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7 Curso Avanzado de Proteccin de Fault Type Distribution in HV

Sistemas Elctricos de Potencia Transmission Systems

Fault Type %

Disparo y Recierre Manapalar Single-Line-Ground 70


Line-Line 15

Material donado por Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories para su


Line-Line-Ground 10
uso en este curso
Three-Phase 5
Co,yri,~. SEl200'

Fault Type Distribution in 500 kV Unes Why Single-Pole Tripping (1)7

Fault Type % . Power Systems Operate Near the


Security Limits
Single-Une-Ground 93
. Large generation units
Line-Une 4
. Long transmission lines
Line-Une-Ground 2 . Reduced redundancy
Three-Phase 1 . SPT Enhances Power System Stability

Why Single-Pele Tripping (2)7 Single-Pole Tripping Strategy

. Single-Pafe Trip and Reclose tor Single


Line-Ground Faults
. SPT Breakers Are ReadilyAvailable
. Three-poletripif reclosurefails (permanent
. SPT Relays Are Available at Low Cos fault)
. Three-Pole Trip for Al! Other Faults
I
.

!
!

Benefits of Single-Pala Tripping and Equal-Area Criterion


Reclosing
. Improves Transient Stability
P

. Improves System Availability (Remate


Generating Stations with One or Two
Unes) Po

Fault (one
. Reduces Switching Overvoltages breaker open)

. Reduces Shaft Torsional Oscillations of Faua

Large Thermal Units 180. 1)

Effect of FaultType
Vs VR Wye-Delta Conversion
~
'-'" Xs xl'" xR '-'/

Three-Phase Phase-Phase-Ground

clH ~ ff:ll
V~R VS~VR
x" XLI XRI x., x 1I XRI
Xx Xv X
Phase-Phase Single Phase-Ground

VSLLjVR
x= Xx Xy + Xy Xz +Xz Xx
x" x U XR1 ~'UJ" Xz
x., XLI XRI

Effect of Fault Type Open Pala Condition


~
vs,Xs OnePoleOpen VR,XR
~~~

P /
"- Normal System
Single Line-Ground Faua
I
Phase-Phase Faua
.I
Phase-Phase-Ground
Fault

Three-Phase Faua
8 ;

.
I

~
2

~
Equivalent System Power Transfer Capability

R - Vs VR
MAX- X
Normal Condition: X=X1
X2S X2l X2R

One Pole Open: X +- X2 Xo


Xos XOl XOR X= 1 X2 + Xo
For X1 = X2=XO

Vs VR sino 2
p= X (one
PMAX poleopen)= -3 PMAX(normal)

Three-Pole Tripping of a Single-'Tie Une SPT Enhances Power System Stability


3PT 3PT
~ m
Temporary Single
p
~ Pre-Fault
~ Temporary
p

Phase-Ground Faul! SPG Fault

A,+A, = A2+A4 +A,


1IA,+A3 > A2+A, Stable System
Unstable System

1) o

Three-Pole Tripping of TwoTie Unes


Two Tie Unes Case
~~ "J ~~ p

Temporary ..Y' Pre-Fault


SlG Fault
. No Stability Problems tor Single
Phase-Ground Faults (3PT or SPT)

A,+ A3 = A2 +A,
. Operation with Only One Une Requires
Stable System
SPT

1)

3
Main Applications of SPT Open-Pole Condition Problems (1)

. Secondary Are Requires Langer


. Single or Double Tie Unes Deionization Time than for 3PT
Between Systems
. In Long Transmission Lines Deionization
. Weak Power Systems May Not Occur. Four-Reactor Banks
May Be Necessary

Open-Pole Condition Problems (2) Open-Pole Condition Prablems (3)

. Positive-, Negative- and Zero-Sequence


Currents Flow in One End and Out the . Pele Opening Produces Power Swings
Other . Necessity of blockingdistance relay
. Securityproblems operation
. Dependabilityproblemstorsubsequent . Problems with line-sideVTs
faults

Open-Pole Condition Problems Effect on Relays

. Rotar Heating Effects in Rotating . Distance Relays Require Additional


Machinery Design Measures to Avaid Open-Pole
Conditions Problems
. Relays must limitthe oren-pala
conditionduration
. Segregated Phase-Comparison and
DifferentialSystems Behave Well

4
..
..1
Single-Pote Trppng Challenges

. Faulted Phase Selection

. Dependability tor Faults During the Fault Type Selecton Logic


Open-Pole Period

. Security tor Externa! Faults and Power


Swings During the Open-Pole Period

. Increased Wiring and Testing Complexity

Phase A-Ground Faults


Example Power System (RF Variable)
UNE ANG"
x
--- REACH.
"""o.m
m (per-unit 01ZL)
I ..

8-1
SOURCE S
Zs
1 ZL
:::/"'-
:,
::
:,:,
""\
c""""""'" "
""'O,~"'~:
"eA'C
---J
FAUL T
ZS1 = 1 Ohm ZL 1 = 8 Ohms
ZSO = 3 Ohms
\':::::::-:.~,- .' AG >::/
ZLO = 24 Ohms
";--- ~_/
, ," '. CA
,
SG<;

Close-In Phase A-Ground Faults


(RF and Fauft Location Variable)
BCG Fauft at the End of the Relay Reach

X UNEANGLE
---1 REAeN o 3OO"H1l
""
\. CA CASE RF
, 1 0.000
"'. ..">-100",
2 0.250
3 0.500
4 1.000
5 2.000
BG 6 5.000
7 10.000

-15 -10 -5 10 15

5
Measured Impedances During Faults Fault-Selection Logic
Purpose
. Distance Elements Measure

.
Different Impedances
Phase Elements Can Operate for
. Ensures SPT Security
. SPG vs PPGfaults

.
Clase-in Line-Ground Faults
Ground Elements Can Overreach
for Line-Line-Ground Faults
. Blocks BC and CG for BCG Faults
. Avoids ground overreach

Fault Type Selection Methods Limitations of the Overcurrent Method

. Overcurrent (Switched Scheme) . Overcurrent Fault Detectors Must be


. Fault Selection Zones (Switched Set Above Load
Scheme)
. Incremental-Current (L'll)Fault
. Zone 3 Element Torque Analysis Detectorsmay Failfor Evolving
Faults
. Angle 12- AngleloComparison

lo and 12for AG, BCG Faults FIDS Sectors


FSB30 90.
120.

~-Io 150.

~_I, 180. '-_nnn O' FSA30

AG,BCG BG,CAG CGoABG


o 210.

2'-.0
2 2~oO 2400 240.
FSC30 270.

6
Increasing BCG Fault RF Effects
Fault Selection Logic
Tolerating Resistance
BTTO
,O 12 c:JlO
~ r RF
~ Y,F'O

B e
' ~ . O:t 30 degrees:

8
BC~GROUNO
Enable AG, BC
" 4
'"
"
Z2
re"~
Block Others
20 RF
A B e
. 30 to 60 degrees: RG vs Rpp
fE
BC~GRO UNO
21 o
.

,,4~
"
Z2

20 RF
Y "
RF'1O

Fault Selection Conclusions Fault Selection Conclusions (cont.)


. Overcurrent Type Fault Selection . Difference
Method:
Angle Between 'o and 12
Must be Set Above Load
. Correctlyidentifies SPG and PPGfaults
. Multiple Distance Element Loops . Can be made very RFtolerant by RGVSRpp
Detect Clase-In Ground Faults comparision
. Independent01protection element reach
. Increasing RFCan Cause Incorrect settings
Phase Selection tor Traditional 21
. SPT and 3PT Schemes Require Fault
Element Phase Selection Type Selection Logc

7
Increasing BCG Fault RF Effects Fault Selection Logic
ToleratingResistance
"TTO
,o "C:J
~ Yr
ZO RF
~
.
:F'O

A " C
. O:!:30 degrees: Enable AG, BC
"C.<ORO VNO

tE
Z' O y Block Others
,/t
.
.

'O Z2 RF.,
~
zo RF 30 to 60 degrees: RG vs Rpp
e

8
BC.<OROVNO
' ~ "
~ !
"
.

'o
Z2

ZO RF
y .
RF-,O

Fault Selection Conclusions Fault Selection Conclusions (cont.)

. Overcurrent Type Fault Selection


Must be Set Above Load
. Difference Angle Between
Method:
'o and 12

. Correctly identifies SPG and PPG faults


. MultipleDistance Element Loops . Can be made very RFtolerant by RGVSRpp
Detect Clase-In Ground Faults comparision
. Independentof protectionelementreach
. Increasing RFCan Cause Incorrect
Phase Selection for Traditional 21
Element Phase Selection
. settings
SPT and 3PT Schemes Require Fault
Type Selection Logic