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Module Objectives

After completing this module, the participant will be able to:


Calculate the FDD Physical Layer overhead

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Module Contents

FDD Physical Layer Overhead

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Sync Signals and Frame Type 1 - FDD
Subframe 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

S S
l l

f1 (DL) o
t
o
t
0 1
0

Slot 0 Slot 10
Symbol 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
P-SS
Subcarriers
Occupied

S P S P
DC - - DC - - 62
S S S S
S S S
Subcarriers
S

S-SS

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Synchronization Signals Overhead
Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS)
- occupies 144 Resource Elements per frame (20 timeslots); i.e. (62 subcarriers + 10 empty Resource Elements)
x 2 times/frame
Example: Normal CP, 10 MHz bandwidth; PSS overhead = 144 / (84 20 50) = 0.17 %
Secondary Synchronization Signal (SSS)
Identical calculation to PSS; same overhead as for PSS

10ms Radio frame


2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10

1ms Subframe SSS

PSS
0.5ms = 1 slot checking for SSS
Normal CP at 2 possible positions
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
CP length
1 2 3 4 5 6
Extended CP

PSS & SSS frame + slot structure


in time domain (FDD case)
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Single Antenna Port and DL Reference Signals

DL RS, Normal TCP DL RS, Extended TCP


f=1
f=2 Reference
f=3 Signal

Resource
f=11 Element
f=12
S=0 S=6 S=0 S=5

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2 Port DL Reference Signals, Normal TCP
DL RS, Normal TCP

Port 0
R0
Reference
Signal
R0
Port 0
R0

Not used on
R0 this port

eNodeB R1 Port 1
Reference
R1
Signal
Port 1
R1
Not used on
this port
R1

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Antenna Port Layering

eNodeB

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Antenna Port Layering

eNodeB

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DL Reference Signal Overhead

Reference Signal (RS)


- If 1 Tx antenna*: 4 RSs per PRB
- If 2 Tx antenna*: there are 8 RSs per PRB
- If 4 Tx antenna*: there are 12 RSs per PRB
Example below: Normal CP (84 RE) & 2 Tx antenna*, DL RS overhead = 8 / 84 = 9.52 %

* with 1/2/4 Antenna Ports PRB: Physical Resource Block

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OTDOA Overhead

Positioning Reference Signal (PRS)

- Transmission of PRS reduces the available resource elements for DL traffic


- Additional overhead due to PRS
Between less than 0.1% up to 2% depending on configuration
With default configuration
- Additional overhead for FDD app. 0.6%
- Additional overhead for TDD app. 1.6% (UL-DL frame configuration 1)

- FDD - (PRS BW / SysBW)* #of DL frames/ repetition * PRS TTI repetition


Eg for FDD 20 MHz
100/100 * 1 * 1/160 = 0.625 %

Note: OTDOA = Observed Time Difference of Arrival


RSTD = Reference Signal Time Difference
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PDCCH, PHICH, and PCFICH overhead
Subframe
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S
Subcarriers

l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l
Occupied

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o
t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Even Slot Odd Slot

Reference
R0 R0 Signal

DL PDCCH, PHICH, PCFICH


R0 R0
Resource
Blocks PDSCH
R0 R0

Not used on
R0 R0 this port

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System Overhead Downlink
PDCCH, PCFICH and PHICH
-The combination of PDCCH, PCFICH and PHICH is able to occupy the first 1, 2 or 3 time domain
symbols per TTI
-As of RL30, the PDCCH Area defined in the PCFICH becomes dynamic
-Worst case scenario PDCCH Area is 3 Symbols wide
- The number of RE occupied per 1 ms TTI is given by (12 y x), where:
y depends upon the number of occupied time domain symbols per TTI (1, 2 or 3)
x depends upon the number of RE already occupied by the Reference Signal
x = 2 for 1 transmit antenna
20 MHz = 100 RB
x = 4 for 2 transmit antenna
4 Antenna 8 DRS in PDCCH Area
x = 4 for 4 transmit antenna
PCFICH = 3 Symbols
when y = 1 Dual Stream
x = 8 for 4 transmit antenna 16.67% Overhead
when y = 2 or 3

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PBCH Overhead
Occupies (288* x) Resource Elements (REs) per 20 timeslots per transmit antenna
The value of x depends upon the number of REs already occupied by the Reference Signal:
x = 12 for 1 Tx antenna, x = 24 for 2 Tx antennas & x = 48 for 4 Tx antenna
- Example: normal CP, 2 Tx antennas, 10 MHz bandwidth;
PBCH Overhead = (288 24) / (84 20 50) = 0.31%

one radio frame = 10 ms


72 subcarriers

Repetition Pattern of PBCH = 40 ms

13 PBCH * PBCH uses central 72 Subcarrier over 4 OFDM symbols in Slot 1


UL Demodulation Reference Signal Overhead (1/2)

Demodulation Reference Signal


(DRS)
- The DRS is sent on the 4th OFDM
symbol of each RB occupied by the
PUSCH.

UL DRS occupies the whole PUCCH


allocated band except 2 RB
bandwidth in the both end.
Reference signal: 12 RE PUSCH
(per RB) x (50-2) RBs not
dedicated to PUCCH /(84 PUCCH
x50) =13.14%

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UL DRS Overhead (2/2)

Example:
For 1.4 MHz Channel Bandwidth, the PUCCH occupies 1 RB per Slot.
The number of RE per RB is 84 when using the normal CP.
This means the DRS overhead* is: ((6-1) 12)/(6 84) = 11.9 %

Channel BW PUCCH RB/slot DRS Overhead*


1.4 MHz 1 ((6-1) 12) / (6 84) = 11.9 %
3 MHz 2 ((15-2) 12) / (15 84) = 12.38 %
5 MHz 2 ((25-2) 12) / (25 84) = 13.14 %
10 MHz 4 ((50-4) 12) / (50 84) = 13.14 %
15 MHz 6 ((75-6) 12) / (75 84) = 13.14 %
20 MHz 8 ((100-8) 12) / (100 84) = 13.14 %

* for normal CP
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PRACH Overhead

PRACH
- PRACH uses 6 Resource Blocks in the frequency domain.
- The location of those resource blocks is dynamic. Two parameters from RRC layer define it:
PRACH Configuration Index: for Timing, selecting between 1 of 4 PRACH durations and defining if
PRACH preambles can be send in any radio frame or only in even numbered ones
PRACH Frequency offset: Defines the location in frequency domain
- PRACH Overhead calculation: 6 RBs * RACH Density / (#RB per TTI) x 10 TTIs per frame
RACH density: how often are RACH resources reserved per 10 ms frame i.e. for RACH density: 1
(RACH resource reserved once per frame)
Channel BW PRACH Overhead
1.4 MHz (6 1) / (6 10) = 10 %
3 MHz (6 1) / (15 10) = 4 %
5 MHz (6 1) / (25 10) = 2.40 %
10 MHz (6 1) / (50 10) = 1.20 %
15 MHz (6 1) / (75 10) = 0.8 %
20 MHz (6 1) / (100 10) = 0.6 %

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Multiple PUCCH in One Subframe
Subframe
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Subcarriers
Occupied

Even Slot Odd Slot Demodulation RS


PUCCH 1 PUCCH 0 PUSCH
PUCCH 3 PUCCH 2 PUCCH
Resource
Blocks
UL

PUCCH 2 PUCCH 3
PUCCH 0 PUCCH 1

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PUCCH Overhead

PUCCH
- Ratio between the number of RBs used for PUCCH and the total number of RBs
in frequency domain per TTI
Channel BW PUCCH RB/slot PUCCH Overhead
1.4 MHz 1 1 / 6 = 16.67 %
3 MHz 2 2 / 15 = 13.33 %
5 MHz 2 2 / 25 = 8 %
10 MHz 4 4 / 50 = 8 %
15 MHz 6 6 / 75 = 8 %
20 MHz 8 8 / 100 = 8%

PUCCH carries UCI(Uplink Control Information),


i.e, Aperiodic CQI reports and ACK/NACK

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Physical Layer Overhead Example

Example of overhead:
DL 2Tx 2RX
UL 1TX - 2RX
PRACH in every frame
3 OFDM symbols for
PDCCH
No OTDOA

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