Examples:

(Infinitive)

1. Ese libro es viejo, lo puedes botar. / Ese libro es viejo, puedes botarlo. That book is old, you
can throw it away.

2. Tevoy a ayudar en un momento. / Voy a ayudarte en un momento. I will be right with you in
a moment (I am going to help you in a while).

(Present Participle- ING)

3. Dnde estn las llaves? Las estoy buscando/ Estoy buscndolas. Where are the keys? I am
looking for them.

4. Estn preparando la cena? S, la estamos preparando/S, estamos preparndola. Are you


guys preparing dinner? Yes we are preparing it.

NOTE: Lo is also used as a neuter pronoun and may refer to an idea or characteristic previously
stated (including feminine nouns).
Examples:

1. Esta mesa es muy caro! S, lo es. This table is very expensive! Yes it is.

2. Es ms seguro vivir con familia que vivir sola. S lo s. Its safer to live with family than to
live alone. Yes I know.

Indirect Object Pronouns

Indirect object pronouns tell to whom, for whom or from whom an action is directed. In the
sentence He wrote Sarah the letters the indirect object noun is Sarah. If the indirect object
noun is replaced by an indirect object pronoun her the sentence would read: He wrote her the
letter.

Indirect object pronouns may either be placed before the conjugated verb or be added to the end
of the verb in the infinitive or present participle.

Examples:

1. Le traje el libro ayer. - Yesterday I brought him the book/ I brought the book for him
yesterday.

2. Te voy a tocar una cancin cubana. I am going to play a Colombian song for you.

3. Les explicar el itinerario. I will explain the itinerary to them.

4. Le compr las revistas a Julia. I bought the magazines from Julia. /I bought the magazines
for Julia.

5. Le ped el men al camarero. I asked the waiter for the check.

(Note: To introduce the indirect object noun the preposition a is used)

Prepositional Object Pronouns


Examples:

1. Los regalos son para m o para ella? The gifts are for me or for her?

2. Lo dan a ti o a l? Did they give it to you or to him?

3. A nosotros nos gusta ir al cine. We like to go to the cinema.

4. Yo estaba pensando en ustedes. I was thinking about you all.

NOTE: To say with you and with me the preposition con is combined with m and ti
to form conmigo and contigo. For example:

1. Quiero ir al centro comercial contigo. I want to go to the mall with you.

2. Ests de acuerdo conmigo? Do you agree with me?

NOTE: After entro, excepto and segn the pronouns Yo and T are used instead of
m and ti. For example:

1. Entre t y yo, ser una fiesta. Between you and me there will be a party.

2. Segn t, hay que ormer al menos 12 horas cada da. According to you, we must all sleep at
least 12 hours daily.

3. Todos estn comiendo helado excepto yo. Everyone is eating ice-cream except me.

How to Construct a Sentence with two Object Pronouns

RULES:

1. In a sentence that requires a direct and an indirect object pronoun, the INDIRECT OBJECT
PROJECT is written FIRST then the direct object pronoun follows.

E.g.: Me cant la cancin becomes Me la cant which means: He/She sand me the song.
2. In the case of an infinitive both the direct and the indirect object pronouns may be added to the
end of the verb BUT AN ACCENT is REQUIRED above the vowel in the final syllable of the
verb in the infinitive.

E.g.: Decid escribir la informacin a ti becomes Decid escribrtela which means: I decided
to write you the information.

3. Object pronouns precede verbs and affirmative and negative words precede object pronouns.

E.g.: No me lo dieron. They didnt give it to me.

4. In a sentence which both the indirect (le or les) and direct (lo, la, los, las) object pronouns are
required to be in the third person, the indirect object pronoun is replaced by se. That is, le
and les become se before lo, la, los and las.

E.g. Se lo describ a ella. I will describe it to her.

La silla? Se la vendemos al seor. The chair? We sold it to the gentleman.

5. For emphasis or clarification, prepositional phrases such as a l, a usted, a ella, a m etc are
used with indirect object pronouns.

E.g. A m me gusta mucho tocar el violn. I like to play the violin a lot.

A ti te dieron eso? They gave you that?

Ya se lo mand a usted I already sent it to you sir.

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