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Exercise 4.2 - Neural Tube Brain: Pronephros & Midgut Section
Prosencephalon - Rhombencephalon Spinal Cord
DEVELOPMENT OF THE FROG EMBRYO Telencephalon - Notochord
Diencephalon - Somites
Mesencephalon - Pronephric Tubules
Rhombencephalon - Dorsal aorta
OUTLINE - Adhesive Gland - Glomus
4mm - Olfactory Organ - Nephrostomes
- Optic Vesicles - Midgut
Whole Mount Cloaca Section
- Pharynx - Otic Vesicle
- Neural Tube Brain: Post. Thyroid - Spinal Cord
- Heart
Prosencephalon Post. Pharyngeal pouch - Somite
- Intestine
Mesencephalon - Ant. Otic Placode - Notochord
- Spinal cord
Rhombencephalon Post. Otic Vesicle - Dorsal aorta
- Melanocytes
- Otic Capsule Post. Otic Lens - External Gills - Pronephric Duct
- Eye - Adhesive Gland - Anus - Yolk endoderm
- Adhesive Glands - Post. Pericardial cavity - Tail Fin - Peritoneal cavity
- Pharynx - Post. Oropharyngeal - Coelom
Transverse Section
- Heart Region membrane - Hypomere
- Somites Embryonic Heart Section - Hindgut
- Telencephalon
- Liver Diverticulum - Rhombencephalon - Post. Proctodeum
- Spinal Cord - Somite - Post. Dorsal fin
- Head Mesenchyme
- Notochord - Notochord - Post. Ventral fin
- Olfactory Placode
- Yolky Endoderm - Pharynx (Dorsal) Olfactory Pit
- Hindgut - Heart - Epiphysis
- Tail Endocardium
Transverse Section Epimyocardium - Diencephalon
- Prosencephalon (Forebrain) - Mesocardium
- Optic Cup
Prosocoel - Pericardial cavity Lens Vesicle
- Mesenchyme Liver Diverticulum Section Pigmented Layer
Head Mesenchyme - Spinal Cord - Infundibulum
- Olfactory Placode - Somite
- Pharynx
- Epidermis - Notochord - Mandibular Arch
MESENCEPHALON & OTIC CUPS LEVEL - Pronephric Tubules - Adhesive Glands
- Mesencephalon (Midbrain) - Pharynx - Stomodeum
Mesocoel - Liver diverticulum
- Prosencephalon Pronephros & Midgut Section
Thyroid Section
- Oral Cavity - Spinal Cord
- Rhombencephalon (Hindbrain)
- Oral Plate (Oropharyngeal Membrane) - Notochord
- Optic Vesicle Subnotochordal rod
- Mesencephalon
Optic Cup - Somites
- Cranial Nerve Ganglion
Optic Stalk - Pronephric Duct
- Pharynx
- Lens Vesicle - Dorsal aorta
- Lymph space - Midgut
Otic Vesicle Section
- Stomodeum - Yolky Endoderm
- Rhombencephalon
- Hypophysis Hindgut Section
- Notochord
- Infundibulum - Spinal Cord
- Pharynx
- Mandibular Arch - Somite
- Pericardial coelom
- Adhesive Glands (Cement Glands / Mucus Glands / - Notochord
Truncus arteriosus
Oral Suckers) - Subnotochordal rod
Bulbus cordis
- Otic Capsules
Pharynx Section - Pronephric Duct
Heart Section
- Rhombencephalon (Hindbrain) - Coelom
- Rhombencephalon
Rhombocoeel - Hypomere
- Notochord
- Ant. Choroid Plexus - Hindgut
- Pharynx
- Notochord - Post. Proctodeum
- External gills
- Trigeminal Nerve - Post. Dorsal fin
- Esophageal plug
- Mandibular Arch - Post. Ventral fin
- Atrium

NexCab, JoFred, et. al (pictures). 2017

10mm Structure Location Formed by Fate
Epidermis Outermost skin layer Ectoderm
- Neural Tube Brain: - Myelencephalon
Prosencephalon - Auditory Vesicle between head ectoderm Mid-dorsal Evagination
Epiphysis Pineal body
Telencephalon Endolymphatic duct and brain of the brain vesicle
Diencephalon Uticulus Anterior of embryonic Telencephalon
Semicircular canals Prosencephalon
Mesencephalon brain Diencephalon
Rhombencephalon sacculus Telencephalon Anterior of Forebrain Cavity: lateral ventricle
Metencephalon - auditory capsule
at the anterior end of Evagination of the side of
Myelencephalon - auditory ganglion lateral ventricle
the neurocoel the neural tube
- Adhesive Gland - notochord
- parachords Adjacent to the
- Eye Mantle layer Gray matter of CNS
- Heart ependymal layer
- Heart
Pericardial Cavity Marginal layer Outermost brain layer White matter of CNS
- Intestine
- Spinal cord Conus Arteriosus at the region of the
INvagination of the
- Melanocytes Ventricle Nasal Organ telencephalon and lying
- External Gills ventrolateral to it
- Anus Sinus venosus Jacobsons organ Evagination of the nasal
- Tail Fin - Opercular cavity (vomeronasal region) organ
- Dorsal Aorta
Transverse Section Beneath the
- Aortic Arches Prechordal cartilage chondocranium
- Ganglia
- Telencephalon
Facial Ganglion (VII) Diencephalon Posterior of forebrain
Lateral Vesicle
Trigeminal Ganglion (V) region of the Evagination of the
- Layers of Brain wall
Glossopharyngeal ganglion (IX)
Ependymal Layer diencephalon to the diencephalic roof
- Operculum Frontal Organ
Mantle Layer region of the together with the
- Metencephalon
Marginal Layer telencephalon epiphysis
On the floor of the Develops as a depression
- Nasal Cavity - Spinal posterior portion of the
Infundibulum prosencephalon in the floor of the
External Naris - Neural Canal pituitary gland
- Gray Matter (diencephalon) prosecephalon
Intertal Naris
- White Matter Ventral to the inward growing cord of
Frontal Organ Hypophysis anterior portion of
- Meninges infundibulum; b/n oral & ectoderm from
Jacobsons Organ (rathkes pocket) pituitary gland
Buccal Cavity - First Spinal Ganglia brain cavity stomodeum
- Prechordal Cartilage - Myotomes Mid region of brain;
- Melanocytes - Pleroperitinial cavity posterior to eye
- Mesenchyme - Esophagus Lateral to floor of the Part of the peripheral
- Dorsal Aorta cranial nerve ganglion Fr. Neural Crest cells
- Epidermis mesencephalon nervous system
- Diencephalon - Pronephric Tubules
- Infundibulum - Posterior Cardinal Veins Rhombencephalon Most caudal
Anterior expansion: IV
- Mesencephalon - NEphrostome
- Nephric Duct ventricle
- Pituitary body (hypophysis)
- Glomus behind the optic lobes
- Eye
- Stomach Metencephalon and medial to the V
Optic Cup
- Duodenum ganglion
Ganglion Layer
- Intestine Most posterior part of
- Liver hindbrain
Bipolar Layer
- Gallbladder Fr. posterior region of
Rods and Cones Spinal cord
- Bile Duct neural tube
Pigmented Eithelium
- Pancreas
Iris b/n organs and Loose reticulum:
Lens Mesenchyme outermost cells
Lens Epithelium dermis;
mesoderm and neural
Lens Fibers Connective tissues;
b/n the presumptive crest cells
Cornea Epithelial tissues;
Head Mesenchyme epidermis) and the walls
Choroid and Sclera Muscular tissues;
of prosencephalon
- Pharynx Nervous tissues
- Hypobranchial Cartilages either side of the Paired pigment
- Thyroid
Olfactory Placodes prosocoel in the head INvagination on either Evaginate: Olfactory Pits
- Skeletal Muscle
mesenchyme side of the prosocoel
- Oral Suckers

NexCab, JoFred, et. al (pictures). 2017

Evagination of Olfactory caudal border of
lateral to ventral portion nasal passages with
Olfactory Pits Placodes Most cranial branchial stomodeum; maxillary
of prosencephalon olfactory receptors Mandibular Arch Pharynx
fr. ECTODERM arch process cranial to
Otic Placode Closed chamber in the ECTODERM Evaginate: Otic lens
Level of Ventral chamber of the Lower vert. : lagena
Otic Lens Rhombencephalon auditory vesicle Higher vert. : cochlea
Evagination of otic Surrounding the
Otic vesicle on each side of hind placodes Auditory capsule Cartilaginous ear
auditory vesicle
(hallow organ) brain
Protrude from each side Fr. Branchial arches 3 to
Otic capsules Laterally located and Paired INvagination of of External Gills Replaced by internal gills
Inner Ear of the head 6
(auditory vesicle) ventral to brain; otic placode Beneath the floor of the
Evagination from the Optic cups foregut; Below the Organization of Loose
Optic vesicles lateral wall of ectodermal parts of eye pharynx; in pericardial Mesodermal Cells
prosencephalon (except lens & cornea) coelom
INvagination of the distal Inner layer retina; migration of heart
Optic cups Lateral to infundibulum portion of the optic Outer layer Pigmented midventral region of the mesoderm to midventral
vesicle layer pericardial cavity region of the pericardial
Ganglion Layer cavity
Thick inner layer of optic Mesenchymal cells
Retina Bipolar Neurons Layer
cups organize into a
Rods and Cones Endocardium Inner layer of the heart Lining of heart wall
continuous endothelial
Outer walls of the optic Fr. Medial half of the
Pigmented epithelium Iris lining of the heart
cup optic vesicle
Epimyocardium Outer layer of the heart Muscle
anterior to the olfactory Thickening of the head
Lens Placodes Evaginate: Lens Vesicle Beneath the pharynx;
pits ectoderm
Truncus Arteriosus most anterior portion of
Evagination of Lens the heart
Lens Vesicle Left side of Optic Cups Eye lens
Bulbus Cordis Anterior heart chamber
Enclosed by the optic Thickenings of inner wall
Lens Paired bulges below Pronephric Tubules
cup of lens vesicle
Mesomeres horizontal level of (pronephros, pronephric
Assembly of ectodermal notochord kidney)
Superficial covering of
Cornea and mesodermal cells Lateral side of the Degenerates:
the eye Pronephros
b/n ectoderm and lens specimen Mesonephric Kidney
Ventral to the CNS; Ventral to the dorsal
Chordamesoderm Disappears Glomus
Notochord dorsal to the gut aorta
Sclerotome axial Deep groove in the floor
Liver diverticulum Liver
on each side of the Dorsal Mesoderm skeleton of the pharynx
Somites Posterior of the
notochord subdivided into segments Myotome muscle Spinal cord
Dermatome dermis hindbrain
Deep INvagination of the Subnotochordal rod b/n notochord & midgut disappears
antero-ventral region of
Stomodeum antero-ventral ectoderm
the head Midgut Middle part of the gut Fr. Archenterons Small intestine
of the head
Oropharyngeal in contact with anterior Ectodermal INvagination
Rupture: Mouth Proctodeum At the base of the tail that meets with the Break: Anus
Membrane / oral plate wall of the foregut
endoderm of the hindgut
Suckers / adhesive Ventrolateral to oral Paired Ectodermal
Cloacal membrane Perforated: posterior
glands region; ventral thickenings b/n the proctodeum &
(ectodermal & opening of the digestive
At the cranial end of the Evagination of the hindgut
endodermal plate) tract
Oral Cavity
alimentary canal foregut cloaca, colon, small
Region where the nasal intestine & rectum
Buccal Cavity from stomodeum Posteriormost region of
cavity & mouth opens Hindgut dorsal wall post anal
the embryonic gut
Pharynx Foregut Mandibular Arch gut (disappears)
amp. Urinary bladder
at the floor of the Evagination of
Dorsal midline of the Extension of the body
Thyroid pharynx; beneath the endodermal cells at the Dorsal fin Degenerates
trunk & tail wall
hypobranchial cartilages floor of the pharynx

NexCab, JoFred, et. al (pictures). 2017

Invagination vs. evagination

outside evagination Invagination projection inside | Evagination projection

inside invagination

4MM EMBRYO otic lens a closed chamber at the level of the rhombencephalon
o formed by the evagination of the otic placode
Whole Mount
Notochord extends from the midbrain up to the posterior end of the body
4mm frog embryo is characterized by the presence of a clearly recognizable:
1. Tail mesoderm on each side of the notochord
2. Neural tube o subdivided into segments referred to as somites
3. Notochord
4. Segmented mesoderm Stomodeum ectodermal rudiment of the mouth
5. Fin folds o formed by the invagination of the antero-ventral ectoderm of the head (in
contact with the anterior wall of the foregut)
o oropharyngeal membrane separates stomodeum fr endodermal foregut
will eventually rupture to form: mouth

suckers other ectodermal thickenings ventrolateral to the oral region

loose mesodermal cells beneath the floor of the foregut and anterior to the
mass of yolk which
o will become organized to form: heart

liver diverticulum median posteroventrally directed diverticulum of the foregut

o forerunner of the liver

Yolk fills the bulk of the body

o Origin: endoderm
Neural System differentiates from just a form of closed tube into distinct parts of
o serve as nutrition for continued growth and differentiation of the embryo
the brain indicated by the appearance of thickening and constrictions
o Prosencephalon foremost part
o Mesencephalon middle part Proctodeum ectodermal invagination found at the base of the tail
o Rhombencephalon hind part o will break to open into the hind gut as the Form: anus

Epiphysis slight mid-dorsal Evagination of the brain vesicle

Transverse Section
o Form: pineal body in the adult
Level of the Prosencephalon and Nasal Rudiments
Olfactory placodes thickenings on the lateral surface of the head anterior
o Form: olfactory pits (evagination) cavities Prosencephalon anterior part of the embryonic brain
o Cavity prosocoel
Lens placode anterior to the olfactory placodes
o paired thickening of the head ectoderm Mesenchyme embryonic tissue derived from mesoderm and neural crest cells
o Form: lens vesicle (evagination) eye lens o Form: (1) Connective tissues (2) Epithelial tissues (3) Muscular tissues (4)
Nervous tissues

NexCab, JoFred, et. al (pictures). 2017

Head Mesenchyme Fills the spaces between the presumptive epidermis (skin Oral cavity ventral to the ifindibulum and the hypophysis
ectoderm) and the walls of prosencephalon o Oral evagination of the foregut
o Origin: Mesoderm with additional cells of neural crest o Walls surrounding are composed of the endoderm
o The cavity at the cranial end of the alimentary canal
Olfactory placodes paired pigment invaginations on either side of the prosocoel o Spherical in appearance
o found in the head mesenchyme
Oral plate
Epidermis outermost skin layer - Thickened region where the cranial portion of the alimentary canal comes in
o Derived from the ectoderm contact with the ectoderm portion of the head.
Syn: pharyngeal plate, oropharyngeal membrane

- Ectodermal rudiment of the mouth
- Formed from the invagination of the ectoderm at the anteroventral region of the

Mandibular arch
- Most cranial branchial arch
Form: caudal border of the stomodeum and also the maxillary process cranial to the

Adhesive glands
- Paired ectodermal thickenings
- Found in the ventral surface of anuran embryos
- Secrete adhesive mucus for attachment to floating objects
Syn: cement glands, mucous glands, oral suckers
Level of the Mesencephalon and Optic Cups
Optic vesicle
Mesencephalon (midbrain) mid-region of the developing brain with a thick roof
o cavity mesocoel - Evagination from the lateral wall of the prosencephalon
o appears dorsal to a portion of the prosencephalon called the ifundibulum - First indication of the formation of the eye
- Walls give rise to the various ectodermal parts of the eye except the lens and the
Ifundibulum develops as a funnel-like depression in the floor of prosencephalon cornea
o Forms: posterior portion (lobe) of pituitary gland together w/ stomodeum Optic cup
o smaller, ventral component of the diencephalon with thin roof and thick sides - Double-walled structure
- Formed from the invagination of the distal portion of the optic vesicle
Inner layer is thicker than the outer layer.
Hypophysis ventral to the ifundibulum; lying between the oral and brain cavity
o Small knot of tissue Optic stalk
o Solid ingrowth or nodular aggregation of cells - Connection of the optic cup with the brain
o Develops as an inward growing cord of ectoderm from stomodeum
o Term can be used into two different manners:
1. Rathkes pocket The invagination of stomodeum which fuses with
infundibulum to form: complete adult gland
2. pituitary gland an endocrine gland formed from an ingrowth from the
stomodeum (Rathkes pocket) and the infundibulum
o Form: anterior portion of the pituitary gland

Optic cups lateral to the ifundibulum

o Lens vesicle present on the left side

NexCab, JoFred, et. al (pictures). 2017

Level of the Rhombencephalon

Section through the anterior pharynx

- Most caudal region of the brain of the developing embryo with a thin roof
- Cavity is rhombocoel
Syn: hindbrain

- Round structure originating from the mesoderm
- Lying dorsal to the gut
- Ventral to the hindbrain
- Defines the anterior/posterior axis in the developing embryo
- Provides skeletal support during early development
Pharynx Section through the liver diverticulum
- Broad region of the foregut
Observe the spinal cord and the notochord with adjacent somites.
- Its paired evagination
corresponds to the Mesomeres
pharyngeal pouches - Paired bulges located just below the
Otic Paired invagination of the otic horizontal level of the notochord
placode Form: pronephric tubules and may
- Laterally located and slightly collectively be called the pronephrosor
ventral to the brain pronephric kidney
Form: inner ear (separation from
the head ectoderm) Liver diverticulum
Syn: auditory vesicle - Rudiment of the liver
- Found at the floor of the pharynx
- Extremely deep groove
Section through the embryonic heart
Section through the pronephros
Presence of rhombencephalon, notochord, somites and pharynx. Below the pharynx the heart
appears suspended within the pericardial coelom by the dorsal mesocardium. Note the spinal cord, notochord, somites, pronephros and coelomic activities. This section is
at level caudal to the liver diverticulum. In this region, the foregut (pharynx) narrows into the
- Located beneath the enlarged foregut
Yolky endoderm
- Appears suspended within the pericardial coelom by the dorsal mesocardium
- Nutrient supply for the developing embryo
The pericardial coelom is delimited by a thin layer of somatic mesoderm called the
Spinal cord
pericardium (membrane enclosing the heart). Its formation is brought about by the migration
of the heart mesoderm to the midventral region of the pericardial cavity. - Cavity that replaces the hindbrain
- Smaller than the hindbrain
Loose mesenchymal cells - Thick lateral sides almost touches at the roof part unlike the hindbrain
- Makes up the thick mass of mesoderm of the heart Pronephros
- Organize into a continuous endothelial lining of the heart, the endocardium
Two layers of the heart - Paired structure located on the lateral side of the specimen
1) Endocardium inner layer - Appear as spherical structures clustered together
Form: lining of the heart wall - Some are more elongated than spherical
2) Epimyocardium outer layer - Initial excretory organ found in developing vertebrate embryos
Form: muscle - Functional in larval amphibians and fish

NexCab, JoFred, et. al (pictures). 2017

- Degenerates and is replaced by the mesonephric kidney in adults Dorsal fin
- Flat extension of the body wall along the dorsal midline of the trunk and the tail
- Segmented mesodermal blocks - Structure degenerates during the metamorphosis of the tadpole
- Located on either side of the spinal cord Hindgut
- Arise from the dorsal mesoderm - Posterior most region of the embryonic gut
Differentiates into: Form: cloaca, colon, small intestine, rectum

Sclerotome (located above the neural tube and notochord) Proctodeum

- Forms part of the axial skeleton - Ectodermal invagination on the ventral side of the trunk at the base
Myotome forms muscle - Later breaks into the hindgut
Dermatome forms dermal layer of the skin Form: anus
Syn: anal pit

Section through the midgut

The spinal cord gradually tapers off in diameter from the rhombencephalon to its caudal end.
Note that in this section the diameter of the spinal cord approximates that of the notochord.
Wedged between the notochord and the midgut, a small knot of cells can be identified that
are part of the subnotochordal rod.

Subnotochordal rod
- Transient structure of endodermal origin
- Unknown function that will later disappear

Section through the hindgut

This section through the base of the tail, is at level of the proctodeum. The proctodeum is an
ectodermal invagination that meets with the endoderm of the hindgut.

Cloacal membrane (ectodermal and endodermal plate)

- Delicate strand of tissue between the proctodeum and the hindgut Whole Mount
- Will become perforated
Form: posterior opening of the digestive tract Characteristics:

NexCab, JoFred, et. al (pictures). 2017

with developed external gills and a functional heart opticstalks
already a tadpole infundibulum
with lateral segmented somites and finfolds on the dorsal and ventral sides epiphysis
forebrain has differentiated into: optic cup - structures lateral to the brain
o the telencephalon o lens vesicle lies in its concavity
o the diencephalon o outerpigmented layer and innerretinal portion are now
stomodeum is deeply invaginated distinguishable
olfactory pit is surrounded by pigment cells pharynx - a large, rounded cavity
a circular knob of cells from the brain forms the epiphysis o a clustered mass of cells on each side of the pharynx will give
rise to the mandibular arch
the mandibular arch is the posterior border of the
midgut is excluded stomodeum
hindgut persists as the cloaca stomodeum - a deep invagination of the midventral ectoderm located at
o its dorsal wall becomes extended as the postanal gut the anterior end of the pharynx
it will be broken up and will disappear adhesive glands - paired ectodermal thickenings at the ventral surface of
o the hindgut gives rise to the urinary bladder the head
a ventral evagination of the hindgut o secrets adhesive mucus for attachment
Transverse Section

Level of the Telencephalon and Olfactory Pits Level of the Rhombencephalon

olfactory pits began as olfactory placodes, paired lateral thickenings of Section through the thyroid
the head ectoderm
o olfactory pits will develop into nasal passageswith olfactory a developing cranial nerve ganglion can be observed lateral to the
receptors floor of the mesencephalon
o it is derived from neural crest cells
The beginning of the oral cavity is marked by the indentation on the
o it is part of the peripheral nervous system
ventral surface of the embryo
o oral plate has now perforated at this point, the width of the pharyngeal cavity exceeds the height
o embryo has an open mouth o in the 4 mm stage, the width is equal to the height
thyroid gland - an evaginationof the endodermal cells of the
pharyngeal floor
telencephalon - paired hemispheres at the anterior region of the
diencephalon - posterior region of the prosencephalon Section through the otic vesicle
olfactory pit - a cavity on the lateral surface of the head a single layer of flattened cells comprises the roof of the
epiphysis - middorsal evagination of the prosencephalon rhombencephalon
o becomes the pineal body
notochord is now visible, ventral to the rhombencephalon
head mesenchyme - loose mesenchymal cells between the head
the truncus arteriosus, the most anterior portion of the heart, can
ectoderm and the brain
be seen within the pericardial coelom
the 4 subdivisions of the heart include:
Level of the Diencephalon and Optic Cups 1. thetruncus arteriosus(anterior most)
2. the ventricle
oral cavity is surrounded by presumptive jaw cartilages 3. the atrium
adhesive glands are present on the ventral surface 4. the sinus venosus(posteriormost)

Blood Flow:
diencephalon - posterior region of the forebrain sinusvenosus ->atrium ->ventricle->truncusarteriosus
o appears as a laterally compressed region
o site of attachment for the:

NexCab, JoFred, et. al (pictures). 2017

otic capsules are now visible glomi- a pair of triangular structures that hang down to the
o ectodermal coelom and is ventral to the dorsal aorta
o gives rise to the inner ear o possess tufts of small blood vessels surrounded
laterally and ventrally by the wall of the coelom
o they are the functional components of the
rhombencephalon - the third brain vesicle pronephros,where the waste products diffuse to the
o internal organization is similar to the spinal cord coelomic fluid
o will expand anteriorly to form the IV ventricle spinal cord - originates from the posteriormost region of the
o will further differentiate into the anterior metencephalon neural tube
and the posterior myelencephalon somite - segmented mesodermal blocksderived from the dorsal
notochord - structure derived from the mesoderm and lies dorsal to mesoderm and lateral to the spinal cord
the gut and ventral to the hindbrain o gives rise to the dermatome (outermost; forms the
o defines the anterior and posterior axis of the embryo dermis), myotome (forms muscles), and sclerotome
o provides skeletal support (located above the neural tube and notochord; forms
otic vesicle - hollow organ lateral to the hindbrain part of the axial skeleton)
o formed by the invaginationof the otic placode dorsal aorta - paired longitudinal arteries of the trunk beneath
heart - located beneath the pharynx the notochord and anterior to the gut
o bulbus cordis - anteriormost heart chamber pronephros - the excretory organ of developing larval embryos
pericardial coelom - cavity that surrounds the heart of frogs and fish; seen as spherical structures
o lined by the pericardium o replaced by the metanephric kidney

Section through the heart Flow of Nitrogenous Wastes:

small portions of the external gills are visible pronephric tubules -> pronephric ducts -> hindgut (cloaca) -> exterior
o the external gills are the finger-like projections lateral
to the head
o ventricle may be visible, with the atrium above it
nephrostomes- funnel-shaped opening of the pronephric
tubules where coelomic fluid is swept
esophageal plug - a mass of cells that temporarily block the migut- middle part of the gut with a thick, yolky floor and a
esophagus small lumen
atrium - the thin-walled chamber of the heart that receives o derived from the archenteron
blood from the sinus venosus and delivers it to the ventricle o forms the small intestine
external gills - the filamentous respiratory organ derived from
the third to sixth pharyngeal arches (pharyngeal arches number
3 to 6) Section through the cloaca
o will be replaced by the internal gills dorsal fin - extension of the body wall along the middorsal side
of the trunk
Section through the pronephros and midgut o will degenerate with age
cloaca - posteriormost chamber of the digestive system
the rhombencephalon and its roof decreases in width and proctodeum- an ectodermal invaginationon the ventral side of
height the trunk at the base of the tail
o it will taper off in the spinal cord o will form the anus
the coiled nature of thedeveloping gutis evident at this point
o a long intestine is a necessity for the filter-feeding
tadpole 10MM FROG EMBRYO

Whole Mount

NexCab, JoFred, et. al (pictures). 2017

Same as the 7mm frog.

Transverse section Jacobsons organ

- Saccular structure fromed by the evagination of the nasal organ
Level of the Telencephalon and Olfactory Organs - Function in picking up the smell of food from the buccal region
Syn: vomeronasal organ
- Anterior division of the prosencephalon Buccal cavity
- Paired and each unit is roughly hemispherical but flattened at the midline - Region where the nasal cavity and mouth opens
- Each contains a cavity, known as the lateral ventricle formed by the evagination of - Lined with epithelium and is derived from stomodeum
the side of the neural tube at the anterior end of the neurocoel - Jaws are tipped with many horny material and tooth germs at this region
- External to the jaws are lobose structures called the oral papillae
Layers of brain under HPO:
- Ependymal layer Prechordal cartilage
One cell thick, ciliated layer immediately surrounding the neurocoel - Hyaline cartilages beneath the telencephalon which will form the cartilaginous
Cilia aid in the movement of the cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of cranium called the chondocranium
the brain and in the central canal of the spinal cord Syn: trabecular cartilage
- Mantle layer
Broad layer adjacent to the ependymal layer Melanocytes
Form: gray matter of the central nervous system - Stellate cells scattered over the dorsolateral region of the brain and lateral to the
- Marginal layer nasal organs
- Fine granules of melanin (light brown individually; black in aggregate)
Outermost layer
Contains neuroblast from the inner layers and nerve fibers Mesenchyme
Form: white matter of the central nervous system - Stellate , mesodermal cells filling up the space between the organs and the
Nasal Organ
- Form a loose reticulum with the outermost cells forming the dermis of the
- Found at the region of the telencephalon and lying ventral to it
- Formed by the invagination of the ectoderm
The olfactory nerve connecting the olfactory lobes to the brain arises from the olfactory Epidermis
epithelium. - Outer layer of the skin composed of two strata of ectodermal cells
Syn: olfactory organ Free melanin granules and melanocytes can be seen here under the HPO
External naris
- Opening of the nasal cavity to the outside
- Marks the point of the original ectodermal invagination Level of the Diencephalon and the eye

Internal naris Diencephalon

- Opening of the nasal cavity into the buccal region - Posterior subdivision of the prosencephalon that is ventrally elongated and
Syn: choana possesses a cavity called the III ventricle

Frontal organ Ifundibulum

- Funnel-like evagination of the diencephalic floor
- Structure arises as an evagination of the diencephalic roof together with the - Subsequently evaginatates the posterior or neural tube of the pituitary together
epiphysis with the stomodeum
- Beneath the epidermis, it migrates forward from the region of the diencephalon to In the more posterior sections of the diencephalons, this is seen as a smaller, ventral
the region of the telencephalon. component of the diencephalon with thin roof and thick sides.
- Contains photoreceptors and may function as a third eye
- Middle region of the brain dorsal to the diencephalons
- Bears the 3rd and 4th cranial nerves
- Possesses a cavity known as the cerebral aqueduct

NexCab, JoFred, et. al (pictures). 2017

Pituitary body

- Oval mass beneath the thin floor of the infundibulum

- Endocrine gland derived from the infundibulum and a solid ingrowth from the
stomodeum Hypobranchial cartilages
If tracing is continued posteriorly, the hypophysis disappears and the tip of the - Long masses of cartilages under the floor of the foregut that make up parts of the
notochord, flanked by parachordal cartilages will be seen. visceral skeleton and support the pharynx
Syn: hypophysis Thyroid
- A pair of small endocrine bodies associated with the pharynx located beneath the
Eye hypobranchial cartilages
Optic cup
Layers of the optic cup: Skeletal muscle
- Retina - Mesodermal masses lying on the lateral and ventral side of the pharynx
Thick inner layer of the optic cup
Oral suckers
Differentiated into the following layers: - A pair of glandular structures
o Layer of ganglian cells (innermost sublayer of the retina) - Composed of elongated columnar cells
The axons of the nerve cells in this sublayer form the optic - Ventral surface of the tadpole that produce a sticky slime for attachment to
nerve. The region where the optic nerves cross in the floor of floating objects
the diencephalon is known as the optic chiasma. Syn: cementglands, mucous glands, adhesive glands
o Layer of the bipolar neurons
Middle layer of cells that will synapse the receptor and the
ganglian cells.
o Rods and cones Level of the Myelencephalon and Auditory vesicle
Outermost sublayer of the retina where the photoreceptoral
process is formed.
- Most posterior region of the brain with a thick floor (basal plates)
Pigmented epithelium - In later development, its thin roof becomes vascularized to Form: posterior
- outer wall of the optic cup formed from the medial half of the optic vesicle choroids plexus
Forms: iris of the eye - Cavity is the IV ventricle

Lens Auditory vesicle

- spherical body, partly enclosed by the optic cup - A completely closed hallow organ on each side of the medulla
- formed by the thickenings of the inner wall of the lens vesicle - Endolymmphatic duct
- Lens epithelium Thick-walled tube between the medulla and the ear vesicle
One-cell thick outer layer Marks the course of the invagination of the auditory vesicle from the
- Lens fibers ectoderm
Columnar cells at the core of the lens that will later become long fibers - Utriculus
arranged in layers Large dorsal chamber of the ear vesicle
- Semicircular canals
Cornea The three mutually perpendicular folds of the auditory vesicle that is
- Superficial covering of the eye formed by an assembly of ectodermal and observed in older specimens
mesodermal cells between the ectoderm and the lens The sensory epithelium is represented here by the thickened horizontal
Choroid and sclera
- Sacculus
- Outer investments of the optic cup
Ill-defined ventral chamber of the auditory vesicle
- At this stage of development, they are represented by the mesodermal cells
Forms: lagenain lower vertebrates
aggregating outside the pigmented epithelium.
Forms: cochlea in higher vertebrates
- Broad gut at this level which is lined by endodermal cells Auditory capsule

NexCab, JoFred, et. al (pictures). 2017

- Mesenchymal cells surrounding the auditory vesicle that will form the cartilaginous Aortic arches
ear capsule that surrounds and protects the inner ear - blood vessels lying within the branchial arches and encircling the pharynx
- connect the dorsal aorta with the ventral aorta
Auditory ganglion The aortic arches that are involved are 3-6 because they are gill bearing.
- Mass of nerve cells on the medial side of the auditory vesicle
Syn: acoustic ganglion Ganglia
- Facial ganglion (VII)
Large mass of nerve cell bodies
Notochord Anterior to the auditory ganglion
Acoustico-facialis ganglion body arising from the fusion of the facial
- Round structure originating from mesoderm and auditory ganglia
- Lying dorsal to the gut and ventral to the hindbrain Syn:geniculate ganglion
- Defines the anterior/posterior axis in the developing embryo
- Provides skeletal support during early development

Mesenchymal cells of the notochord - Trigeminal ganglion (V)

Form: notochordal sheath A larger mass of nerve cells bodies anterior and dorsal to the acoustico-
facialis ganglion
Parachordals Syn: semilunar ganglion
- Glossopharyngeal ganglion
- Cartilages flanking the notochord on each side External wall of the opercular cavity formed by a body fold
Heart Metencephalon
- a lightly coiled tube twisted to the right - Anterior subdivision of the rhombencephalon
- Lies behind the optic lobes and medial to the V ganglion
Pericardial cavity
- chamber enclosing the hear

Conus arteriosus Level of the Pronephros and first spinal ganglion

- most anterior region of the heart
- connects the ventricle with the ventral aorta Spinal cord
Syn: bulbuscordis - Derived from the posterior region of the neural tube

Ventricle Neural Canal

- heart chamber that receives blood from the sinus venosus and delivers it to the - The cavity that is laterally compressed by the thick lateral walls of the spinal cord
ventricle - Ependymal cells that line the central canal possess cilia and pigment granules
Syn: central canal
- dorsal, thin-walled chamber that receives blood from the sinus venosus and Gray matter
delivers it to the ventricle - Inner layer of the spinal cord close to the ependymal
- Composed of a compact mass of neuroblast and neuroglia
Sinus venosus
- most posterior chamber lying on the right, anterior to the liver White matter
- receives the venous blood and delivers it to the atrium - Peripheral layer of the spinal cord containing the axons of the neurons in the gray
Opercular cavity
- paired chamber continuous with the gut and lying on each side of the heart Meninges
- contains the internal gills with branchial blood vessels - Membranous covering of the central nervous system which begins to form at this
Syn: gill chamber developmental stage

Dorsal aorta First spinal ganglia

- blood vessel located above each gill chamber - Masses of nerve cell bodies ventrolateral to the spinal cord

NexCab, JoFred, et. al (pictures). 2017

Myotomes - Represented here in the upper right corner of the body cavity
- Thickened primordia of skeletal muscles on each side of the notochord
- Skeletal muscle fibers are arranged longitudinally Intestine
- Located posterior to the duodenum and is filled with the abundant yolk platelets
Pleroperitineal cavity
- Coelomic cavity containing the viscera except the heart Liver
- The pleural cavity that contains the lungs and the peritoneal cavity that contains - Highly vascularized and enlarged organ to the right of the midline
the digestive organs, associated glands, kidney, and reproductive organs are still - Spaces in it are called sinusoids
Gall bladder
Esophagus - Once-cell thick, large vesicle associated with the liver
- Tubular organ with folded mucosal lining located below the notochord
Bile duct
Dorsal aorta - Thick-walled tube that appears in place of the gallbladder
- Paired blood vessel between the notochord and the esophagus
- Fuse into a single blood vessel posteriorly
- Large organ within the curvature of the stomach
- Located to the right of the liver and bile duct
- Identified by the presence of the nest of cells (alveoli) surrounding small ducts

- Paired excretory organs that arise from the nephrotome
- Located at the ventrolateral region of the body cavity

Pronephric tubules
- Ducts of the pronephros lined by cuboidal epithelium

Posterior cardinal veins

- Blood vessels within the pronephros and supplies the latter with blood

- Opening of the pronephric tubules into the coelom

Nephric duct
- Lone duct that can be observed at the most caudal section of the pronephros
- Moves medially and eventually joins the cloaca where it empties its contents

- Two triangular shaped strucutres
- Seen ventrally to the dorsal aorta that hang down into the coelomic cavity
- Tufts of small blood vessels surrounded on their lateral and ventral surfaces by the
thin wall of coelom
- Glomi are functional components of the pronephric kidney
- Waste products from the blood diffuse from the glomi into the coelomic fluid

- Posterior continuation of the esophagus with folded lining and thick muscular walls
- Evaginations of the endodermal lining form the rudiments of the gastric glands

- Region of the gut between the pyloric end of the stomach and the intestine

NexCab, JoFred, et. al (pictures). 2017