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# PIPE FLOW SLIDE RULE: INTRODUCTION

## GUIDE NOTES TO USING PIPE SLIDE RULE OP ARMSTRONG P.E. NOV2017

This pipe slide rule is offered free in either Excel or iOS Numbers or as html calculator. A browser
version is available as is mobile browser version from SpreadsheetConverter. Save these for later
offline usage in your browser. Save an extra file copy in-case formula are accidentally corrupted.
Save the browser version as a ‘read later’ or as whole local page and you have a working off-line
& the links are: " https://goo.gl/HMdFsd and https://goo.gl/2d55jC ".
At upper left corner, columns 1-3. The 6 basic variables, in USA engineering units, needed to
determine liquid pipe pressure drop are input here. Use the excel
Input Area Liquids solver to force the calculator to solve any missing value based
upon selected criteria. In other versions, the same may be done
manually. Example data sets are given for all basic calculators. Examples use a drop menu for
category and select the corresponding subset.
At right of upper left corner, columns 4-6. Input here the 9 basic
variables, in USA engineering units, needed to determine gas pipe pressure drop. The excel solver
can force the calculator to solve any missing value based upon selected criteria. In HTML versions,
the same may be done manually. For Hazen-Williams/ Manning calc, adjust ε for C or Manning n.
Pressure drop in either feet of inlet fluid or PSI are here. Additional
power units are also listed. Intermediate results are listed along with selection criteria notes. Here
are results for Moody friction factor, f(ε/d,NRe) Hazen-Williams C, Manning n are determined. Use
these as a solution criteria, when dictated by industry standards. The same holds true when looking
for gas pipe results. The implicit Moody friction factor used is based on relative roughness, (ε/d),
and Reynolds Number, (NRe).
Offers solution by drop menu, Isothermal AGA method, Constant
Density formula or with V.Head, ln(p2/p1). For relatively low dP all
results are identical. All use Moody’s implicit friction factor.
Expects all inputs except result, friction dP, elevation by implicit
difference. The friction factor and dP/100 feet are from output area of either Gas or Liquid by setting
L to 100’. Getting the 'sum K' requires a pipe layout diagram of select fittings.
Use for drainage channels flowing less than 85% full. The criteria can be
found by using an 'effective circular' drop menu for diameter. A hydraulic radius calculator,
Area to Wetted Perimeter is included. The 'Ten State Standards'

## section and 'Materials Picker' for Parameter

selection. Field drainage, use "Rational Flow" calculator.
Gas compressibility, Z, & viscosity select from Redlich-Kwong EOS, AGA, Dravnik-PurvisRobinson, or Brill-Beggs.
For Control valve or Orifice, simple calculations of basic port sizing are given.

## Example data are included for main

calculations. For NPSH, both water
vapor pressure (Tsh=0) and
Elevation PSIA widgets are given. An air & other select gas viscosity widget is given. A water and oil widget
gives density and viscosity. Other widgets included are: SSU to centi-stokes viscosity; plus API, Baume, or
Brix to SG and metric to USA unit converter. For selected gases γ, Cp/Cv both with & without T, P corrections
plus gas sonic limits evaluator. The water properties and steam superheat are valid within 4% between 40F
and 650F. Use barometric pressure vs. elevation for open surface NPSH.
Pipe Slide Rule with Z Factor Review by: O.P. Armstrong P.E. Dec2017

## The RK/SRK Equation of State Methods of Solving Gas Phase Z

System a b Tr Pr Ωa Ωb
RK (PrΩa )/Tr2.5 (PrΩb )/Tr T/Tc P/Pc 0.08664 0.42747
SRK C(PrΩa )/Tr2 (PrΩb )/Tr T/Tc P/Pc 0.08664 0.42747
Z=b/h C = (1+m(1-Tr0.5)) 2 m = 0.48+1.574ω-0.176ω2 Z=b/h
3
RK/SRK: f(Z)= Z -Z2+DZ-ab & f'(Z)=3Z2 -2Z+D=0 D=(a-b-b2) & Zn+1=Zn-f/f' & Zn=0=1
3
RK/SRK:f(h)=(a/b)(h -h2)+(1+b)h2+h-b; f'(h)=(a/b)(3h 2-2h)+2h(1+b)+1; hn+=hn-f/f'
cubic:Z =IF(R2<Q3,MAX(cos1,cos2,cos3),x) x=S+T+⅓ S=(SIGN(u))*(ABS(u)) 0.33
T=(SIGN(v))*(ABS(v)) 0.33 u=M0.5-R & v=-(M0.5+R) Q=(1-3b)/9 R=(9b+27c-2)/54
M=R2 -Q 3 φ':(aCOS(R/Q 1.5 ))/3 cos1:⅓-(2√Q*cos(φ')) cos2,3:⅓-(2√Q*cos(φ'+/-2π/3))
The Redlich-Kwong (RK) and Redlich Kwong, & SRK EOS Z vs Lab Measure Z, Select Gas Systems
Soave-RK systems are Gas RK Z(h) RK Z3 SRK Zacentrc Z.lab Pr Tr
Equations of State for fluids.
CO2 0.4906 0.4906 0.5387 0.4961 1.3720 1.0850
One gas property they can
evaluate is the ratio of actual CO2 0.7569 0.7569 0.7811 0.7702 0.9606 1.1505
density to ideal density. This CO2 0.3698 0.3698 0.4098 0.3727 1.3720 1.0520
ratio, called Z, or the 0.69SGng 0.8950 0.8950 0.9019 0.8970 0.9454 1.4310
compressibility ratio allows the H2Ov 0.3807 0.3808 0.4325 0.3751 1.0995 1.0195
determination of actual density
CH4 0.8832 0.8832 0.8914 0.8837 1.3477 1.5150
(PM/zRT) based on ideal
C1C30.695 0.7956 0.7956 0.8038 0.7816 1.2320 1.2835
density (PM/RT). Where P is
pressure, M is mol weight, T is temperature, R is gas constant based on selected units.
An original use of Z was a chart in coordinates of reduced temperature, Tr=T/Tc and
reduced pressure, Pr=P/Pc. The subscript c, means critical, tabulated values are available
for all gases. Lab measurements of many gases were gathered and plotted by Standing
& Katz. This work is accepted some 70 plus years later. Many equations have been developed
to accurately and not so accurately map this chart. These mapping equations are adapted equations
of state, EOS. The lowest error representation is Dranchuck-Purvis-Robinson, dPR, using BWR EOS,
combined with CWA Pc, Tc corrections. However looking at results in Table 2, the RK EOS does very
well against actual Z data over a wide range of Pr Tr. In-fact when Tr<1.1 the RK result is nearly always
more reliable. This evaluation for Gas phase conditions finds no advantage (sometimes even larger
error) using the more elaborate SRK method. The solution is given many formats.
The h method was re-arranged to give a cubic form. This came from finding that the original h method
would not converge near Tc, Pc. Also this can happen at very low error resolution with original RK cubic
form. However the h cubic form presented here always converges. It converges one to three cycles
faster than the cubic RK method. Perhaps an important feature when many runs are needed for
generation of physical property Tables. The original h form as given by Perry’s is:
Z= 1/(1-h) - 4.934(h/(1+h))/Tr1.5 & h= b/Z or Z=b/h. The direct analytic solution is checked by using it
for initial value in the implicit solver.

2
Pipe Slide Rule with Z Factor Review by: O.P. Armstrong P.E. Dec2017
For Residuum oils properties, the Lewis-Squires (eq. 9-10.3 Reed Sherwood) centipoise viscosity
relationship, for Temperatures in Kelvin or Celsius, is used:

## 1/(cpT)0.27 = 1/(cpn)0.27 + (Tn-T)/288.

This was empirically adapted to the UOP Charts relating K uop and API to SSU viscosity for 210F and
100F. Use known as 560R and look for best fit constant in place of 288 with SSU and Fahrenheit units.
This allows SSU100F to relate other temperatures.

The SSU100F is related to SG60F and K (10.5-12.9) based on Viscosity Gravity Constant, VGC, Nelson
p87, eqn4-2

## VGC = (10SG60-1.0772A)/(10-A) or A = 10(SG-VGC)/(1.0772-VGC) & A = Log(SSU100-38), &

SSU100F = 38+10(10×(SG−(VGC))/(1.0752−(VGC)))

Nelson, Petroleum-Refinery-Engineering, pp82-83, Table4-1 lists the VGC for the 800F+ boiling
fraction of 45 crudes. A regression of these points for VGC of Watson's of mid BP800F gives

VGC = (23.96/K1.347).

## Apply Lewis-Squires to get SSUT = ((1/SSU100)0.266 + (oF−100)/511)−3.75

SSU or Seybold Seconds Universal, is a viscosity scale defined by Seybold Viscosity tube. Conversion
of these units to cStokes is by ASTM equations given in IR handbook, except for thin liquids, cS<2. For
SSU less than 35, the NBS equation is used to the min defined by their equation
cStk = 0.219SSU-149.7/SSU. Set NBS to zero, and find that 27ssu, CS=0.35 as an arbitrary min cStk
value. When calculating cPoise from SSU, density is at temperature of SSU.

MB Standing's Dead Oil Viscosity by API (10-60) gravity & UOP K (11-12) equations were used, as
given by SPE1995 monograph 'Hydrocarbon Physical Properties', ch3 eq3.122a-e

Dead Oil viscosity by API Gravity is from Vasqueq-Beggs1980JPT as given in HP Petrofluids Pac,
pp74-76 with listed range API: 16-58, T: 70-295F

These three options (Resid, Standing dead oil from API & K, and simple API) give a reasonable
estimation of oil viscosity. Live oils were neglected to keep input variables to a minimum. The term
"dead oil" refers to 125psig trap at 100F. Under those conditions, typical oils, have about 10-15% (50-
70scf/bbl) of total GOR remains, when the oil stabilized to 12.5RVP. About 10% more will squeeze out
in refinery processing. These light ends reduce viscosity compared to resids/fuel-oils. Most heavy oils
require elevated T's for transport. Just look, and will see that asphalt haulers typically have heaters to
get product out.

Many other materials are listed in the linked IR Cameroon Hydraulic Handbook and also Crane TP-410,
links in spreadsheet or from any specific computer output or proprietary tables.