Está en la página 1de 10

c  


  


   

 Xem ví dө sau:Y

- Is it raining?
- No, but the ground is wet.
- It 

.


là thì present perfect continuous (hiӋn tҥi hoàn thành tiӃp diӉn).

do

I/we/they/you  (=I've etc.)
been wait

He/she/it  (=he's etc.)
play


   


 

 ! "#$% &''()

*#$#+ ,-./
01',23)

14
5
- You¶re out to breath. Have you been running? (you are out of breath now)
- Paul is very tired. He¶s been working very hard. (he's tired now)
- Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing?
- I¶ve been talking to Carol about the problem and she thinks that ...

†   

 6  
Xét ví dө sau:

- It is raining now. It began raining two hours ago and it is still raining.
- How long has it been raining?
- It has been raining for two hours.

$   


  278'9đһc biӋt là dùng vӟi  6
/ ,  ... và 
... Hành đӝng là vүn đang xҧy ra (như ví dө trên) hay vӯa mӟi chҩm dӭt.

- How long have you been learning English? (you're still learning English)
- Tim is watching television. He has been watching television for two hours.
- Where have you been? I have been looking for you for the last half hour.
- George hasn¶t been feeling well recently.

$:   


  :; !/<
/</4
 
(! ,7

5

- Debbie is a very good player tennis. She¶s been playing since she was eight.
- Every morning they meet in the same café. They¶ve been going there for years.

 = > (
 


- Don¶t disturb me now. I am working . - I¶ve been working hard, so now I¶m going to
have a rest.
- We need an umbrella. It¶s raining.
- The ground is wet. It¶s been raining.
- Hurry up! We¶re waiting.
- We¶ve been waiting for an hour.

c c =
(/?c c c  

Y

@
†oth tenses are used to express that an action began in the past and is still going on or has just finished.
In many cases, both forms are correct, but there is often a difference in meaning: We use the c 
c 
 mainly to express that an action is completed or to emphasise the result. We use
the c c c    to emphasise the duration or continuous course of an action.

ë /  
A

Do you want to express what has happened so far or how long an action has been going on yet?

Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive

B 
  6/ 
ë / 6 6(  6 
I have been writing for an hour.
I have written 5 letters. / I have been to London twice.

 
 

The following verbs are usually only used in Present Perfect Simple (not in the progressive form).

Ú 5 be, have (for possession only)

Example: We have been on holiday for two weeks.

Ú 5 feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch


Example: He has touched the painting.

Ú  
6 5 believe, know, think, understand

Example: I have known him for 3 years.

C(
  (/
  
A

Do you want to emphasise the completion of an action or its continuous course (how has somebody
spent his time)?

Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive

C(
  

C(
  (/

I have been doing my homework. à   
I have done my homework. à    

  
  
  

  
  
 

ë / 
A

Do you want to express that a completed action led to a desired result or that the action had an
unwanted side effect?

Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive

6


  /
Why are you so wet? - I have been washing the car. à 

I have washed the     
     
car. à      
 


(D
5/
( 

 
A

In negative sentences: Do you want to express how much time has past since the last time the action
took place or since the beginning of the action?
Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive


/
( 




I haven't played that game for I haven't been playing that game for an hour, only for 10
years. à      minutes. à        

 


c ( (  'A

If an action is still going on and we want to express that it is a permanent situation, we would usually use
the Present Perfect Simple. For temporary situations, we would prefer the Present Perfect Progressive.
This is not a rule, however, only a tendency.

Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive

 ( (  '

James has lived in this town for 10 James has been living here for a year. à     
years. à    
   
     
           

=
/6 

Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect Progressive

Ú how often Ú how long


Ú ... times Ú since
Ú for
Y

Y
cëC=CEcCë CE E@@=

@=CFB 
 (c@
/E 6

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and
has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are
all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.

Examples:

y They /
 for the last hour.
y She 6 
 at that company for three years.
y What  you 
 for the last 30 minutes?
y James 
 at the university since June.
y We 6

here for over two hours!
y Why  Nancy  
 her medicine for the last three days?

@=CGë/'9H/'

You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two
weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We
often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.

Examples:

y Recently, I /
 really tired.
y She 6
 too much television lately.
y  you I 

 lately?
y Mary /
 a little depressed.
y Lisa   

 her English.
y What  you 
?

JcëE

Remember that the Present Perfect Continuous has the meaning of "lately" or
"recently." If you use the Present Perfect Continuous in a question such as "Have you
been feeling alright?", it can suggest that the person looks sick or unhealthy. A question
such as "Have you been smoking?" can suggest that you smell the smoke on the
person. Using this tense in a question suggests you can see, smell, hear or feel the
results of the action. It is possible to insult someone by using this tense incorrectly.

c=cCë CE E@@=Y

@=CFB 
† = (

c

We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and
continued up until another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are
both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is
related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until
now, it stops before something else in the past.

Examples:

y They /
 for over an hour before Tony arrived.
y She 6 
 at that company for three years when it went out of business.
y How long  you 6

 to get on the bus?
y Mike wanted to sit down because he 
 all day at work.
y James 
 at the university for more than a year before he left for Asia.
y A: How long  you  '
 Turkish before you moved to Ankara?
†: I   '
 Turkish very long.

@=CG  = (



c

Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to
show cause and effect.

Examples:

y Jason was tired because he K 


.
y Sam gained weight because he   
.
y †etty failed the final test because she  
 class.
c 
  cc  
 

If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since
Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past
Perfect Continuous. †e careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence.
Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Past Perfect Continuous
emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. Study the examples below
to understand the difference.

Examples:

y He was tired because he 6I 



 so hard.
  ! c"#"$"%&!"'$"(! )""("!
  
y He was tired because he I 

 so hard.
  ! c"#"$"%&!"'"%& (! )"
c% c&*"$"**(! )""   "
"%+' %

@@ëCcCë CE E@@=

ëJ  c  


 6
LM
//L

8will have been + present participle]

Examples:

y You 6
//6

 for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.
y M
// you 6

 for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives?
y You 6
// 6

 for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives.

ëJ  c  


 6
L†N
 L

8am/is/are + going to have been + present participle]

Examples:

y You  
 6

 for more than two hours when her plane finally
arrives.
y   you 
 6

 for more than two hours when her plane finally
arrives?
y You   
 6

 for more than two hours when her plane
finally arrives.
NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to" to create the Future Perfect
Continuous with little or no difference in meaning.

Complete List of Future Perfect Continuous FormsY

@=CFB 
† = (

  Y

We use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a
particular event or time in the future. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since
Friday" are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous. Notice
that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous;
however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before a reference
point in the future.

Examples:

y They 6
///
 for over an hour by the time Thomas  .
y She

 6 
 at that company for three years when it
finally  .
y James 6
//
 at the university for more than a year by the time
he  for Asia.
y How long 6
// you  '
 when you  ?
y We  
 

 for over three days straight when we  to
Anchorage.
y A: When you    your English course, 6
// you /

 in New Zealand for
over a year?
†: No, I 6
// /

 here that long.

Notice in the examples above that the reference points (


    ) are in Simple
Present rather than Simple Future. This is because these future events are in time
clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.

@=CG  = (



  

Using the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to
show cause and effect.

Examples:
y Jason will be tired when he gets home because he 6
//K 
 for over an
hour.
y Claudia's English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she

 
 '
English in the United States for over two years.

  
    c  
 

If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since
Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the
Future Perfect Continuous. †e careful because this can change the meaning of the
sentence. Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Future Perfect
Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Study the
examples below to understand the difference.

Examples:

y He will be tired because he 6


//I 

 so hard.
  ! c"#"$**&%&!"'$**&(! )""
("!    ''
y He will be tired because he 6
//I 

 so hard.
  ! c"#"$**&%&!"'$**"& (! )
"c% c&*"$****&(! )""   
"$**+'" %

ëCJCJ†CëE   

(/ 

Like all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses
beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as
soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect
Continuous is used.

Examples:

y You won't get a promotion until you 6


//6 
 here as long as Tim. î 
 
y You won't get a promotion until you 6 
 here as long as Tim.  
Y