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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA SEDE PALMIRA CENTRO DE IDIOMAS READING MANUAL ENGLISH III 2017

UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA

SEDE PALMIRA

CENTRO DE IDIOMAS

READING MANUAL

ENGLISH III

2017

READING MANUAL LEVEL III

Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

LEVEL III Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira Centro de Idiomas PROGRAMA DE APRENDIZAJE DE LENGUAS

Centro de Idiomas

PROGRAMA DE APRENDIZAJE DE LENGUAS EXTRANJERAS

CURSO: INGLÈS III CÓDIGO: 1000046 PERÍODO ACADÉMICO: FEBRERO-JUNIO 2017 INTENSIDAD HORARIA: 4 HORAS SEMANALES NUMERO DE CREDITOS: 3 PREREQUISITO: HABER APROBADO LOS NIVELES I Y II O ESTAR CLASIFICADO EN EL NIVEL III

I. JUSTIFICACIÓN Y DESCRIPCIÓN DEL CURSO

En el mundo moderno y globalizado el acceso a la información sobre los últimos avances científicos y tecnológicos hacen necesario el manejo del idioma inglés con el propósito de mantenerse actualizado sobre dichos adelantos y tomar parte en diferentes campos del conocimiento. Considerando lo anterior, este curso va dirigido a los estudiantes universitarios de diferentes programas de estudio de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia con el propósito de incentivar en ellos el desarrollo de habilidades propias de la lengua inglesa y al mismo tiempo permitirles cumplir con el requisito de la lengua extranjera exigido por la universidad según la circular número 012 de 2013 de la Vicerrectoría Académica y el acuerdo 102 de 2013 del Consejo Superior Universitario, el cual requiere que los estudiantes de Pregrado acrediten el nivel B1 para demostrar suficiencia en Lengua Extranjera de acuerdo con el Marco de Referencia Europeo para el Aprendizaje, la Enseñanza y la Evaluación de las Lenguas. La obtención del nivel de suficiencia en lengua extranjera es una obligación y requisito de grado de cada estudiante (leer Acuerdo completo). Adicional a esto, los estudiantes de la universidad deberán involucrarse a través del manejo de la lengua en entrevistas de trabajo, conferencias e interacción persona a persona que les permitirán el desarrollo y crecimiento profesional, cultural y científico. Es por esto que la universidad Nacional de Colombia ofrece 4 niveles de inglés que garantizan el aprendizaje del idioma y su desempeño en las cuatro habilidades del lenguaje.

OBJETIVOS

Al finalizar el curso los estudiantes estarán en la capacidad de:

1. Analizar y comprender los contenidos de textos especializados.

2. Manejar vocabulario y expresiones básicas de la lengua extranjera.

3. Profundizar en el conocimiento de las estructuras y procesos de construcción lexical.

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4. Tener la competencia para comunicarse en inglés, en forma oral y escrita, en situaciones reales de interacción lingüística, de acuerdo con cada nivel.

II. ESTRATEGIAS METODOLÓGICAS

Este proceso de aprendizaje del inglés tiene un carácter interactivo, cuyo centro es el

estudiante quien es guiado por el profesor, el cual le ofrece las herramientas pedagógicas necesarias en la enseñanza del inglés como lengua extrajera encaminadas al desarrollo de sus habilidades comunicativas. Con base en este criterio los docentes pondrán en práctica diferentes estrategias metodológicas de acuerdo con las necesidades particulares de sus estudiantes para que sean exitosos en su proceso de aprendizaje del inglés, entre otras se llevarán a cabo las siguientes:

1. A través del estudio organizado de textos académicos pertenecientes a las áreas de conocimiento de los alumnos, llegar a conocer los conceptos, las descripciones, las experiencias y las propuestas de sus autores.

2. Con ejercicios prácticos, desarrollar destrezas para responder los interrogantes que caracterizan las pruebas internacionales de proficiencia en inglés.

3. Análisis de los campos semánticos gramaticales y lexicales.

4. Prácticas de conversación y de redacción de textos cortos.

5. Empleo de tecnologías interactivas para el autoaprendizaje del inglés.

RECURSOS DIDÁCTICOS

Multimedia e Internet, software, videos, fono-revistas, fichas pedagógicas, impresos (textos, manuales, diccionarios, revistas, documentos auténticos, etc.).

EVALUACIÓN

Comprensión de textos y producción escrita:

Primer Parcial Segundo Parcial Otras actividades (Talleres, quices, ejercicios, tareas)

15%

15%

25%

Producción Oral

30%

Laboratorio de idiomas

15%

100%

Nota Final: Aprobó / No aprobó Para garantizar el aprendizaje del idioma se recomienda el cumplimiento de todos los requerimientos exigidos para este propósito; entre ellos, la asistencia a todas las clases, las prácticas en el Centro de Recursos y las demás actividades programadas para tal fin.

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CONTENTS LEVEL III

 

WEEK

READING COMPREHENSION WRITING PRACTICE

ORAL SKILLS

1-2

General Review.

Complains and Requests.

3-4

Paragraph Analysis. Topic Sentence and Supporting Ideas.

Solving Problems.

5-6

Rhetorical Functions: Definition.

Current issues (Social, environmental) Requesting information.

7-8

Rhetorical Functions:

Movie Reviews.

Description/ Exemplification.

9-10

Rhetorical Functions:

Past Experiences (Have you ever?).

Classification

11-12

Rhetorical Functions:

Celebrations and events around the world.

Instruction.

Modal Verbs.

13-14

Rhetorical Function:

Talking about Future: Technology developments

 

Cause and Effect Zero Conditional

15-16

Rhetorical Functions:

Talking about famous characters (Biographies)

 

Argumentation

First Conditional

 
 

BIBLIOGRAFÍA.

Murphy, R. (1990) Basic Grammar in Use. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

 

Wilson, Ken (2007) Smart Choice. Oxford. New York.

Wilson, Ken (2007) First Choice. Oxford. New York.

Nota: La bibliografía queda abierta de acuerdo con las necesidades de cada curso, de los estudiantes y de los docentes.

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LEVEL III Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira GENERAL REVIEW KEY TERMS TO REVIEW: 1. Key

GENERAL REVIEW

KEY TERMS TO REVIEW:

1. Key words: Words that are repeated in a text and help you to get the main idea.

2. Typographical information (Information that helps you to guess the content of the text at first sight (bold letters, brackets, drawings, tables, photos, italics, titles, subtitles, quotations, underlined words, capital letters, etc.)

3. Source: the origin where the text comes from. (Periodical Texts; A magazine, a journal, a newspaper) (Academic-- a book, a thesis, an encyclopedia, a manual)

4. Topic: The theme of the text (1 word)

5. Main idea: Central idea of a text, the most important(1 sentence)

6. Specific information: dates, names, acronyms, places, figures or numbers, concepts,

7. Purpose: The objective of the author that writes a text

8. Summary: The synthesis of a paragraph or a text (5 lines)

9. Supporting ideas: Secondary info in a paragraph or text

1. COGNATES

Cognates are words that nave a similar origin, in two or more Languages, they look very similar although they may have-suffered changes in form and meaning through the historical development of each one of the languages, Many scientific terms of Latin or Greek origin are cognates in several languages, although they are not always easy to recognize

Examples: English

French

Spanish

Deport

déporter

deportar

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TRUE COGNATES: Many terms are cognates in English and Spanish are similar in

form and meaning because of their origin in other languages, there are few changes in their phonetics but they are very similar in structure.

Control

Examples: Popular- Actor-Local-Auto- Class- Humor

General

Capital

Material

Original

History, Music, Religion.

FALSE COGNATES: Any words that are similar in terms of form in two languages but

the real meaning is very different.

Examples: Actual-real / Officials- funcionarios / Large- grande / Several-varios / Ingenuity-ingenio/ Policies- políticas/ Fabric- tela / Realize- darse cuenta de/ College-universidad / Library-biblioteca / Pie- torta/ Rope- soga/ Soap-jabón/.

/ Library-biblioteca / Pie- torta/ Rope- soga/ Soap-jabón/. LINKS:

2. READING STRATEGIES

2.1. SKIMMING

Skimming is a quick and superficial reading that you do in order to get the general idea(s) of a passage. This is rapid reading. What is it?---------------- A quick reading strategy What for ?----------------- To get a general idea of the text, a panoramic view How?----------------------- Identifying key words, paying attention to typographical information like:

Titles, subtitles, CAPITAL LETTERS, bold Letters, italics, underlined words, "quotes", (brackets), etc. As well as the information that drawings, pictures, graphs may provide.

Types of Questions: What is the theme? / What is the main idea of the text? /

What is

the topic? / What is the area of study? / What is the source? / What is the text about? / Provide a title for this text?

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2.2. SCANNING

Like Skimming, Scanning is also a quick reading strategy. However in this case the search is more focused. To scan is to read quickly in order to locate specific information.

What is it? --------A quick reading strategy What for? ---------To get specific information from the text How?---------------Paying -attention to:

***'Words: Protein, manager, science, cell, etc. ***Dates: 2015, 1990, 1810, etc. **Places: Cali, Palmira, U.S.A., France, etc. **Numbers or figures: 10.000, 53, 8%, etc. ***Names: Charles Darwin, Marx, Newton. "'*Acronyms: F. D. A., W. T. O., U. N., U.F.O., N.A.S.A., etc.

-Types of Questions: Provide information about these words and numbers / Fill the

table below looking for the specific information in the text /Provide the name of …….?

/Give two examples of

/ How many ………? /What do these figures refer to?

2.3. INTENSIVE READING

It is a careful reading strategy aimed to understand the whole meaning of the text. It means that the reader should read the text carefully, in detail to understand what the author says. In this purpose, the reader will use efficiently the strategies --- skimming and scanning---studied previously and should be able to summarize the author`s ideas. We need to read intensively if a text is very difficult.

-Type of Questions: What is the purpose of the text? / Write a summary of the text?/ What does the author say about…….?/ What is the main idea of each paragraph?/ What does the author mean by “……….”?

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2.4. CRITICAL READING

This is the fourth Reading Strategy; it is the final step in the reading process. Critical

Reading implies (Skimming, Scanning and Intensive Reading) to have a clear idea of the

text. Critical Reading means to make judgments about what you read. It means to

deduce the critical arguments of the author, confront them with your beliefs and elaborate

their opinion.

-Type of Questions: Does my own experience support that of the author? /Do I share the author’s point of view? / Am I convinced by the author’s arguments and evidence?

3. DERIVATION AND WORD FORMATION

3.1. DERIVED WORDS

Derived words are words formed by the addition of different particles to the stem.

Ex:

parts:

1. The Stem

2. The Affixes

is composed of two

Image / Imaginat- ive /Imagina -tion. A Derived Word

a) The Prefixes:

meaning of the word.

Go before the stem: The role of the Prefixes is to change the

Development

is different from underdevelopment

/ Possible is different from

impossible.

b) The Suffixes: Go after the stem. The role of the Suffixes is to change the

grammatical category. Verb, Adjective, Noun or Adverb.

Produc-er (Noun) Product-ive (Adjective) Product-ive-ly (Adverb) Produce (Verb)

PREFIXES TO FORM DERIVED WORDS

Prefixes indicate different aspects; Size, location, negation, time, etc.: Some

prefixes suffer changes when they are added to the stem to make a derived word.

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SUFFIXES TO FORM DERIVED WORDS

TYPE OF PREFIXES

EXAMPLES

Negation

-In, -im, -non, -mis, -mal, -anti, -ir, -un, -dis, -de.

Localization

-Ex, -inter, -per, -re, -peri, -sub, -super, -trans, -retro, -extra, -circum, -under, -above.

Number

-Uni, -mono, -auto, -bi, -tri, -poly, -hex, -oct, -multi, -quad.

Time and order

-Pre, -post, -ante, -fore, -prime.

Size

-Semi, -mini, -maxi, -macro, -equi, -mega.

Miscellaneous

-Out, -over, -pro, -re, -co, - auto.

NOUN:

ADJECTIVE

 

VERB

 

ADVERB

Word referred to

The

word

that

The word that

A word that modifies

people, places, ideas,

describes

a

noun

indicates action,

a verb, an adjective

and concepts.

or pronoun.

fact or state.

 

or adverb. Most of the

Suffixes to form

Suffixes to form

Suffixes

to

derived adverbs end in

nouns:

Adjectives:

 

Form Verbs:

ly. The adverbs

-dom, -er, -or,-hood,

-able,-ible,-ac,-al,

-ate,-en, -esce, -fy,

respond questions like:

-ness,-age,-ance,

-an,-ian, -ate,-ese,

-ify, -ize.

 

When, Where, How,

-ancy,-ation, -ition,

-ful,-ic,-en,-ish,-ive,

 

What Extent.

-tion,- ion,-cy,-ess,

-less,-ly, -like, -ous,

Suffixes to form

-ism, -ity, -ment, -ry,

-ose, -y, -some.

 

Adverbs:

-ty,-ics, -ist, -cian,

 

-ly, -wise.

-ship, -th.

-ty,-ics, -ist, -cian,   -ly, -wise. -ship, -th. LINK: http://www.wilbers.com/part24.htm compound words.

LINK: http://www.wilbers.com/part24.htm compound words. Examples of compound words.

3.2 . COMPOUND WORDS

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They can be defined as the union of two or more words to make a new word.

There are three types of compound words:

1. As one word

Closed Form:

Example: Policeman, boyfriend, workforce,

nationwide, marketplace, database, goodwill, fundraiser, stockholder, policymaker,

webpage, workwoman.

2. As two words joined with a hyphen

self-service, follow-up, know-how, life-size, call-back, hanger-on, work-flow

Hyphenated Form:

Example: Dining-table,

Example: Fish tank, health care, voice

mail, waiting room, word processing, vice president global warming, greenhouse

effect, sea level, artic ice.

3. As two separate words

Opened Form:

3.3. WORD FAMILIES

Word families are the different derivations of a stem. The different members of a

word family never change their stems, what changes are the affixes.

For example:

Industry----------------------- Noun Industrial----------------------Adjective Industrialize------------------Verb Industrialization-------------Noun Industrialized----------------Adjective

Reforest----------------------Verb

Reforestation---------------Noun

Reforested----------------Adjective

Contaminate----------------Verb

Contamination-------------Noun

Contaminated-------------Adjective

ate ----------------Verb Contamin ation -------------Noun Contamin ated -------------Adjective 4. CONTEXTUAL REFERENCES 10

4. CONTEXTUAL REFERENCES

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Contextual references are transitional markers used in order to avoid repetitions of words. They generally refer to a word previously used by the author but in some cases refer to a word or term that will be introduced later on. There are some examples of words used as contextual references. (See the table below).

A. Personal

B. Object

C. Possesive

D. Possesive

E. Relative

F. Demonstrative Pronouns

Pronouns

Pronouns

Adjectives

Pronouns

Pronouns

I

ME

MY

MINE

WHICH

THIS

YOU

YOU

YOUR

YOURS

WHO

THESE

HE

HIM

HIS

HIS

WHOSE

THAT

SHE

HER

HER

HERS

WHOM

THOSE

IT

IT

ITS

ITS

THAT

 

WE

US

OUR

OURS

WHAT

 

THEY

THEM

THEIR

THEIRS

   
  THEY THEM THEIR THEIRS     5. CONNECTORS Connecting expressions (commonly referred as

5. CONNECTORS

Connecting expressions (commonly referred as transition words, connectives or simply connectors) are classified into groups according to the logical connection they introduce between different ideas within the text. The connectors indicate what kind of relationship exists between these ideas: Contrast, addition, purpose, etc.

Understanding these expressions will be very helpful to understand semantic relationships in the reading and locate specific answers for the comprehension questions.

Some of them are very common in written English, some others, though important, are rarely common. Likewise, some connectors may have the same form but express different relation. In any case, the function of any connector depends on the context of the reading.

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LIST OF CONNECTORS

CONNECTORS

 

FUNCTIONS

CONTRAST

However, but, nevertheless, although, while, even though, whereas, in contrast, though, on the other hand, Instead of, on the contrary, in spite of, despite of.

TIME SEQUENCE

Since, from, first (ly), in/at the beginning, to begin with, then, next, the former, later, afterwards, after, the following, subsequently, eventually, the latter, the later, ultimately, at the end, finally, at last.

PURPOSE

For, to, in order to, For + verb (-ing).

 

ALTERNATIVE

Or.

NEGATION

Neither

nor,

not either, in no way, not at all.

ADDITION

And, besides, too, moreover, what is more, In addition, furthermore, also.

CONDITION

Unless, if, in other words, whether, in the case that.

 

EXEMPLIFICATION

For example, to illustrate, like, to exemplify, for instance, (e.g.), (i.e.), such as.

EXPLANATION

That means, in other words, that is.

 

MEANS

OR

By means of, through, by (before a noun), by + (Verb) + ing.

 

MANNER

CAUSE /REASON

Because of, in view of, on account of, due to, because, since, now that, in view of the fact that, due to the fact that.

EFFECT

As a result, therefore, hence, consequently, so that, for this reason, as a consequence, resulting in, with the result that, in this sense, thus, so.

SUMMARY/

In brief, on the whole, summing up, to conclude, in conclusion, as I have shown, as I have said, consequently, in summary, in resume.

CONCLUSION

SIMULTANEITY

As, at the same time, while.

 

COMPARISON

Like, either…or, as…as, in the same manner, similarly, likewise, just, as, as…as, the same as, in a similar way, just as.

EMPHASIS/

Definitely, extremely, obviously, in fact, indeed, in any case,

absolutely,

REINFORCEMENT

positively, naturally, surprisingly, always, forever, never, emphatically, unquestionably, without a doubt, certainly, undeniably.

unquestionably, without a doubt, certainly, undeniably. PRACTICE: A. Read the following texts and check the topics

PRACTICE:

A. Read the following texts and check the topics studied in previous levels. (Reading strategies, contextual references, word formation connectors).

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LEVEL III Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira READING: WHAT IS A DESERT TREE? Desert tree

READING: WHAT IS A DESERT TREE?

Desert tree is one that tends to do well in a hot, dry environment. In most cases, it has physically adapted over time so that it does not require as much water or cool weather as other types of plants or trees. Most people think of the cactus and not much else when they consider desert landscaping, but there is much more to arid areas than just cacti.

Most desert trees have a few traits in common. Nearly every desert tree requires little water, since most have found ways to conserve any rainwater and use it to its full advantage. Additionally, most native desert trees need space due to the competition for moisture, so spacing each a few feet apart usually is encouraged for the trees to thrive.

Gardening in the desert is sometimes called xeriscaping, which actually refers to landscaping that needs very little water and very little maintenance. Plants that are good for xeriscaping are usually called drought-tolerant or water-conservative. Some beginning gardeners prefer this type of landscaping because it usually does not involve much mowing or trimming, watering, or general upkeep.

In keeping with the trend of planting water-conservative trees, gardeners interested in the desert tree should know that they should mimic the pattern of rain in the desert for the most success. While most people know this means very little water, they might not be aware that it also means that most desert plants do not need water in the winter at all. This is because the plants and trees are not used to much rainfall during that time. On the other hand, deserts typically receive the most rainfall in the summer, as strong thunderstorms that are referred to as monsoons

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sweep the area. Add to this the extreme heat, and it means that the typical desert tree does best with a good watering at least once per week during the summer.

Some of the larger trees one can find in the desert include the Mediterranean Cypress, Afghan Pine, Alligator Juniper, California Juniper, Joshua tree, and Aleppo Pine. Among the smaller trees are the Guajillo, Sweet Acacia, Palo Verde, Texas Ebony, and the Velvet Mesquite. Of course, several types of cacti, such as the large Saguaro Cactus, can be found in many deserts.

Every continent has at least one desert, which is why desert trees might look familiar to most people. In fact, Antarctica is a desert due to its lack of much rainfall. While inhabitants of continents with several deserts, such as Asia, Africa, and North and South America, might see the typical desert tree more often than others, anyone can learn the basics of what makes desert trees different from others.

the basics of what makes desert trees different from others. READING: THE FRUIT OF DISCORD –

READING: THE FRUIT OF DISCORD OIL PALM

The oil palm tree originally comes from Africa, and has long been used as a source of oil. In recent times, palm oil production has been largely geared to industrial uses, and even more recently, oil palm cultivation has undergone a major boom as a result of the climate crisis, because of its potential as a supposedly “ecological” alternative source of fuel that can continue feeding the current unsustainable model of production and consumption that is at the root of the crisis and yet remains unchallenged.

In Latin America, oil palm cultivation followed the model of large-scale monoculture plantations established through the forced displacement of autochthonous populations, combined with cases in which local peasant farmers provide their labor and in many cases their own land. New oil palm plantations tend to be established

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in tropical rainforest areas, which are clear-cut, drained, fertilized, planted with oil

palm seedlings and subsequently sprayed continually with powerful herbicides

which, combined with the chemical fertilizers, leach into the soil and contaminate water sources. These practices make it impossible to plant other crops, which have

a critical impact on the food sovereignty of local communities. In addition, to

maximize the amount of oil produced per fruit and per tree, the land is dried out with drainage channels that also dry up nearby lagoons, streams and wetlands, thus

affecting local flora and fauna.

Oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding in suitable tropical rainforest areas throughout Latin America. In Mexico, plantations are being forcibly established in the Abandon rainforest. In Peru, inhabitants of the Amazon region have risen up against the Romero palm oil group, declaring “The rainforest cannot be sold! The rainforest must be defended!” In Guatemala, the spread of oil palm plantations is enabled through the eviction of local populations and forced purchase of land from impoverished communities who are obliged to migrate to other areas. In Honduras, peasant farmers and members of the Unified Peasant Farmers Movement of Guan (MUCA) were the victims of a brutal crackdown by army troops and police acting in support of Miguel Focuses Barium, a large landholder and palm oil producer known as “oil palm grower of death”. In Nicaragua, oil palm plantations are the latest business venture of United Brands, formerly United Fruit, a name linked with a long record of political and social manipulation. In Costa Rica, oil palm cultivation has also gained a solid foothold.

Colombia is an emblematic case of the oil palm industry. There are more than 360,000 hectares of oil palm plantations, and former president Alvaro Uribe once announced that these plantations would eventually reach a total of six million

hectares. Their creation, financed primarily by the World Bank, has been based on the plundering of land collectively owned by local communities. Murder, destruction

of homes and property, large-scale displacement, economic blockades, continuous

harassment, threats and ongoing abuse by the national army and paramilitary forces working on behalf of the plantation companies are the underlying foundation

of this “progress”, as denounced by the Inter-Ecclesiastic Commission for Justice

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and Peace. In the case of Baja Taranto, the expansion of oil palm cultivation was achieved through the misappropriation of 15 villages on over 25,000 hectares of land in Curvarado and another four villages and 20,000 hectares of land in Acarida, for which collective property titles had been granted by previous governments.

The oil palm plantation workers are subjected to slave labor working conditions. Constant surveillance by armed guards during the work day and payment in scrip that can be exchanged for food in the company store, instead of cash salaries that workers can freely spend as they choose, are the hidden face of the supposed “clean energy” offered by agrofuel produced from palm oil.

Indupalma is one of the leading companies in the Colombian palm oil industry. One of the strategies it used to expand its operations, copied from the Malaysian model, was the forging of partnerships with peasant farmers for the cultivation of oil palm on small farms, which nonetheless remained firmly linked with big capital. When Indupalma approached the Sintrainudpalma trade union in 1995 to propose an alliance, the union declined. Paramilitary forces murdered four of its leaders and “disappeared” another.

declined. Paramilitary forces murdered four of its leaders and “disappeared” another. BASIC PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE 16

BASIC PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE

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In many languages, the fundamental unit of composition is the paragraph. A paragraph consists of several sentences that are grouped together. This group of sentences together discuss one main subject. In formal academic English, paragraphs have three principal parts. These three parts are the topic sentence,

body sentences, and the concluding sentence. We will also talk briefly about details

in paragraphs.

PARTS OF A PARAGRAPH

THE TOPIC SENTENCE

A topic sentence usually comes at the beginning of a paragraph; that is, it is usually

the first sentence in a formal academic paragraph. It is the most general sentence in

a paragraph. What does "most general" mean? it means that there are not many

details in the sentence, but that the sentence introduces an overall idea that you want to discuss later in the paragraph.

SUPPORTING SENTENCES

They are called "supporting" because they "support," or explain, the idea expressed in the topic sentence. Of course, paragraphs in English often have more than two supporting ideas.

THE CONCLUDING SENTENCE

In formal paragraphs you will sometimes see a sentence at the end of the paragraph which summarizes the information that has been presented. The closing

sentence reminds the reader what the topic of the paragraph is really all about, what

it means.

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LEVEL III Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira CHARACTERISTICS OF A PARAGRAPH Paragraphs have two important

CHARACTERISTICS OF A PARAGRAPH

Paragraphs have two important features: Cohesion and Coherence. It is very important for a good reader to be aware of these aspects.

COHESION: It can be thought of as all the grammatical and lexical links that link one part of a text to another. This includes use of synonyms, pronouns, verb tenses, time references, grammatical reference, etc. For example, 'it', 'neither' and 'this' all refer to an idea previously mentioned. 'First of all', 'then' and 'after that' help to sequence a text. 'However', 'in addition' and 'for instance' link ideas and arguments in a text. You might think of cohesion as a means of establishing connections within a text at all sorts of different levels, e.g., section, paragraphs, sentences and even phrases.

Cohesion is the glue that holds a piece of writing together. In other words, if a paper is cohesive, it sticks together from sentence to sentence and from paragraph to paragraph. Cohesive devices certainly include transitional words and phrases, such as therefore, furthermore, or for instance, that clarify for readers the relationships among ideas in a piece of writing. However, transitions aren't enough to make

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writing cohesive. Repetition of key words and use of reference words are also needed for cohesion. In summary, cohesion in a paragraph means that all the information contributes to develop the same idea.

COHERENCE: It can be thought of as how meanings and sequences of ideas relate to each other. Typical examples would be general> particular; statement> example; problem> solution; question> answer. Coherence as the text making sense as a whole at an ideas level, and cohesion as rather more mechanical links at a language level. You can imagine that it is possible for a piece of writing to contain plenty of cohesion yet little coherence. In brief, coherence deals with the way meanings and sequences of ideas relate to each other following a logical connection that provides consistency to the whole text.

EXAMPLE

Main idea

My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.

My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features. First, it is noted for the Wheaton

First, it is noted for

the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. Also, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep. The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place.

Supporting Sentences Concluding Sentence
Supporting Sentences
Concluding Sentence
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LEVEL III Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira PRACTICE: A. Read the following paragraphs and identify

PRACTICE:

A. Read the following paragraphs and identify their main parts. Represent the information graphically.

Paragraph # 1: CLIMATE AFFECTS DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN SPEECH January 23, 2015 University of Miami

An interesting question, one that linguists have long debated, is whether climate and geography affect language. The challenge has been to untangle the factors that cause sounds to change. To find a relationship between the climate and the evolution of language, one needs to discover an association between the environment and vocal sounds that is consistent throughout the world and present in different languages. And that is precisely what a group of researchers has done. Many languages of the world use tone or pitch to give meaning to their words. University of Miami (UM) linguist Caleb Everett and his collaborators have uncovered that languages with complex tones --those that use three or more tones for sound contrast -- are much more likely to occur in humid regions of the world, while languages with simple tone occur more frequently in desiccated regions, whether frigid areas or dry deserts.

Paragraph # 2: ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR

Antisocial behavior can be generally characterized as an overall lack of adherence

to the social mores and standards that allow members of a society to coexist

peaceably. According to some studies, individuals with antisocial behavior disorders

are responsible for about half of all crimes committed, though they make up only

about five percent of the population. Most of those with antisocial behavior disorders

are male. Of the females that account for a smaller portion, most are not physically

violent.

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Paragraph # 3: AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER

An agricultural engineer designs and improves agricultural systems, equipment, and

tools. He or she combines knowledge of mechanical, civil, and chemical

engineering to help farmers increase crop production while lowering costs. Some

agricultural engineers focus on the impacts of farming practices on the environment

and develop means to reduce pollution, restore damaged ecosystems, and promote

sustainability. Professional agricultural engineers work in a variety of settings,

including government environmental organizations, private consulting firms, and

agricultural machinery manufacturers.

Paragraph # 4: STRESSFUL TIME Money causes teenagers to feel stress. It makes them feel bad about themselves

and envy other people. My friend, for instance, lives with her family and has to

share a room with her sister, who is very cute and intelligent. This girl wishes she

could have her own room and have a lot of stuff, but she can’t have these things

because her family doesn’t have much money. Her family’s income is pretty low

because her father is old and doesn’t go to work. Her sister is the only one who

works. Because her family can’t buy her the things she wants, she feels a lot of

stress and gets angry sometimes. Once, she wanted a beautiful dress to wear to a

sweetheart dance. She asked her sister for some money to buy the dress. She was

disappointed because her sister didn’t have money to give her. She sat in silence

for a little while and then started yelling out loud. She said her friends got anything

they wanted but she didn’t. Then she felt sorry for herself and asked why she was

born into a poor family. Not having money has caused this girl to think negatively

about herself and her family. It has caused a lot of stress in her life.

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Paragraph # 5: WHY DO PEOPLE LIE? One reason people lie is to achieve personal power. Achieving personal power is helpful for someone who pretends to be more confident than he really is. For example, one of my friends threw a party at his house last month. He asked me to come to his party and bring a date. However, I didn’t have a girlfriend. One of my other friends, who had a date to go to the party with, asked me about my date. I didn’t want to be embarrassed, so I claimed that I had a lot of work to do. I said I could easily find a date even better than his if I wanted to. I also told him that his date was ugly. I achieved power to help me feel confident; however, I embarrassed my friend and his date. Although this lie helped me at the time, since then it has made me look down on myself.

The paragraph matrix

Suporting Sentences Supporting Sentences Main Idea Supporting Sentences Supporting Sentences
Suporting Sentences
Supporting Sentences
Main Idea
Supporting Sentences
Supporting Sentences
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LEVEL III Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira RHETORICAL FUNCTIONS WHAT IS RHETORIC? Modern theories of

RHETORICAL FUNCTIONS

WHAT IS RHETORIC?

Modern theories of oral and written communication remain heavily influenced by the basic rhetorical principles introduced in ancient Greece by Isocrates and Aristotle, and in Rome by Cicero and Quintilian. The term "rhetorical" derives from the Greek word "rhetor," which means "public speaker" or "spokesman," and has come to signify the art and skill of speaking and writing persuasively. Both writing and speaking, a rhetorical function is the way the writer explains his ideas and try to simplify things to help the readers or audience better understand the matter examined.

Here, we will present these key figures and identify some of their central elements.

1. DEFINITION

Scientists use Definitions when they try to explain reality. Definitions help them to discriminate and characterize all kinds of phenomena. (In other words, their conceptualizations).

WHAT IS A DEFINITION?: We call a definition sentence a statement that contains the minimum necessary to cover the meaning of a concept and reveal the essential nature of the thing the concept means.

There are

two possible ways to present a DEFINITION

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1. A. Complete or Formal Definition: It is a complete sentence in which three

purposes are clearly stated:

1. Identify the concept by name (Concept).

2. Divide it in a group or order (Class).

3. Expose its specific differentia (Characteristics).

1. B. Incomplete Definition:

(concept-class or concept- characteristics) are stated in the definition sentence

which is also short, the other(s) should be found in the text, are implicit or the reader

must deduce them.

It is a definition in which only one or two purposes

The definition has this structure:

only one or two purposes The definition has this structure: 1. CONCEPT 2. CLASS 3. CHARACTERISTICS

1. CONCEPT

2.CLASS

3.CHARACTERISTICS

REMINDER: The order in which these elements appear may vary according to the text.

There are verbal forms used in definitions called Markers; Here are some of them:

 

MARKERS

X

is

X

may be defined as

X

can be defined…

X

are…

X

is a type of Y that /which

X

is named…

X

is defined…

X

is called

X

is known as

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EXAMPLES

A. Production is the Process of making something of value. It means bringing

together materials, machinery and workers to make goods.

implementation of integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment, energy

and material is known as Industrial Engineering.

C. Recreation amuses or stimulates, it refers to the use of leisure time for personal

satisfaction and enjoyment and for physical and mental health.

D. The computer: is a complex device.

Concept

Class

Characteristics

: is a complex device. Concept Class Characteristics PRACTICE A. Read the following excerpts and analyze

PRACTICE

A. Read the following excerpts and analyze the definitions. Are they complete or incomplete definitions?

Swine flu is a respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses that regularly

cause outbreaks in pigs.

Man-made contaminants are substances discharged from factories, applied to

farmlands or used by consumers in their homes and yards.

Concussion is a type of brain injury. Technically, a concussion is a short loss of

normal brain function in response to a head injury.

Business is an organization designed to provide goods, services, or both to

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B. The

Discipline

that

concerns

the

design,

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Catfish: A person who uses the Twitter online message service to send and

receive tweets.

B. Match the concept (left) with the definition (right). Identify the parts of the definitions.

CONCEPTS

DEFINITIONS

Brain Drain

It

is an abnormal, irrational fear of being

 

without ones mobile device, or of being unable to communicate using ones mobile device.

Acid Rain

It

is an image of oneself taken by oneself using

digital camera especially for posting on social networks.

a

Developing Country

The basic structural unit of all organisms.

 

Webinar

Radio Frequency Identification is a technology that uses computer chips smaller than a grain of sand to track items from a distance.

Urban tribes

Fuel, as wood or ethanol, derived from biomass.

 

Chikungunya

The movable articles, as tables, chairs, desks or cabinets, required for use or ornament in a house, office, or the like.

Outsourcing

Can be defined as a large emigration of

 

individuals with technical skills or knowledge,

 

normally due to conflict, lack of opportunity or

health risks.

 

Nomophobia

It

is the act of hacking, or breaking into a

 

computer system, for a politically or socially motivated purpose.

Cell

The term is used to denote material is in an unprocessed or minimally processed state; e.g., raw latex or coal.

 

RFID

is defined as a poor or non-industrial country that is seeking to develop its resources by industrialization.

It

Furniture

It

is a company or organization which

 

purchases goods or subcontract services from an outside supplier or source.

Raw Material

is a rain which contains large amounts of harmful chemicals as a result of burning substances such as coal and oil.

It

 

Biofuel

It

is a febrile disease that resembles dengue,

 

occurs especially in parts of Africa, India, and southeastern Asia.

Hacktivism

It

is a seminar that takes place on the Internet,

allowing participants in different locations to

 

see and hear the presenter.

 

Selfie

They are defined as young city people that gathered in relatively small, fluid groups.

 
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LEVEL III Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira READING: DIVERGENT THINKING LEFT BRAIN VS RIGHT BRAIN

READING: DIVERGENT THINKING

LEFT BRAIN VS RIGHT BRAIN AND CREATIVITY

Have you ever heard people say that they tend to be more of a right-brain or left- brain thinker? Left brain people are said to be more rational, analytic, and controlling, while right brain people are said to be more intuitive, creative, emotionally expressive and spontaneous.

intuitive, creative, emotionally expressive and spontaneous. While there is little evidence that a more dominant ‘half

While there is little evidence that a more dominant ‘half brain’ (left or right) determines a person’s personality as shown here, there is good evidence that regions of the right hemisphere have a key role in what is called divergent thinking and the creative problem solving that depends on it.

CONVERGENT THINKING AND DIVERGENT THINKING

The psychologist J.P. Guilford first invented the terms convergent thinking and divergent thinking back in 1967. Divergent thinking is also loosely called ‘lateral thinking’, a term coined by the thinking guru Edward De Bono – author of ‘Six Thinking Hats’.

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WHAT IS DIVERGENT THINKING?

Divergent thinking is the process of generating multiple related ideas for a given topic or solutions to a problem. Divergent thinking occurs in a spontaneous, free- flowing, ‘non-linear’ manner. Convergent thinking, on the other hand, is the ability to apply rules to arrive at a single ‘correct’ solution to a problem such as the answer to an IQ test problem. This process is systematic and linear.

The idea of divergent thinking has become important in the scientific study of creativity because many widely used tests for creativity are measures of individual differences in divergent thinking ability.

of individual differences in divergent thinking ability. READING: HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE Agriculture is the art of

READING: HISTORY OF AGRICULTURE

Agriculture is the art of cultivation and exploitation of the land in order to obtain products with human purposes or target pets. There are various disciplines and all agricultural, scientific and industrial infrastructure around these activities. These practices include the study, preparation of land, culture, development, collection, processing, distribution, etc. It is a very old activity, with origins in prehistory, and currently is an essential and fundamental economic sector in the world food. It is estimated that agriculture has developed from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. Since then, all the peoples of the Earth have recognized the value that cultivated plants for food and pets.

Some plants have become traditional in many countries, and even in some of them have become in monocultures, and the most important source of income. Among the varied agricultural production, are some very important products for humans, such as cereals, wheat, corn, rye, rice, cane sugar, beet, oil, vegetables and fruits.

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With regard to animal feed, feed grain of soybean forage maize and sorghum are extremely important. Not all agricultural products also have food value; there are many crops to produce materials for the industry, such as rubber, oil seeds to make paintings or synthetic chemicals, plants for production of fibers, etc.

Recognizes the value of agriculture to verify that almost half of the world's population is dedicated to this activity, although it is true that its distribution is highly variable. Thus, while in Africa and Asia they exceed 60 per cent of the population, in the United States and Canada barely reached 5 per cent. For its part, South American population dedicated to these tasks is almost a quarter; in Western Europe it is around 7 per cent; and in the countries of the Russian Federation and covered in the former Soviet Union reached 15 per cent.

and covered in the former Soviet Union reached 15 per cent. 2. DESCRIPTION Descriptions are used

2. DESCRIPTION

Descriptions are used in science texts for representing and explaining living things, objects and substances. The objective of a description is to detail an object, a place, a concept, a process, a person, a structure, a living organism, a system, an historical event like they are using vivid details.

The structure of a description is the following:

1. WHAT IS DESCRIBED?

2. CHARACTERISTICS

EXAMPLE

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CALI: Santiago de Cali, commonly known as Cali, is the capital of the Valle del Cauca Department and the third most populous city in the country (with a population

of over two million inhabitants of different backgrounds and ethnic compositions). It

is one of the oldest cities in Colombia and America. It was conquistador Sebastian de Belalcazar in 1536.

founded by the

Located in the valley of the river Cauca at around one thousand meters above sea level, it has a basically flat topography. It is now one of Colombia's most influential industrial and economic centers. The city is considered the main cultural and agricultural center in southwest Colombia. As well as being known as the capital of salsa, due to the enthusiasm the musical genre generates, its gastronomy has recently come to be known worldwide. Its warm climate, added to the warmth of its people, make this city one of the country's likeable and interesting.

WHAT IS DESCRIBED?

CHARACTERISTICS

CALI

-Capital of the Valle del Cauca. -2 million of inhabitants. -1000 above the sea level. -Capital of salsa -Warm climate

-1000 above the sea level. -Capital of salsa -Warm climate PRACTICE: Read the following descriptions and

PRACTICE:

Read the following descriptions and identify their parts

1. GPS has become a vital global utility, indispensable for modern navigation on land, sea and air around the world, as well as an important tool for map-making and land surveying.

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2. Milk is first received at the milk plant where is weighed and sampled. Then, the

milk flows to a clarifier whose purpose is to remove foreign material or sediment, next, the milk may be homogenized to prevent cream formation. After that, milk is

pasteurized to destroy bacteria. Finally, the milk is cooled and is ready to distribution.

3. Scientists all over the world are making predictions about the ill effects of global

warming and connecting some of these events that have taken place in the past decades as an alarm of global warming. The effect of global warming is increasing the average temperature of the earth. A rise in earth’s temperatures can in turn

root to other alterations in the ecology, including an increasing sea level and modifying the quantity and pattern of rainfall.

4. My family is convinced that I inherited my imagination from Edgar Allan Poe.

For example, when I was in kindergarten, I dreamed that my sister killed people with a television antenna and disposed of their bodies in the woods across the street from my house. For three weeks after that dream I stayed with my grandparents until they finally convinced me that my sister was harmless. Not long afterward, my grandfather died, and that sparked new fears. I was so terrified that his ghost would visit me that I put two brooms across the doorway of my bedroom at night. Fortunately, my little trick worked. He never came back. More recently, I was terribly frightened after staying up late one night to watch The Ring. I lay awake until dawn clutching my cell phone, ready to dial 911 the moment that spooky little girl stepped out of my TV. Just thinking about it now gives me

goosebumps.

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5. A beach in Hawaii on a December day is like a day at a lake in mid-August. The beach smells fresh, almost like a new ocean breeze air freshener. The sand is hot and looks like gold blended in with little white specks; it sparkles like the water running off the swimmers back and feels like walking on coals from a burning grill. Not far from the shore, you can see the coral sitting still in the wild and shallow water. Turtles drift in to see all the people. The palm trees sway in the air from the forceful wind. In a distance, a house is beautifully placed right by the water, so it can look across the ocean each day. People are laughing and playing in the burning sand, and others are relaxing on the beach bronzing their skin while enjoying the bright rays of light coming from the sun. From a far distance the ocean is a deep navy blue; waves come in like a bulldozer from all the wind. At night everything is still. Waves are still coming in but not as hard, while the beach is cleared from all the people. All you can hear is the waves of the ocean and the light breeze coming from the giant palm trees. The beach is a spectacular place. Leaving it is excruciating and difficult to do. By Ashleigh Tranmer.

6. Violence and displacement are apparently strongly linked. War strategies adopted by illegal armed groups like death threats, massacres, forced recruitment, temporary town take-overs and selected homicides force the civil population to flee their town. There is a correlation between increments of political homicides and increases in the total number of displaced households. In particular, during the year 1999, the trend of political homicides and displaced households soared significantly and near 80 percent of violations to human rights and 82 percent of armed confrontations occurred in expulsion sites.

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LEVEL III Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira READING: WHAT IS ISO? The International Organization for

READING: WHAT IS ISO?

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from more than 140 countries, one from each country. ISO is a non-governmental organization established in 1947. The mission of ISO' is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity.

ISO's work results in international agreements which are published as International Standards.

Why is international standardization needed?

The existence of non-harmonized standards for similar technologies in different countries or regions can contribute to so-called "technical barriers to trade". Export- minded industries have long sensed the need to agree on world standards to help rationalize the international trading process. This was the origin of the establishment of ISO. International standardization is well-established for many technologies in several fields as information processing and communications, textiles, packaging, distribution of goods, energy production and utilization, shipbuilding, banking and financial services. It will continue to grow in importance for all sectors of industrial activity for the foreseeable future.

The main reasons are:

Worldwide progress in trade liberalization: Today's free-market economies increasingly encourage diverse sources of supply and provide opportunities for

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expanding markets. An industry-wide standard, internationally recognized, developed by consensus among trading partners, serves as the language of trade.

Interpenetration of sectors: No industry in today's world can truly claim to be completely independent of components, products, rules of application, etc., that have been developed in other sectors. Bolts are used in aviation and for agricultural machinery; welding plays a role in mechanical and nuclear engineering and electronic data processing has penetrated all industries.

Worldwide communications systems: The computer industry offers a good example of technology that needs quickly and progressively to be standardized at a global level. Full compatibility among open systems fosters healthy competition among producers, and offers real options to users since it is a powerful catalyst for innovation, improved productivity and cost-cutting.

Global standards for emerging technologies: Standardization programs in completely new fields are now being developed. Such fields include advanced materials, the environment, life sciences, urbanization and construction. In the early, stages of new technology development, applications can be imagined but functional prototypes do not exist. Here, the need for standardization is in defining terminology and accumulating databases of quantitative information.

Industry-wide standardization is a condition existing within a particular industrial sector when the large majority of products or services conform to the same standards. It results from consensus: agreements reached between all economic players in that industrial sector - suppliers, users, and often governments.

Users have more confidence in products and services that conform to International Standards. Assurance of conformity can be provided by manufacturers' declarations, or by audits carried out by independent bodies.

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LEVEL III Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira READING: PASTEURIZATION Pasteurization is the process of

READING: PASTEURIZATION

Pasteurization is the process of heat processing a liquid or a food to kill pathogenic bacteria to make the food safe to eat. The use of pasteurization to kill pathogenic bacteria has helped reduce the transmission of diseases, such as typhoid fever, tuberculosis, scarlet fever, polio, and dysentery.

It is important to note that foods can become contaminated even after they have

been pasteurized. For example, all pasteurized foods must be refrigerated. If the pasteurized food is temperature-abused (e.g., if milk or eggs are not kept refrigerated), it could become contaminated. Therefore, it is important to always handle food properly by handling it with clean hands, preventing it from becoming contaminated, and keeping it at a safe temperature.

How Pasteurization Works

Foods are heat-processed to kill pathogenic bacteria. Foods can also be pasteurized using gamma irradiation. Such treatments do not make the foods radioactive. The pasteurization process is based on the use of one of following time and temperature relationships.

High-Temperature-Short-Time Treatment (HTST) -- this process uses higher heat for less time to kill pathogenic bacteria. For example, milk is pasteurized at 161°F (72°C) for 15 seconds.

Low-Temperature-Long-Time Treatment (LTLT) -- this process uses lower heat for

a longer time to kill pathogenic bacteria. For example, milk is pasteurized at 145°F (63°C) for 30 minutes.

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It is important to remember that the times and temperatures depend on: (1) the type of food and (2) the final result one wants to achieve, such as retaining a food’s nutrients, color, texture, and flavor.

Processes Used to Pasteurized Foods

Flash Pasteurization - Involves a high-temperature, short-time treatment in which pourable products, such as juices, are heated for 3 to 15 seconds to a temperature that destroys harmful micro-organisms. After heating, the product is cooled and packaged. Most drink boxes and pouches use this pasteurization method as it allows extended unrefrigerated storage while providing a safe product.

Steam Pasteurization - This technology uses heat to control or reduce harmful microorganisms in beef. This system passes freshly-slaughtered beef carcasses that are already inspected, washed, and trimmed, through a chamber that exposes the beef to pressurized steam for approximately 6 to 8 seconds. The steam raises the surface temperature of the carcasses to 190° to 200° F (88° to 93°C). The carcasses are then cooled with a cold-water spray. This process has proven to be successful in reducing pathogenic bacteria, such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria, without the use of any chemicals. Steam pasteurization is used on nearly 50% of U.S. beef.

Irradiation Pasteurization - Foods, such as poultry, red meat, spices, and fruits and vegetables, are subjected to small amounts of gamma rays. This process effectively controls vegetative bacteria and parasitic foodborne pathogens and increases the storage time of foods.

foodborne pathogens and increases the storage time of foods. LINK: http://www.uefap.com/writing/function/funct.htm

LINK: http://www.uefap.com/writing/function/funct.htm .Rhetorical functions. http://grammar.about.com/od/developingparagraphs/a/samdescpars.htm

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LEVEL III Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira 3. EXEMPLIFICATION Exemplification is a common linguistic

3. EXEMPLIFICATION

Exemplification is a common linguistic device used in academic discourse. It is

used in paragraphs to support the author’s points with examples that clarify the

topic. When presenting and argument we often give a general statement, which is

then illustrated, supported or clarified with an example. This exemplification often

appears in the texts with some others like classification, definition and description.

This is the structure of exemplification:

1. A GENERAL STATEMENT: Sentence that expresses the argument.

2. A MARKER: That is an expression or connector.

3. AN EXAMPLE: The concrete illustration.

General Statement

Marker

Example

MARKERS: There are some transitional expressions that indicate illustration. They are also known as connectors of exemplification. Here are some of them:

MARKERS

For instance, Like, i.e., e.g., For example, To illustrate, Such as, Some instances. Here are few examples, Another, One illustration.

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EXAMPLES:

1. When mice are kept at high population densities, their behavior changes in several ways. Aggressive activity within populations of mice rises as density increases. Cannibalism of young also goes up. Communal nesting, frequent in natural mouse populations, increases abnormally. In one example, 58 mice one to three days old (from several litters) were found in one nest, most unusual communal living. None survived because most of the mothers deserted them immediately after birth.

2. At Universidad Nacional, there are many kinds of students from different regions of Colombia. For example, there are students from Guajira, Bolivar, Cundinamarca, Nariño and Caldas among others.

3.A more important reason for them being more innovative is their higher propensity to learn from sources like suppliers, customers, and universities.

from sources like suppliers, customers, and universities. PRACTICE: Read the following excerpts and identify the parts

PRACTICE:

Read the following excerpts and identify the parts of exemplification.

1. Vitamins and minerals can be added to enrich (replace nutrients lost in processing) or fortify (add nutrients not normally present) foods to improve their nutritional quality. Breads and cereals are usually enriched with some B vitamins and iron. Common examples of fortification include the addition of vitamin D to milk, vitamin A to margarine, vitamin C to fruit drinks, calcium to orange juice, and iodide to table salt.

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2. The authorities were aware that the exchange controls in the sterling area were

not all that London hoped. For example, a major recipient of capital from the UK in

this period was Australia.

3. Morgan was not interested in the terms for themselves but in the principles which

they seemed to reveal. For instance, he would have been interested in the fact that

the English word "uncle" can be used in speaking both of one's mother's brother and one's father's brother while in Swedish, for instance, two different words are used.

in Swedish, for instance, two different words are used. READING: ANXIETY DISORDER Anxiety disorder is a

READING:

ANXIETY DISORDER

Anxiety disorder is a condition that results in the sufferer building up anxiety and becoming shy, scared of crowds and public speaking, and in some extreme cases, paranoid. Anxiety disorder comes with a group of symptoms like include avoidance, confusion, and feelings of dread, insecurity and nervousness.

-When a person's anxiety reaches its breaking point, the person may experience what is known as an anxiety attack or a panic attack. These attacks are a result of anxiety and usually manifest themselves by intense pain and feelings of claustrophobia. Some examples of symptoms are racing heart, chest tightness, dizzy spells, hot flashes and obsessive worries.

-Anxiety causes can vary greatly. It is often a normal reaction to stressors such as financial problems or having a sick child. Anxiety causes can also be medical in nature, there are some medical disorders that cause anxiety. For instance,

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hyperthyroidism, Cushing’s disease, carcinoid syndrome and pheochromocytoma. Anxiety might be related to substance abuse or substance withdrawal, or it could be part of a psychiatric anxiety disorder.

In generalized anxiety disorder, there is not one specific stressor that causes anxiety. Individuals who have generalized anxiety disorder worry about a wide range of things; they often feel like everything causes anxiety. People who have social phobia, on the other hand, are scared specifically of social interactions. Some became anxious about any social interaction, and others fear specific anxiety causes, such as being in large groups or talking to people of the opposite sex.

Multiple studies have shown that women tend to have higher anxiety levels than men. Experts attribute this to the fact that women are more likely to be caretakers. For example, in many societies, most women work outside the home but still maintain most of the responsibility for upkeep of the household. Women also, because of their roles as caretakers, might be more likely to worry about their family members.

If you believe that you suffer from anxiety disorder than you probably want to learn how to control it. This can be very difficult to achieve, but it is possible. Find a right cure may be difficult, but managing anxiety is difficult. Do some research on the subject and try to find something that fits your lifestyle and body best.

to find something that fits your lifestyle and body best. READING : WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE

READING: WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES?

The concepts of renewable and non-renewable resources are often tossed around in the modern world. Some people say that society’s dependence on non-renewable

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resources is the reason for worker exploitation, many unfair trade practices, and even wars.

Renewable resources are any desirable items found in nature that can be naturally replenished over a useful period. Renewable resources don’t necessarily stay renewable. If the rate at which the renewable resource is harvested is far greater than the rate at which it is renewed, the once renewable resource begins to become depleted. A resource that becomes depleted may not ever be able to be replenished, and would then become a non-renewable resource. Fish are an example of this. In some areas, the numbers of fish have been so reduced through over-catching and pollution that they no longer live in countable numbers. In those specific areas, fish are no longer a renewable resource.

Many safeguards can be taken in order to help insure a renewable resource does not becoming depleted. Sound management practices can be used so that not too much of a renewable resource is taken at the wrong time. The sustainable yield of a specific natural resource can be determined, and harvesting limits based on that number can be agreed upon. Programs that help restore renewable resources such as replanting harvested trees can be done. Modern technology can even be used to protect the natural resource from factors that might limit them, such as pollution or drought.

Non-renewable resources are desirable items found in nature that cannot be replenished over a useful period of time. For example, Coal and petroleum are arguable the two most important non-renewable resources. It can take millions of years and extremely rare conditions for these fossil fuels to be produced in nature, so they cannot be considered renewable.

The biggest difference between renewable and non-renewable resources is that, eventually, non-renewable resources will run out. It may take decades, but, eventually, there will be no fossil fuels left on earth if they continue to be consumed at the current rate. Renewable resources might be used to replace them, but there are no current renewable resources at society’s current level of technology that provide the same level of usable power or heat as non-renewable resources.

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Technology can further blur the line between renewable and non-renewable

resources. It is possible for technology to make a previously non-renewable

resource renewable; it can also either slow or increase the rate at which a resource

is used. For instance, scientists are currently studying ways to use tanks of algae to

produce petroleum, meaning that it might be possible in the far future for petroleum

to be considered a renewable resource if enough technological advances occur.

a renewable resource if enough technological advances occur. 4. CLASSIFICATION When we classify, we arrange members

4. CLASSIFICATION

When we classify, we arrange members of a group. For example, if we take the following list:

Physics, Chemistry, Biology, French, German, Spanish.

It is quite clear that we have two different types of word. We have science subjects and languages. So it is simple to divide the list into two:

Physics, Chemistry, Biology,

AND

French, German, Spanish

When we are classifying, we often need to say what our classification is and how we are making it.

A classification has the following parts or elements:

1.

CLASS: Where the items belong.

 

2.

ITEMS: What is described.

 

3.

CRITERIA:

The

basis

for

the

classification.

 

These are some markers that can be useful to identify a classification:

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MARKERS

Can be classified in…

Can be divided into

Is/ are classified…

Is made up of…

Comprises

Consist of

Is composed of

Makes up

Can be categorized in…

Look at these examples:

Parts of classifications:

1. Class

 

2. Items

3. Criteria

 

ROCKS

Scientists

group

rocks
rocks

into

three

main

types:

Igneous,

sedimentary

and

metamorphic.

 

-IGNEOUS rocks are produced by white-hot material deep inside the earth which

rises towards the surface as a molten mass called magma. If the magma stops

before on it reaches the surface, it cools and forms rocks such as granite. If the

magma erupts, it forms a red-hot stream called lava. When the lava cools it

becomes rock. One of the most common lava rocks is called basalt. Igneous rock

is used in the formation of the other two main types of rocks - sedimentary and

metamorphic.

 

-SEDIMENTARY rock is formed by small particles or sediments such as sand,

mud, dead sea animals and weathered rock. These are deposited in layers and

become solid rock over millions of years as they are squeezed by the weight of

other deposits above them.

 

The word metamorphosis means 'change'. Rocks which have been changed by

heat and pressure are called METAMORPHIC rocks. They are formed deep

inside the earth. Slate for example is formed from compressed mud or clay.

Marble is another type of metamorphic rock. It is produced from limestone which

has undergone change through heat and pressure.

 
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TYPES OF BUSSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

A private business may be owned in two different forms. The unlimited liability companies and the limited liability companies. In the unlimited liability companies, the owners are responsible of all the debts and legal responsibilities of the company. Some examples of this type of companies are The sole proprietorship and The partnerships. On the other hand, in the limited liability companies the owners are only responsible of the sum of money (capital) they put in the business. These companies are called Private limited company (LTD) and Public limited company.

The chemical elements

in the earth's crust are classified in two major groups -

metals and nonmetals. Elements are classified as metallic or nonmetallic, according to their physical and chemical properties. Metals, for example, are usually good conductors of heat and electricity; nonmetals usually are not. Most

metals are malleable; they can be hammered into flat sheets; nonmetals lack this quality. Some metals are also ductile; they can be drawn out into thin wires; nonmetals are not usually ductile. Metals usually have luster, and are able to reflect light. They also have a high density. Nonmetals usually do not exhibit these properties. A few elements, such as arsenic and antimony, exhibit both metallic and nonmetallic properties and are sometimes referred to as metalloids. Inquiry into earth and space science, by William J Jacobson, p 104-105.

TYPES OF FOOD

AND THEIR FUNCTION

Before going further into the question of energy supply and demand, and its relationship to food, the major constituents of man's diet must be listed. These are: carbohydrates, the major energy-supplying foods; Proteins, body building materials; fats, energy-rich food stores; vitamins, vital components of cell chemistry; mineral salts, raw materials of all metabolism; water, an obvious and essential compound required for internal cell pressure, the basic medium of cell chemistry and major constituent of blood and hence the transport system; and

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roughage, the mass of food, mainly composed of plant cellulose, that gives the solid bulk to food and thus enables the gut muscles to grip it and move it along by peristalsis. Biology by J. M. Hard, p. 14

move it along by peristalsis. Biology by J. M. Hard, p. 14 READING: TYPES OF POLLUTION

READING: TYPES OF POLLUTION

By Melissa Mayntz

There are several types of pollution, and while they may come from different sources and have different consequences, understanding the basics about pollution can help environmentally conscious individuals minimize their contribution to these dangers. In total, there are nine recognized sources of pollution in the modern world. These sources of pollution don't simply have a negative impact on the natural world, but they can have a measurable effect on the health of human beings as well.

Pollution can be categorized in:

Air pollution is defined as any contamination of the atmosphere that disturbs the natural composition and chemistry of the air. This can be in the form of particulate matter such as dust or excessive gases like carbon dioxide or other vapors that cannot be effectively removed through natural cycles, such as the carbon cycle or the nitrogen cycle.

Air pollution comes from a wide variety of sources. Some of the most excessive sources include: Vehicle or manufacturing exhaust, forest fires, volcanic eruptions, dry soil erosion, and other natural sources. Depending on the concentration of air pollutants, several effects can be noticed. Smog increases, higher rain acidity, crop

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depletion from inadequate oxygen, and higher rates of asthma. Many scientists believe that global warming is also related to increased air pollution.

Water pollution involves any contaminated water, whether from chemical, particulate, or bacterial matter that degrades the water's quality and purity. Water pollution can occur in oceans, rivers, lakes, and underground reservoirs, and as different water sources flow together the pollution can spread.

Causes of water pollution are classified like: Increased sediment from soil erosion, improper waste disposal and littering, leaching of soil pollution into water supplies, organic material decay in water supplies. The effects of water pollution include decreasing the quantity of drinkable water available, lowering water supplies for crop irrigation, and impacting fish and wildlife populations that require water of a certain purity for survival.

Soil, or land pollution, is contamination of the soil that prevents natural growth and balance in the land whether it is used for cultivation, habitation, or a wildlife preserve. Some soil pollution, such as the creation of landfills, is deliberate, while much more is accidental and can have widespread effects.

Soil pollution sources comprise: Hazardous waste and sewage spills, non- sustainable farming practices, such as the heavy use of inorganic pesticides, strip mining, deforestation, and other destructive practices.

Soil contamination can lead to poor growth and reduced crop yields, loss of wildlife habitat, water and visual pollution, soil erosion, and desertification.

Noise pollution refers to undesirable levels of noises caused by human activity that disrupt the standard of living in the affected area. Noise pollution can come from:

Traffic, airports, railroads, manufacturing plants, construction or demolition and concerts.

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Some noise pollution may be temporary while other sources are more permanent. Effects may include hearing loss, wildlife disturbances, and a general degradation of lifestyle. Radioactive pollution is rare but extremely detrimental, and even deadly, when it occurs. Because of its intensity and the difficulty of reversing damage, there are strict government regulations to control radioactive pollution. Sources of radioactive contamination include: Nuclear power plant accidents or leakage improper nuclear waste disposal, Uranium mining operations, radiation pollution can cause birth defects, cancer, sterilization, and other health problems for human and wildlife populations.

-Thermal pollution is excess heat that creates undesirable effects over long periods of time. The earth has a natural thermal cycle, but excessive temperature increases can be considered a rare type of pollution with long term effects. Many types of thermal pollution are confined to areas near their source.

Thermal pollution may be caused by: Power plants, urban sprawl, air pollution particulates that trap heat, deforestation and loss of temperature moderating water supplies.

-Light pollution is the over illumination of an area that is considered obtrusive. Sources include: Large cities, Billboards and advertising, night time sporting events and other night time entertainment.

-Visual pollution - eyesores - can be caused by other pollution or just by undesirable, unattractive views. It may lower the quality of life in certain areas, or could impact property values and personal enjoyment. Sources of visual pollution include: Power lines, Construction areas, billboards and advertising, Neglected areas or objects such as polluted vacant fields or abandoned buildings

The cycle of pollution can go on indefinitely, but once you understand the different pollution types, how they are created, and the effects they can have, you can make

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personal lifestyle changes to combat poor conditions for yourself and others around you.

combat poor conditions for yourself and others around you. READING: TYPES OF PRODUCTION METHOD There are

READING: TYPES OF PRODUCTION METHOD

There are several different methods of handling the conversion or production process - Job, Batch, Flow and Group. This text explains these methods in more detail. The various methods of production are not associated with a particular volume of production. Similarly, several methods may be used at different stages of the overall production process.

Job Method: With Job production, the complete task is handled by a single worker or group of workers. Jobs can be small-scale/low technology as well as complex/high technology. In the former, the organization of production is extremely simply, with the required skills and equipment easily obtainable. This method enables customer's specific requirements to be included, often as the job progresses. Examples include: hairdressers; tailoring. On the contrary, in high technology jobs involve much greater complexity and therefore present greater management challenge. The important ingredient here is project management, or project control. Examples of high technology / complex jobs: film production; large construction projects (e.g. the Millennium Dome)

Batch Method: As businesses grow and production volumes increase, it is not unusual to see the production process organized so that "Batch methods" can be used. Batch methods require that the work for any task is divided into parts or operations. Each operation is completed through the whole batch before the next operation is performed. By using the batch method, it is possible to achieve specialization of labor. The main aims of the batch method are, therefore, to:

Concentrate skills (specialization) and achieve high equipment utilization. This

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technique is probably the most commonly used method for organizing manufacture. A good example is the production of electronic instruments.

Batch methods are not without their problems. There is a high probability of poor work flow, particularly if the batches are not of the optimal size or if there is a significant difference in productivity by each operation in the process. Batch methods often result in the buildup of significant "work in progress" or stocks (i.e. completed batches waiting for their turn to be worked on in the next operation).

Flow Methods: Flow methods are similar to batch methods - except that the problem of rest/idle production/batch queuing is eliminated. Flow has been defined as a "method of production organization where the task is worked on continuously or where the processing of material is continuous and progressive,"

The aims of flow methods are: Improved work & material flow, Reduced need for labor skills an added value / completed work faster.

Flow methods mean that as work on a task at a particular stage is complete, it must be passed directly to the next stage for processing without waiting for the remaining tasks in the "batch". When it arrives at the next stage, work must start immediately on the next process. In order for the flow to be smooth, the times that each task requires on each stage must be of equal length and there should be no movement off the flow production line. In theory, therefore, any fault or error at a stage.

Common examples where flow methods are used are the manufacture of motor cars, chocolates and televisions. In order that flow methods can work well, several requirements must be met: There must be substantially constant demand, the product and/or production tasks must be standardized, Materials used in production must be to specification and delivered on time and the production on each stage of the flow must conform to quality standards.

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LEVEL III Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira MODAL VERBS The modal verbs are: Can Could

MODAL VERBS

The modal verbs are:

Can

Could

May

Might

Shall

Should

Will

Would

Have to

Must

We use modal verbs to show if we believe something is certain, probable or possible (or not). We also use modals to do things like talking about ability, asking permission making requests and offers, and so on. The modal verbs are used to show that we believe something is certain, probable or possible:

Possibility:

We use the modals could, might and may to show that something is possible in the future, but not certain:

They might come later. (= Perhaps/Maybe they will come later.) They may come by car. (= Perhaps/Maybe they will come by car.) If we don’t hurry we could be late. (= Perhaps/Maybe we will be late)

We use could have, might have and may have to show that something was possible now or at some time in the past:

It’s ten o’clock. They might have arrived now. They could have arrived hours ago.

We use the modal can to make general statements about what is possible:

It can be very cold in winter. (= It is sometimes very cold in winter) You can easily lose your way in the dark. (= People often lose their way in the dark)

We use the modal could as the past tense of can:

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It could be very cold in winter. (= Sometimes it was very cold in winter.) You could lose your way in the dark. (= People often lost their way in the dark)

Impossibility:

We use the negative can’t or cannot to show that something is impossible:

That can’t be true. You cannot be serious.

We use couldn’t/could not to talk about the past:

We knew it could not be true. He was obviously joking. He could not be serious.

Probability:

We use the modal must to show we are sure something to be true and we have reasons for our belief:

It’s getting dark. It must be quite late. You haven’t eaten all day. You must be hungry.

We use must have for the past:

They hadn’t eaten all day. They must have been hungry. You look happy. You must have heard the good news.

We use the modal should to suggest that something is true or will be true in the future, and to show you have reasons for your suggestion:

Ask Miranda. She should know It's nearly six o'clock. They should arrive soon.

We use should have to talk about the past:

It's nearly eleven o'clock. They should have arrived by now. The modals are used to do things like talking about ability, asking permission making requests, and so on.

Ability:

We use can to talk about someone’s skill or general abilities:

She can speak several languages. He can swim like a fish. They can’t dance very well.

We use can to talk about the ability to do something at a given time in the present or future:

You can make a lot of money if you are lucky. Help. I can’t breathe.

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They can run but they can’t hide.

We use could to talk about past time:

She could speak several languages. They couldn’t dance very well.

We use could have to say that someone had the ability/opportunity to do something, but did not do it:

She could have learned Swahili, but she didn’t have time. I could have danced all night [but didn't].

Permission:

We use can to ask for permission to do something:

Can I ask a question, please? Can we go home now?

Could is more formal and polite than can:

Could I ask a question please? Could we go home now?

May is another more formal and polite way of asking for permission:

May I ask a question please? May we go home now?

We use can to give permission:

You can go home now if you like. You can borrow my pen if you like.

May is a more formal and polite way of giving permission:

You may go home now, if you like.

We use can to say that someone has permission to do something:

We can go out whenever we want. Students can travel free.

May is a more formal and polite way of saying that someone has permission:

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Students may travel free.

Instructions and requests:

We use could you and would you as polite ways of telling or asking someone to do something:

Could you take a message please? Would you carry this for me please? Could I have my bill please?

Can and Will are less polite:

Can you take a message please? Will you carry this for me please?

Suggestions and advice:

We use should to make suggestions and give advice

You should send an email. We should go by train. We use could to make suggestions:

We could meet at the weekend. You could eat out tonight. We use conditionals to give advice:

Dan will help you if you ask him. Past tenses are more polite:

Dan would help you if you asked him.

Offers and invitations:

We use can I… and to make offers:

Can I help you? Can I do that for you? We can also use shall I … Shall I help you with that? Shall I call you on your mobile?

We sometime say I can

or I could

or I’ll (I will)

I can do that for you if you like.

to make an offer:

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I can give you a lift to the station. I’ll do that for you if you like. I’ll give you a lift to the station.

We use would you like (to)

Would you like to come around tomorrow? Would you like another drink? We use you must or we must for a very polite invitation:

You must come round and see us. We must meet again soon.

for invitations:

Obligation and necessity

We use must to say that it is necessary to do something:

You must stop at a red light. Everyone must bring something to eat. You can wear what you like, but you must look neat and tidy. I’m sorry, but you mustn’t make a noise in here. We use had to for this if we are talking about the past:

Everyone had to bring something to eat. We could wear what we liked, but we had to look neat and tidy.

could wear what we liked, but we had to look neat and tidy. LINKS: In this

LINKS: In this link you can find a slide with the explanation of modal verbs and a role play.

In this link you can find interactive exercises

probable-or-possible 5. INSTRUCTIONS 54

5. INSTRUCTIONS

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Instructions, or directions, are given in both academic an occupational English discourse. They appear- in texts such as technical manuals, laboratory manuals, textbooks assignments, etc.

Instructions can be roughly defined as the rhetoric of telling someone what to do'

and how to do it in order to achieve or attain a certain goal. Instructions usually

express two notions: 1. the actual telling someone what to do and how to do it, and

2:- instructional information, that is to say, that additional information that usually

accompanies most sets of instructions and which provides the reader with

explanations, theory, purposes, conditions, etc.

In relation to their form, instructions are of two types:

A. DIRECT INSTRUCTIONS: Which are stated in the imperative, and, are the more common in manuals.

B. INDIRECT INSTRUCTIONS: which often sound more like suggestions than commands. These usually contain a modal verb such as 'can' 'may, 'should' and less often 'must' and also can also be expressed in the passive voice. An instruction (command or order) is used to give directions or procedures to be followed.

An instruction may have the following markers:

MARKERS OF DIRECT INSTRUCTIONS

MARKERS OF INDIRECT INSTRUCTIONS

-Don’t stare the screen for long periods of time -Position your keyboard at the same height as your elbows. -Keep out of reach of children. -Pay attention to the professor. -Study for the exam.

-May be + verb (p.p.)

-May

+ verb.

-Should be + verb (p.p.)

-Should

+ verb

-Can be + verb (p.p.) -Must be + ,verb (p.p.)

 

-Must

+ verb.

EXAMPLES

MOUTH-TO-MOUTH ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION

In certain accidents, if breathing stops, it is possible to save life by artificial respiration. This means that someone else causes air to enter and leave a person's lungs. The

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method of artificial respiration now recommended by the U.S. Army, the Red Cross, and the Boy Scouts of America is a method of mouth-to-mouth breathing. First, place the victim face up. Tilt the victim's head back so that the chin is pointing upward. Next, if there is any foreign matter in the victim's mouth, wipe it out quickly with your fingers. Then, with your right-hand thumb, pull the jaw down to clear the tongue from the air passage in the back of the victim's mouth. With your left hand, pinch the nostrils to prevent the air you blow into the victim's mouth from escaping through the nose. Now, place your mouth tightly over the victim's and blow into his or her mouth until you see the chest rise. Remove your mouth, turn your head to the side, and listen to the outrush of air that indicates air exchange. Repeat blowing. For an adult, blow vigorously at a rate of about twelve breaths a minute. For a young child, take relatively shallow breaths, at a rate of about twenty a minute.

CREATING A NEW WEB PAGE

You don't need any special tools to create a Web page. You can use any word processor, even WordPad or SimpleText, which are included with the basic Windows and Macintosh system software.

To create a new Web page:

1. Open a text editor or word processor.

2. Choose File > New to create a new, blank document.

3. Create the HTML content as explained in the rest of this book.

4. Choose File > Save As.

5. In the dialog box that appears, choose Text Only (or ASCII) for the format.

6. Give the document the .htm or html extension.

7. Choose the folder in which to save the Web page.

8. Click Save.

PRINTING BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGRAPHS

1. Chemical solutions should be prepared and arranged in three dishes in the order in which they will be used - developer, stop bath and fix. They must be brought down or raised to the correct temperature (about 20°C) and there should be enough of each to give a depth of 5cm.

2. The film should be cut into strips so that all will fit on to a single sheet of 10 x 8in paper. Clean the negatives and the sheet of glass with an anti-static cloth. Then switch off the white light and switch on the safelight.

3. The enlarger is a convenient light source. The height of the head should be adjusted so that its beam illuminates an area slightly larger than the sheet of glass being used. Stop down to f8 and cover the lens with the safe filter.

4. Take a sheet of printing paper and lay it, emulsion (glossy) side up, in position under the enlarger. It will not, of course, be affected by the filtered light from the

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enlarger. Lay the negatives, emulsion (matt) side down, on top of the paper and cover them with the sheet of glass to hold them in place.

5. Switch off the enlarger and then move the safe filter away from the lens. Switch on the enlarger again and expose the paper for 10 seconds. This should be accurate to within about one second.

6. The exposed photographic paper should now be taken from under the glass and slid into the developer dish, emulsion side up.

7. When the paper has been in the developer for about 30 seconds the image should begin to appear and it will continue to darken for about two minutes. Agitate the paper gently during this period by rocking the dish or moving the paper about carefully with the tongs.

8. After the prescribed time the image reaches a stage where there is little further change in its density. At this point, remove the sheet from the developer and let the liquid drain off.

9. When the developer solution has drained off the paper, take the second pair of tongs and transfer it to the stop for 15-30 seconds.

10. Transfer the print from the stop bath to the fixer. After about a minute the white light may be switched on and the print can be examined.

11. The print should now be transferred to the wash and kept its face down for 30 minutes, or at least twice as long for double-weight paper. In the case of resin-coated paper it need only be for five minutes.

12. The finished print should now be dried. If a squeegee roller or photographic blotting paper is used to remove excess water care should be taken not to get dust on to the surface, which will remain tacky until the print is dry.

LANGUAGE USED IN INSTRUCTIONS:

Connectors of Sequence or order are important in giving instructions. The table blow shows some common expressions used.

Firstly, First of all, To begin with, The first step is, The first stage is Simultaneously, While, Secondly, Thirdly Next, Then, Later, The next step is, the last step is Finally, etc.

stage is Simultaneously, While, Secondly, Thirdly Next, Then, Later, The next step is, the last step
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REMINDER: Remember that the markers of instruction are the verbs in the imperative form (Direct instructions) and the modal verbs (Indirect instructions).

instructions) and the modal verbs (Indirect instructions). PPT: functions-in-academic-writing

PPT:

http://es.slideshare.net/mariaahmad82/common-rhetorical- READING: OVERVIEW OF THE USER CENTRED DESIGN PROCESS User

READING: OVERVIEW OF THE USER CENTRED DESIGN PROCESS

User Centered Design (UCD) is an approach that supports the entire development

process with user-centered activities, in order to create applications which are easy

to use and are of added value to the intended users.

Industry surveys have clearly shown that the majority of failed projects can be

attributed to incomplete or inaccurate requirements. The biggest cost benefit that

UCD can provide is by more accurately defining requirements.

A design changes made late in the design process will typically cost ten times more

than if identified during requirements. Making changes to working systems will cost

about one hundred times more.

Ideally UCD activities should be integrated with other development activities. They

should be planned and managed by the development team. Over time, UCD

activities will become common practice, and existing members of the team will be

able to carry them out. However, usability skills will most probably be needed within

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the project and if necessary one or more members of the team should possess these skills.

There are four important UCD principles:

A clear understanding of user and task requirements

Incorporating user feedback to refine requirements and design

Active involvement of user to evaluate designs

Integrating user centered design with other development activities

These principles have an impact on four project phases within the development process:

Planning

Analysis and Requirements

Design

Evaluation (Test & Measure)

PLANNING HOW MUCH DO I DO?

UCD need not be extensive or expensive. A few simple activities early in development will significantly reduce the overall cost of developing an acceptable system.

UCD activities should be tailored to meet the needs of a project or organization and take into account the relative importance of usability in each individual situation.

For small self-contained systems, the effort required to implement UCD would typically range from 15-50 person days of design and evaluation expertise.

Conduct a cost-benefit analysis or consult already existing cost-benefit studies of projects with comparable conditions.

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ANALYSIS & REQUIREMENTS DECIDING WHAT TO DO

Usability is only valuable if it supports business objectives. It is important to start by identifying and prioritizing which user issues will contribute to the success of the project.

It is also important to identify business resources and constraints (time, money, skills and facilities) to make sure the user centered design plan fits in.

The next step is to identify in detail who will use the system, and how it will be used. If this information is not easily available, field research may be needed to obtain more detail.

Usability requirements can take the form of how accurately user complete their tasks, how long they take and how satisfied they are. A new system should at least be as good as any existing or competitive system or there is a significant risk of project failure.

Define the main goals the users are to perform.

Define a comprehensive list of all tasks the users will perform

Prioritize tasks according to their importance (e.g. frequency or safety).

Define task characteristics, such as goals, time of performing, inputs and

variability, frequency, duration, time constraints, flexibility,

dependencies, output,

physical and mental demands, linked tasks, safety, and criticality.

Define and analyze tasks and sub-tasks and identify obstacles for solving tasks.

Identify the usage environment through usage scenarios.

Investigate environmental characteristics including physical and organizational

Identify and prioritize functional requirements based on user task and environmental requirements.

DESIGN MAKING IT HAPPEN The difference between UCD and other approaches is that UCD methods are used to develop simple models, mock-ups or prototypes on parts or all of the designs

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(graphical designs, information architecture, interaction design, and information visualization)

Prototypes are used as touch-points with users to keep checking that design concepts and solutions are on course from a user perspective. The risk of developing a solution that doesn’t work is thus minimized.

Usability effort should focus on providing feedback on the acceptability to users of design solutions while they are being developed.

Start by designing flow structure and navigation to support main tasks.

Produce prototypes (ranging from simple paper mock-ups to interactive computer- based prototypes) to obtain user feedback on the extent to which proposed solutions meet user needs. Their use will make the potential outcome and interaction scenario more tangible to users.

Design iterations should be evaluated from a user perspective. This should be done early and continuously during the design process. Design solutions are improved until requirements are met.

EVALUATION CHECKING THAT DESIGNS ARE ON COURSE

The most valuable form of feedback is through evaluating design solutions with typical users.

As design solutions are assessed, feedback of results should be fed back to the designers quickly. The objective is to improve the design based on user feedback. Iterative design implies a process of design, evaluation and redesign.

Evaluation activities should begin early in development and continue in frequently throughout.

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Early in development, users can be asked to step through their tasks following a

sequence of screen sketches or paper prototypes.

If it is impossible to involve user, usability experts may be able to evaluate designs by

“walking through” designs based on user and task goals.

Working prototypes can be tested more formally by users carrying out typical tasks.

Task completion and task completion rates are key factors.

A usability lab is not always essential but it does have the advantage that developer

may watch and discuss the tests without disturbing the user. When a complete

prototype is available, usability requirements for user performance and satisfaction can

be tested.

for user performance and satisfaction can be tested. READING: ADVICE FOR BUSINESS TRAVELLERS The first time

READING: ADVICE FOR BUSINESS TRAVELLERS

The first time you go away on business you feel as excited as a child at Christmas. You can escape from the office, sleep in a great hotel, eat in the best restaurants, and your company pays for everything!

But after a while the excitement disappears. You work more hours, not less. You get home exhausted and have to catch up on a thousand emails and a mountain of dirty washing.

However, business travel is part of the job for many corporate employees. Here are a few points which may make life on the road, and in the air, a bit easier.

1. Make sure you know exactly what you are allowed to put on your company’s expenses. Some companies won’t allow you to take a taxi to the airport. Others won’t pay for your lunch because you normally buy it yourself when you’re in the office. Be especially careful of using hotel phones, which can be ridiculously expensive.

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2. Keep a bag packed and ready in your wardrobe. You never know when you’re

going to need to travel at short notice. Pack a suit and comfortable business shoes, toiletries, medicine, business cards, and modem and accessories for your laptop.

3. Print hard copies of important papers and contracts. Technology is wonderful, but

it can let you down badly on a business trip. Make sure you travel with paper and virtual copies of important files.

4. Ask colleagues at your office to help you by looking after things while you’re

away. Set up your e-mail and voicemail systems with an out of the office message complete with emergency contact information.

5. Pack important items in your carry-on bag. Your suitcase probably won’t get lost,

but it’s a good idea to have a change of underwear, a clean shirt and your toilet bag with you at all times.

6. Plan your trip carefully and go over your schedule to make sure you know where

you’re supposed to be at all times and how you’re going to get there. Leave enough time in between each appointment so that you can get from one place to the next without getting stressed.

7. It’s better to wear clothes which are too formal than too casual. When you’re

attending meetings in a different country, it’s better to wear a suit when everyone else is wearing jeans, than vice versa. Pack your clothes carefully and use the iron in your hotel room if you need to.

8. Keep in touch with your office while you’re away. Send your boss an email or

make a quick phone call, even if there’s not much to report.

9. Log on at the hotel and try to check your emails at least once a day. This way you

stay informed, your boss is happy and you won’t have thousands of emails waiting

for you when you get back.

10. Take advantage of the hotel’s fitness center. Exercise is a great way to relieve stress and take off those extra kilos you’ve put on from the hotel breakfast buffet. Don’t forget to pack your sports clothes!

11. When you arrive in a new time zone, set your watch and mobile phone immediately to the new time. Also, don’t rely on either your alarm clock or the hotel’s wake up call. Use both to make sure you wake up on time.

12. Try to fly during business hours and avoid the ‘red-eye’ night flight. Use the time in the plane to relax and rest. It’s better to arrive fresh and awake than tired and stressed.

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13. Do you know anyone who lives in the city? Use evenings to catch up with

friends and relatives. This gives you a chance to get away from your business associates and hang out with people who won’t be talking about work.

14. Stay a couple of extra days and see the city. If your company is paying for you

to fly to a place you’ve never visited, why not stay the weekend and do some sightseeing?

15. Make sure you have a frequent flyer account. Frequent flyer miles are the best

way to make your business travel pay off. And if your business credit card is linked to a frequent flyer program also, you could be flying to Paris or Hawaii for a free holiday sooner than you imagined!

Paris or Hawaii for a free holiday sooner than you imagined! THE ZERO CONDITIONAL We can

THE ZERO CONDITIONAL

We can make a zero conditional sentence with two present simple verbs (one in the

'if clause' and one in the 'main clause'):

If + simple present,

simple present

This conditional is used when the result will always happen. So, if water reaches 100 degrees, it always boils. It's a fact. I'm talking in general, not about one particular situation. The result of the 'if clause' is always the main clause.

The 'if' in this conditional can usually be replaced by 'when' without changing the meaning.

For example: If water reaches 100 degrees, it boils. (It is always true, there can't be

a different result sometimes). If I eat peanuts, I am sick. (This is true only for me,

maybe, not for everyone, but it's still true that I'm sick every time I eat peanuts).

Here are some more examples:

If people eat too much, they get fat.

If you touch a fire, you get burned.

People die if they don't eat.

You get water if you mix hydrogen and oxygen.

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Snakes bite if they are scared.

If babies are hungry, they cry.

if they are scared.  If babies are hungry, they cry. PRACTICE: A. Write sentences using

PRACTICE:

A. Write sentences using zero conditionals:

For example: (not / rain / the flowers / die)

1. (I / wake up late / I / be late for work)

flowers / die) 1. (I / wake up late / I / be late for work)

2. (My husband / cook / he / burn the food)

If it doesn’t rain, the flowers die

3. (Julie / not wear a hat / she / get sunstroke)

4. (Children / not eat well / they / not be healthy)

5. (You / mix water and electricity / you / get a shock)

6. (People / eat / too many sweets / they / get fat)

7. (You / smoke / you / get yellow fingers)

8. (Children / play outside / they / not get overweight)

9. (You / heat ice / it / melt)

10. (I / speak to John / he / get annoyed)

ice / it / melt) 10. (I / speak to John / he / get annoyed)

LINK: Exercises on Zero conditional

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LEVEL III Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira 6. CAUSE AND EFFECT "Cause and effect" simply

6. CAUSE AND EFFECT

"Cause and effect" simply means that you start with a subject (an event, person, or

object) and then show the causes (reasons) for it, and/or the effects (results) of it.

"Cause" means the reasons why or for something, or the source of something.

"Effects" simply are results or outcomes. Cause-and-effect writing shows a chain of

connected events, each the logical result of the one before it. A simple cause-and-

effect paper discusses the chain of events related to a person, event, or object,

showing what are the causes and what are the results. For example, a paper about

a solar car might describe how it came to be built by an inventor and how he first

became interested in solar cars (the causes), and what the results of this solar car

might be--how its existence might lead people to take energy efficiency and

environmental concerns more seriously and even lead to mass-produced solar cars

(effects or results).

It is possible to use cause and effect in less than a full paper. In fact, many

explanations and discussions involve cause-and-effect logic in just a paragraph or

two, just a sentence, or even within a phrase within a sentence. Anytime you want

to answer the question of why something has happened, you are using cause-and-

effect logic.

EXAMPLE

Read the following text and observe the cause and effect relationships.

There are several factors to be considered when studying why some plants become weak or die. One reason is lack of water. Dryness in the soil causes the leaves to wilt, and may give rise to the death of the plant. On the other hand, too much water may result in the leaves drooping, or becoming yellow. While sunshine is necessary for plants, if it is too strong, the soil may be baked and the roots killed. However, if there is no light, the leaves will become pale and the stems thin. Consequently, the plant may die.

Lack of water

the stems thin. Consequently, the plant may die.  Lack of water dryness in the soil

dryness in the soil

the stems thin. Consequently, the plant may die.  Lack of water dryness in the soil

leaves to wilt

the stems thin. Consequently, the plant may die.  Lack of water dryness in the soil

death of plant.

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Too much water

leaves droop or become yellow

leaves droop or become yellow

baked soil

roots killed.

roots killed.

pale leaves & thin stems

pale leaves & thin stems

pale leaves & thin stems

death of the plant.

Too strong sun

Lack of light

death of the plant.

MARKERS OR CONNECTORS THAT IMPLY CAUSE AND EFFECT:

Caused

Due to

Because of

Owing to

Causes

Is the

Produces

by

cause of

One effect

One result

One

Results

Arises from

Leads to

With the

of

of

consequence

from

result that

of

Gives rise

Brings

Therefore

Thus

Consequently

As a

As a

to

about

result

consequence

As a As a to about result consequence READING: CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION Trees are

READING: CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION

Trees are one of the most important aspects of the planet we live in. Trees are

vitally important to the environment, animals, and of course for us humans. They

are important for the climate of the Earth, they act as filters of carbon dioxide, they

are habitats and shelters to millions of species, and they are also important for their

aesthetic appeal. However, the trees on our planet are being depleted at a very fast

rate. According to some estimates, more than 50 percent of the tree cover has

human activity.

disappeared due

to

The destruction of the forests is occurring due to various reasons, one of the main

reasons being the short term economic benefits. Given below are some more

deforestation:

common

causes

of

Used for Urban and Construction Purposes: The cutting down of trees for

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lumber that is used for building materials, furniture, and paper products. Forests are also cleared in order to accommodate expanding urban areas.

To Grow Crops: Forests are also cut down in order to clear land for growing crops.

To Create Grazing Land: Forests are cut down in order create land for grazing cattle.

Used for Fuel: Trees are cut down in developing countries to be used as firewood

or turned into charcoal, which are used for cooking and heating purposes. Some of the other causes of deforestation are: clearing forests for oil and mining exploitation; to make highways and roads; slash and burn farming techniques;

wildfires;

and

acid

rain.

There

are

a

number

of

adverse

effects

of

deforestation,

such

as:

Erosion of Soil: When forest areas are cleared, it results in exposing the soil to the sun, making it very dry and eventually, infertile, due to volatile nutrients such as nitrogen being lost. In addition, when there is rainfall, it washes away the rest of the nutrients, which flow with the rainwater into waterways. Because of this, merely replanting trees may not help in solving the problems caused by deforestation, for by the time the trees mature, the soil will be totally devoid of essential nutrients.

Loss of Biodiversity: The unique biodiversity of various geographical areas is being lost on a scale that is quite unprecedented. Even though tropical rainforests make up just 6 percent of the surface area of the Earth, about 80-90 percent of the entire species of the world exist here. Due to massive deforestation, about 50 to 100 species of animals are being lost each day. The outcome of which is the extinction of animals and plants on a massive scale.

Flooding and Drought: One of the vital functions of forests is to absorb and store great amounts of water quickly when there are heavy rains. When forests are cut down, this regulation of the flow of water is disrupted, which leads to alternating

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periods

of

flood

and

then

drought

in

the

affected

area.

Climate Change: It is well known that global warming is being caused largely due to emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, what is not known quite as well is that deforestation has a direction association with carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

with carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. READING: WHY SPECIES GO EXTINCT WHAT IS EXTINCTION?

READING: WHY SPECIES GO EXTINCT

WHAT IS EXTINCTION?

Extinction is the end of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the group (although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point). Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "re- appears" (typically in the fossil record) after a period of apparent absence.

Many factors are driving an unprecedented rate of extinction of plant and animal species world wide. Although extinction is a natural process, the rate at which current extinction is taking place is clearly not, and all scientific evidence indicates that the activities of man kind are the primary engine behind most recent and present extinction events.

Major causes of extinction include:

HABITAT LOSS

Destructive change to environments or landscapes, either through natural phenomena (such as floods, volcanoes, hurricanes etc.), or human processes (such as construction, deforestation, changing landuse for agriculture, artificial land drainage etc.), is the single greatest threat to the biodiversity of Planet Earth, and

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the greatest cause of extinction in our world. When a plant or an animal does not have a habitat, and cannot adapt to a different environment, it will become extinct.

UNREGULATED OR ILLEGAL KILLING, HUNTING OR POACHING

Hunting and poaching rare plants and animals is a human cause of extinction that may represent a major, or dominant factor in the decline of certain species, particularly those that are endemic to a small geographic area, or have a small or slow-regenerating population overall.

Unfortunately, across the world, various socio-economic factors drive hunting and poaching of endangered plant and animal species, and where this occurs at unregulated, unsustainable levels, vulnerable species may be pushed towards extinction (i.e. Nepenthes clipeata in Ark of Life’s Rare Nepenthes Project).

Although regulations and legislation may exist at a national or international level (i.e. the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species), often sufficient infrastructure, awareness or resources are in place for any effective impact (as was this case for Nepenthes clipeata).

Sometimes killing of endangered plants and animals is due to ignorance or misconceived stereotypes, as is often the case of bats, snakes and arachnids that are commonly, but incorrectly perceived to be aggressive or necessarily dangerous.

INTRODUCED SPECIES

The introduction of plant and animal species that are not endemic to a given locality is both a natural and human process that often has disastrous knock-on consequences for local biota, often including extinction of native taxa. Introduction of species that are not native to a given area may occur through regular dispersal processes over short geographic distances (i.e. seed being blown in the wind, or in the crop of a bird), but the incidence of such processes occurring naturally is low. Artificial or accidental introduction of non-native plant and animal species occurs much more commonly, particularly as humans travel more extensively and frequently across the globe. Seeds are rapidly transported by humans on their

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clothes and shoes, and or rats on board ships. Both natural and anthropogenic introduction of non native plant or animal taxa may profoundly upsets the balance of the local ecosystem of a given locality and push the most vulnerable native taxa towards extinction, particularly those that are endemic to a small geographic area, or have a small or slow-regenerating population overall.

POLLUTION

Pollution may be a natural or human cause of extinction, and can take many forms. Natural pollution events may result from cataclysmic geographic processes (volcanic eruptions, floods, earthquakes, etc.), or from over-population of ecosystems by specific species (red tide) or other processes. natural pollution events commonly cause local extinction events, but rarely are sufficiently wide scale to cause complete extinction of significant numbers of plant and animal taxa. human pollution can take many forms, but usually arises when toxic substances are dumped, either advertently or inadvertently, into biologically diverse areas of our planet. Anthropogenic pollution may have knock-on consequences, for example, eutrophication. Large scale anthropogenic pollution events (i.e. oil spills) may have the scope to cause the complete extinction of plant and animal taxa, particularly those that are endemic to a small geographic area, or have a small or slow- regenerating population overall. Pollution may impact entire ecosystems, including humans, for example the pesticide DDT, which was used against arthropods up until the 1970s, but causes catastrophic impacts at all ecological levels, from the water and soil, through water feeders, ground arthropods, predators, and humans.

COMPETITION

Ongoing evolutionary processes are driven by competition, and over (usually) long periods of time, plant and animal taxa that are unable to adapt may be out competed and naturally displaced from their habitat, and pushed towards extinction.

DISEASE

The spread of disease may be both a natural and human factor behind extinction. Naturally occurring diseases that afflict specific plant or animal taxa may be inadvertently spread by humans with disastrous consequences, for example, Dutch

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elm disease, which is a fungal disease of elm trees spread by the elm bark beetle.

Although believed to be originally native to Asia, the disease has been accidentally

introduced into North America and Europe, where it has devastated native

populations of elms which had not had the opportunity to evolve resistance.

Many other factors contribute to the extinction of plant and animal taxa of Planet

Earth. Much of the destruction to our world’s biota can be avoided with responsible,

balances and long-sighted management of the enduring natural areas.

Ark of Life is set up as a pragmatic approach to stop the complete extinction of

species that no longer occur in the wild (or practically so). Our collections, or “arks”

maintain the genetic diversity of imperiled plants and animals and aim to ensure that

a

sufficient gene pool persists in artificial culture so that reintroduction into the wild

is

retained as a viable option for the future, should habitat regeneration take place.

for the future, should habitat regeneration take place. THE FIRST CONDITIONAL The first conditional has the

THE FIRST CONDITIONAL

The first conditional has the simple present other clause:

after 'if', then the future simple in the

i f + simple present,

will + infinitive

It's used to talk about things which might happen in the future. Of course, we can't know what will happen in the future, but this describes possible things, which could easily come true.

If it rains, I won't go to the park.

If I study today, I'll go to the party tonight.

If I have enough money, I'll buy some new shoes.

She'll be late if the train is delayed.

She'll miss the bus if she doesn't leave soon.

If I see her, I'll tell her.

First vs. Zero Conditional

The first describes a particular situation, whereas the zero conditional describes what happens in general.

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For example (zero conditional): if you sit in the sun, you get burned (here I'm talking about every time a person sits in the sun - the burning is a natural consequence of the sitting)

But (first conditional): if you sit in the sun, you'll get burned (here I'm talking about what will happen today, another day might be different)

what will happen today, another day might be different) LINK: http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-

LINK: http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-

exercise-conditional-type-1.php

exercise-conditional-type-1.php PRACTICE: Write sentences using the first conditional 1) If

PRACTICE:

Write sentences using the first conditional

1) If I

(go) out tonight, I

(go) to the cinema.

2) If you

(get) back late, I

(be) angry.

3)

If

we

(not/see)

each

other

tomorrow,

we

(see) each other next week.

 

4)

If

he

(come),

I

(be)

surprised. 5) If we

 

(wait) here, we

 

(be) late.

B. Complete the following sentences using zero or first conditional.

1.If my husband

2. When I

3. Unless ice

4. If I

5. Jacob

(eat) too much French fries, he

(sell) my motorbike, I

(warm) up, it

(learn) this lesson, I

(pick) you up, if it

(buy) a boat.

(not melt).

(pass) my exam.

(rains).

(get) fat.

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6. If John

7. When it

8. If Virginia

9. If my team

10. If I

(fail) his English exam, he

(rain), shops

(not go) to the party.

(sell) more umbrellas.

(be) late, George

(get) angry.

(win) the championship, we

(not clean), nobody

(do).

(celebrate).

the championship, we (not clean), nobody (do). (celebrate). 7. ARGUMENTATION An "argument" is, simply, an

7. ARGUMENTATION

An "argument" is, simply, an educated guess or opinion, not a simple fact. It is something debatable: "Men have walked on the moon" is a fact, but "Peopl