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Data

Pristine www.edupristine.com

Pristine

Agenda

Introduction

Data

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2.Data

I. Population vs. Sample

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2.a. Population vs. Sample

Population Sample

"population" which means number of people living

in a defined geographical region. Can be biased or un-biased (also know as random

sample).

The "population" in statistics includes all members

of a defined group that we are studying or collecting

Example:

information on for data driven decisions.

capita income of less than 20000 Euros per

Current inflation rates of EU countries. annum.

All the votes casted in an electoral poll. A portion of votes collected to predict the

election outcome through "Exit Poll".

Sample1

Sample2 Sample3

Population

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2.b. Case: Types of Data variables

Romanov, an Analytics consultant works with Credit One bank. His manager gave him a list

having the name of bank's customers. Further he has been asked to pull the information from

bank's database pertaining to the customer list. The information will be around the credit

cards issued by the bank. He needs to define the variable types and the type of value each one

of them will contain. Romanov, who has just started his professional career, doesn't has a good

idea about different variable types.

Now, suppose after extracting data he approached you and asked your help in categorizing the

different variables. Help Romanov in variable categorization.

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2.b. Case: Types of Data variables

Variable Name of Customer Annual Monthly Credit

Credit Customer of Status of

Name Customer ID Salary Card Usage

Cards Last Birthday Customer Customer

Value

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Stored

Variable

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Type

Remarks

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2.b. Case: Types of Data variables (Data snapshot)

Name of Number of Age of Customer Gender of the Marital Status of Annual Salary Monthly Credit

Sl # Customer ID

Customer Credit Cards Last Birthday Customer the Customer (in USD) Card Usage

88,001

2 Janice 146861 6 25 F Married 592,489 Low

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2.b. Case: Types of Data variables

Variable Name of Customer Annual Monthly Credit

Credit Customer of Status of

Name Customer ID Salary Card Usage

Cards Last Birthday Customer Customer

Value the Unique Male / Divorced / Medium(<50%) /

1, 2, 3 18, 19, 20 Amount

Stored individual identifier Female Never High(<75%) /

customer Married Very High(>75%)

Variable

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Type

Remarks

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2.b. Types of Data Variables

Data consists of a combination of "variables" which actually contain the values

Variables at a high level are of two types depending on the kind of values they store:

Numerical

Categorical

Discrete Binary (or Dichotomous)

Arises from counting Has only two categories

can take only a set of particular values Examples: yes/no, male/female, pass/fail

including negative and fractional values etc.

Examples: Credit score, number of credit Nominal

cards owned by a person, number of states

in a country, charge on electron etc. Has several unordered category

Continuous Examples: Type of bank account, type of

insurance policy etc.

Arises from measuring

Ordinal

Can take any value with in a specified range

Has several ordered category

Examples: Height, Amount of money, Age

etc. Examples: questionnaire responses such as

"strongly in favour / / strongly against".

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2.b. Types of Data Variables - Summary

Data (Consists

of Variables)

Numerical Categorical

Dichotomous

Continuous Discrete Nominal Ordinal

or Binary

Several Several

Arises from Arises from Only two

unordered ordered

measuring counting categories

category category

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2.b. Case: Types of Data variables (Revisited)

Variable Name of Customer Gender of Annual Monthly Credit

Credit Customer Status of

Name Customer ID Customer Salary Card Usage

Cards Last Birthday Customer

Value the Unique Male / Divorced / Medium(<50%) /

1, 2, 3 18, 19, 20 Amount

Stored individual identifier Female Never High(<75%) /

customer Married Very High(>75%)

-- --

Type (Discrete) (Discrete) (Binary) (Nominal) (Continuous) (Ordinal)

counting. counting.

Several Takes many

Takes certain Takes certain Only two Several ordered

Remarks Identifier Identifier

discrete discrete values categories

ordered values in a

category

category given range

values in a in a given

given range range

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2.c. Case: Summarizing Data

Romanov, an Analytics consultant works with Credit One bank. His manager gave him some

data around credit cards relating to number of credit cards issued to a set of customers and

the credit limit of the cards. Further he has been tasked to summarize the data in a

presentable form and prepare the report. Romanov, who has just started his professional

career, has never played around with such kind of data, so he is clueless about the different

summarizing techniques.

Now, suppose he approached you and asked your help in preparing the report. Help Romanov

in summarizing the data and preparing the report.

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2.c. Comments: Summarizing Data

1. Frequency distribution

2. Grouped frequency distribution

3. Cumulative frequency distribution

4. Stem leaf diagram

5. Line plots

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2.c. Summarizing Data - Frequency distribution

A technique to summarize discrete data

A simple process which involves counting of distinct discrete values

The representation can be either tabular or graphical

Example: Number of credit cards owned in a sample of 3000 individuals

Number of Credit Freq Distribution- #Cards vs. # Customers

# Customers

Cards

700

1 150

600

2 300 # Customers

500

3 450

# Customers

400

4 660

300

5 540 200

6 300 100

7 240 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

8 150

# Cards

9 120

10 90

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2.c. Summarizing Data - Frequency distribution (Using MS Excel)

1 2 3 Number of 4

Credit Cards

3

2

4

5

1

7

9

10

6

8

4. Press ctrl+alt+enter

# Customers 7 6 5

700

600

500

400

300 # Customers

200

100

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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2.c. Summarizing Data - Grouped Frequency distribution

A technique to summarize continuous data or discrete data having large number of observations

and an extended range

A simple process which involves counting of values falling under the different intervals (grouped)

Example and illustration 2.2: Number of customers falling under different Salary groups

Graphical representation - Bar Chart

120

100

80

#Customers

60

40

20

Salary Band

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2.c. Summarizing Data Grouped Frequency distribution (Using MS Excel)

1 2

1. Press ctrl+alt+enter

4

5.Observe the difference

between horizontal axes of

two charts

3

5

# Customers

4.From Edit select the

120

100

salary bands as horizontal

80 axis

60

40

20

0

450001-475000

100001-125000

150001-175000

200001-225000

250001-275000

300001-325000

350001-375000

400001-425000

500001-525000

550001-575000

600001-625000

650001-675000

700001-725000

750001-775000

800001-825000

850001-875000

900001-925000

950001-975000

0-75000

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2.c. Summarizing Data - Cumulative Frequency distribution

Cumulative frequencies are obtained by accumulating the frequencies to give the total number of

observations up to and including the value or group in question.

Example and illustration 2.3: Cumulative number of cards in the sample of 3000 individuals

Cards Up to # Customers 3000

1 150

Cumulative # Customers

2500

2 450

3 900 2000

4 1560 1500

5 2100

1000

6 2400

7 2640 500

8 2790 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

9 2910

# Cards

10 3000

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2.c. Summarizing Data - Cumulative Frequency distribution (Using MS Excel)

1 2

5 4 3

Cumulative # Customers

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 12

3. Observe the last entry. It is equal to

Pristine the total numbers of observations 18

2.c. Summarizing Data Stem-leaf diagram

Stem-leaf diagram

Not suitable for large data. Hence, not extensively used in industry.

Illustration: Given age of 20 individuals in years. Represent them using stem-leaf diagram

Sl # Age Age (Sorted)

1 23 21

2 33 23 Stem Leaf

3 23 24

4 33 27

5 34 30 20 1 3 4 7

6 21 31

7 54 33

8 52 34

30 1 3 4 5 6 9

9 34 35

10 36 36

11 52 39

12 51 40 40 0 3 8 9

13 48 43

14 35 48

15 40 49

16 43 51 50 1 2 3 4 7

17 49 52

18 54 53

19 27 54

20 39 57

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2.c. Summarizing Data Line Plots

Line plot diagram

Not suitable for large data. Hence, not extensively used in industry.

Illustration: Given test scores of 20 students. Represent them using line plot diagram

Sl # Score Score (Sorted)

1 50 20

2 20 20

3 50 20

4 50 30

5 50 30

6 30 30

7 30 30

8 40 30

9 30 40

10 40 40

11 30 40

12 20 40

13 50 40

14 40 50

15 20 50

16 30 50

17 40 50

18 40 50

19 50 50

20 50 50

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2.c. Case: Measure of Central Tendency/Location

After Romanov presented the summarized data to his manager at Credit One, he was asked to

produce the various measures of Central Tendency of the Credit Card data.

Now, Romanov being unaware of the term "central tendency" again approached you and asked

your help in calculating the central tendency of the data in question. Help Romanov in carrying

out his task.

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2.d. Measure of Central Tendency/Location

There are a number of different quantities, which can be used to estimate the central point of a

sample.

These are:

Mean

Median

Mode

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2.d. Measure of Central Tendency/Location - Mean

By far the most common measure for describing the location of a set of data is the mean.

For a set of observations denoted by x1, x2,.,xn the mean is defined by

<x> = (x1 + x2 + + xn)/n (also denoted by x-bar i.e. ).

For a frequency distribution with values x1, x2, xn and corresponding frequency values f1, f2,

,fn it is defined as

<x> = (f1 * x1 + f2 * x3 + . + fn * xn)/(f1 + f2 + + fn).

Illustration 2.4: Calculating mean for sample of 3000 individuals having credit cards.

1. Using Excel function for 2. Using Excel function for frequency

granular data distribution table

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2.d. Measure of Central Tendency/Location - Median

Another useful measure of location.

The median is a value, which splits the data set into two equal halves.

So that half the observations are less than the median and half are greater than the median.

If n is even, then the median is the midpoint of the middle two observations i.e. (n + 1) / 2th

observation.

One of the potential advantages of the median for certain data sets is that it is robust or resistant

to the effects of extreme observations.

Illustration 2.5: Calculating median for sample of 3000 individuals having credit cards along with

demonstration of extreme observations.

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2.d. Measure of Central Tendency/Location - Median

1. Using Excel function for granular data 2. For summarized data in form of frequency table

Median # Cards

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2.d. Measure of Central Tendency/Location - Mode

A third measure of location is the mode.

Defined as the value which occurs with the greatest frequency or the most typical value.

Illustration 2.6: Finding the mode for sample of 3000 individuals having credit cards.

Excel has inbuilt function Mode for granular data

For summarized data it can be find easily by visual inspection

Tabular representation

Number of

# Customers

Credit Cards

1 150

2 300 Mode = 4 i.e. highest number of

3 450 individuals have 4 cards

4 660

5 540

6 300

7 240

8 150

9 120

10 90

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2.d. Case: Measure of Spread

After Romanov presented the summarized data along with "measures of Central tendency" to

his manager at Credit One, he was further asked to add the various measures of spread to the

report.

Now, Romanov being unaware of the term "measures of spread" again approached you and

asked for your help. Help Romanov in carrying out his task.

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2.d. Measure of Spread

The central tendency of a data set is usually the main feature of interest.

Meaning how widely spread the data are about the mean (or other measure of location).

The Range

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2.d. Measure of Spread - Variance and Standard Deviation

The most commonly used measure of spread is the standard deviation.

Essentially it is a measure of how far on average the observations are from the mean.

For a data set having values x1, x2,,xn (or xi where i=1,2,,n) and mean of <x> variance is

calculated as

For granular data: Variance (2) = (xi - <x>)2/n

For summarized frequency table: Variance (2) = {fi*(xi - <x>)2}/n

Standard deviation is positive square root of variance denoted by

For a sample variance is calculated as

Variance (s2) = (xi - <x>)2/(n-1)

Dividing by (n 1) makes the sample variance an unbiased estimator of the population variance.

We will look into the details of it in later part of the course

Illustration 2.7: Calculating variance and standard deviation for sample of 3000 individuals having

credit cards

Exercise: Do the algebra to make sure that the above mentioned formulae of variance are

equivalent.

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2.d. Measure of Spread - Variance and Standard Deviation

(Using MS Excel)

table

1

2

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2.d. Measure of Spread - Range

The range is a very simple measure of spread defined, as its name suggests, by the difference

between the largest and smallest observations in the data set.

A poor measure of the spread of the data as it relies on the extreme values

Illustration 2.8: Calculating Range for sample of 3000 individuals having credit cards

1 2

3

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2.d. Measure of Spread - Inter quartile Range

Similar to Range but is not affected by the data extremes.

Just as the median divides a set of data into two halves, the quartiles divide a set of data into four

quarters. They are denoted by Q1, Q2 and Q3.

Q2 is just the median, while Q1 is called the lower quartile and Q3 the upper quartile.

Q1 can be defined to be the (n + 2) / 4th observation counting from below and Q3 as the same counting

from above, with relevant interpolation if needed.

The Inter quartile range is defined as Q3 Q1.

Illustration 2.9: Calculating Inter quartile Range for sample of 3000 individuals having credit cards

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2.d. Case: Symmetry and skewness of data

Romanov got appreciations after he presented the summarized data along with "measures of

Central tendency" and "measure of spread" to his manager at Credit One. But, he was further

asked to create an illustration around symmetry and skewness of data. Following that carry out

the analysis of credit card data

Now, Romanov being unaware of the term "symmetry and skewness" again approached you

and asked for your help. In return he promised to gift you a bottle of Champagne. Help

Romanov in carrying out his task.

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2.d. Symmetry and skewness

It deals with the shape of the distribution of a data set, that is, whether it is symmetric or skewed

to one side or the other.

Illustration 2.9: Calculating mean, median, mode and variance for symmetric and skewed data.

120 200 200

180 180

100

160 160

140 140

80

120 120

60 100 100

80 80

40

60 60

40 40

20

20 20

0 0 0

0 5 10 15 20 0 10 20 0 10 20

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2.d. Symmetry and skewness

Mean = Median = Mode Mean > Median > Mode Mean < Median < Mode

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2.d. Case: Data Collection and Management Framework

Measure of central tendency

Measure of dispersion and

Skewness

he got appreciated for his work. As next step, his manager asked him to put a data

management and management framework in place.

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2.d. Comments: Data Collection and Management Framework

At a high level, from an analyst's perspective data collection and management framework

will involve following components

Data collection mechanism

Maintaining a data dictionary

Missing value imputation

Outlier treatment

Pristine 37

2.e. Data Collection - quick background

Identify Data Needs Data Mapping Data Request Plan Data Request Prep.

Merge Step

Start with Business Before preparing a data request, it is Identify & Assess Available Population Be as specific as possible! Always examine results before

Question necessary to become as familiar as Coverage acceptance!

Determine data need for possible with the data sources and Data availability constraints; viz. Accurate file names

delivering desired outcome their content that might be available archives time span Specify selection criteria with

For each data file received,

to address the business question to Population sizing by key respect to actual field names and

Compare basic statistics (no. of

Illustration: be answered. characteristics like credit history value formats (e.g. "Values of the

records, no. of fields, range of values

Business Question: Discuss with client unexpected size field STATE_CD in the subset =

in each field) to expectations and

How to match the most limitations (IN,MI)" rather than "Records from

resolve any discrepancies

profitable credit product with This Data Mapping has basically three Indiana and Michigan")

Ensure that delimiters, file format

each new customer? major components: Identify & Assess Alternate Data Specify required or acceptable file

and record format meet

Interview clients Sources formats

requirements

Solution: Obtain & study data layouts Choose between alternatives Give detailed randomization and/or

Ensure that the data dictionary

Using Credit & Payment Obtain & evaluate data samples Identify master data source stratification instructions

matches the file exactly

History and Financial Ensure that link keys work between Note:

Enter file into data inventory,

Statement data to predict Note: sources chosen (beware of key In case of Account x Transaction

recording basic descriptive

account performance for The results of each step may require length or encryption differences) level data, random sampling of

information (file name, date

different products. us to repeat one or more previous records is not the same as random

received, file size, record length,

steps. Plan to Optimize Client Resource Use sampling of accounts.

programmer source, date received)

Data Request: Minimize workload for client IT

A representative sample of department; even if it makes more Prepare the driver file if requesting

While merging files,

customers from each product work at our end to link files, convert data that needs to match another

Watch out for identical merge-key

with usage and payment data media, reformat etc. source - test the driver file to

field name with different meanings

for sufficient no. of months ensure that it can be linked back to

in two files

along with their credit and the data source you already have

Beware of the consequences of

financial history prior to

merging two datasets with few

acquisition.

identically named non-key fields

Specify a distinct output file for

sorting

Pristine 38

2.f. Data Dictionary

A comprehensive data dictionary should be maintained and updated as and when any new information is gathered.

USE: It can go a long way in helping us understand the data better. For instance, it can help us to revisit old information and see what our initial

hypothesis was and how it is changing with the new updated information.

Things To Include In The Data Dictionary:

Meaning of all Potential Predictors:

Maintain labels of as many variables as possible

If possible, one should also try to capture the business sense of these variables

Wherever things are not clear, it should be noted down so that it can be clarified with the client later on

Clear Definition of Unique Identifier and its Meaning:

Ascertain the level at which data is to be rolled up / down. For instance,

Individual level

Individual x Account level

Individual x Month level

Individual x Account x Month level, etc.

Identify unique key of every dataset. Few examples below:

Payment data may be at transaction level

Demographic data at individual level

Census data at zip code level

Dependent Variable Definition and Meaning: This is a very crucial step in modeling exercise as wrong definition can lead to completely

wrong conclusions. In absence of a clear definition at this stage, it may be defined later after some actual data analysis.

Variable Classification: If not already given, one should always try and classify the variables like

Demographic variables, e.g. age, gender

Performance variables, e.g. spend, number of transactions

Credit Attributes, e.g. total credit line, FICO score

Census level, e.g. population, location attributes such as income levels

Pristine 39

2.g. Missing Value Imputation

There are a variety of techniques for missing value imputation; but these should be considered more

as scenario-specific than just being a set of pure alternative choices.

Missing Value Imputation Techniques

A. Impute Missing Values with ZERO

B. Impute Missing Values with MEDIAN

C. Impute Missing Values with MEAN

D. Impute Missing Values with MODE

E. Information based Segmentation

F. Non-Missing Dummy Creation

G. Imputation and Non-Missing Dummy Creation

H. Impute based on Bivariate Graphs

I. Impute using Regression on other Non-Missing Predictors

J. DNI

K. Multiple Imputation

Pristine 40

2.h. Outlier Treatment

An outlier is a single observation "far away" from rest of the data.

Outlier

Reasons for outliers:

Errors

Data errors

Sampling error

Standardization failure Outlier

Faulty distributional assumptions

Human Error

Genuine Outliers

Outliers are BAD

The presence of outliers can lead to inflated error rates and substantial distortions of results that can lead to wrong conclusions and

inferences.

Outliers are GOOD

The outliers can provide useful information in the data, for example, a spike in spend behavior of some customers may prove to be the

deciding factor in marketing response campaigns. So care should be taken while dealing with outliers.

In short, outliers are important and hence should not be ignored.

Techniques for outlier detection / treatment:

Capping and Flooring Technique

Exponential Smoothing Technique

Sigma Approach

Robust Regression Technique

Mahalanobis Distance Technique

Pristine 41

Thank you!

Pristine www.edupristine.com

Pristine 42

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