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Part A

Video link:

https://youtu.be/r0g1OxR_wks (Public Health Initiative Liberia, 2014; Plan My Health, 2016; World Health Organisation, 2017)

Lecture Activities:

Week 6 Lecture Activity:

My pedagogical content knowledge of the use of simulations in biology teaching will help teach Module 4, Ecosystem Dynamics. In this module, students must predict consequences for populations in ecosystems due to predation, symbiosis, disease and competition (NESA, 2017). As it is hard to investigate these relationships in a school setting, simulations are a great way of modeling the interactions, allowing students to predict, observe and then explain occurrences. It allows students to see complex interactions and changes that occur over large time and geographic scales. This enables them to better understand the interactions.

Week 7 Lecture Activity:

My post:

Part A Video link: <a href=https://youtu.be/r0g1OxR_wks (Public Health Initiative Liberia, 2014; Plan My Health, 2016; World Health Organisation, 2017) Lecture Activities: Week 6 Lecture Activity: My pedagogical content knowledge of the use of simulations in biology teaching will help teach Module 4, Ecosystem Dynamics. In this module, students must predict consequences for populations in ecosystems due to predation, symbiosis, disease and competition (NESA, 2017). As it is hard to investigate these relationships in a school setting, simulations are a great way of modeling the interactions, allowing students to predict, observe and then explain occurrences. It allows students to see complex interactions and changes that occur over large time and geographic scales. This enables them to better understand the interactions. Week 7 Lecture Activity: My post: My response: 1 " id="pdf-obj-0-19" src="pdf-obj-0-19.jpg">

My response:

Week 8 Lecture Activity: Type of resource: Video/animation Name of resource: Gas exchange in humans URL:

Week 8 Lecture Activity:

Type of resource: Video/animation

Name of resource: Gas exchange in humans

URL:

http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter25/animation

__

gas_excha

nge_during_respiration.html

Resource description:

This video is a simple yet concise depiction of the flow of oxygen and carbon dioxide in/out of cells and in/out of the body through the circulatory system. The website has a number of great videos.

Brief lesson description:

This video could be used as an introduction or revision when explaining gas exchange in the human body

Module: Module 2 Organisation of Living Things

Content dot points within module:

investigate the gas exchange structures in animals and plants (ACSBL032, ACSBL056) through the collection of primary and secondary data and information, for example: microscopic structures: alveoli in mammals and leaf structure in plants

Part B: Assessment Task and Marking Rubric

How student learning has been scaffolded in the lead up to this assessment task:

This task looks at disease from the perspective of population health and management. It aims to get students to recognise the scale of population health management. Previous work done in the unit has been based on immunity and response to pathogens - looking at disease and it’s interaction with an organism on an individual or micro scale. Students have also looked at disease transmission, combining micro scale pathogens to macro scale issues in agriculture and epidemics. This assignment gets students to draw together their learning of disease on a macro scale, demonstrating how infectious disease interactions play out at local, regional and global levels. In doing this, students consider how to control the spread of infectious disease. The assignment aims to force students to apply their learning to a new circumstance. As students must make recommendations, they need to take what they have learned and apply it to a real world application.

In order to scaffold this, students have previously learned about immunity and various responses of plants and animals to pathogens. They have learned about immunity, including innate and adaptive immune systems. Within the assignment, if students choose vaccination as one of the procedures for their chosen disease, students will have a clear grounding and understanding of how vaccination would work. They will also have to use their understanding to determine whether vaccination is a good procedure for the chosen disease. Likewise, students have studied modes of disease transmission, transmission during an epidemic and assessed the effects on agricultural production. With this knowledge, students should be able to then assess the effects of a chosen disease on populations that they identify, describe how their disease is transmitted and therefore make predictions/recommendations on what procedures would be the most effective for controlling the spread of their disease.

STAGE 6 ASSESSMENT TASK 4 Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry YEAR 12 BIOLOGY MODULE 7

STAGE 6 ASSESSMENT TASK 4

Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry

YEAR 12 BIOLOGY MODULE 7 INFECTIOUS DISEASE

STUDENT NAME:

______________________________ TEACHER: _____________________________________ CLASS: ________________________________________

Issue Date

Due Date

Weighting

Total marks

Task type

13 April 2017

In class 13 May 2017

25%

60

Research Report

 

Task outline

This task will require students to individually write a scientific report using their own research from primary and secondary sources. It relates specifically to the inquiry question, ‘how can the spread of infectious diseases be controlled?’ Students must write a scientific research report based on the case scenario presented on page 2 of this document.

Syllabus outcomes

BIO 12-14

Analyses infectious disease in terms of cause, transmission, management and the organism’s response, including the human and immune system.

BIO 11/12-4

Selects and processes appropriate qualitative and quantitative data and information using a range of appropriate media

BIO 11/12-7

Communicates scientific understanding using suitable language and terminology for a specific audience or purpose

Context of the task

The importance of studying infectious disease and its causes and effects is highlighted by the cost to humans in terms of productivity as well as impact on overall health. Scientific understanding of the nature of infectious disease has lead to the development of strategies to prevent and control spread. Likewise, it has facilitated a greater understanding and ability to manage and treat infectious disease.

Relevant content descriptors

Inquiry question: How can the spread of infectious disease be controlled?

Investigate procedures that can be employed to prevent the spread of disease, including but not limited to:

  • - Hygiene practices

  • - Quarantine

  • - Public health campaigns

Investigate and analyse the wide range of interrelated factors involved in limiting local, regional and

global spread of a named infectious disease Investigate and evaluate environmental management and quarantine methods used to control and

epidemic or pandemic Interpret data relating to the incidence and prevalence of infectious disease in populations

 

Assessment criteria

You will be assessed on how well you:

Communicate effectively

Display knowledge and understanding of the content

Use correct and appropriate scientific terminology

Select and process appropriate data

CASE STUDY:

Choose one of the following infectious diseases to write your report on:

Malaria

Ebola

HIV

Measles

Dengue Fever

Zika Virus

You are an epidemiologist working for the Department of Health in Canberra. Your chosen disease is present amongst certain populations outside of Australia. The Department of Health in Australia has been working to ensure that the disease does not spread to Australia. As an expert in infectious diseases, you wish to attend a conference in which world leaders are meeting to discuss what steps to take in addressing outbreaks of this disease. In order to attend, you must submit a report explaining the disease and it’s interaction with the human body. This includes its cause, symptoms, transmission and management. As the scientific expert, it is your job to explain the science, as your audience has no background in science. Your report will therefore need to be very clear, have detailed explanations and be succinct.

The task:

Your task is to write a scientific report analysing measures that could be taken to prevent the spread of your chosen infectious disease to Australia. You may select a different infectious disease to the one listed as long as you ask your teacher and get approval. You must make evidence based recommendations in your report for procedures that could be used to prevent the spread of the disease to Australia. Your report will be directed to an audience with limited background knowledge of infectious disease. The report must range between 1000 1500 words.

In your report you must include the following information:

  • 1. Definition and description of infectious disease including modes of transmission.

  • 2. Historical understandings of infectious disease and transmission.

  • 3. Describe the cause, symptoms and treatment/management of your chosen disease.

  • 4. Describe data related to the incidence and prevalence of the disease in specified populations.

5.

Explain procedures that can be employed to prevent the spread of disease. You can use examples of what other countries/governments/non-government organisations have done in response to your chosen disease. You can also use examples based on different infectious diseases that have similar modes of transmission.

  • 6. Evaluate the role of either quarantine or environmental management methods in Australia to

prevent/control disease spread. Note: Remember to think in terms of local, regional and global spread and how these may be connected

As it is a scientific report you are allowed to break up the report into different sections under subheadings.

You must:

Use both qualitative and quantitative data in your response.

Include the use of diagrams, graphs and/or tables to represent data.

Bibliography:

Must be completed in Harvard Style. Refer to the style guide attached at the end of this document.

Must include a range of primary and secondary resources (internet, textbook, media, journal articles

etc.). Must include all sources of information used.

 

_

DECLARATION OF STUDENT WORK

 
  • I declare that this is all my own work. I have referenced any information from other sources and have not plagiarised the work of others.

 

Student signature:

Date: ___________________

  • I have kept a copy of my task

Yes/No

 

_

ASSESSMENT TASK RECEIPT

Students fill out all details before handing in. Teachers sign as a receipt.

Student name: __________________________________ Subject: _______________________________________ Date Due: _____________________________________ Student signature: _______________________________ Teacher signature: _______________________________

Task Number: __________________ Date submitted: ________________

MARKING CRITERIA:

Criteria

Unsatisfactory

Satisfactory

 

Good

Excellent

   

0-4

 

5-6

 

7-8

 

9-10

Demonstrates a

Demonstrates basic or

society

Demonstrates sound

Demonstrates thorough

Demonstrates extensive

critical

limited knowledge of

knowledge of the

knowledge of the historical

knowledge of the historical

understanding of the context of infectious disease prevention strategies

the historical development of scientific ideas surrounding infectious disease and management

historical development of scientific ideas surrounding infectious disease and management Demonstrates sound understanding of the

development of scientific ideas surrounding infectious disease and management Demonstrates thorough understanding of the

development of scientific ideas surrounding infectious disease and management Demonstrates extensive understanding of the

BIO 12-14

Demonstrates basic or

implications of infectious

implications of infectious

implications of infectious

limited understanding of the implications of infectious disease on

disease on society

disease on society

disease on society

Demonstrates scientific understanding

BIO 12-14

Provides a basic or limited and/or inaccurate description

transmission, cause,

Provides a sound and accurate description of some aspects, including:

Provides a thorough and accurate description of most aspects, including:

Provides an extensive and accurate description of all aspects, including: the

of the nature of the infectious disease, as well as knowledge and communication of the

of some aspects, including:

symptoms, host response and treatment/manageme nt of the identified

transmission, cause, symptoms, host response and treatment/ management of the identified infectious disease Demonstrates a sound

the transmission, cause, symptoms, host response and treatment/ management of the identified infectious disease Demonstrates a thorough

transmission, cause, symptoms, host response and treatment/ management of the identified infectious disease Demonstrates extensive

prevalence and distribution of

infectious disease Demonstrates basic or

and accurate understanding of the

and accurate understanding of the

and accurate understanding of the

chosen disease

limited and/or inaccurate

incidence and prevalence of chosen disease on

incidence and prevalence of chosen disease on

incidence and prevalence of chosen disease on

BIO 11/12-4

understanding of the

specified populations.

specified populations.

specified populations.

BIO 11/12-7

incidence and

Explains straight forward

Explains incidence data,

Effectively analyses

prevalence of chosen

relationships in incidence

relating incidence to

incidence data, quantifying

   

disease on specified

prevalence data

 

data, providing

 

transmission and

 

explanations and

populations.

descriptions of

identifying patterns in data

descriptions and relating

Provides simples

phenomena

to draw conclusions

incidence to transmission

descriptions and explains straightforward relationships between incidence and

     

Demonstrates

Demonstrates limited

Demonstrates extensive

Demonstrates thorough

Demonstrates extensive

critical

or basic and/or

and accurate

and accurate

and accurate

understandings

of procedures that can be used to control the

inaccurate understanding of procedures that can be employed to

understanding of procedures that can be employed to prevent the spread of the disease

understanding of procedures that can be employed to prevent the spread of the disease

understanding of procedures that can be employed to prevent the spread of the disease

spread of the

prevent the spread of

Soundly relates

Thoroughly relates

Expertly relates procedures

disease through scientific knowledge of the infectious

the disease Does not relate procedures to

procedures to underlying scientific understanding of infectious disease

procedures to underlying scientific understanding about infectious disease

to underlying scientific understanding about infectious disease

underlying scientific

Considers one of local,

Considers local, regional

Considers local, regional

disease as well as local, regional and global

understanding of infectious disease Does not consider

regional and global factors OR connects two or more of them in a

and/or global factors OR considers all three and connects them in a

and global factors and connects them in a sophisticated way

influencing factors.

local, regional and

sound way

thorough way

Discusses four or more

global factors

Discusses two procedures

Discusses three procedures

procedures

BIO 12-14

Discusses less than

BIO 11/12-7

two procedures

     

Critically

Justification for use of

Justification for use of

Justification for use of

Justification for use of

evaluates the use of procedures to

procedures are either not present or do not make sense

procedures are present and make sense Identifies correct

procedures are clear, logical and concise Identifies the correct

procedures are detailed, clear, logical and concise Applies information and

design solutions

Applies information

components of

application of procedures

knowledge of disease

and present recommendatio

and knowledge of disease spread

procedure(s) to develop a solution

to develop solutions Demonstrates thorough

spread prevention procedures and designs an

ns to control the

prevention

Demonstrates sound and

and accurate

original solution

spread of the disease

 

procedures and designs an original

 

accurate understanding of how either

 

understanding of how either environmental

Demonstrates extensive and accurate

BIO 12-14

solution

environmental

management or

understanding of how

Demonstrates basic or limited and/or inaccurate understanding of how either environmental management or quarantine methods could be used to control the spread of the disease

management or quarantine methods could be used to control the spread of the disease

quarantine methods could be used to control the spread of the disease

either environmental management or quarantine methods could be used to control the spread of the disease

Demonstrates

Uses only one of

source types

Uses both qualitative

Uses both qualitative AND

Uses both qualitative AND

ability to

either quantitative OR

AND quantitative source

quantitative source types

quantitative source types

critically select

qualitative source

types in research

in research

in research

appropriate

type OR source types

Media choices sometimes

Media choices mostly

Media choices consistently

sources to use within report

are ambiguous Media choices mostly

provide valid, accurate and reliable information

provide valid, accurate and reliable information

provide valid, accurate and reliable information

BIO 11/12-4

provide invalid,

Uses multiple sources

Uses multiple sources and

Use an extensive and

inaccurate and/or unreliable information

though no evidence of diversity in media source

media source types Uses primary AND

diverse range of media sources

Does not demonstrate

type

secondary sources

Uses primary AND

selection and use of

Uses either primary OR

secondary sources

multiple sources or

secondary sources

   

Communicates

No coherent thesis

Thesis exists, but it is

Clear thesis that is mostly

Clearly articulated and

professionally through

present Uses general

sometimes ambiguous or unfocused

consistent throughout report

consistent thesis throughout report

scientific report, using a logical and sequential

terminology some of the time

Sound use of language and terminology

Advanced use of language and terminology

Sophisticated use of language and terminology

Infrequently

Sometimes

Communicates clearly and

Communicates clearly and

structure that incorporates appropriate

communicates with the target audience Structure does not

communicates clearly and consistently with the target audience

consistently most of the time with the target audience

consistently with identified target audience Succinct, logical and

scientific

 

demonstrate logic or

Structure displays logic

Structure is mostly logical

 

sequential structure

terminology;

sequence most of the

and sequence but is

and sequential

Highly effective use of a

uses Harvard

time

sometimes confused

Effective use of a variety of

variety of scientific formats

referencing

Ineffective use of

Effective use of one

scientific formats including

including diagrams, graphs,

style; sits within the word limit

scientific formats, including diagrams,

scientific format, including diagrams,

diagrams, graphs, tables and flow charts

tables and flow charts Highly competent and

and has limited grammar and

graphs, tables and flow charts

graphs, tables and flow charts

Competent and thorough integration of evidence

extensive integration of evidence

spelling errors.

Basic or limited

Sound integration of

Grammar and spelling

Grammatically correct with

BIO 11/12-7

integration of

evidence

mostly correct

few spelling or typographic

evidence

Sentences are coherent

Advanced use of Harvard

errors

Frequent

but there are some

referencing style with

Expert use of Harvard

spelling/grammar errors

grammar/spelling errors Uses Harvard style but

three or less mistakes

referencing style with no mistakes

Does not use Harvard style OR uses Harvard style but contains ten or more mistakes

contains between three and nine mistakes

   

Syllabus outcomes

Grade

BIO 12-14

Analyses infectious disease in terms of cause, transmission, management and the organism’s

 

response, including the human and immune system.

BIO 11/12-4

Selects and processes appropriate qualitative and quantitative data and information using a range of appropriate media

 

BIO 11/12-7

Communicates scientific understanding using suitable language and terminology for a specific audience or purpose

 

(NESA, 2017)

Feedback:

How this assessment relates to the big ideas of the topic.

The big ideas of the topic are the impact of infectious disease on humans in terms of productivity and health.

In understanding transmission, response and control of infectious diseases, humans are better able to ensure

sustained population health. This assessment works to bring together epidemiological ideas of disease

prevention so that students learn to apply their knowledge of transmission and response to pathogens in the

creation/implementation of procedures to control disease spread. It is through controlling the spread that

quality of life and productivity are conserved.

Example of student product resulting from this task

A student product that would result from this task could be a report on Ebola. The student will have written a

report between 1000-1500 words. To highlight the background of understanding infectious diseases as well as

the importance of controlling disease spread, the student will have explained some of the impacts of

infectious disease on society, as well as relevant historical understandings of infectious disease. The student

will then provide a detailed overview of the disease Ebola, demonstrating their knowledge of what causes the

disease, how it presents in patients and what current knowledge exists on the treatment or management of it.

They will then outline the incidence, or location of it, and the prevalence, or how common it is. Students

represent this using tables, maps or graphs. After outlining this, students outline relevant procedures that

could be used to control the spread of this disease, justifying their answer using scientific understanding on

infectious disease spread. When outlining this, students take into account local, regional and global factors

that can influence the spread of infectious disease as these diseases are not prevalent or incident in Australia

and the aim is to prevent their spread to Australia. They then evaluate either quarantine or environmental

management as a procedure that could be used for control. Throughout the report the student use a variety

of sources and source types, which include both qualitative and quantitative data. The report will have a clear

thesis and logical structure. The report may be structured using sub-headings. The student will use Harvard

referencing style.

Part C: Justification

A flipped classroom is a form of blended learning that involves both online and face-to-face components. The video completed in Part A would be part of a flipped classroom and also a resource that students can use when referring to their assignment. This is because it provides the benefit of a flexible learning environment where students can learn in their own space and time (Ng, 2014). This allows students to pause and rewind the video (Zainuddin & Halili, 2016). In facilitating this, the multimodal presentation is an effective means of translating information to students, particularly EALD students (Kuo, Yu, & Hsiao, 2013). This is because incorporating and combining visual images, written words and spoken word can demonstrate meaning (Zhang, 2015). The video was made so that the voice over narration would refer to visual images and words on a PowerPoint and present within websites. When referring to specific points on the screen, the cursor was used to underline or highlight particular words or phrases. In doing this, the attention of the viewer would be focused upon the key points. An example of this was during the explanation on hand hygiene outlined on the World Health Organisation’s website (World Health Organisation, 2017). Using the cursor to highlight key phrases as they were narrated helped communicate and demonstrate meaning. Websites, such as the Public Health Initiative of Liberia (PHIL) (Public Health Initiative Liberia, 2014), were utilised in conjunction to PowerPoint slides as they modeled online research whilst highlighting key important points. In particular, PHIL related to target populations and the specific public health initiative used. In this case, it was education.

A project based design was utilised in Part B, where students took on the persona of an epidemiologist and researched a particular disease in order to come up with recommendations on how to control the spread of the disease. In doing this, students take on a real world persona and confront a real world problem, responding to meaningful questions (Mistler-Jackson & Songer, 2000). The thesis of the assigned report is central to the core concept of the curriculum, an essential part of project-based learning (Thomas, 2000). Students draw together their understandings of infectious disease and use them to investigate how they can facilitate public or population health using the knowledge they have learned. It is focused on a problem that forces students to interact with a key struggle of the disciple (Thomas, 2000) how to control the spread of

disease. This is done with an ill-defined problem, where students choose a disease and then research where the problems lie and therefore what preventative strategies should be utilised. Likewise, as it is a project, students are goal-directed, and the project involves inquiry, knowledge building and then resolution (Thomas, 2000). The central activities of this assignment therefore must involve the transformation and construction of knowledge. A specific example of this is when students utilise their scientific understanding of infectious disease and construct knowledge about prevention strategies based on this understanding. For instance, if a student were to list hygiene as a procedure, they would transform their knowledge about direct contact and construct a recommendation relating hygiene to transmission.

The difficulties anticipated for students revolve around the development of recommendations and student visualisation of how this would look. As this may be a new concept, students will need to be taught and modeled an example of recommendation writing within reports. Despite the difficulty, it is a good exercise in teaching clarity of thought, as providing recommendations is a real world application that must be evidence based and therefore demonstrates knowledge and understanding.

As a summative assessment, this assignment demonstrates student learning throughout the module, with a focus on controlling disease spread. It tests their understanding about the topics they have already done, and their ability to research data and create original, creative solutions to problems. As a summative assignment it measures not only content knowledge, but also skills. Scientific literacy is assessed as well as research capabilities (Kishbaugh, et al., 2012). When marking the assignments, student work will provide an indication of their strengths and weaknesses and areas that need responding to from the teacher (Burns, 2010).

References:

Burns, R. (2010). Implementation of Formative Assessment Strategies as Percieved by High School Students and Teachers: Professional Development Implications. Johnson & Wales University. Rhode Island: ProQuest Dissertation Publishing. Kishbaugh, T. L., Cessna, S., Horst, J., Leaman, L., Flanagan, T., Neufeld, D. G., et al. (2012). Measuring beyond content: a rubric bank for assessing skills in authentic research assignments in the sciences. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 13, 268-276. Kuo, F., Yu, P., & Hsiao, W. (2013). Develop and Evaluate the Effects of Multimodal Presentation System on Elementary ESL Students. TOJET : The Turkish Online Journal of Educational, 12(4), 29-40. Mistler-Jackson, M., & Songer, N. B. (2000). Student Motivation and Internet Technology: Are Students Empowered to Learn Science? JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING, 37(5), 459-479. NESA. (2017). Biology Stage 6 Syllabus. Retrieved April 16th, 2017, from NSW Syllabus for the Australian Curriculum: http://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/assets/biology/biology-stage-6-syllabus-2017.pdf Ng, W. (2014). Flipping the Science Classroom: Exploring Merits, Issues and Pedagogy. Teaching Science , 60 (3), 16-27. Plan My Health. (2016). Prevention is better than a cure. Retrieved April 13th, 2017, from Plan My Health:

http://planmyhealth.in/Healthyblog/prevention-cure/ Public Health Initiative Liberia. (2014). What we do. Retrieved April 18th, 2017, from Public Health Initiative Liberia: http://philiberia.org/new-look/what-we-do/ Robinson, L. (2013). Teachers' Attitudes, Thoughts, and Perceptions about Successful Implementation of Differentiated Instruction. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. Thomas, J. W. (2000). A REVIEW OF RESEARCH ON PROJECT-BASED LEARNING. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. World Health Organisation. (2017). Hand hygiene in the control of Ebola and health system strengthening. Retrieved April 18th, 2017, from World Health Organisation: http://www.who.int/gpsc/hand- hygiene_ebola/en/ Zainuddin, Z., & Halili, S. H. (2016). Flipped Classroom Research and Trends from Different Fields of Study. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 17(3), 313-340. Zhang, Y. (2015). Multimodal teacher input and science learning in a middle school sheltered classroom. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 53(1), 7-30.