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NPTEL web course

on
Complex Analysis

A. Swaminathan
I.I.T. Roorkee, India

and

V.K. Katiyar
I.I.T. Roorkee, India

Complex Analysis

Module: 2: Functions of a Complex Variable

Lecture: 3: Limit, Continuity and Differentiability

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 2 / 31

Functions of a complex variable

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Functions of a Complex variable

Definition
A function f is a rule that assigns each element x in a set X one and
only one element y in a set Y . We write this as

y = f (x)

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Functions of a Complex variable

Definition
A function f is a rule that assigns each element x in a set X one and
only one element y in a set Y . We write this as

y = f (x)

and call y the image of x under f .

Notation
Symbolically, we denote this as

f : X Y.

Here X is called the domain of definition (which is different from the

definition of domain) and B called the range. Note that f (X ) Y .

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 4 / 31

Functions of a Complex variable

Definition

We are interested in considering the domain of definition and range

are subsets of the complex plane. Then f is called complex valued
function of a complex variable.

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 5 / 31

Functions of a Complex variable

Definition
Let f : D1 C D2 C, where C, which includes point at infinity is
C {}. Then for any point z D1 , f maps (assigns) a point w D2
such that w = f (z).

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 6 / 31

Functions of a Complex variable

Definition
Let f : D1 C D2 C, where C, which includes point at infinity is
C {}. Then for any point z D1 , f maps (assigns) a point w D2
such that w = f (z).

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 6 / 31

Functions of a Complex variable

Definition
Let f : D1 C D2 C, where C, which includes point at infinity is
C {}. Then for any point z D1 , f maps (assigns) a point w D2
such that w = f (z).

If z = x + iy and w = u + iv , then u u(x, y ) and v v (x, y ).

Further, D2 may be in R, but this case may not be interesting.

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 6 / 31

Functions of a Complex variable

Definition
Let f : D1 C D2 C, where C, which includes point at infinity is
C {}. Then for any point z D1 , f maps (assigns) a point w D2
such that w = f (z).

If z = x + iy and w = u + iv , then u u(x, y ) and v v (x, y ).

Further, D2 may be in R, but this case may not be interesting.
If f is real valued function, then f is well-defined the domain
and range are well-defined.

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 6 / 31

Functions of a Complex variable

Example

f : R R, f (x) = x is not a function,
well-defined, so it has to
be modified as f : R+ R+ , f (x) = | x|, to make it well-defined.
Similarly, in the complex case also a function f has to be
well-defined.
Let f (z) = 1/(z n 1). Then f is defined for all values except the
n-th roots of unity.
f : C C, by f (z) = z 1/n , n N.
To get f well-defined, it may be said as f (z) = one of the values
of z 1/n ".

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 7 / 31

Functions of a Complex variable

Note.
The advantage of f : R R is, it can be visualized in a plane. This is
not true for f defined over C. In the case of C, the range can not be
explicitly described for any f. Only when f is defined over a particular
domain (of definition) the image for that domain can be exhibited.

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 8 / 31

Functions of a Complex variable
Example
Example of a real valued function Let f (x) = sin x. Then we know that
f (x) is defined for all x over the real line and the image is a periodic
function with period 2.
1.0

0.5

5 10 15 20 25 30 35

0.5

1.0

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 9 / 31

Functions of a Complex variable
Example
Corresponding complex valued function Let f (z) = sin z. Nothing can
be said about the range. But if a particular domain of definition is
given, like x =constant, then the range can be obtained. In this case, if

This implies

u = sin x cosh y , v = cos x sinh y .

u v
Since x = c, this implies = cosh y and = sinh y , where
1 2
1 = sin c, 2 = cos c. This gives

u2 v2
=1 (an hyperbola).
1 2 2 2
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Functions of a Complex variable
Example
Corresponding complex valued function

x =c

(sin c, 0)

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Functions of a complex variable

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 12 / 31

Convergence of a complex sequence

Definition of a complex sequence

The sequence of complex numbers is similar to the sequence of real
numbers, except that it takes complex values. Let {zn }
n=1 be a
complex sequence.

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 13 / 31

Convergence of a complex sequence

Definition
The sequence {zn } n=1 converges to a limit l if given  > 0, there exists
N0 N (sufficiently large), so that

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 14 / 31

Convergence of a complex sequence

Example
 n
i
Let {zn }
n=1 be the sequence zn = . Then
3

1
 n
i log
lim zn = lim 0, for n> 3.
n* n 3 log()

n

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Convergence of a complex sequence

Example
2 + 3n
zn = . Then lim zn = 3i.
1 + in n

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 16 / 31

Convergence of a complex sequence

Example
2 + 3n
zn = . Then lim zn = 3i.
1 + in n

Example
zn = i n . Then lim (i)n 9 unique value, which implies limit does not
n
exist.

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 16 / 31

Limit of a function

Assumptions
Whenever we define f : D1 D2 , D1 and D2 are considered as
subsets of C.
f is assumed as well-defined.
z0 = x0 + iy0 = (x0 , y0 ).
f (z) = u + iv = u(x, y ) + iv (x, y ).

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 17 / 31

Limit of a function

Definition
Let f : D1 D2 . let z0 be a point in D1 . Then w0 is limit of f (x, y ) at
(x0 , y0 ), if given  > 0, there exists > 0 such that

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Limit of a function

Example
Question. Prove that lim f (z) = i/3 where f (z) = iz/3 in |z| < 1.
z1
Answer. Given that |z| < 1. Now

iz i z 1
= .
3 3 3

Hence, for any such z and any  > 0, with 3,

f (z) i < 

whenever 0 < |z 1| < 3.
3

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 19 / 31

Limit of a function

Theorem
If lim f (z) = L1 and lim g(z) = L2 , then
zz0 zz0
1. lim f (z) g(z) = L1 L2 ,
zz0
2. lim f (z)g(z) = L1 L2 ,
zz0
f (z) L1
3. lim = , if L2 6= 0.
zz0 g(z) L2

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 20 / 31

Limit and continuity of a function

Continuity
Let lim f (z) = L exists. If L = f (z0 ), then f is said to be continuous at
zz0
z = z0 . This means, if lim f (z) = f (z0 ) or w0 = f (z0 ), then f is
zz0
continuous. In the language of  we have the following definition.

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 21 / 31

Continuity of a function

Definition
Let f : D1 D2 and z0 D. Then lim f (z) = f (z0 ) (or f is said to be
zz0
continuous) if, given  > 0 there exists > 0 such that

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Continuity of a function

y v
6 6
D1 D2
 

z0
 
f (z0 )

- x -u

Z -plane -plane
Figure : continuous mapping.

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Continuity of a function

Example
z2 + 4
To discuss the continuity of f (z) = at z = 2i. Then clearly
z 2i

z2 + 4
lim = lim z + 2i = 4i.
z2i z 2i z2i

In the  language, given that |z 2i| < , we have

2
z + 4 (z + 2i)(z 2i)
z 2i 4i = 4i = |z 2i| < .

z 2i

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 24 / 31

Continuity of a function

Theorem
Let f (z) and g(z) be continuous at a point z = z0 . Then f (z) g(z) are
also continuous at z = z0 . Also the product f (z)g(z) is also continuous
at z = z0 . But f (z)/g(z) is continuous at z = z0 only when g(z0 ) 6= 0.

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 25 / 31

Continuity of a function

Theorem
Let f (z) and g(z) be continuous at a point z = z0 . Then f (z) g(z) are
also continuous at z = z0 . Also the product f (z)g(z) is also continuous
at z = z0 . But f (z)/g(z) is continuous at z = z0 only when g(z0 ) 6= 0.

Note.
The limit should approach in all possible directions in a plane including
the spiral direction. Hence the understanding of these concepts for a
complex variable is more challenging.

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 25 / 31

Continuity of a function

Example
All polynomial functions Pn (z) of the form

a0 + a1 z + a2 z 2 + + an z n , ai C, i = 1, 2, . . . , n,

are continuous in the whole complex plane C.

Rational functions of the form
a0 + a1 z + a2 z 2 + + an z n
, ai , bi C, i = 1, 2, . . . , n,
b0 + b1 z + b2 z 2 + + bn z n
are also continuous in the whose complex plane C, excepts the
points at which the denominator vanishes.

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 26 / 31

Continuity of a function

A known result

Theorem
A continuous image of a connected set is connected. In other words,
let f : D C and D is connected. If f is continuous then f (D) is
connected.

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 27 / 31

Uniform continuity

Motivation
When we find the continuity of f (z) in a domain D, if depends only on
 and does not depend on the point about which the continuity is
discussed, then f (z) is said to be Uniformly continuous in the domain
D.

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Uniform continuity
Example
Consider the function f (z) = x 2 + iy 2 , z = x + iy .
Clearly f is continuous in C. But f is not uniformly continuous in C.
Consider DR = {z C : |z| < R, R > 0}.
Then f is uniformly continuous in DR . For, consider z0 = x0 + iy0 so
that |x x0 | + |y y0 | < , for some > 0.

|f (z) f (z0 )| = |x 2 x02 + i(y 2 y02 )|

= |(x x0 )(x + x0 ) + i(y y0 )(y + y0 )|
|(x x0 )(x + x0 )| + |(y y0 )(y + y0 )|.

Hence choosing  = 2R gives that f is uniformly continuous on DR .

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Uniform continuity

Theorem
Let f : D C, f is continuous and D is compact. Then f is uniformly
continuous.

A.Swaminathan and V.K.Katiyar (NPTEL) Complex Analysis 30 / 31

Uniform continuity

Example
The function f (z) = 1/z is continuous in any domain where z 6= 0.
Consider the punctured disc D1 := {z C : 0 < |z| < R1 , R1 > 0}.
Then f is not uniformly continuous in D1 . But if we choose the domain
as D2 = {z C : R1 |z| R2 , R1 > 0}, then f is uniformly
continuous in D2 .