Está en la página 1de 213

..... .

~
ANCHOR
HANDLING
ANCHOR
HANDLING

By

Capt.Krets Mamondole
Master Mariner. MNI.DPO

Editor
Capt. Abdul Ghani Thalib
Omkar Barve

Cover Designed
Denny Rozali

Published by
Yayasan Sinergi Refonnata

First Printing: August 2009

ISBN
978-602-95432-1-6

Printed by
Harapan Jaya

This book or part thereof may not be reproduced in


Any form without permission of published
Preface

I believe that the core idea of offshore operation to make relatively simple for any
inexperience mariner to understand simple drawing sketch and steps to understand the
flow of operation safely.

Many have misunderstood and this easi ly overlooked and causes more hann in gelling
work done in safely instead .

In writing this textbook, my aim has been to try and fill a gap by providing up to date
guide for ordinary seamen, cadet, non offshore mariner to understand critical points and
risk exposes of various step taken.

Throughollt my experience onboard with nu merous Master of different national


colleagues, have makes me aware the important of simpl e drawing to explain all before
one assigned to do their work.

Many people have made this book poss ible. My thank to Capt. Roy Mundus Benhur,
Capt Wijayanto, Jendry Gandaria, Ricky lngkiriwang who have encourage me to write thi s
book and have provided great support whi le maintaining patience with effort to com plete
this work in a timely manner.

I would like to thank to numerous associates and assistants in volved in the development
of the text.

I rece ived a great deal of in tellectual and colleg ial support from my ex-ship colleague at
Gulf Marine, Osa Marine OIL , PRM, Emas Offshore, Thome offshore, DESS who helped to
make thi s book simple to read and understand for non offshore mariner.

Most importantly, will like thank my famil ies for their continued support and
encouragement, without which this book wou ld no t have been attempted, much less
finished.

Also the following companies for their help with advise and photograph.

Capt.Krets Mamondole
Master Mariner, MN I, OPO
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE
TABLE OF CO NTENTS .
"
CHAPTER \. INTRODUCTION.

CHAPTER I\. EQUIPMENT LA YOUT AND FUNCTION 3


A. Types of anchor handling vesse ls 3
8. Standard deck layout 7
C. Equipment involved in anchor handling 8
O. Control station layout. 17
E. Wire rope, shackles, anchors, & gear 21

CHAPTER 111. RIGGING FOR ANCHOR HANDLING 50


A. Introduction 50
B. Layout of the vesse ls deck equipment and the associated machinery. 51
C. Equipment preparation for anchor handling 52
D. In ventory of anchor handling equipment 53
E. Anchor chasing diagram I fishing diagram 55
F. Pulling power of the Winches 58

CHAPTER IV . SUIT CASE BUOY 59


A. Introduction 59
B. Deck layout and equipment related to anchor handling 60
C. Picking up buoy and pennant 61
D. Release pennant from anchor hand ling hook 63
E. Receive anchor and buoy from the barge 66

CHAPTER V. PENfNANT , BUOYED SYSTEM 69


A. Running anchor 69
B. Retrieving anchor 73
C. To pick up the buoy using the buoy catcher lasso 77

CHAPTER VI. PERMANENT CHAIN CHASER 81


A. Introduction 81
B. Running anchor 83
C. Retrieving anchor 87
D. Decki ng Slevpri s anchor 92
E. Laying the Stevpris anchor 94
F. Racking anchor 96
G. Picking up pee from the Rig 97
H. Handing the pee back to the rig 99

CHAPTER VII. SUPPORT MOORING BUOY 101


A. Introduction 101
B. Surface Support Buoy 101
C. Yokohama Fender 110
D. Multiple Poinl Support Arrangement pre laid waiting barge 112
a. Introduction 11 2

II
b. Deploy anchor and buoy 113
c. Hook up the Rig to the pre laid anchor 11 6
d. Retrieving anchor chain 119

C HA rT ER V III. PRE LAJD SYSTEM 122


A. Introduction 122
B. Procedure using the stopper plate system 124
C. Pre la id permanent buoy system 133

C HA PT ER IX. PIGGY BACK ANCHOR 148


A. Introduction 148
B. Deploying piggy back anchor w ith a surface buoy 150
C. Deploying piggy back without a pennanent buoy 153 .
D. Retrieving piggy back anchor (Tender barge) 157

C HAPTER X. FIS H ING AND GRAP PLING OPERATION 161


A. Introduction 161
B. Procedure to use a J-Hook 162
C. Procedure for using the Chasing block 166
D. Grappling sleeping chain 172
E. Grappling sleeping pennant 175

C HAPT ER X I. HAN DLING CHAIN 184


A. Introduction 184
B. Preparatio n for handling c hain 187
C . Putting the chain to the chain locker 187
D. To lead the chain from the rig to the chain locker 190

C HAPTER XII. USEFU L TABLE, FORMULA AND DATA . 196


A. Mooring line calculation- Formula abbreviat ion 196
B. Mooring line catenary 197
C. Mooring line calculation 198
D. Ca lculated Example 199

C HAPTER XIII. SAFETY rROCEDURES 200


A. Introduction 200
B. Preparation for a Rig Move 200
C. Personal Protective Equipment 200
D. Tool box meeting 200
E. Job hazard anal ysis 201
F. Communi cat io ns 201
G. Lighting 20 1
H. Shark jaw/ Karm mechanical stoppers 201
J. Buoy and Anc hor 201
J. Rest 1lours 201
K. Stop work policy 201
L. Log book 202
M. C hec k li st 203
N. Hand signals 204
O. Bibliography 205

II I
CHAPTER - 1

INTRODUCTION

Anchor handl ing has long been a vocation that has called for a lot of interest and has
been a satisfying experience for those who have done it through experience taking
into consideration not just one aspect of the operation but worked on skills to develop
all round knowledge of its pitfalls and ri sks that can be minimized and or eliminated.

In being able to del iver the results in a effective and a effi cient and safe manner it is
necessary to know what [he drawbacks that could be present and need to be addressed
or ove rcome. These could be factors that arc within the ship or externally present.

Internall y: Master's capability and skills, the crews experience and their abil iti es
in relation to the operation, the ship maneuvering characteristics, winching
capabili ties, and availability of equipment on board.
Externally: Geographical conditions, the weather condi ti ons at the time of
operat io ns. Human factor at and surrounding th e workplace: Client, Agent other party
and or from the company itse lf. The equ ipment used by the client such as survey
equipment etc.

Anchor handling can be done with sati sfy ing results if all of the above is taken into
account and prepared for at the planning stage of the operation and all concerned
personnel informed, equipped and prepared accordingly.

Good co-ordination between the Master and the crew on deck and the Master with the
Rig mover is a must for the success ful completion of the operation. It is nOI
infrequent to have a misunderstanding between the communi cating parties which
leads to a development of a situation nOi conducive to the operation . This ean be
avoi ded by holding a tool box meeting which involves the Master, the ship 's crew
and the Rig mover to discuss the procedures, identify possible hazards and minimize
or elim inate them,

It follows that communication remains a very very important part in the operation.
Communication should at all times be to the point, clearly spoken and acknowledged
as having understood by repeating the o rder. This is 2 way communication and it
should be carried out at all times. Thi s avoids unsafe situations from arising out of
miscommunicat ion and keeps the crew safe. Crew on their part should not do
something that they have not clearly understood . Confirm and re confirm if need be
with the Captain, but DON 'T guess what the message is, understand it.

These days the crews on board the anchor handling vessels are from different
countries and backgrounds. In such situations the role of the Master is all the more
challenging as he has to enhance the positi ves of each crew and suppress their
negatives if any. The best way for the Master to achieve this is to lead by exampl e
which will automatically establi sh a safety culture on board and turns the ship into a
disciplined high perfonnance unit where all on board enjoy the benefits of a well run
unit

Having said all of the above. the technical skills and the personal experiences of each
of the crew bring to the ship a very big advantage, but if the crew be inexperienced
the anchor handling operations will indeed be a very difficult proposition to the vess~ l
and the rig.

Equipment onboard is also a very important feature of the operation. But it is not
enough to just have the equipment onboard. It needs to be kept in good working
order. The Master and Chief Officer shall ensure lhat the maintenance procedures and
the maintenance schedules are adhered to. It will be as per the companies planned
maintenance which enables equipment inventory, maintenance history and inspection
reports and related infonnation which will be kept updated by the Chief Officer.
Equipment certification is also equally important.

Delays caused due to equipment failure due to lack. of maintenance or inspection arc
unacceptable and reflects very poorly on the vessels perfonnance capabilities.

All crew at all levels must usc personal protective equipment and are equally
responsible for their own safety and related clothing and equi pment. We all have been
using these for a long time but they do need to be stressed on now and then. All crew
shou ld have been issued with most of this: Coverall , Safety shoes, helmets, leather
type hand glove, goggles, Bosun 's knife, work vest.

To re-emphasize the safety aspect, ALL personnel involved in the operation should
be made aware of the fact that each and anyone of them cou ld STOP the operation if
they see, or fe el that there is a situation that could be potentially hazardous to the
operation. This is called the STOP WORK POLlCY and thi s is a recognized policy
internationaliy by oil companies. When such a STOP JOB call is given. operation
shall not be resumed till the situation which has arisen be resolved effectively or the
hazard reduced to the most minimal.

2
C HAPTER 1\
EQUIPMENT LAYOUT AND FUNCTION

A. For the case of understanding the actual operation of Anchor handling it is


necessary to be familiar with the equipment:

Shown in the follow ing photographs are some ships which are used in Anchor
Handling operations.

SEA JAG UAR 15000B HP

LEWEK SWAN 13000 BHP

3
PACIFIC SILVER 16000 BHP

SEA CHEETAH 15000 BHP

4
,. .
.. I
:1 ~~I " I1nll

PAC IFI C CO PPER 5500 BHP

,"IG.::'.

A NEW DESIGN OF THE STERN ROLLER .

5
SEM I-SUBM ERS IB LE RJG IN DEBALLASTED CONDITION

SEMI-SUBMERSIBLE RIG UNDER TOW

6
B. Standard deck layout for chain handling, shown also is a anchor ready to
deploy. This particular vessel has 2 sets of towing pins and 2 Karm forks.

Winch compartment shown from astern, the towing pins and thc Kann fo rk are
down, the tow li ne stop post on vicw on the Port and Stbd crash rai ls.

7
C. Equipment im'ol ved in Anchor handling.

Spooling Drum or pennant storage reel. Thi s reel IS used as a storage reel for
pennant's, work wires or other wires .

Pennant Storage Ree l

The white arrow shows the tow line stop post. It is to stop the tow wire from
going forward of this point.

Tow Line Stop Post

8
Tugger winches are small winches whi ch can be used to haul objects on the
vessels decks, to transfer or even can be used to lash deck cargoes at times.

.~
;. ..
. ..
~.~, ' ''.'
~ ~
~

Tugger Winch
Capstan can serve the same purpose as the tuggers but one advantage is that they
can be used for mooring/unmooring as well.

Capstan

9
Roller lead sheave is often used to change the angle at which the wire leads or to
enab le the capstan or the tugger to pull at d.i fferent angles.

Roller Lead Sbieve

Gog pad eye is used for the gog wire which keeps the towing wire in place.

Gog Pad Eye

10
Spooling wi re guide is to enab le the drum to be spoo led properly so that there are
no wires criss crossing.

r
Spooling Wire Guide

Pelican hook stopper point, as the name suggests is used for sec uring the pelican
hook assembly, or chain stoppers as the case maybe.

Pelican 1look Stopper Point

II
Layo ut anchor handling vessel

~ Towing drum

\ I I

I Spooling drum
I
kt Anchor Handling
drum

\=\~ f::I
Tugger w,inch

Towing line stop pOSI

!~
Stopper Kann Fork
V
V
/ Towing pins

OO~k V I I
~
0 OXO
~
Capstan
I
'"
~ Stem Roller

12
Shark Jaw is a Hydraulic stopper which can hold up to 350~500 t of tension

Shark Jaw

Shark Jaw shown holding the cha in .

13
Kann Fork is also a hydrau lic stopper wh ich can hold 350 - 500 tons of tensiol1 .

Doubl e Kann Fork

Single Kann Fork

14
Stern roller is to facilitate the heaving and slacking of wires and chains over the
stern end without any damage to the wires and chains and also to the ship.

Stem Roller

Stem gate is a means of reducing the swe ll wash ing on the deck , and preventing
the cargo from being washed over. This is also a safer working deck for the crew.

Stern Gate

15
Towing and Anchor Handling Winch

Gypsy is used to pick up the chain from the deck and put in the chain locker and
vi ce versa. It can al so be used to tens ion the rig chain .

Gypsy

16
D. Control Station Lay Out

Aft Contro l
An control station which has the follow ing controls at hand:
I. Poscon control panel 6. Main Engine con trol panel
2. Steering control pane l 7. Winch control panel
3. Thnlster control panel 8. Day light radar display
4. Bulk system 9. DP console
5. Mon itoring system 10. Captain chair

DP Consul

17
Fwd Control

Joy Stick Control

18
Winch Controls

Main Engines Control

19
Modem Aft Control

Modem Fwd Contro l

20
E. Wire Rope, Shackles, Anchors and Gear

l. Wire
The table sbown be low is for !he wires that are normally used in Anchor handling
operations.
TABLE OF WORKIN G WIRE

fibre Core Steel Coro


Si7-<:
Appro, 1770 lensile grade Appro" 1770 tensile grade
Nominal
Mass Mass
diameter Minimum Minimum Minimum Minimum
Breaking Breaking Breal:.ing Breaking
Lo~tI Force Luad Force

KgJlOOm Kg/100m
tonnes K" IOM CS
""
8 23. 1 3.81 37.4 25.5 4.11 40.3
9 29.2 4.82 47.3 32.2 5.20 5 1.0
10 36.1 5.95 58.4 39.8 6.42 63.0
II 43.7 7.21 70.7 48.2 7.77 76.2
12 52.0 8.57 84. 1 57.3 9.25 90.7

13 61.0 10. 1 98.7 67.3 10.8 106


14 70.8 11.6 114 78.0 12.6 124
Small sling. 16 92.4 15 .3 150 102 16.4 161
Lashing wire 18 117 19.3 189 129 20.8 204
19 130 21.5 211 144 23.1 227

20 144 23.9 234 159 25.7 252


22 175 28.& 28J 193 31.1 305
Tugger wire. buoy
catcher}1assocs
24 208 34. 3 336 229 37 .0 363
Slings 26 244 40.3 395 269 43.4 426
28 283 46.1 458 Jl2 50.4 494

12 370 61.0 598 408 65 .7 645


35 442 73.0 716 488 78.7 772
36 468 77.2 757 516 83.3 817
Suitcase wire., 521 85 .9 843 92.8
J8 575 910
Heavy slrops
40 578 95.3 935 673 103 1008
'lings

44 771 124 1220


4R 917 148 1452
52 1076 174 1704
54 1161 187 1837
56 124$ 201 1976

60 1433 231 2268


64 1660 262 2570
Worl:. wires. anchor 67 1830 288 2825
handling pennant- 68 1880 297 291 4
chasing 70 1990 314 3080

72 2100 333 3267


73 2170 341 3345
"eo", ""'"S [ 76 2340 370 3630
pennants.
8J 2790 442 4336
Hcav~ suspended
moormgs pennant 89 3210 508 4983

96 3740 595 5797


103 4340 653 6405

Issued by Courtesy of Bndon Rope

21
2. Shackles
,.

a...In_" _ _ "'_
"'--"_11.$._-," __
, ,
-...
(111111~71)_"'""

o _.. o _. w"gn, w.".,

.""" ...""" ...'"'"n' ...,N,","n.


,n.a,.
(ho'n

, T -'
1.I>A<>'
'M
ihO<.Uo ' G

"" " " " "


"
U~

""" """ """ ""


.." . " ""
.." " '" ,,.
""" ""
" 'm"
..
~

"""
...,'"'"'".. . '"..".. ".'".."" "
"" "
'""" """ '"
4 ."
~
.-"" '" "
~
'"
"
..
~

" " llU


"
....'"'".. .... ,.'" -'" '"".."
'"..
'
"" ,'"111 ".
'8

'"""
~

"" ,~

""
""" '""
'ro
" .'",
,~

'" ' ,~

-- .. .. ,,. '.,",
~ ,~ ~H
" ", ,'"M'
---
n8
'"
". "".
,.,.. ,.,. ......'"". '" ",.'"..
~
,~

'" ~n ,. ~

m
= '"
'" ," '"
'00 ~
om. ,~ ~ 18~
,ro
.,. '00
.,
-,-
~ ,~ ~ ~ ~
.~o
M$
'"
,,' '" '"
,.,,,.'"
,~ ,~ ~

,,. .. ,.. ~
'" m
m ~,

."
,-
. ro
'"
....'"'"'"'", ...'"'"n.'" ." ...." ".
~
'"
- - ,,,.
no
.00
~
,.'"= m
'00
no
".
' 00
ro
m
~
n ~5

"'5
InO
I.' S
~ ,~
~ "M ,~

'"
, ~

IV.1 t
..
loptd!

,
,
., ,.
o ....
""
Li- ----:ii'""" r, q~, ,
,

I>

.''""
Il-ll'
".w
16-11'
1911'
Ull'
W.,.
.
,
" ,.,,, ,.,.'" .,'" ,.,. '"" "'
,.
''"" '" " '" " '"
II<

III
.,'" " '"'" '"'"
)1\ 59l
)3SS

I!7\)
9.11
'""
"'"
' /I

"
tU:
, SM '..-....
1'\
115
\50
.ItO
154)
100
~';-_~~.
10
85
89
tOO
1\0
III
1\1
.,
9>;
IO!.
110
III
llol
)!is
'"
~

'"m
'"
'~
'Ii
110

..
'"
l1i

'"
,"
'"
m

,.,."'
I.
-".,.
'""
m

.,'"
,..'"...'" ""'.
"-..0 'IS \60 lJ I

'1P:I ~., to
\ ,"-
- "
500
~
100
lOll
rill
t90
1110
100
m
oM
101>
'"
~I
~, o

,.
~

1<>0
~ 100 1)0 l~l 1\-1
m
. '"'"
!OO 1/(1 ISS SS-I \. ~
t(>l) 110 /10 Ji"j , \~ 1119
tIS(;
t!.Oll
1fj)
llkl
lOO
110 ,.
' lIJ W 1:'"-0
".

22
3. Wire rope Socket

,.,
0.
.
J', .'
.,,'", '"..
WI<

il<
fa.l l
>OM
,."
I'!.~

.. '" ,." .." ,.,. ,"..
J<
~l l m
J. lITO

.."'" ,..,"'" .."'" .,"'" ,."" ,.'n".


''-'" 9i , I~ til
,
,
~
.
~ , ,
III
to '"J" 1(1;1\.1
IIH ~
JIG

00\
".
'" '"
I J I , I~
115 I;,) "'" JJl m liS!
"
a..I,,-, _ _ Io . .
... .-
~

,.,."' - -. ,
~

2'). 11
'"
~

;
..".. .." ,!

\\'I
'f

""".
II ,
''""
""." .." ,",.'"'" ""
"
I(~
"
,,."..
I I!

.. . Kn" ,. ,. """ """


1.1\
"'on" . '"
on
..""" """
"0 I' ,..".
l IS
'"
'" ,.,.,n
1Il
J "J

,",""
""". ". )" "" " "I","" "lOS
..,..,..
\ III 1-1;

.."" "."
lfj

,. ,.
.. "'n,". '"
<II H /\ !4) OJ /1;

" .. ,."
,.
~ 1 '.)1m
lZl 01_ 10' 1 lSo; m 1;-4
on
'""
.... ,. ,. ,",.," ,.".
/.1; N 1

i
!]'I
m
" , " l"n '"
II . Ii J\-l1

" " m.
'"
,. '" ~
!:
H! "'"'" "'"
'",.'"" ","'".... ~ , ltl
1.111
Ill Ut
) 4

. "' "'" '"'" ,n,.


"
I,:' . on
~
'".. ..'"
~
~
""
11'
.~
llS
m

" " '"


'M l"ll\;
1!I1I1 ~ ~

., , ~!ilt jcr;W.

'0
,. . "M
,., " ,.,. .,'",. ,.,. n. 5--:- &4 iI\

- -'.
,, .
''"" '"
'"
'"
" ."' . ,. m'"'m" ""I.
. IXO
!is.!''''
1~,1 1l \00 ~I
151

100
111 1111
IS71
l\O

'" '"0
J8i " ." '" ,. ".
,\00
1100
1I~.I ~
III . \.l4
1 ~I l iIJ
50)

700
i~
I.
I
II.

,a..dItt_liI.

.
~ !opt~~ \O~r.1
,
" ""M ,.
(O\~
,
'; ',----- ,/ I,,
'
I \

\
III
o.
""' ""''"
_ M
~, ).I
s~ ...
il. &!
..
'" ,"'." " ,.
,os

'" ,'." ,."" ," '"" m,.


;5
;) 11)
"
"
,/
,
I

''"" ,.'"
ii1S
li &)
I.
JJO
,." , ,.'"
.. Iii
'""
.. ,.'". ,. ,.'" ..'" "'m'" .,.,
I I. m
\ \. I J.
'"
100
87.
~
fj
J.
'" 1:'0 " '" "'
'"
m
~ \~l
1141 111 I.
to

'"
"

23
.,....--.............. -
,,,... -- - .
.
00 Ropo~-'"
..
W~'9r. '

..,. ..
~

,.,
~ ] ' fQl :
/ - -.........
,. """
H

" ," ,
".
I~

'"
'" '"
,"" " "
""" """
,"", """
" _.J,
.
", /
1
" '"
'"
'"
'"
1 1~
,,.,.
H~

1.0
".
". '",.'"'"
"". " "
'"
0

" . ,." l"-l .


1\.1\
I~

''10 _1',
'"
'"
1. 2

'm'"" ,.
'"
'"
'"
1;'1
H.
M
"
""" .
,.
"
"" ..""
" "
"" "'"
Ill.
1.5

~ il~

'" ". '" "" ." ,.


! 1;
H.
'"
".
~.

". " no-n ,.'"m '(1\


'" "" " on'"m ~1

.' - '.,
,.,. ",.. ,..
'; 1 .
'" '"
,.,.'" '" ". """
~

,.'" ,'",..M ''"" '"


'"
.,.'"'"..""" ,. "" ,.
" ..1\
".
m
'- ,.'" '"
. ,.. "'''""
~u I ~ ;,

'" '"
..
~ j,-h
III "
n. " IH',
,n" '" '" , '"
'" ,. '"'" "" '"
;:ll
~81

'" ", m n,
J~ -4

'"'" H'

,. "" ,,,.'" ".


'"
l/l.
~
M
'" ,.
110 '"
,. '" ~

"' '"
M
,~
H_' >0' ~
,. '"
'" '
1.00"
'" """, m
M

'" '"

4. Thimbles

1
I o ~'li1lt~1

WI.1'
1S'.1\i'
"''""
,. '"" '" ,.'"
~

.
J ~)
llS ,,,
I;';
,.
\IItf'tilI.~
I'
\6'-21 ' ;U 10 15
'" "m
......................... .
~
~" ~I
'I'
1\
,. ,.
"" '" .'" ..,.'" ,. " .... "' ""., "
C"
11l
"
0 ~
~I~I


"w" '" .." """, '" "' ,."'" " 'm" mm .," ""
lV
II! II) HI., 11~ I~! IJi
Ii; I,.!

III !l) J,..!

" '" '" "' '" III ;:&;

5. Polyester Mooring Line

Diam~ !~r Moe T01..1w'lgh! k<im SU t>mo>'g~d ""'o>l9h r ~glm Stllfn= kN


mm
''''
1121
"'2-' Mill ~t2(I ~ M81 ~l '" MBl " 2<1 MBl
"
71'l".!14 "" "'.
1 10' , Q.l

'""
8H '~ (\4

'"'" ,, ~

1';_2
"
' /0 "" """ 1 18' ~ OS 118' ~ "5 1 86' . OS
74~6

" lS7' ~ 05
IS' IS' I 8 ~" (,s 2W . OS
IS ' n 1 %'. 05 ;U ,Y . <Y5
''""
1f>9 9138 299' . 05

'IS'" 1WllO
'" "" " 215'. 05 2 7b' ~ <Y5 1 5~ " OS

""
125U ! } ~', os 112" . (oS
,OJ
n7
14215
26 0

'" '"
'" 70
" J 14' , os
j 51'. os
l ~' . <Y5
41 9' , 05
4 a' . os
os
17261
'" 32 6 78 4 1 ~ ' . 1)5 S ]9 ' .

'"
Ilou M lmmum
20107
!I,~.) ~
;0' no
"\9 LViO ( MEl l ) 10 splic" d ,000 ,!IO<1
"" " 117' . OS 18 3'. <Y5 ~ 99' . OS

"'~I9~!S J ' ~ p,_m.-d IV< J rOIlQ IOdCl9d 10 2'. oYlO 2'0., <,I Mill
{~d ln9 t),)tv. H~ 10 3<1'" I.lIll
'qci ln<;l t),)lw .... n 20 10 ' . MBl
'(yd l"\! t),)rv.~" ~ O so ".
I.lIlL

24
6. Synthetic Ropes

m
.,
"
".
364 9
,,,
"M
,m
1 09 4 6
.. ".
4. ~4
5 .85
6 .8 3
B .28
2 .03 '
2 84'
4 05'
4 . 87'
608""
..
..
"
..
..
05
05
05
05
05
'"'4'
".
,,~
9 .2 4 6 . 8s.. ..
'"
154
14595
1 6055
1 0 .7 8 I I ' ..
05
05

'" 182 44
1 970J ". 8 .92 '"
1 .0 1' "
1 os.. . 05
05
05

'"S>
''"
,.,
2 1893 '"
15. 3: 1 .22' .. 05
1 30" .05
23352
248 12 '"
", 138 .. 05

7, Chasers

,,', ,

~~);
(0' . ~ ~~

J .-"v--,"'
"

\\~, , ' /
" "
:/ ~
L.. .-- . , ,, ;
,,"'"

\~'
, "-..::Y/
~.+:.~ \1/ \ CJ
,
, / @

J ( h ~,,'r
J l <)Ik C h ~,;e r Perrnan<ml WIre C h ~~e<
VA 1(1 1
VA lIS VA ]10]13 2 141 1S

E) ;1 II
,

, ,,
,
\

-" I, ,
<;;;:.i

(.1
,
,\
f '\
-,,-.
,\
/'/
-'l'l
[
u.,("d,~ b ~ e h al " C h ~.cr
VA IOl lo;; I1 Q. ll } VA 101 10ll 111

Til" A , C D G H
,
prooflofd w~Qhl

V;" 101 lOl "


V;"
V;"
102
11)6
"" 16S7
1829
114]
'" '"T"7&1 lOS
lSI '"
10l
'I'
114
IlO
"" II<l
11<1 "" ,OU

V;"
VA
107
108
1702
1886
19:31
"" 'OOJ'" 761
1141 76l lOS
'" 114
IlO """
11<1
I\<)
21<1
1~ 51
1178
V;,. 110 1807 "" "70 878878
1145
'067 78 '
llO
10l
20l IlO 21<1
1656
IJ3]

"" ,]g, """


V;" III 1245 1130 1lO 10l 110 2SO 1742
V;" 112 n10 ' 797 16O IlO 21<1 20~4
VA
V;"
115
21 0
2Il8l 1~ Sti
ms
'53
711
878
'"
5ll
412
l05
llO
124
IlO ""
11<1
21<1
1778
V;"
V;,.
211
21 4
l<l71
1%2
23 18
"99 "'"
"''797" 691
901
445
508
llO
llO
IlO
IlO
99 210
11<1
195~

mo
18~6

V;" 21S 211S'


'3M
" 68
'''''' 7" 445 ll6 178 117 " 400 1495

25
8. Anchors
Stevin Mk 3

, r
,," I
Ii"
"or
I" \

.... ~~M ,.."" ""


,."
"'"" ~" ... "'"
,,.,, "'" "..

.
6J72
"'"'''
S9 ~ 2 72tJ9
'"'
2 1)9

." "" ""


~,s..
"",., . J..;H
5511
551'
"M 6986 1~]
ISS!!
"", ,.,
".,
lll~
llU
2"8
,. , ""
,~,

i871
l2'~
". '"'
"" ""
~~)2
l"'~
.," SJ~~
~ ~9.\

""
m
'''' ISH ,081 ISI1
""
:lH

.
lis,;
!~ I~
m ,. 1727
., .
! ~ S,
,~
'~)1

'"" '"".
,''' .,
1m HU
H~)
tOl~ ,~,
;,:';1

";00
'" "
11-. "",,"_ . " . _ .... 3..-._'" I_"~""""" ....... . ." . . '" '" '" ""'"

Stevris Mk S

W9tghl 1500 100 5<Xl1 m 10000 110011 1\00') 18000 1COOI1 1/000 1I!K1l 10000 6\C(j)
Ii~ HI! H12 SI~1 S55~ 1108 6);4 ~m lC", 111) 1141 &l 18 10m
1184 4011 '1~ II6J S.o2 blO8 ~ 7190 1\~ 71 ~ 81ll 86<1 111&.1
1811
1101
1183
18%
21.1
12lS
1166
2629
3-110 1'24 ,,"
4149 ,m
.Ill ~~29
2831 lOll 3m ].1.1; lS01 1611 lSl' '~I 5186
6165
"'9
271 m I(); m 111 1-11 iiI m il' "S ~~~ ;51 m
1ll1l 1~~ 18lJ 2U9 2111 1 2';~ 281' ~11 31111 31 H m~ 4)}J
m 622 118 662 919 988 Fo6l 1B1 1111 1M 1~2 1}41 17lf.
811 10I 110 110 140 110 170 180 llOI ll)l ~. m lC'

liM 1h;~;~(trr- ''"'flU1.II.)MIo;IICIIIlII t~".hrQo"Hr. tj)<'C1.: '~.llIof1

26
Stevshark Mk S

[:

">--

.... ~"lM 1100 3((1 500) ~ . """".S 1]0&0 15000


"... "'",ns """
l5000 ..",

... "" ''"


'I00I)

'Wi ms sm 7m
""
""
I1SS
18"
lll! lim HoJ.4
S711
iIi~
6Wi

"" ""
lnl
65S1
70'1
4161
10"
711 4
m7
""
7S~8m )87,
~1~5
10051
lClJ
61~
,,~
2~j
1831
111
1178
m
""
1s.l7 2m
IS"
nlS
'",S;, 1117ill "57 "" "" "" UH SIl.

""'"U.
~2l in
1192 15O! 11&'
' \I
WI
S2i
IlS'
~)
"'Ii'"
m8
IO~S
,,~

Ill'
'" "" DIS'"
Mil
~H
4 1~

'".J "']
<JIl
11\
,1> Il.
."
'41) '10
IG31

"' IS'
'"
1171
110
lUI
100
1299 1081
!OO

rj~ n.. ~", u .. ("""""' 1J1:; .........,~'*liJO'!U~fI:.p;,t.; '".. tI' .. ..

Stevrnanta VLA Parmancnt

~-@'

~1
!ii.'
"'-
'/
~.~~. ,
fo"
.~ . .f '

-It
~
,
,,,
i

10

!
""
-+- S9S1
1891)
6'10
6742-
lU
2918
'119

27
Stcvrnanta VLA Modu

"

... 8 10
" IS
"
I~I
10

""sm
B6S
\488
;)86
""
S~Sl
,,%
S112
Sl26
\8"
,~
"'"
6216
1I7
61\0
6741
1O---+-- 166
2061
~ ~'~1
226D 1527
1107
MO
117'
'"
2918
\279

~I'" 'Jt,; ~ ,4 thf S~.I\.).~, mt) bt"\ilj'l!'I~H:' .,....... iII:/llJflo';lI(.j/It

Flipper Delta


...... h1 < D

'.' ," ".,


~ ~ ~ mm

'.~ ""
sm "" ''''
I~
""
". -
MO ,,~ !~ '001 WI)

,-
lion

,~ I.~
16m "" I~I B" !Wl

0 I/O"
1100

'''''
tsiiS
""
.m
1435
I~OO '"'
""
". ."""
~2645S 1105
. "* SlIS

''''' 0"
,~,

'"'' """
,

."'"- ""
1010 ,m
'Q 440')2
71650 "" "~
B" 6lOO wo 4910
M'" "SO ~" 1m

Danforth


'.

' (1
MO , \34
WOO-+- 1./68
""
""
~

1810
2160
1180
mm

11 40
mm

'"
'""" ""
""
".
mm

,,.,,
''''' 45)6
"" ". '" ""
-
I. I'J ,
P

--
5443
"" J7]O
'" 1210

,~ ,......
'" mo

..-- =
1 1m ". ""
"" ""
"'I
,= . J
111<10 14]0
I . :e _
< ..., ,""
"'" ""
4370
471 0 ~ 70
1110
119S
IS"

""
Stato "'" "" 5000 1210 JOOO

28
Bruce Dennla Anchor
Dirrtfnlionl i~ ",ilii""ln"
DENNLA Mk2 12m' A , ~Y"'''''"""'''''"'''""toIIonon
9:
, c:Indoll.! !f~~ O. ~":<".Y
1r ,
I
c ~~_
I//?Aj
@.. I

,
I '
:. :...../
."
1>-~ CEImOO

'>A ~l
~
) -'
0 -;;......." ... .'

'::~~'.~.:'-;.'.
" {.
-
lo= ... J 671'
"'" I!',
I:' "" :1
.",
I

,.....,

Bruce FF Anchor

~
~l 04 bI III II
~
V

29
<f' "
" ",'0
"" .c.s, J211
~ ~

,.
m~ ,.
~

''''
I ""
",.
lm
.., lO'i,s
ms '"
Ifr!ol
?HI
l!>l~
/\ I
6&:.1 ~\3! 50!; OPO
''''
"'" ~"
".,.
L~ -. "v ,-,- ~l)4 50" \ ~~J WI
lllol(! 0"
J )0<:<8
ISSI,; '" ""
5'.- ""
."
""
'"' '50' ,,;10
"'"
&.. 1814. ""
." ""
". ",.,,~

..". n2!~
"" "" "" ~ SN

AC14

:~I .1
" "'l(l 21(10
,,.,
Hill IIS5
-~~~ un
(" ,1\ ,
"'" ." "" "" "''50 ,,.
"" IW
., ' ~

,-",.
m'
"" m~
" mi
! :
(,
. '
, \i. j___'t, ,1 1114'!
m'-! ''''' ." "" ";
; .--.

, J
L-v---t- -,J
'i!7
.u~2

..JO~
moo
41,1..11

"'"
""
m ,;

""
".
""
"" 1m ,
""
""
mJ

""
10"
Ill!

ll1!
.
16("

9. Pear Shape Anchor Connecting Link

,. c n~ 'n Sl~.
,nmm mm
, , , , ,
mm .m mm mm mm
4

,
5
32-40
42-51
298 206 59
.,
40 46
,00
83

52-00
378
'562
SO
260
313
76
92 " 60 76 121
,7 13279
,,~

''''
37'
419
117
133 "
79
92 124
1 4~'
149
{;.:I9S 692 435 14' 159

'""
9 130
190 190
" 97102
'" 571 lOS

l , w. ,gnt
" G
" In kg

" ""
4 40 X 44 56 26 13

""'"
, 5

51 X 60
62 X 73
H
66 37
52

7
8
B5)1. 19 III
111 ~ 102 130 x 1
46
S4
76
79 149
9 124 X 137 141 57 83 236
10 130 181 73 lOS 300
c......".,.. , ....

30
10. Kc ntcr Join ing Links

.....
-""
,~

'".
"
~ """
.
~
,.,
""" "
" "
~
".
:\,~
~
""
."
~
;'j

""
,'."
n
ro

~
"m ll- j .
." '"
!'"

"" 'mHh
"
4,2d ~ 1.11
It.."., ,~

,,. ''"'""
)"10"'11 u,, ~
I; ... ........,...ll~ . J Com' ........ L,'I/. I(f;

~~f~~"-- ." ,," ,


'"
I:IJ~ L 1.~

11 . O' Type Joining Shackles

-" "

27
""
JO " 1

"" 18
I< ~,

"" '""
""52, """ ,
51 "
"
"" '"
'.J

f1
" .
.. '.
71d 10
,2<1 Il
.,
"1', "."
~, T
q: J' 116d
,3 1' ,
_ 1.3dl ,J.(: 'l .:): r- 2.8d...., "" '" 1 ~4
,~
__ 4<1
"J" ''''
,,.,'..
En11l1i1;ict Lln~ J o itllng Shackl.. Ellla'g;i d L'''~
1 ,~
" no'" M

,
o I' ,..
.'1iI

. ,~,

Common Lonl. End LUll. End IIlk Comlllon l.nl. '"


'"
,n '"""
31
12. Detachable C onnecting Link

, ,
!00.5 m
}hl
m!51~)tH~)<;
!.0.1 "
J ., I" ~, J, ."

1'~ ;, :1 41 '>\J .( U
1E71~62U~1"':IO

... I
lOS
1.':
'J.I,3
'(,J
JII!
!~1
2tO
2:'1
~

I ;"'" I 1~ I
1)1
tT
71
"
,1
'-4
~I
,.::
1)1 I m~
.,... ,... ,i>
! m' 21!,! (12! n I ~5\1
"
' ''' ,I ',1.1 I'
m 2;i'; "" 11 :0\51
Jl,

,,~ '. I',' '.1.' "
,
.,,' <l~

'.
'J .. '-"
, ,
SlY
".'
M 116
cO
IQ 1110' +- "1',---1
-- .'fl. ,_
."
.}
511
I'.
ltS
11
11.1
'I..
'I; Itl
11,:"
11'. Ii.'
... -
1100
'.
11X1-I02 001
... 1 -I
111
...
102
,"
]\\I
'"

13. Delta plate / Fish plate

.., ;....,.,
C~,,"5,,"
M ,

'"
P
-

'" '"
",,," Ie c'
, I ,

""
W
,.,
," 1812
I.i
~,

,~

T(or,"" ". S"'~" 1i

'00
,.,
!~ I
~'''!I"!

"
"
-,
.,
-:I" I
~ 4~ 115 ~ 1021 I~
70
,."'" 2" 1-'j ",
" "

"
~ I~ m
76 200
'""
U
,.0 100 y.,
83
'" "
,",
- 0
~I I~ 19'<
00. It;2
'"
',,"
I' "ro no
'" '" "
',IJ '-'In 2I(J

14. Open Link Moorin g C hain

,
I

32
15. Jaw & Jaw Swivels

s~
m
.... kg

'i-

;-

, C-
T
, .. ., L , U ' . ,
,-
f-', fIi=
- '" , 1440

16. Bow & Eye Swi vel


""
~
WI<gI\!

"
28

"""
lO
"
""
"~ '"
'"21
..
J8
40
"
30

"S1
~ , ""
N

..
51 IS
ro
.,"
H
70
73
""
'"
76 '"' 51
. " '"'"
8J

"" ,,.'"''''
,.,
"''"' ''30'""
95

",,re
,,, '"<5.
'" ""
'''' ''''

33
17, Pelican Hooks

, Sil'l WI:;t!l
IOMt'I ,;

ID ~~
!J 'Co)
J.I-42 I 110 I 45
1l-J, :~ '.(,
;)
42
,. '.,
~F
2) :~
I'

n
!',.i~ 'c,; 1.'
61-IT! I 170 I ro
"' ro
"

N 1(1'1
..
,~ ~

j 1Hl .;)j 11,_


00
" '"

r.... " " .....,.,

18. Slip Hook


s ,u ""..,
'<;1 '"
.,
", ",

,.'", ,.
!~}-
2~

.'" I"
3:.' I!I
f---_. <~,
t----------;;i ",.,"
,., 'eo:'>
'" f- 0 0

,c- _ 'M
!Mol
~.I
'" ~'7
,n
11 "'
",.
!'if
~.

i 'r~-
i ,
r,-
~
T ~
, I--~O
:~J=
,
.08
,'.,
5 .7 ~
i--' , ,."' ...... ,"..
r------{"
,
;:(""-
< I:'

I
'- .-.~
.<.1 8
"",.
"" ,~'#-
.,
l='~:t
4 "7

~
" ,'
-- \O ~I ~- ~, ~
,.,",.
~'3:;>
~'"
,
'0' " ""

19. Mooring Rings ~


SIU W.' g ht

"" ",
2~"
" ~~
"'"
63
":.1 '.<~

n"
"" 1"\
2 e,;?
"". I.'!

95
"
~.I
42 1
,,,,
",I."

.....w.:. 1~1.\

34
Anchor Handling Hook used for anchor handling suitcase wire

Anchor Handling Hook

Note: Purpose and illustration for use of the anchor handling Hook

A. Anchor Hook with Pennant

' 11 <
::::.~@ ,,-c=oa-
B ,,\ nehor Hook with Pennant,
Tugger and Open end Hook
.J
-~
i"". , c ilG8 :s ggg;g ~

C~ Release Pennant from Anchor Hook

III .::: :> c


iJ
~
-:::::ooe::

35
Lock A-Loy Link

This link is a means of connecting the tugger wire to the chain , which in tum on
the other end will be connected to the Safety hook.

Look - A-Loy (Coupling Link )

Safety Hook which will connect to the end of the tugger wire.

Safety Hook

36
Tugger Wire Assembly

Pelican Hook is a manual stopper and comes in various sizes which can vary lhe
holdi ng strength from 10 - 110 tons

Closed

Open

Pelican Hook

37
Swivel is to reduce the twist on the wire, so as to keep the wire kink free and to
make the wire safer to handle whil st connecting and di sconn ecting.

Swivel Assembly

24 mm 0 wire strop 4-5


meters long

U Hingelink

Hinge link

l.S-2m J3/ JSmm0


open link chain

Buoy Catcher (Lasso)

38
Kann Fork Lock Pin

Socket

39

Load Binder Ratchet Type

Li ver Chain Hoist

40
Wire Cutter

Co ld Chisel

41

I Kg Sledge Hammer

3 Kg Sledge Hammer

42
-

Pin Punch

Split Pins

43

Karm Fork Insert

Snatch Block

44
Clevis Safety Hook

Bull Dog Grip

45
Pipe Wrench

Axe

46
Crow Bar

Pl iers
47
Ring Spanner

Marlin Spike

48
Wooden Spike

Diagram shows how lo use the bull dog grips to fonn an eye.

,
<;

..
II

-
'J ","., r'

III

- - -
49
CHAPTER III

RIGGING FOR A C HaR HANDLI 'G

A. Introduction
The rigging for anchor handling has a lot of aspects to it. The crew needs to know
the various equipment which can be used and how to use it. The kind of
maintenance that needs to be carried out 10 keep the equipment in top working
condition. the capacities or capabilities of the equipment and above all the vessel
should hold valid certi fi cates for a ll eq uipment on board.
The type of equipment wi ll vary from vessel to vessel and at times to the
charterers specifications or to specific practices used in specific areas of the
world. The knowledge alone of the equipment is nOI enough to be able to use it,
there has to be an experienced to crew to use the given effec ti vely.

Type of vessel used for Anchor Handl ing

16000 BHP Anchor handling tug at full speed

50
B. Layout of thc vcssels deck equipment and the associated machinery.

~ Tow;ng Drum

r~
Port Spooling
drum ~ Stbd Spooling

Cutting tools
.'"l}-----{J / drum

I ~==;;==t- Anchor
, t- Handling
"\~~
Drum
Port Tugger _+-~ ';.j";

Stbd Tugger
Tow line stop
post . . / Tow line stop
post
Boal hook
.,j-----,S;'bd Tugger
wire

,.
i
c apstan /capstan
i
Shark Jaw -----ill--' 1 '. ' Swivel
assembly

Slem Roll er _ _~----r-:!:--~ Towing Pin

51
C. Equipment Preparation for anchor handling.

Prior to commencement of operation the rollowing equipment should be looked


aI.

a. Anchor handling winch,


Function tested, grease, break adjusted

b. Towing Drum
Function tested, Grease, Break adjusted

c. Guide Pin , Hydraulic Stoppers


Func tion tested, and checked for local remote operation, Hydraul ic power unit
checked

d. Deck Tugger winches/capstans


Function tested, brakes adjusted, wire properly spooled up end end tilting
(chain tail, safety hooks) checked

e. Portable tools
Checked, cleaned and assembled in a place, ready to use.

f. Deck lighting
Tested, checked and defects made good

g. Communication
Deck to the bridge communication tested, loud hailer system tested

h. Gas cutting gear


Checked and ready

i. Rigging gear
Shackles, canter link, bolt link, hinge link, chain stopper, anchor hook, snatch
block, lashing chain, chain binder, place and ready and use rack, checked and
greased, check soft line lashing ropes, wire sling, chain strops, ready for use.

A check should also be made that the contents of the deck gear locker are
stowed and placed to hand for examples, spi lt pin, lead shot, punches,
hacksaws, spanner, wire cutter, etc. are all in their correct place., bulldog
grips, shocked wrench set and all the other gear nonnally found in the deck
store should be checked in place.

j. Pennant reel
Function tested, greased, break adjusted,

52
D. Inventory of anchor handling equipment.
Given below is a list of equipment that should be onboard a Anchor handling
vesseL

N
Item Size Qty Remarks
0
400-1500 M x 70-76 mm 2
I Work wire
200-300 M x 70-76 mm 2
110100s 3
85 tons 6
55 taus 6
35 tons 6
2 Shackles
25 tons 6
12 tons 6
8 tons 6
6 tons 6
Heavy duty
3 150- 250 tons 2
Swivel
4 J- Hook 110 tons SWL I
5 Grapnel 110 tons SWL I
Suitable for wire up to 7 mm I
6 Peli can Hook
Suitable fo r wire up to 76 mm I
7 Pennant Pelican 70172 mm x 8 M 3
Hinge Link
8 110 tons SWL 3
Baldt type
9 Pear link 76 mm 2
10 Bolt link 76 nUll 2
II Canter link 76mm 2
Tugger wire
12 20-24 mm 4
I (sDare)
13 Snatch Block 8- 10 SWL 4
64mm 6
68mm 6
14 Bull dog grips 70mm 6
72mm 6
76 mm 6
Manual hydrau lic type able
15 Wire Cutter 2
to cut at least 35 mm wire
22mm I
24mm I
16 Wire rope
30mm I
35mm I
15mm I
Polypropylene 25 mm I
17
Rope 30mm I
35mm I

53
Sledge 5 kg 3 List
18 Hammers with 3 kg 3 of
handle I kg 3
Ball Pein 0.5 k. 2
19 Hammer with
handle
I kg 2
20 Axes Long handle 2
21 Crow bars Heavy duty 6
22 Cold chisel Heavy duty 6
23 Pin punches Heavy duty 5
24 Pliers Heavy duty_ 2
12 inches 2
25 Pipe wrench 24 inches 2
36 inches 2
26 Marlin spike 12 inches 2
18 inches 2
27 Hacksaws Heavy duty 2
Adjustable
28 8 inches 3
spanners
12 inches 3
29 Fi les metal Heavy duty 3
30 Ring spanner One sel I
31 Torches Water proof 4
32 Grinder Air driven/electric 1
33 Wooden Spike Heavy duty 3
34 )-iydrauiic stopper insert set, for wire/ chain isze
35 Nails Various size 2 inch to 6 inches
36 Lead shot for joining link
37 Split pins for size of shackle
38 The oxyl acetylene cutting gear
39 Wire sling I SWL 3,5,8 with 3 meters I 6 I
40 Chain stoppers I Heavy duty I 6 I
equipment continued ..

54
Note :
Shackles- Shackl es should be greased and color coded. The vessel should also
ensure that it has the certificates for the wires, chains and all anci ll ary equipment.

E. Anchor chasing diagram! fishing diagram.

It is important to know the length of the work w ire to be paid, the distance of the
vessel from the bargelrig and the amount of pennant to be paid out whilst picking
up the anchor. These days the electronic survey equipment used on board the rigs
renders these calculations unnecessary.

Having said that we still need (0 know the theory of the calculations so as to be
able to employ them if need be:

Example:

Anchor chain out ----...-. fairlead to anchor 3800 feet


Water depth 350 feet
Pennant length to be used at roller 700 feet
Distance radar scanner [Q stem roller 170 feet

55
I. Work out horizontal distance - stem roller to sea bed

~7002 _ 3502 606 feet

2. Stem roller radar scanner 170 feet +

= 776 feet
3. Anchor to fairlead 3800 feet +

4. Radar distance = 4576 feet

5. 4576/6080 = 0.75 miles

6. Set variable range marker on O.7S

56
"

uo
.i

:; "
Q

.~
-
~ ~

'-<"
Q

'z"
;;;
<
"
u
"o
"z;;
u

57
F. Pulling powe r of the winches
The abi lity of the winches pulling power is calculated at the first wrap, and at full
drum. The more the number of layers on the drum, less is the pulling power of the
winch.

Calculated example:
Data needed for the calculation:
I. Diameter winch inner barrel
II. Maximum pull of the winch on the first layer
Ill . Diameter wire of the wire being spoo lcd up. Refer diagram below .
iv. Number of wraps ( layers) on the drum.


___ l ____ R

_______ ~ _____ J

Winch max pull 250 Ions


Wi re size 70 mm
Diam. Inner barrel 150em
Number of wraps 5

R= D+ r
Remaining pull Max .pull x r R = 5 x 70 + 75 em
R R ~ 110

250 x 75
110

170 tons

58
CHAPTER IV

SUITCASE BUOY

A. Introduction
The suitcase buoy consists of a hollow middle through its length so as to enable
the pennant wire to be passed through the buoy. Such buoys are nonnally used on
pipe lay or cable lay and small barges in shallow waters.

For a typical pipe lay barge, it could use 8 anchors or 10. Out of these 6 are
deployed in the bow and 4 on the stem area. Please refer diagram below.

Port Bow Anchor Stbd Bow Anchor

9 10
2

8 3

7 4
B
A
Breast Anchor R
G Breast Anchor
E

~---- [ STINGER

I
I
6 I 5

Stem Anchor
I
I
I Pipe being
laid out

59
B. Deck layout and equipment related to anchor handling.

~ Towing Drum

Port Spoo ling


drum

Cutting tools
~: .... >, I,
'.' -- - . . "
"
',
H .'. .....
/
drum
Spooling

Anchor
-, . ~c::c::;;:c:::t~ Hand l ing
,.... ,. '
~
Drum
Port Tugger _+-~ ~"JI,:

Stbd Tugger
T ow Iinc stop
post . / Tow line stop
~ post
Boat hook
Stbd Tugger
wire

Capstan" I / capstan

Shark Jaw
l
----It--~ ,-1:'-:,'

Stem Roller _ _~-:---+-::!:-_..J Towing Pin

60
C. Picking up buoy and pennant

I. Anchor handling tug should come close to the buoy, the deck crew shou ld be
ready to pick up strop wire, also called Lazy Wire. To pick up strop wire we
have to use boat hook. See diagram no. I

I
I
I Gambar No.1

Diagram No. I

2. Lazy wire connected 10 tugger wire, heave up to the deck. See diagram No.2

U-J ,-------------'
-<-
I
I
,I

Diagram No.2

61
3. Anchor handling hook on work wire connected to pennant, tugger wIre
di sconnected from pennant, heave up work wire. See diagram No.3

..., -"'." ..'''.,...'''..-.....'''... -... ... ''''.-.... ........


'' '' ~ .~'' ..

Diagram NO.3

4. heave pennant wire till the anchor reaches the bottom side of the buoy.
See diagram noA

"
DiagramNoA

62
D. Release pennant from anchor handling hook

Anchor handl ing hook can be opened in two ways:

a. Using shark jaw, put the pennant in the shark jaw, disconnect work
wire from Pennant and release the shark jaw. See diagram No.5

b. Using tugger wire with open end hook. See diagram No.6

Diagram No.5

See diagram No.7

,
,

Diagram No.6

63
c. To release pennant, hold on to the tugger. pay oul work wire ti ll pennant wire
releases as the tugger wire tensions out. See diagram No.8 the following
diagram to get better understanding of the process

...___........_&......."e: ... "~:..-----

Diagram No .7

_.____~I.II~<==::::,~) ~::=-C~~,--,--

Diagram No.8

64
A. Anchor Hook with Pennant ~ .... - t..
: ~ ~-=CPi
"

B Anchor Hook with Pennant,


Tugger and Open end Hook
~

< I~"@ """""CJC"

C: Release Pennant from Anchor Hook

IIII :) , Z ., ::::::woo=:

Diagram NO .9

Remarks

A. Anchor Handling hook


B. Anchor penllantIPennant ''lire
C. Chain
D. Work wire/suitcase wire
E. Tugger wire
F. Open end Hook

Diagram No. J 0

65
E. Receive anchor and buoy from the barge

a. AHT backs up to the barge, the barge willlowcr the buoy along with pennant,
b. The crew will pick up the strop wire and connect to the tugger. See diagram
no. 11

Diagram NO.1 I
c. Suitcase wi re should be connected to work wire, after which the tugger wire is
disconnected. Sec diagram no.1 2

\
\

--
\

Diagram NO.12

66
4. At times the anchor may have to be put to be on dec k in which case, anyone
of the tugger wire needs to be connected in order to heave the buoy over the
stem roll er and onto Ihe deek. See diagram no.13

, ,,
, ,
, ,
,
Diagram No.13

5. Once the buoy is on deck, the work wire is then heaved on to get the anchor
over the stem roller and onto the ship 's deck, this is in case of a special
requiremen! of the riglbarge. See diagram no. 14

o
, ,,
, ,
, ,
,
,,
Diagram No. 14

67
Diagram of a suitcase buoy

':"

Diagram No.15

Diagram Cross Buoy

Diagram No.16

68
CHAPTER V

PENNANT , BUOYED SYSTEM

A. Running anchor
1. Anc hor handling tug should come close to pi ck pennant wire. See diagram
No. 1
2. Pennant wire is connected to the work wire. See diagram No .2

Diagram No.1

Diagram No.2

69
3. Work wire is then heaved slowly and the rig pays out on its wire till the
anchor reaches the stem roller. See diagram No.3 and 4

Diagram No .3

Diagram No.4

70
4. AHT moves ahead towards the target given by the surveyor if the AHT IS
provided with survey equipment. See diagram no. 5

Diagram No.5

5. As the vessel approaches the target area the work wire is then lowered to
a depth that keeps the anchor about 5m off the seabed as illustrated below.

Sea bed

Diagram No.6

71
6. Once the target position is reached then the anchor is slowly lowered to the
seabed, and once it is on the seabed then the vessel should be maintained in
that position, so as to not drag the anchor on the bottom and keep it within the
bull's eye. As the anchor is bottomed the rig should be informed.

Diagram No .7

7. When the anchor is in the holding position the rig shall inform the vessel. The
vessel can then disconnect the work wire from the pennant and connect the
buoy. release from the shark jaw and move the boat ahead to flush the buoy.

-"'-
~J

-"
Diagram No.8

72
8. Rrtric, ring the anchor
I. The boat backs to the buoy and once close to it, a buoy catcher lasso is used to
pick up thc buoy on the deck (See Chapter V C pg. 76).

Diagram No.9
2. Once the buoy is on deck the pennant wire is disconnected and the buoy is
secured to avo id it from shifting around.

3. Pennannt wire is then connected to the work wire and the barge then infonned
that the anchor is ready to be picked up. Do not pi ck up the anc hor till the
barge gives the go ahead 10 do so.

Diagram No. 10

73
4. Once pennissJOn is given, heave the anchor to the stem roller. During this
operation it is critical to maintain the vesse l's position.

00000

Diagram No. 11

5. After the anchor is on the stem roller, the barge is informed after whicb they
can start to heave in the anchor wire.

Diagram No.12

74
6. When the barge starts heaving up the anchor, the boat has to keep the wire
under tension and keep the vessel on the Run line given to it by the surveyor.
7. Diagram no 13 illustrates the boat close to the barge with the anchor still
hanging on the stem roller.

Diagram No.13
8. The work wire is paid out slowly as the barge heaves on to the anchor to gel it
onto the anchor rack. See diagram no. 14
9. Diagram no. 15 shows the anchor on the anchor rack.

/ ;[- - - - - - - - -
../
/'
'\ =
I
-I

"",-'~ ~~ J
00000 .(

,J

Diagram No.14

75
10. After the anchor is on the rack the work wire is further slacked to get the
pennant socket up to the shark jaw.

II. Disconnect pennant from the work wire.

" " " 0 "

Diagram No .IS

12. Disconnect the work wire from the pennant and hook up the pennant to the
barge crane. See diagram no. 16

-~
( V-

-I

)
~J .. 0 0 0 0

-" ~

Diagram No.16

76
C. To pick up the buo)' using the buoy catcher lasso.

Diagram of a Buoy Catcher Lasso

24 mm 0 wire strop
4 ~5 meters lo ng

Hinge link

Hinge link

1.5-2 m 13/ 15 mm 0
open link chain

Diagram No.17

I. Both ends of the lasso are connected to the tugger wire and arranged on the
stem as shown in diagram no . 18.

--

Diagram No.IS

77
2. In order to lasso the cross on the buoy 2 people are needed to swing the lasso
over the cross.

Diagram No. 19

2. To make the operation safer, the lasso could be done as shown in the diagram,
which is to go over the buoy and under the body of the buoy.

Diagram No.20

78
3. The tugger is then used to get the buoy over the stem roller and onto the deck,
at limes the usc of a single tugger may not be enough to gCI the operat ion
done. in thai case both the tuggers can be connected simu haneously and
hca\ cd on together

Diagram No.21

4. Buoy is heaved over the stem roller and the socket, which is behind the buoy
is brought past the shark jaw.

Diagram No.22

79
5. Socket goes into the shark jaw as depicted in the diagram below.

o
\

Diagram No.23

6. Buoy is then disconnected and the work wire is connected. The anchor is now
ready to be pi cked up.

Diagram No.24

80
CHAPTER VI
PERMANENT CHA IN CHASER

A. Introduction

ppe is a system that uses a heavy duty stee l ring whi ch is connected to the 76mm
wire with a minimum 30mtrs length
Photo shows a Anchor handling vessel working with a semi submers ible rig
which uses the pee system.

The white arrow shows the ring on the chaser pennant.

81
Deck crew connects the pee with the work wire.

AHT ruooing pee in heavy weather.

82
B. Running An chor

1. Below in diagram 1, the rig is ready to band over the pee to the AHT which
will, after receiving it connect it to tbe tugger, the tugger wi ll then heave the
pee into the shark jaw.
2. pee is then connected to the work wire.

Di agram No. 1
3. The AHT moves ahead and the work wire is heaved up at the same time, so as
to keep the vessel from getting too close to the rig. As the work wire is heaved
on by the vessel the rig pays out enough to maintain the tension on the system.
The ring chaser is kept on the anchor See Diagram No .2

--"",,

('~ ~

~
l. j
-!

~J
~
~
"- ~ ......... ...
"/fff'
- 0 0
0 f

-1,1

Diagram No.2

83
4. Once the anchor is hung on the stern roller, the vessel then proceeds to the
target as given by the surveyor, the vessel is maintained on the Run line.

5. As the vessel approaches the target, IOOmtrs off from the target, the rig is
infonned and they will put the brakes on, the boat still keeps moving ahead to
stretch out the chain.

" " " " ..


............
..........................
./~

Diagram No.3

6. After the vessel reaches the target, the anchor is lowered onto the bull's eye, at
which time the vessel has to maintain the position to enable the anchor to be
in the bull ' s eye.

.....
.... '" ... ................... ... . ...... .

Diagram No.4

84
7. Rig shall infonn the vessel that the anchor is holding in position, then the
vessel can run back to the rig with the chaser to be handed over to the rig.
There are 2 steps to this procedure

a. pee is pa id out to the required length so as to make an angle of SO


degrees with the stem roller and anchor position. See Diagram No.6
b. Vessel then backs up to the rig. Sec Diagram No.7

~~ J
I

...
.........
.... .. .. ...... .. ......... ... ....... 7
'-
....
/
~ "'"
:/

Diagram No.S

.....

.. ....
. .....

Diagram No.6

85
o

~.' ....

.............
... ..... ......
~."

- -. _ _ _ __ _ __
._..... -CC..""'
_ _ _ _ _ _
- - ........ ........
~

............
~

Diagram No.7

8. Once the vessel is backed up enough, the pee is then passed back on to the
rig. Sec Diagram No.8

,---
~
~~"------t-----------I
If':, ~I
~;,>1 '" 000 0 "

....
.....~
..................
......... .... .
...... .........
......

Diagram No .8

86
C. Retrieving Anchor
a. Vessel backs to the rig. See Diagram No.9

--~

o :9;'7

~.
..-. .....
J
.>---
......
......
.. ......................... .
..-........ .. ........
..-........... ..

Diagram No.9

b. Rig passes the PCC , the vessel then moves ahead, and pays out a length of 1.5
times the water depth on the work wire

c. Vessel then moves ahead to the anchor position at a speed of no more than 5
kts.

t.
'-----:S;.
- ..
.... _- - - ,.;;f

'-'"
..... ---.
.. .........
..-.......... .. ......
.. ....... ". .. ..- ....
....... ~

Diagram No.1 0

87
d. On closing on to the target the speed is further reduced and the pee is slipped
on to the anchor, as the ring slips on the anchor the vessel may drop speed.
Once the ring is slipped in the vessel has to increase pitch to move ahead and
get the anchor of the bottom. See Diagram no. I I

" 0 0 0 0

......
...... .............
................ ...................

Diagram No.11

e. When the anchor is off the bottom the RPM is again reduced and the work
wire is the heaved on. See Diagram no 12, 13 and 14

~
.. 0 ......

........... ...................... .....

Diagram No. 12

88
.. "

Diagram No. 13

.....
,---",- ".
..... .......

Diagram No. 14

f. Once the anchor is on the stem roller the rig wi ll heave on the chain and the
vessel moves ahead, so as to keep the anchor on the ring chaser which is now
at the stem roller.

89
g. Moving the vessel close to the rig.
I. pee is paid out on as the rig heaves in, but the vessel keeps moving ahead
to mainta in the tension ti ll the anchor is on the rack . See Diagram No. 15
and 16

Diagram No. 15
2. pee is disconnect and returned back to the rig. See Diagram No. 16, 17

Diagram No .1 6

90
3. pee shown back to the rig. See Diagram No. 17

Diagram No.1?

The vessel could be requested by the installation to deck the anchor so as to avoid
any damages to the sub sea structures or constmclion for ego Well head, ri sers,
pipelines or cables etc. in the area in which the anchor is going to be nm

The anchor should be decked with the due care that when it is being brought up
the flukes of the anchor should not damage the stem of the vessel. In order 10
achieve this the flukes of the anchor should be outboard of the stem and not
pointing inwards See Diagram no 18

1'" .., j

i' ".
iJ."=1 Wrong
I 1-
, " j

1- . . " ~I Correct
I
Diagram No.IS

91
~L.
-~ 0 0 0
'"" 1
0 0

..... .... .. . . ... . . - $


"C~t.
~7,;~~1 J
0 0 0 0
.....fe ' 0

-' .... ". . ....... /

~
'
.. ..... .......
....... .................. ..............

I Correct I

Diagram No.19

D. Decking Stevpris Anchor

a. Invariably when heaving the anchor on the deck the fluke s wil! 110nnaily point
to the propeller which is not a safe situation. See diagram No .20

Diagram No.20

92
b. To so lve the situation, the anchor is lowered and the propeller are churned for
a few seconds to rotate the anchor See diagram No.21

..... :; . J

Tum

Diagram No 21

c. Once the fluke s are in the outward direction then the anchor can be brought
over the stem roller. See diagram No.22 and No.23

V 1\\ ~

.. . ..

Diagram No 22

93
Diagram No. 23

E. Laying the Slcvpris Anchor


a. Decking anchor is specially requ ested by the rig operator or some special job
to replace the anchor or the rig has just come to the new location after a dry
dock, or to avoid damage to sub sea installation etc. See diagram nO.24
b. Special attention is to be given to the way the anchor is decked. It is always
best that the anchor is decked with the flukes pointing skywards and NOT
downwards to the deck.

Diagram No.24

94
Stcvshark anchor paying out over the stem ro ller

/r~

~~
..
..
...
...

Diagram 0.25

c. To put Ihe anchor over the stem roller, the rig has to give vessel the
permission to do so. Once vessel has the permission, the vessel moves ahead
slowly to tension thc chain. while thc work wire is slowly paid out to allow
thc anchor to move to the stem roller. See diagram no. 26

95
,,
......
.....

. '

Diagram No.26

Before the anchor is deployed on the seabed, it is on the stern roller at which time
it has to be made certain that the triangular plate of the anchor is sitting firmly on
the roller. This ensures that the anchor remains stable in that position.

F. Racking Anchor
a. As the rig heaves the chain the vessel pays out on the pee with the tension
being maintained at all times, the ring chaser has to be on the anchor
h. The flukes of the anchor should be pointing towards the rig as shown in the
diagram 00.27
c. In the diagram no. 28 the illustration is of an ring chaser not on the anchor
which allows the anchor to hang and it is not a desirable situation since il
makes it more difficult and operation to rack.

,.,.
_--------=?'

-
~-

"'-

::-- \ 5
~ L -::. - ---
:::"'''

Keep Teosion

Diagram No.2?

96
-~
-~A
_ c-/'"
[
tb'

~
-
f--

" 'i
l
~---- --------f"
JJ Wrong

Diagram No.28

G. Picking up Ihe pee from the rig.

a. Rig shall lower the pee with the means of a pig tail wire (A), of which there
is another one which is to be connected to Ihe ships tugger (B) once on the
deck.

Diagram No.29

97
b. Pig tail wire (8) after being connected to the tugger, the socket is heaved on to
get it into the shark jaw. See diagram no 30 & 31.

Diagram No.30

Diagram NO .3!

98
H. Handing the PCC back to the rig.
a. pee is disconnected from the work wire and once the crane is ready the pig
tail wire is booked onto it. It is desirabl e that the wire is behind the socket
wh ich makes it easier for the rig to han g it. See Diagram No.32

Diagram No .3 2

b. After the pig tail wire is hooked on to the crane, the towing pin is opened and
the shark jaw released to let the wire be picked up by the crane. See Diagram
No. 33 dan 34

Diagram No. 33

99
c. Pennant wire is back with the rig.

Diagram No.34

Semi-submersible rig in all readiness to move. Pennanent Chain Chaser System

100
CHAPTER VU

SUPPORT MOORING OPERATION

A. Introduction

At times when running anchors, there is a necessity to keep the anchor wire clear
of the sub sea installation to avoid damage to the same and keep the anchor wires
from fouling in it. To this end the support mooring system is used.
The above objectives can be achieved in the systems listed hereafter. There are 3
systems viz \) Surface support buoy 2) Yokohama, fender 3) Multiple point
support mooring

B. Surface Support Buoy

a. Surface Support Buoy is used to keep the anchor wire! chain clear of the
underwater construction, cablcs or pipelines, wellheads and for other similar
structu res .

____- - --1 0 ,1" P\oL.IF"b fl", I

OBSTRUCT !ON

\
---~

Diagram No .1

Note: A - Anchor
B BargefRig
C - Buoy

Diagram Delta Plate

101
b. Procedure

I. Buoy and Anchor along with the delta plate to be ready on the deck .
2. Pennant should be coiled on to the anchor handling drum
3. Extension of the anchor wire should be coiled around the anchor handling
drum after the pennant has been taken on.
4. Surface pennant shal l be connected to the buoy and laid out on the deck,
but not connected to the delta plate yet. ( Shallow water)

Vessel backs up to the rig and picks up the anchor wire .

Crane lowers the anchor wire, the ship's crew shall be ready to connect the tugger
and bring it into the shark jaw. See Diagram no.1 & 2

Once the anchor wire is in the shark jaw the boat moves ahead to keep a safe
distance from the rig. The wire is then connected to the delta plate, the extension
wire is also connected to the delta plate at this time.

Diagram No.1

102
Anchor wire heaved by the tugger wire and brought into the shark jaw.

Diagram No.2

Once the anchor wire is in the shark jaw the boat moves ahead to keep a safe
distance from the rig. The wire is then connected to the delta plate, the extension
wire from the sh ip 's anchor handling drum is also connected to the delta plate at
this time. The laid out surface support pennant is connected to the third end of the
plate. Refer diagram no. 3 for a better understanding

Diagram No.3

103
To deploy the surface suppon buoy, the vessel moves ahead slowly and the
extension wire is paid out till the surface support buoy is over the stem roller and
into the water. See Diagram No .4 & 5

Diagram No.4

Diagram No .5

104
Extens ion anchor wire is then paid out ti ll the soc ket is in the shark jaw and then
disconnected and connected to the anchor. The pennant wire is connected to the
anchor. See Diagram no.6

-":'~;;::>-----:
- ~.-...... ~
"'----....
~
~

Diagram No.6

To deploy the anchor on the stem roller, See C hapter V Diagram 110.5, 6, 7 and 8
pg 70-71

c. Anchor line is a chain.

/ - - - 1 D.~.f'!.w'F ..hPI...
ii
:
:
1
:
OBSTRUCTIon
\
"----- ./'
--------- \

Diagram No .7

105
If instead of anchor wire, a chain is used the procedure is very similar to that of
the wire.

The crane will lower the anchor chain, the ship 's crew will be ready to connect it
to the tugger and heave till it is into the shark jaw. Once the chain is in the shark
jaw the boat will move ahead to keep clear from the rig.

In diagram no 7 it shows two wires connected to the delta plate, one is connected
to the chain from the rig and one to the anchor.

Two wires are to be on the anchor handling drum after the pennant.

Anchor chain is stowed in the chain locker, anchor and the surface support buoy
as well as the surface support pennant are on the vessel's deck.

Anchor wire on the anchor handling drum is connected to the chain on the shark
jaw. See Diagram no.8

D
Diagram No.8

106
Aftcr connecting, ensure that there is tension on the wire then shark jaw is
released, and the anchor wire is paid out till the socket is on the shark jaw. See
Diagram no.9

Anchor wire 2

\ Anciwire 1
=

D
Diagram No .9

Anchor wire no. I is disconnected and then the delta plate is connected to the
anchor wire no 1 and 2 as shown in the diagram no.1 O. Please note that the surface
pennant has already been connected to the delta plate.

Diagram No. 10

107
After the above procedure the anchor wire no. I is paid out till the socket is in the
shark jaw as shown in the diagram no. II

nn

Diagram No. 11

Pennant is now disconnected from the anchor wire no. I and then anchor chain
from the chain locker is connected to the anchor wire no. l . Refer diagram no. 12

Diagram No.12

108
In order to connect the chain, it is easier if there is a length of abou t 5 mtrs left on
the deck forward of the shark jaw. See diagram no.13

- _-- -"""m

Diagram No .1 3

The anchor after being con nected to the chain is the connected to the pennant on
the anchor handling drum as shown in the diagram no. 14. The anchor is now
ready to be deployed.

/?~
- ~~~G;;:
-_ ~
/~_
"._._ _ __ _8

Diagram No.14
Pig Tail Chain:
The pig tail chain is like a messenger chain , it is easier to handle and hence it is
used to bring the anchor chain in to the chain locker or to bring the chain out of
the chain locker. It is normally 1.5 times the length of the vessels work deck
length.

109
C. Yokohama

a. Yokohama fenders can also be used as a support system to keep the anchor
wire clear from the underwater cables! pipes, wellheads etc.

The Yokohama fendcrs are nonnally installed by the barge, but it can al so be
done by the vessel. This systcm does not use a pennant, but instead uses a
wire strop and clamps to achieve the objective of connecting the anchor wire
and kceping it dear of the sub sea structure. See diagram No.IS

Usually this kind of support system is predominantly used for pipe/ cable
lay barges.

YOKAHAMA SUPORT

J--J\ _ I CLAMP I

Diagram No.IS

b. The barge is responsible to calculate the distance from the obstructions and
the length of wire that is to be paid out, and the position of the anchor in
relation to the barge as well as the obstructions.
Barge will instal l the Yokohama as per their calculations.

Anchor handling tug will run the anchor and the barge will payout till the
Yokohama fender is on top of the obstructions.

In the process of running the anchor, it is made certain that therc is sufficient
tcnsion on the system so as to keep the wire clear of the obstruction at all times. It
would follow that the barge cannot payout too fast, or the boat cannot move too
slow. This is called a Static Run.

110
Yokohama Fender shown hanging on the anchor wire.

Diagram No.16

Yokohama Fender is shown to keep the anchor wire clear.

Yoko hama

Run UndO tension

Otlstruction

Diagram No .17

III
Yokohama Fender over the obstructi on

,--
/ J,
<
0I
~, ,
'-.
"-.,
!
I

I
ObW<!WOll ri ~-- -- ,
Diagram No.IS

D. Multiple Point Support Mooring ~ Arrangement pre laid awaiting Ba rge

a. Introduction
It is a system wh ich uses two or more surface support buoys wh ich are pre laid,
prior to the arri val of the barge.
This system like the other surface support system is to keep the wire from
damaging sub sea install ation but in thi s case there may be 2 or more sub sea
areas that need to be passed over to lay the anchor.

Amho< Clwn 10 An<l,~,

Diagram No .1 9

112
To carry out this system, additional equipment is needed as shown in the diagram
no. 20. A temporary buoy and a temporary anchor

T'<4-<>"'Y Booy

WRS - Wire Rope Section

Diagram No .20
b. Deploy anchor and buoy

1. Anchor on the deck is connected with the anchor chain from the chain locker
and then put on the stem roller. The vessel proceeds to the target.
2. On reachi ng the target the anchor is deployed on the sea bed, the vessel then
moves in the direct ion of the rig ( not in position yel) . The chain is put on the
shark jaw and disconnected from the pig tail chain. See Diagram no 21

.IIIl
\"\
..."

On
S econd O bstructi o n
n
F,rst Ob",ru~t1o"
\'.,\,'.,

''-=/

Diagram No.2 1

113
3. Wire rope section 1 is connected to the chain and paid out till the socket is in
the shark jaw and disconnected from the wire rope section no 2.
4. Delta plate is now connected to the WRS I and WRS 2, the support pennant is
al so connected to the delta plate.
5. The wire rope section 2 is paid out till the buoy is deployed and the socket is
in the shark jaw. See Diagram no 22

F,rst Support Buoy

o
----~
Se cond Obst ruc!JolI

Diagram No.22
6. Now the socket of the Wire rope section 2 in the shark jaw is now AGAIN
connected to a delta plate, which will also be connected to the wire rope
section 3 and the support pennant for the Second buoy.
7. Wire rope section 3 is paid out till the buoy is deployed and the socket of the
wire is in the shark jaw. See Diagram no.23

Second Sup!'o< ' Buoy Firn Suppo<' Booy

Ancb..-C'hoLO. to Ambo,

/
S..,>d ObmuctlQn

Diagram No .23

11 4
8. Pennant wire connected to the wire rope section 3 is disconnected.

9. Ground chain is now connected to the wires no. 3, on the other end it is
already connected to the anchor

10. Pennant wire is connected to the temporary anchor and is then paid out till
the temporary anchor is deployed on the sea bed, the pennant socket is
then out in the shark jaw and the buoy is connected to the pennant and
deployed. See Diagram no.24

"'" ... '


",,": ,:b,.. 10 An<bo,

Diagram No.24
Note:
At all time.\' throughout the operation of deploying the hllOYl' the lystem mllst
be kept under adeqllate tension so as to keep the wires clear of th e
obstru ction
Every end of the delta plate has a pig tail chain which makes it easier to
COllllect and disconnect. The length of the pig tail elra;n is 1.5-2 mtrs X
3inch

"

11 5
c. Hooking up the rig to the pre laid anchor.

1. Vessel backs up to the rig, receives the anchor wire and puts into the shark
jaw, after which it moves to the temporary buoy keeping adequate tens ion in
the system. See Diagram no.25 and 26

---_.__.-

" a a "

Diagram No.25

........"l;!ji!!!!!!
I .... .. .. .... ......'

Diagram No .26

11 6
2. Vessel picks up the temporary buoy and puts it on the deck, the pennant
soc ket is put in the shark jaw. The buoy is then disconnected. The work wire
is connected to the pennant wire. See Diagram No.2?

.......

Diagram No.27

3. Pennant wire is heaved up ti ll the anchor is on deck, keep heaving till the
socket of the wire rope section 3 is in the shark jaw.

Diagram No.28

117
4. Disconnect the ground chain from the WRS no. 3, disconnect the pennant wire
from the anchor. Anchor and buoy are now lashed to one side
5. Anchor chain is then connected to the WRS 3.

6. Both the shark jaws are then opened and the wire section 3 and the chain will
be deployed. See diagram no. 29

S, c,,"d ob, 1l"uc l!on

Diagram No.29
Photo shows the Delta plate with pig tail chain being used to conn ect the anchor
wire and the pennant.

118
d. Retrieving the Anchor chain to the rig

I. Vessel backs up to the second support buoy. See Diagram nO.30

..... . Anchor Chsirl 10 ltis


...... ......... /
.......
....

.-.--~
Fin;1 ob$trucbon

Diagram No.30

2. Second support buoy is picked up and put on deck, the buoy disconnected
and pennant wire is then connected to the work wire and heaved up. See
Diagram no.31

~ "" s",port Boo,

...... :~"h"L"h.mtorug
........ /
..............
MSJ
7,,,
_--'
"'-.
,WRS2
~
/'
'" . '" .......,..-"" ......
--
____
,WRS I
"" Anchor Chain to Anchor

n n n '-''-(
Second obstruction First obstruction

Diagram No.31

119
3. Work wire is heaved up till the delta plate connecting the WRS 3 and WRS2
comes on the deck, it is tben put in the shark jaw.
4. Wire rope section 3 is then disconnected from the delta plate and then wire
section no 2 is paid out till the socket of the pennant is in the shark jaw.

~ F;,,' S",po" Boo,

?
'\_------z ~~s, A
yz - '"
.... _____ / '\.WRS 1
Anchor Chain to rug
........ Anchor Chain to Anchor
, ,~
nil
Second obsbuction First obs\nlctiou

Diagram No.32
5. Th e buoy is the reconnected to the pennant and re deployed in the water. See
diagram no. 33

Second Support Buoy First S~port Buoy

WRS3

Second obstruction First obstruction

Diagram No.33

120
6. Vessel backs up to the rig to return the anchor chain which comes with a
30mtr X 3" wire sect ion (Like a messenger). This wire is the one which will
be used to hand over the chain to the rig. The WRS 3 is put on the anchor
handling drum and then disconnected from the chain, the chain is then
reconnected to the messenger wire. Then the WRS 3 is reconnected and the
messenger is then tensioned on the drum, it is then slowly paid out till the
socket of the messenger is in the shark jaw. See Diagram no.34

2nd Support Buoy First Support Buoy

" ...............

Second First
obstruction obstruction

Diagram NO .34
7. Messenger is then handed oyer to the rig. See Diagram no.35

~
-t:' ' .. ...
.
:
~
2nd Support Buoy Fin! Supp ... , Buoy

..._--
.......... ~S3./ ....
\'M<S 1
" Ancher Chain 10 Anchor

On LJ '-../ ~
~9
Second First
obstmction ob/;Inlclioll

Diagram No .35

12 1
CHAPTER V III
PRE LAID SYSTEM
A. Introduction
Pre-laid system is, as the name suggests, a system in which the anchor is laid
before the rig arrives the location.
In this system, there used to be a method of using a permanent buoy, as shown in
the diagram below. These days a "Stopper plate" is used with a temporary buoy,
which can later be done away with. This type of system is shown in the diagram
no 2.

SUiface Buoy

--.-. ---__ Anchor wire

--- \.
-------- -._---------
Ground chain

D~IJI plale
'- ~-
" -'"
-----------"9

Diagram No . 1

r , At/Ire to Rig

-........,...... . /
--------. AJlchorWir~

/ ' "" ''-.,


~
/
I
S toppa- plate
Or oUlld chrrin

~'''''''~~
--
.... ...
---. ...... .....
", .... " ,
-" ,

Diagram No.2

122
In water depths of 1000 meters and more a polyester rope is used, in part and the
rest is wires on either side of the rope as shown in the Diagram no.3 . The anchor
used in this kind of a lay is predominantly as Bruce Dcnnla anchor.

Anciooo- Wire 10 Ri8

~~ ...... ,.. 'Vir ..

/y. ~ I
S I"PI'''- 1'1., ..

2
l'---.....- LI:JD - -~

Diagram No.3

DENNLA Mk2 12m' J>. . ~ ""'" """"" : 1NIoII_


C In,ooIIod fT ....od1 0 : ........,
c

,I 8714 ~' ",.""

Bruce Dennla

123
B. Procedure using the Stopper Plate system.

a. Deploy the anchor (Stevpris Anchor)

I. Vessel has to ensure that all the equipment that is gomg to be used in the
operation in at readiness. The anchor, the ground chain, temporary buoy,
chasing collar to be on dec k. Pennants on the drum.
2. Vessel moves in direction of the target, put the anchor to the stem roller. On
arrival at the target area, the anchor is lowered to the seabed.
3. After deploying the anchor the vessel moves in the direction of the rig' s
position and pays out on the wire until the wire socket is in the shark jaw.
4. Once the wi re socket is in the shark jaw, the shark jaw is released and the boat
tensions the system to check the anchor is holding.

Diagram No.4

5. Once the system is tensioned, the ship' s engines are brought \0 minimum
power.

6. Once on min power the vessel pays oul the pennant of the temporary buoy
which has been connected to the anchor wire at the time of pre operations
preparation. See Diagram nO .5

7. Once the pennant socket is in the shark jaw, the temporary buoy is connected,
the shark jaw lowered and the buoy deployed.

124
Buoy in the water.

A
'-r"

-----.. -._---------
~

b. Hook up Diagram NO.5

I. Vessel backs up to the rig, picks up the anchor w ire from the rig, moves ahead
to c lear the rig.
2. Wire socket from the rig is put in the shark j aw and then connected to the
work wire for the lime being. The vessel thell proceeds to the temporary buoy
See Di agram 00.6

--.

Diagram No.6

125
3. Once at the buoy, tbe vessel picks it up and puts it on the deck to disconnect.
Tbe pennant socket is put in the shark jaw, buoy is taken off. The work wire
which is previously connected ( temporarily) to the anchor wire socket is now
connec ted to the pennant and the pennant picked up , till the anchor wire
comes to the shark jaw.
4. Pennant w ire is disconnected. It is now ensured that the stopper plate
assembly is slipped in to the chasing co llar, and then connected to the wire
from the rig, the wire to the anchor and the pennant on the drum. Refer
diagram no. 7 & 8

Shark Jaw

Wire Rig
I / Chasing collar

Pennant wire to drum

\
Wire to Anchor
\
Shark Jaw
Stopper Plate

Diagram No.7

- ---- -------=;>

Diagram NO.8

126
5. After connecting the anchor wire, rig wire and the pennant as explained
above, the pennant is heaved in to tension the system, after which the shark
jaw is opened.
6. Pennant is lhen lowered. This peMan! is going to act as a pennant chaser. See
diagram nO.9 and 10

Diagram No .9

Diagram No.1 0

127
7. After the anchor is tensioned by the rig, the tension on the vesse l's pennant
will be lost, after which the vessel backs up to the rig and returns the chaser.
See diagram No.11

...

Diagram No.1 1

8. Pennant back on the rig. See Diagram no.12

Diagram No.12

128
c. Retrieving Rig Wire

1. Vessel backs to the rig, picks up the pennant chaser. See Diagram no.13

Diagram No .1 3

2. Pennant is put in the shark jaw and the work wire connected
3. Shark jaw is opened, the work wire is then paid out till it is 1.5 times the depth
at wh ich the stopper plate is. See diagram no.14

Depth al the stop per


plate.

Diagram No .14

129
4. As the pennant chaser comes on the stopper plate, the rig is infonned to slack
on the rig wire. As the rig pays out on the rig wire, the vessel heaves in it 's
work wire. See diagram no.IS and no 16

Diagram No .IS

.~
.~

---~
-------
.~

- -
. .. ... .... --- ~

Diagram No.16

130
5. Continue heaving the work wire 0 11 the vessel till the stopper plate is on the
deck, mainta in adequate tension as the vessel moves in the direction of the
anchor. See diagram no. 17

6. Both the sockets, one fro m the rig wire & one from the anchor wire are put
into the shark' See no. 18

Diagram No. I 7

Shark Jaw

Woi R9 / Chasing collar

/
Pennant wire to drum

\
Wire to Anchor
\
Shark Jaw
Stopper Plate

Diagram No .1 8

13 1
7. Both these are disconnected from the stopper assembly, the pennant is also
taken off from the chasing collar and connected to the anchor wire. The
pennant is paid out till the socket is in the shark jaw, the work wire
disconnected and connected to the temporary buoy and the buoy deployed in
the water. See diagram no.19

Diagram No. 19
8. Once the buoy is in the water, the rig is infonned. The rig then heaves in the
wire and the vessel backs up to the ri g maintaining the tension on the system.

Diagram No.20
9. The wire back to the rig. See diagram no.21

- --------- '"9

Diagram No.2l
Note:

To carry out an operation of the kind above, the vessel needs to have 2 shark jaws,
or if it only has one, then it needs a minimum of 2 stopper wires to be avai lable.

C. Pre Laid System, (Permanent Buoy)

a. Deploying the anchor

I. As in the above operation, the vessel shall ensure that the equipment
assoc iated with the operations are ready and available.
2. Vessel proceeds to the target, the anchor is put on lhe stem roller, after
arriving the targellocation, the anchor is deployed to [he seabed.
3. Once the anchor is deployed on the seabed, the vessel then proceeds in the
directi on of the rig's intended position while paying out the anchor wire.
4. Once the socket of the anchor wire is close to the shark jaw, the vessel
tensions the system by increasing the power, this will check the anchor is
holding the ground.
S. Once the anchor is found to be bolding the vessel's power is reduced to
minimum. The anchor wire socket is the put into the shark jaw, the pennant
disconnected and a delta pl ate is used to connect the anchor wire on one side,
the pennant wire on the other side.

133
Diagram No.22

6. The pennant is paid out till the pennant soc ket is put Ln the sha rk jaw, the
surface buoy is connected and deployed in the water.
See diagram no.23

,.1. S mt'ace Buoy

...... ----
_--,............... G rOlUld cilaiu

-------------

Diagram No .23

134
b. Hooking up.
1. Vessel back to the rig and picks up tbe rig wire. See diagram no.24

Diagram No.24
2. The rig wire socket is put in the shark jaw, the work wire is then cormected to
the rig wire. The vessel then moves in the direction of the buoy. See diagram
no.25

Anchor wire

Diagram No.25

135
3. Vessel moves slowly to the buoy.

-..........
........ Anchor wire
............
--'"

Diagram No.26

4. Buoy is lassoed and brought on to the deck, the buoy is the disconnected from
the pennant and the work wire, which is connected to the rig wire is
disconnected and then connected to the pennant. See diagram 110.27

Anchor wire

Diagram NO.27

136
5. Work wire is heaved on till socket o r the anchor wire is in the shark jaw. Sec
diagram no.28 & 29

AlJchor wire

Diagram No.28

Wire to rig

Wire to anchor

Diagram No.29

137
6. Pig tail chain from the rig Wife is then connected to the delta plate. Sec
diagram no.30

Wire to rig

~anChO'

Diagram No.30

7. The pennant is paid oul till the delta plate is in the water and the soc ket of the
pennant is in the shark jaw. See diagram no .31

Anchor wire

Diagram No.3 l

138
8. Buoy is then connected to the pennant and deployed in the water. See diagram
no.32

Qrol.Uld chain

Diagram No .32

c. Retrieving Rig Wire

1. Vessel back to the buoy, lassoes it and the buoy is brought on to the deck .

Diagram No.33

139
2. Pennant wire is put into the shark jaw, buoy disconnectcd, work wi rc
connected to the pennant and then heaved on till the delta plate is on deck and
the anchor wire socket is in the shark jaw. See diagram nO.34

ItJ
,
~.~
~
-
---------- ",

..I.
"

""......' .
................ _ An('hor wiTt

- _._ .. __..

Diagram No.34

3. Disconnect the rig wire from the delta plate. See diagram no. 35 & 36

Anchorwir~

Diagram No.35

140
Pennant wire

\
-----Ir-~O~~-"@--"=~-~-----
Anchor wire

Diagram No .36

4. Pennant wire is paid out, till the socket of the pennant is in the shark jaw.

Anchor wire

Diagram No.37

141
5. Buoy is then connected to the pennant. See diagram 00.38

Diagram No .38

6. Once the buoy is deployed, the rig is informed. The rig then heaves on the rig
wire, the vesse l moves slowly to the rig and maintains adequate tension on the
wire. See diagram no. 39

Diagram No.39

142
7. Handing the wire back to the rig

Anchor wire

Diagram NoAO

d. Retrieving Anchor

I. Vessel backs to the buoy, the buoy is lassoed and brought on deck, the
pennant is then connected to the work wire and the work wire is heaved on,
till the delta plate is on the deck.
2. Anchor wire socket is put in the sbarkj aw, the delta plate is then disconnected
and now the pennant is connected to the anchor wire. See diagram noA2


Surface Buoy

Ground chain
------------~
-"-------
---- -----~

Diagram No.4 l
143
G
- o

Diagram No.42

3. The anchor wire is then heaved till the angle of the wire is close to vertical ,
the vesse l's heading is then changed by 180 degrees to ensure that the anchor
flips over and is easier it retrieve thence. Thi s shall also avoid and damage to
the anchor. See diagram no.43

Change to opposite heading

Diagram No.43

144
4. Anchor wire is heaved up slowly while the vessel moves ahead slowly. See
diagram no. 44

l J
-"'-
.
,

-,

Diagram No.44
3. As the wire leads slowly astern, the vessel is then slowed down . The pennant
wire length should then be about 1.25 times the water depth. At thi s point the
winch is stopped and brakes are on . The vessel the moves slowly ahead lill the
tension builds, once the system is tensioned the boat can increase power to get
the anchor clear of the bottom. See diagram 00.45 & 46

This procedure is to avoid any damage to the flukes of the anchor and al so it is
easier to retrieve the anchor from the bottom.

t
~ .... 1

I
I
I
I
/
I
I
I

I
/

I
-=;;
Diagram No.45

145
Diagram No .46

5. Continue heaving on deck (ill the anchor is on deck. See diagram no.47

Diagram No .47

146
6. Before hanging the anchor on the stem ro ll er ensure that the flukes of the
anchor are pointing outwards and away from the vesse l's stem. See diagram
no.4 8

Diagram No.48

Deck crew shown connecting the chain.

\47
CHAPTER IX
PIGGY BACK ANCHOR

A. Introduction

Piggy back system of anchors is a system which uses 2 or more ancho rs on the
same wirelchain which enhances the holding power of the system. See diagram
no. I, 2, 3 and 4

1. The illustration be low depicts the use of two Stevpris anchors, the pennant of
the piggy back is connected on to the pad eye of the main anchor whi ch is j ust
behind the anchor.

Thi s kind of a system (the one shown below) is used without a pcnnanent
buoy and is hence used in FPSO ' s, SBM's and al so the pre laid system .

Diagram No.1

2. The piggy back system shown below is used with a pennanent blloy and is
used typically on tender barges.

I'---- ~ -'& ~ , ~ - --
-~ ~
-
v

Diagram No.2

148
3. Piggy back system that is shown below, is a system that is used on rigs, the rig
pec is used as a wire to connect the piggy back anchor. Also thi s system does
use a surface buoy, but in this case, the pennant of the surface buoy is
connected to the pad eye on the Piggy back anchor and not on the main
anchor. There are times when the rig may need more length on the wire of the
piggy back anchor, in which case there is a extens ion wire that is then
connected to the PCe. See diagram no.3

/) ~ V '1)
" v

Diagram No.3
4. System shown below combines a Stevpris anchor and a Flipper delta anchor.
See diagram no.4

~ () ~ J/ .#'~

Diagram No.4

149
B. Deploying the Piggy back with a surface buoy.

I. Prior to the ops, the piggy back, the main anchor and the surface buoy should
be on deck. The piggy back pennant and the surface buoy pennant should be
on the drum.

2. Vessel backs to the rig and picks up the anchor wire. See diagram nO.5

Diagram No.5

3. Anchor wire is the connected to the main anchor.

4. Pennant of the piggy back anchor is connected to the pad eye on the main
anchor.

5. The main anchor is then put on the stem roller.

6. Vessel moves to the target given by the surveyor.

7. Once on target the anchor is deployed. See diagram no.6

150
Diagram No.6

8. Once the socket of the piggy back pennant is in the shark jaw, it is
disconnected from the buoy pennant. The Piggy back anchor is the connected
to the anchor wire. The pennant of the buoy is connected to the pad eye
located behind the piggy back.

9. Once. thcse connections are done, the pennant is the paid out on. See diagram
no.7

Diagram NO.7

151
10. The pennant is slacked on till the piggy back is on the sea bed. See diagram
no .8

,
;t'
,~- .'!
~ .. , I

.~'

Diagram NO .8

11 . Once the piggy back is on the seabed, the pennant is paid out till the socket of
the pennant is in the shark jaw. Disconnect the pennant from the work wire.

13. Surface buoy is then connected. See diagram no.9

Diagram No.9

152
14. Buoy is thcn dep loyed to the water. . See diagram 110.10

Diagram No.1 0
C. Deploying a piggy back anchor without a permanent buoy.

This system is used on FPSO's and SSM 's . It uses a temporary buoy as shown in
the diagram. Thi s is a procedure which is carried out prior to the FPSO's arri val.

Diagram no. I I is dcpicting a pre lay with the anchor chain still connected to the
tcmporary buoy.

I Tcmporary buoy I
/
-tJ Pennant wire
I
~:.:::::.:~:=.. ...t I .---------------~
Piggy back anchor line chain I
-----..-----_._.- \
/ -. ~~.~~.-
I Anc hor line chain I ~

Diagram No. 11

153
Diagram no.12 depicts the FPSO now hooked up to the anchors.

h
!:::'::,
~
f PSO

~ I "'" ",' __ do"""",, I


~~ ~.
I Anchor line chain \ ----............... _
-
~----<- _..
~

Diagram No.12

a. Deploying the piggy back anchor

1. The vessel moves towards the target where the piggy back is to be deployed,
white paying out on the chain/wire. See diagram 13

Diagram No. 13

154
2. Piggy back anchor is deployed on the sea bed. Sec diagram no.14.
The anchor chain of the piggy back is then connected to the pad eye of the
main anchor.

... . .

Diagram No. 14

3. The main anchor is then put on the stem roller and is then paid out on the sea
bed. See Diagram nO . 15

l
.J. ,,-J>,,
. ....
\
\,

~\ , \
'-"
'"
'-."
",
....
~

Diagram No. I S

155
4. Vessel then moves ahead and keeps paying out on the chain till the pig tail
chain from the chain locker is on deck. At this time, it is put in the shark jaw.
See Diagram no.16

Diagram No.16

5. Pig tail chain is di sconnected from the anchor chain , the pennant from the
anchor handling drum is then connected to the anchor chain. The pennam is
then paid out till the socket is in the shark jaw.

6. Temporary buoy is connected to the pennant and deployed in the water. See
diagram nO . 17

Diagram NO.17

156
D. Retrieving piggy back anchor (Tender Barge)

L Vessel backs to the buoy.

,,
I

Diagram No.1?

2. Buoy is picked up on deck and disconnected. Th e work wire is then connected


to the pennant wire. See diagram no.I S

Diagram No.I S

157
3. Pennant wire is then heaved on till the piggy back is off the bottom. See
diagram no.19

,t
,'
~ ,' ;
>~,

Diagram No .19

4. Piggy back anchor comes over the stem roller and onto the deck. See diagram
no.20

Diagram No.20

158
5. Once the piggy back anchor is on deck, the socket of the piggy back anchor
wire is put in the shark jaw and the piggy back anchor is disconnected as well
as the buoy pennant

6. Pi ggy back anchor is put to the side and secured. The pennant wire IS
connected to the piggy back anchor wire and heaved on. Sec diagram no.2t

1------------------------------- -.I /

Diagram No.21

7. Once the main anchor is on deck , it is disconnected from the anchor wire as
well as the pelmant wire. Vessel then backs to the rig to return thc wire. Sce
diagram no.22

Diagram No.22

159
8. Anchor wire is handed over to the rig. See Diagram no.23

Diagram No .23

160
C HA PT ER X

FI S HING AN D GRA PPLING OPERA n ON

A. Introduction

Fishing and grapp ling operation are essentiall y done when the normal methods of
anchor handling cannot be employed. Th e fo llowing are the some of the
possibilities in wh ich the above operation wi ll need to be carried out.

I. Pennant of the surface buoy parts o r is damaged .


2. pee parts.
3. Pennant wire is inadvcrtcnl ly released from the shark jaw and slips over the
stem roller.

The equipment used for fi shing and grappling is of3 types, as listed below

1. J- Hook type chaser.


2. Chasing Block
3. Multi pronged Grapple (G rapnel)

,-
'0'
, '
,, ''
,
"

J-Hook Chasing Block Grapnel

J-hook - This is useful when the ancho r line being used is a chain/wire.

Chasin g Block - The chasing bl ock is used for the purpose of retrieving w ires
only.

Crapllcl- It is used for the chains as well pennants.

161
8. Procedure to use the J-hook.
I. J-hook is connected to the work wire and laid out on the stem as shown in the
diagram no. J.
2. J- hook is put on the stem roller and then paid out as required.
3. The vessel then proceeds in a direction perpendi cular to the lay of the chaser
wire.

Diagram No. 1

4. The vessel lowers enough length on the work wire, so that it is below the
depth of the anchor wire at that point. See Diagram no.2

~---~---

Diagram No.2

162
5. Once the work wire has made contact with the anchor wire, it is heaved on.
6. When the J hook has hooked onto the anchor wire, the vessel then moves
towards the anchor, maintaining adequate tension but slacking on the work
wire as well to compensate for the increasing depth. The total amount of work
wire paid out shou ld be approx. 1.5 times the depth in which the anchor lies.
See diagram no.3 & 4

Diagram NO.3

- ./ -
...
"
/
/

Diagram No.4

163
7. As the J hook reaches the anchor, the vessel increases power in order to
dislodge the anchor from its holding position. See diagram no.S

/
/
/
/
/
/

Diagram No.5

8. As the anchor dislodges from the bottom, the engine power is then redu ced,
the work wire is heaved on while still moving ahead. See diagram !lo.6

Diagram NO .6

164
9. As the anchor comes of the bottom, the vessel keeps moving ahead to keep the
anchor securely in the J-hook as well as to maintain the tension on the anchor
wire. See diagram no.7

Diagram No.7
10. As the anchor comes close to the stern roller while being picked up, it has to
be ensured that the fluke s are pointing outwards and away from the stern so as
to get the anc hor on the deck with ease (Stevpris, Bruce anchor). See diagram
no.8

Diagram No.8

165
C. Procedure for using the chasing block

I. Barge connects the chasing block to the anchor wire. See Diagram 110 9

.,'
.
.- ,
. -
, . _. -
, . I,

lS 1

I
"
! ~
B>' " I)
,
:>.

Diagram No .9

2. Barge heaves on the chasing block assembly to create a bit of slack. the vessel
then backs to the barge, the pig tai l cha in of the chasing block is handed over
to the vessel which wil l connect it to the tugger. See diagram no.\O

,-
. . --
" - . I

~ 1

1 ~
,,'~. -J~~!
"
!

:to

. #

Diagram No .10

166
3. The tugger is then heaved on to get the pig tail chain of the chasing block in
the shark jaw, once there the tugger is disconnected and the work wire
connected. See diagram no II

Diagram No. II

4. The shark jaw is then released and the work wire is paid out as the vessel
moves ahead in direction of the anchor target. See diagram no.12

Diagram No.12

167
5. VesseI"keeps moving ahead and paying out on the work wire till the paid out
length is approx. equal to 1.5 times the depth in which the anchor is laid. See
diagram no.I3

Diagram No.! 3

6. Once the chasing block reaches the anchor, the vessel's engine power IS
increased just to dislodge the anchor f.rom the bottom. See Diagram no.! 4

reb! r

Diagram NO.14

168
7. Once the anchor is picked up the engine power is reduced and the work wire
is heaved on till the anchor is on the stem roller. See diagram no.15

Diagram No. 15

8. There are 2 methods in which the anchor ca n be ha nded back to the rig:
a. It can be done by the means of the chasing block assembly.
b. Alternatively the anchor & the chasi ng block is disconnected and only the
anchor wire is returned

9. Anchor being handed over by means of the chasing block assembly.


Rig heaves on the anchor wire as the vessel mo ves ahead slowly to keep the
tension on the system. See diagram 00. 16

Diagram No. 16

169
10. It is necessary to maintain the tension in order to prevent the ancho. from
falling off the stem roller. See di agram no.17 .

Diagram No.17

11. Once the vessel has backed sufficiently close to the rig, the rig is informed to
stop heaving on the anchor wire in order to let the crew on the vessel to
disconnect the pig tail chain of the chasing block from the work wire and then
the chasing block can the be handed over to the rig. See Diagram no.18

Diagram No.I8

170
12. Chasing block handed back to the ri g. See Di agram no l 9.

Diagram No.1 9

In case the rig wants the anchor and the chasing block to be disconnected the
following is the procedure for the same:

Once the anchor wire socket is in the shark jaw, then the anchor is disconnected,
the chasing block is disconnected and so is the work wire.

The vessel then backs to the rig as the ri g heaves on the wire, the vessel keeps the
tension on the wi re to ensure better spoo ling on the rig side drum.

Note:

These days this system is not used as freq uently. Normally the AHTS 's are
provided only with a J-Hook which is far easier to handle and since the J hook is
far more versati le in its usc .

This method has been inc luded io this book so as to enable the reader to be aware
of the system.

171
D. Grappling sleep ing chain:
To use a grapne l, we need to have a stud link cha in, 2.5 - 3.0 inch diameter and
Icngth of not less than 10mtrs. This is to ensure that thc grapnel does not come at
an angle such that the flukes are not on the sea bed. As shown in the diagram
nO.20 the chain ensures that the flukes are in the correct position.

Diagram No.20
I. The grapnel which is connected with the stud link chain is connected to the
work wire on the cnd of the stud link chain. The grapnel is thcn put on the
stcm roller and the vessel proceeds to the position.
2. Once the vesse l is close to the position, it pays out 2.5 to 3 times the depth on
its work wire, and then proceeds slowly to cross the anchor chain at a ncar
perpendicular. See diagram no.21

Diagram No 2 1

172
3. Once the grapnel picks up the anchor chain , the vessel is stopped in the water
The work wire is the heaved on till the grapnel is on the vessel's deck. See
diagram no.22 and 23

---_"'1:'"
Diagram No.22

4. The r.rocedure of picking up the chain on the grapnel may not be successful
on the first try, that would need the vessel to tum around and do one more
crossing but at a slower speed than the first one so as to ensure that the
sleeping chain is on the bottom.

Diagram No .23

173
5. After the grapnel is decked the chain leading to the anchor should be put in
the shark jaw. See diagram no.24
It may not always be possible to easily make out which of the two parts of
th e chain actually goes to the anchor. There is a easy way of findin g out.
T he vessel moves slowly ahead as the chain tens ion out the chain leadin g
to th e anchor will have visibly more lension while th e other does not.

Diagram No .24
5. The chain which does not lead to the anchor, is picked up on the deck. it 's
end is connected to the pig tail chain from the chain locker and the chain is
then lead into the chain locker. See diagram no.25

']1 ~

~ I
n
/'1. J
J~I
./(t~-fl} - -

~ G r@%t; 1OI *:ii:~


,'- ,y
,~

c .)

Diagram No.25

174
E. Crappling Sleeping Pennant

This is to pick up the pennant wire which is lying on the sea bed.

I. The grapnel which is connected with the stud link chain is connected to the
work wire on the end of the stud link chain. The grapnel is then put on the
stem roller and the vessel proceeds to the position

2. Once the vessel is close to the posi tion, it pays out 2.5 to 3 times the depth on
its work wire, and then proceeds slow ly to cross the anchor wire at a near
perpendicular. See diagram no. 25

Diagram No.25

3. It is absolutely imperative that the vessel proceeds at a slow speed so as to


avoid damaging the wire once the grapnel has picked up the wire. The
anchor wire is going to be tensioned from the anchor side as well as the
tension applied by the vessel, so we need to be careful to avoid any damage.

175
4. Once the vessel picks up tbe wire the vessel is stopped in the water, and the
work wire is heaved on till the grapnel is decked. See diagram no.26

Diagram No . 26

5. While picking up the work wire along with the grapnel , the vessel needs to
keep some amount of tension on the system so that the wire does not slip out
of the grapnel, but the tension should be JUS! adequate. See diagram no.27

Diagram No. 27

176
6. After decking the grapnel, the wires should ideally be put into the towing pin,
aI least the one which leads to the anchor. See diagram no.28

Ib

Diagram No.28
7. Once the wire leading to the anchor is put into the shark jaw, the work wire is
then paid out till the grapnel is against the shark jaw. The tugger wire is then
connected to the wire which is NOT leading to the anchor behind the socket
by means of a small chain bight or a shackle. Sec diagram no.29

\. ....... -------.....
~-'-----------~,-----j

Diagram No .29

177
8. In order to disengage the wire from the grapnel the second tugger is connected
to the grapnel as show in the diagram no. 30. Once the second tugger is
connected then the tugger connected to the free end of the anchor wire is then
heaved on

Diagram NO.3D

9. Both the tuggers can now be heaved on simultaneously so that the wire will
disengage from the grapnel at the same time the grapnel will move to one
side. See diagram no. 3 [

Diagram No.31

178
10. Tugger wire connected to the anchor wire is slacked to avoid unnecessary
tension on the tugger wire, till the socket is in the shark jaw. See diagram
no.32

'il
h n nJj
./'"'1 J
~ ~
Kt
//
m
~
--- 8
\:'3
'C

Diagram No.32

I I. Since the illustrations show a vessel which has only one set of towing pin and
one karm fork, we will show the method in which a Pelican Hook can be used
to disconnect the socket. This system is not preferred by some companies
these days and can be forbidden from use. The use of Pelican hooks is a high
risk operation and there need to be extra precautions taken to reduce the risk s
involved.
Pelican hook is a manual stopper which comes in vari ous sizes, it can be used
to take from 10 t uplO 110 t.

Closed

o
,,""'-
=

Pelican Hook

179
12. lo order to disconnect the sockets, the Pelican hook is put on the wire outside
the towing pin (th is is the wire which does not lead to the anchor). The tugger
is then connected behind the socket on the same wi re. See diagram no.34

Diagram No.34

13. After disconnecting the sockets the tugger is then paid out till the socket
comes fast on the Pelican hook. Once in the Pelican hook, the work wire is
then connected to the socket of thi s wire. See diagram no.35

'"

Diagram No.35

180
14. Work wire is then heaved on till the tension on the Pelican is hook is taken off
the heaving on the work wire is now paused. Once the Pelican hook is free of
any tension it can be opened and the tugger wire can also be disconnected.
After this the work wire is heaved on to spool the wire into the handling drum.
See Diagram no.36

Diagram No.36
15.ln the diagram no.37, the vessel is shown to have 2 sets of towing pins and 2
Karm forks, this makes the above operation safer and the use of Pelican hook
unnecessary.

Diagram No.37

181
Photograph shows a vessel with 2 sets of towing pins and 2 Karm forks.

KARM FORK

Photograph shows a vessel with only one sct of towing pins and one Kaml fork .

KARM FORK

182
Photograph shows the Shark Jaw holding the chain.

SHARK JAW AN D TOWI NG PIN

Photograph s shows the vessel with 2 sets of lowing pins and 2 Shark jaws, one of
the shark jaws in open position and the other is closed.

SHARK JAW

183
CHAPTER XI

HANDLING CHAIN

A. Introduction

The operation of handling anchors and chain is one that involves a 101 or hard
work; it can be exhausting and exhilarating all at the same time. Done
professionally, it can be a very rewarding experience.

For these operations in volving chains, vessel's with high power ratings aTC used.
as well the vessel shall have a heavy duty winch as nannalty the chains used are
of 3 inches and above.

These chains arc normally used by semi submersi bl es, FPSQ's and drilling ships.
or at times by barges.

In order to be efficient in the operation and to derive a satisfactory result, we need


to follow the 3 methods li sted below

I. Understand the scope of the job.


2. The vessel's crew needs to explained the plan and procedure expected from
them.
3. The equipment involved in the operation has to be in a good condition and
ready to use,

A small AHT shown taking the chain into it 's chain locker.

184
Deck crew is shown putting tack welds as additional locking on the shack le.

Deck crew shown arrangin g the chain on the deck

There are times when the cha in maybe laid out on the deck . Following maybe
some of the reasons why there would be a need to do so :
I. The size of the gypsy is incompatible with that of the chain.
2. Chain locker cannot contain the full length of the chain within.

185
Anchor handling vessel in the process of hooking up the FPSQ. The pig \ail chain
is about to be connected to the anchor chain.

Chain is rcady to be released from the Karin Fork

186
B. Preparation for handling chain

I. lnfonnation that should be available prior chain handling:


a. The gypsy 's compatibi lity with the in tended chain.
b. Chain locker capacity
c. Once the gypsy and the chain fou nd compatible and the chain locker
capacity found adequate, the pig tail chain is marked and also the points
where the Kenter link shackles are used.
d. Hydraulic Stopper chain ( insert used should be for a chain, of the size
being worked)
e. All the tools which are to be used should be available readily on deck.
f. Manual stopper chains should also be on deck, if available.

2. Understand the scope of the job. Ifnot clear, clarify till you are satisfied.
3. Explain to the ship 's crew the intcnd ed job and the plan to carry it out.

C. Putting the chain to the chain locker.

I . When putting the chain into tbe chain locker, it need to be joined to a Kenter
Link shack le which is of the same size as that of the chain being handled . As
shown in the diagram no. I

- d

4< ': : --.


o

Cornmon link i Co,mmo n l lilk

Diagram No .1

187
2. Diagram no.2 shows the chain ranged on deck bc ing put into the chain locker,
by means of a pig tail chain.

Pig tail chain is a chain that serves the purpose of a messenger to carry the
chain from the deck, spool over the gypsy and into the chain locker and vice
versa.

RHkj; M
\=\ 1=1

lin

0 DO 0
....
---

Diagram No.2

188
3. The pig tail chain is connected to the chain which is to be pUl into the chain
locker. See diagram no. 3

~H kt M
\=\ r't=t
Pig tail

V --- chain

0 vO 0
...
~

Diagram No.3

189
3. The pig tail chain is connected to the chain which is to be put into the chain
locker. See diagram no.3

R H kj '1
J '"/::I
Pig tail
chain
V ----
~

0 \.,
pO 0
'"

Diagram No.3

189
D. To lead the chain from the rig into the chain locker.

I. Anchor chain connected to the pennant is put into the shark jaw. See diagram
no.4

Diagram No.4

190
2. After discon necting the pennant, a small rope of 25 mtrs length and about Yz
inch dia is connected to the pennant and the pennant is the coiled onto the
drum. The rope serves as a way of securing the socket on the drum . Thi s may
need to be done, if the gypsy and the anchor handlin g drum cannot be
di sengaged from each other.

This ensures that at the time of putting the chain into the chain locker, the wire
and the socket do not move around or slack on their own. See diagram no.5

Diagram No.5

19 1
3. Pig tail wire is connected 10 the tugger wire which is lead arollnd the towing
pin and then the tugger is heaved as the gypsy slacks to lead the pig tail chain
to the chain at the shark jaw. See d iagram 00.6

Diagram No .6

192
4. Pig tail chain being brought out should ideally come out with a small lateral
separation to the chain at the shark jaw, to faci litate an easy connect. See
diagram no .7

o o

Di agram No. 7

193
5. Pig tail chain is connected to the chain, the shark jaw is opened and the gypsy
heaves to stan picking up the chain into the chain locker. See Diagram no. 8

~HMI::j
~ ""1=1

L"

)0
0 0

----
--- a

Diagram No.8

194
Photo shows the A HT handling a double anchor chain.

Photo is a close up of the delta plate shown of the double chain above.

195
CHAPTER XII

USEFUL TABLE, FORMULA AND DATA .

A. Mooring line calculation - Formula abbreviation

T Tension at fairlead or winch. It is both a horizontal and vertical componenl


W Weight per unit length of the mooring line sea water
S Suspended length of mooring line Of catenary ( * see note below) from
point suspension (Fair lead to touch down)
D Horizontal distance between fairlead and louch down or between two
points of suspension
d Depth between point of suspension and seabed
C Catenary depth distance of lowest point of mooring line below sea surface
when suspended between barge and work boat
V Vertical component of mooring line tension
H Horizontal component of mooring line

Note: Catenary in this context means half catenary

Not on unit Tension - in kg ; line distance - in meters


Weight per length - kg per meter ; (Water) depths - meters

Imperial units Tension - in pound; Line distance - in feet


Weight per length - pound per foot; depth - fe ct

Note I kip ~ 1000 Ibs


9.81kn ~ 101.94 kg

196
B. Mooring line catenary ' s

Suspension point - usually fairleader

~==~+---+c~~----------------------------------------- Seasu~ace

d - Distance from S - Suspended length or scope


suspension referred to as the catenary

~
point to seabed

[
---'--------,,------------------------------""0-:,----------- , ~ -/.~_""
Seabed '~ D .'
Touch down distance

Tension T - tension at fairleader as sensed by winch - line tension


V - vertical component of mooring line tension

H
Horizontal
component of
line tension

Mooring " pull down

197
C. Mooring line calculation

a. Suspended length b. Touchdown distance


T
T

s
1, I,
1 1 ' D
1
,1

T.,CO'"' [; ]
s -
W Iw .,

c. Horizontal tension d. Vertical tension


V
T T

--------------~+-~H

i
V

c. Catennary depth r. Distance between suspcnsions poin t

" C':' .:' J,.[ w,], ~~. s


W W TS
,., l' ~c1
198
D. Calculated Example:

A. A semi submers ible has 1400mtrs of chain on each mooring line chain
size 76mm diameter ORQ-3. [fit is to be moored in [80 meters of
water, what will be the suspended length and the touchdown point of
the mooring lines when the barge experiences survival stann
(approximately Y:z breaking strain) .
Draft mooring line fairleads are 8 meters below [he surface .

:.-- --- - --- - -------- D . ---- - --- ---- -- ~ ....., ,


,,
" ,
,, '
rl 172 lROm

"-- -
1
Chain 76 mm diametcr break load 471 tons ... Y2 BL =236 W= I 18kglmtr

Suspended length Touchdown

T T
D~ _ - d CosH -1 W-
W T
- -d
W
236000 236000
s= 2x 172x -17z2 D~ - 172 CosH~ ' 236000
118 11 8 118
236000
_ _ -172
118

S ~688000 - 29584
D = 1828 CosH-l Gooo]
~828
s~ 658416
D~1828CosW ' [1.0941]

s = 811.4 meter D ~ 1828 x 0.43 D = 786.0 mete r

When the rig deploys 1200 meter chain,


at survival tension,
400 metcr are still on the seabed.

199
CHAPTERxm

SAFETY PROCEDURES

A. Introduction
The Anchor handling operations have always carried a certain amount of risks.
which lead to near misses, accidents and at times fatalities. The operation needs to
be carri ed out only after the risk analysis has been done, the hazard level lowered
to an acceptable level. It is of Paramount importance that the " Safety First" motto
be taken extremely seriously.

Towards this end it is important and it cannot be stressed enough that the vessel is
properly equipped, there is clarity on the kind of operation to be carried out, the
crew has the professional knowledge and the safety awareness to do the same.
This chapter outlines the safety procedures which are not all encompassing but the
salient points that need to be looked at.

B. Preparing for a Rig Move.

The Charterers or the Owners rep shall come OD board to discuss the scope of the
job to be undertaken:

I. Anchor patterns to be discussed, the procedure and order in which the anchors
have to be run or retri eved
2. Method of com munication and the frequencies to be used.
3. Whilst the rig is under tow, contingency plans to need to be drawn to take care
of possible emergenci es .
4. Survey equipment that is to be used should be insta lled pri or commencing the
operations .
5. Inspection of the equipment that is involved should be carried o ut.

C. Personal Protective Equipment

The crew should all be in possession of their Personal protective equipment like:
Cover Ails with retro reflective tapes, Safety Shoes, Goggles, Helmets wi th chin
strap, Hand Gloves Heavy Duty, Work Vest, Bosun Knife.
It is also the responsibility of each member of the crew to check his own PPE and
ask for ap.y of the items that he needs if he is not already in possession of the
same.

D. Tool Box Meeting


Often accidents happen when there is a lack of co-ordinati on of the various teams
working on board. The best way to avoid such a situation is to plan your work and
work you plan. The too l box meeting is the planning part where the crew shall be
briefed about the operations that are to be carried out. If possible each individual
could be given specific tasks keeping in mind the experience levcl of the person.
The crew can rai se doubts and have them cleared at thi s point so that atl involved
know the plan ..

200
E. Job Hazard Analys is
Job hazard analysis is a important tool and can be used to great advantage if used
well. It is to identify various possibilities and scenarios and the likelihood of their
occurrences. Once identified the vessel can take action to reduce the risks
involved and prevent incidents from occurring at all.

F. Communications
We all know that communications are an important part of the operation. Whilst
communicating the use of Walkie talkies is preferred and the loud hailers can be
used as a means of emergency communication. Comm uni cation to be short. clear
and always 2 way. All instruction to be repeated and once carried out reponed. If
any instructions are unclear, do not proceed without clarification. Use of water
proof walkie talkies with microphone attachment is good as these can be clipped
onto the work vests.

G. Lighting.
Good ligh ting is difficult to achieve on the stem end of a anchor handler for close
up work, despite the modem ships having large arrays of floodlights.
Temporary power leads could be rigged on each side of the deck between
bulwarks and crash rail and a water proof portable Halogen floodli ght witb 10-15
mtrs of cable could be used. Water proof sockets are used on the ends of the
power leads. Thi s lamp cou ld be directed to the shark jaws. It is important to
ensure that the vesse l has enough spares.

H. Shark jaw/ Karm Fork mechanical stoppers.


Shark jaws and Kann forks are mechani cal stoppers which are effective in
holding the wire/chain. These arc excel lent when operated by a professional but
can be dangerous if in the wrong hands. Only one person should be designated to
carry out the operation. The final authority of course lies with the Master.

I. Buoy and anchor


I f the anchor and the buoy is to be on the deck, it follow s that these need to be
lashed properly with lashing chain and binder. Once the anchors and buoy are on
deck their lashing is a priority.

J . Rest Hour
To avoid fati gue induced accidents the STeW 95 specifies work and rest hours. If
the vessel is to work 24 hours there should be 2 sets of crew to work in rotation.
The Master could be relieved by the Auxiliary Master/Chief Officer on the bridge,
the elEng by the Second Eng.

K. Stop Work Policy


All the personnel involved in the operation have the authority to bring the
operation to a halt if they see any condition which they feel is unsafe or can be a
potential hazard to the operation. The operations can be resumed only after the
situation has been effectively addressed.

20 1
L. Log Book And Record.
Record and log keeping on a vessel chartered for anchor handling can involve a
few logs as in the Official Log, Company log, Charterers log, Anchor handling
log. Given below are a few examples of the same.

Exampl e: Re[rieyin~ anchor (PCC)


Time Description Remarks
Arrival al bar.2;e
chase permant connected
Start chase out
Anchor off the bottom
Anchor at roller
Anchor racked
Pennant handed back

Example: Running anchor (pee)


T ime Description Remarks
Pennanl pee connected Anchor No.
Anchor at roller
Start run out
Anchor on bottom
Chaser stripped off
Pennant handed back

Example: Handling buoy (Retrieving anchor)


Time Description Remarks
Buoy on deck Anchor No.
Anchor off the bottom
Anchor at roller
Anchor racked
Pennant handed back

Example: Handing buoy (Run anchor)


Time Description Remarks
Buoy on deck Anchor No.
Anchor off the bottom
Anchor at roller
Anchor racked
Pennant handed back

If in case of piggy backs there is additional infonnation to be logged as to the type


of anchor, it 's weight, the length of its pennant and the number of Pear link.
Kenter link shackles used .

Any damages to the buoy, anchor, pennant wire/chain, pear link, kenler link
shackles or other equipment should be reported to the rig and also logged in the
ships log ..

202
M. Check List

Anchor Handling and Towing Checklist

I Vessel: I Date: I Location:


Check with " v'" or "NA ,.
No Items Check v' orNA Remarks
1 Meeting Held on Board, discussions include:
Pennant Lengths
Links
Sequence of Anchor handling
Tow Routes
Navigation warni ~ _
Stand otT posi tion
2 BA Charts updated and Charter Charts
available
3 VHF working Channel agreed CH:
Alternative Channel agreed CH:
4 Deck Space C lear
5 Towing, work and tugger wires in good
condition
6 Towing, workin g and tugger winches
operational
7 Towing pins tested and operational
8 Shark Jaws/Karm forks operational
9 Stem roller in good working order
10 Sufficient Spare Shackles, sp lit pins and wires
11 Engines and Thruster in good working order
12 Navigational equipment in good working order
13 Light and day signal s available/working
14 Job Hazard Analysis with crew carried out
15 Designated person to direct lifting operations
with rig, Banks man jacket available
16 Towing stretcher ready, inspected, good
condition
17 Hand-over of low between tug and tow master
discussed
18 Routine and emergency communications
agreed upon telephone numbers exchanged

Master Name: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Master 's Signature: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

203
N. Hand Signal
HAND SIGNAL FOR C RAN OPERA TOR

. ~ .

b;1T:' ~J

-
,
c.:o ley-
,
,. R CLENCH AND UNCLENCH
FINGERS TO SIGNAL 'TAKE
T HE STRAIN' OR 'INCIl

STOP
\,)

EMERGENCY STOP
K TIlE LOAD'

\'~~r
\ , ,,I
,
Q
~_

,
fA " I
lti
/<~[;
I
~

~

,
0 o ~I\-
,

~,:
, ,

HOIST LOWER
SLEW IN DIRECTION INL>ICATED

(~~-!> 15 "..
q.:::), -"~
!~- q\~
~[! Sigllal with une ~
hand, other h;mu (
on head

~
JIB UP
DERRICK ING JIB
JIB DOWN EXTEND JIB RETRA~ JIB
TELESCOPING JIB

~ -"
~~
~':_;';'
(
~~'r p~~
- -
~ ~
T RAVEL TO ME. TRAVEL PROM ME.
OPERATIONS CEASE
SIGNAL W ITH BaTH HANDS

204
BIBLIOGRAPHY

I. Mic hael Hancox Oil Field Seamanship anchor bandling Volume 4


2. OLFINSA Safe anchor handling and lowing.
3. Guidelines for the safe management of offshore suppl y and anchor
hand lin g operation
4. Vryhof Anchor Manual
5. Maersk Anchor Handling Course S imulator.

205