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as an oxidising agent and to produce a green colour.

(i)

owing percentage composition by mass: Ba, 45.1; Cl , 23.4; O, 31.5.

Calculate the empirical formula of A.

empirical formula of A ........................................... [3]

1 Compound A is an organic compound which contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

When 0.240 g of the vapour of A is slowly passed over a large quantity of heated copper(II) oxide,
CuO, the organic compound A is completely oxidised to carbon dioxide and water. Copper is the only
other product of the reaction.

The products are collected and it is found that 0.352 g of CO2 and 0.144 g of H2O are forme

(a) In this section, give your answers to three decimal places. (i)

Calculate the mass of carbon present in 0.352 g of CO2.

(
i
i
Use this value to calculate the amount, in moles, of carbon )
atoms present in 0.240 g of A. Explain, in terms of electron
transfer, what is meant Complete the full electronic
configuration of strontium.
E
x
1s2 2s2 2p6 p
............................................................................................... l
.................... [1] a
i
n

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why there are four different peaks by the term oxidising agent.

...............................................................................................
..............................................

...............................................................................................
........................................ [1]

(ii) A has the foll(i)

in the mass spectrum of strontium.

...............................................................................................
..............................................

...............................................................................................
........................................ [1]

(iii) Calculate the atomic mass, Ar, of this sample of strontium.

Give your answer to three significant figures.

Ar = ............................. [2]

(c) A compound of barium, A, is used in fireworks

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(ii) Calculate the mass of hydrogen present in 0.144 g of H2O.

Use this value to calculate the amount, in moles, of hydrogen


atoms present in 0.240 g of A.

(iii) Use your answers to calculate the mass of oxygen present


in 0.240 g of A.

Use this value to calculate the amount, in moles, of oxygen


atoms present in 0.240 g of A.

[6]

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(b) Use your answers to (a) to calculate the empirical formula of A.

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[1]

(c) When a 0.148 g sample of A was vapourised at 60oC, the vapour occupied a volume of

67.7 cm3 at a pressure of 101 kPa.

(i) Use the general gas equation pV = nRT to calculate Mr of A.

Mr =......................

(ii) Hence calculate the molecular formula of A.

[3]

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A sample of magnesium had the following isotopic composition:
24Mg, 78.60%; 25Mg, 10.11%; 26Mg, 11.29%.

(c) Calculate the relative atomic mass, Ar, of magnesium in the sample.
Express your answer to an appropriate number of significant figures.

[2]

Antimony, Sb, proton number 51, is another element which is used in alloys.

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Magnesium and antimony each react when heated separately in chlorine.
.
(d) Construct a balanced equation for the reaction between magnesium and chlorine. .
.
...................................................................................................................................... [1] .
.
When a 2.45 g sample of antimony was heated in chlorine under suitable conditions, 4.57 g .
of a chloride A were formed. .
.
(e) (i) Calculate the amount, in moles, of antimony atoms that reacted. .
.
.
.
.
.
(ii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of chlorine atoms that reacted. .
.
.
.
.
.
(iii) Use your answers to (i) and (ii) to determine the empirical formula of A.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
(iv) The empirical and molecular formulae of A are the same. .
.
Construct a balanced equation for the reaction between antimony and chlorine. .
.
.............................................................................................................................. [5] .
.
4 Although few halogenoalkanes exist naturally, such compounds are important as .
intermediates in organic reactions and as solvents. .
.
The bromoalkane B has the following composition by mass: C, 29.3%; H, 5.7%; Br, 65.0%. .
The relative molecular mass of B is 123. .
.
(a) Calculate the molecular formula of B. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
[3] .
.
1 In 1814, Sir Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday collected samples of a flammable gas, A, .
from the ground near Florence in Italy. .
They analysed A which they found to be a hydrocarbon. Further experiments were then .
carried out to determine the molecular formula of A. .
.
(a) What is meant by the term molecular formula? .
.
.......................................................................................................................................... .

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................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... [2]

Davy and Faraday deduced the formula of A by exploding it with an excess of oxygen and
analysing the products of combustion.

(b) Complete and balance the following equation for the complete combustion of a
hydrocarbon with the formula CxHy .

CxHy + x + ( y
)
O
4 2
................................ + ................................
[2]

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(c) When 10 cm3 of A was mixed at room temperature with 50 cm3 of oxygen
(an excess) and exploded, 40 cm3 of gas remained after cooling the
apparatus to room temperature and pressure.
When this 40 cm3 of gas was shaken with an excess of aqueous potassium
hydroxide, KOH, 30 cm3 of gas still remained.

(i) What is the identity of the 30 cm3 of gas that remained at the
end of the experiment?

...................................................

(ii) The combustion of A produced a gas that reacted with the KOH(aq).

What is the identity of this gas?

...................................................

(iii) What volume of the gas you have identified in (ii) was produced by the
combustion of A?

...............................cm3

(iv) What volume of oxygen was used up in the combustion of A?

...............................cm3
[4
]

(d) Use your equation in (b) and your results from (c)(iii) and (c)(iv) to calculate the
molecular formula of A.
Show all of your working.

[3]

The unsaturated hydrocarbon, E, is obtained by cracking hexane and is important in the


chemical industry.

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When 0.47 g of E was completely burnt in air, the heat produced raised the temperature of
200 g of water by 27.5 C. Assume no heat losses occurred during this experiment.

(e) (i) Use relevant data from the Data Booklet to calculate the amount of heat released
in this experiment.

(ii) Use the data above and your answer to (i) to calculate the relative molecular mass,
Mr, of E.

[4]

(f) Deduce the molecular formula of E.

[1]

[Total: 18]
1 Magnesium, Mg, and radium, Ra, are elements in Group II of the Periodic Table.

Magnesium has three isotopes.

(a) Explain the meaning of the term isotope.

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................... [2]

A sample of magnesium has the following isotopic composition by mass.

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isotope mass 24 25 26

% by mass 78.60 10.11 11.29

(b) Calculate the relative atomic mass, Ar, of magnesium to four significant figures.

Diesel fuel may be considered to consist of the hydrocarbon C15H32 which reacts completely
with oxygen according to the following equation.

C15H32 + 23O2 15CO2 + 16H2O

(b) (i) To which homologous series does C15H32 belong?

................................................

(ii) Use the equation above and your answer to (a)(ii) to calculate the amount, in moles,
of H2O2, that will provide sufficient oxygen for the complete oxidation of one mole
of C15H32.

amount of H2O2 = ................................. mol

[3]

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A submarine equipped with a Walter engine used 212 tonnes of diesel fuel during an
underwater voyage. The submarine also carried concentrated aqueous H2O2.
[1 tonne = 106 g]

(c) (i) Calculate the amount, in moles, of diesel fuel used during the underwater voyage.

amount of diesel fuel = ................................. mol

(ii) Use your answers to (b)(ii) and (c)(i) to calculate the mass, in tonnes, of hydrogen
peroxide used during the underwater voyage.

mass of H2O2 = ................................. tonnes


[4]
(b) Ketene burns completely in air to form carbon dioxide and water.

(i) Write a balanced equation for this reaction.

..................................................................................................................................

(ii) Use your equation to calculate the volume of CO2, in dm3, measured at room
temperature and pressure, which will be formed when 3.5 g of ketene are burned in
an excess of air.
Give your answer to two significant figures.

volume of CO2 = ................................. dm3 [4]

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(c) Sulphur and chlorine can be reacted together to form disulphur dichloride, S2Cl2.

Disulphur dichloride, S2Cl2, is decomposed by water forming sulphur and a mixture of


hydrochloric acid and sulphurous acid.

When 2.7 g of S2Cl2 is reacted with an excess of water, 0.96 g of sulphur, S, is


produced.

(i) What is the amount, in moles, of S2Cl2 present in 2.7 g?

(ii) What is the amount, in moles, of S produced from 1.0 mol of S2Cl2?

(iii) Construct a balanced equation for the reaction of S2Cl2 with water.

.................................................................................................................................. [4]

When 0.47 g of Z were completely burnt in air, the heat produced raised the temperature of
200 g of water by 27.5 C.

(e) (i) Calculate the amount of heat released in this experiment.

(ii) Use the data above and your answer to (i) to calculate the relative molecular mass of Z.

[4]

(f) Deduce the molecular formula of Z.

[1]

2 The commonest form of iron(II) sulfate is the heptahydrate, FeSO4.7H2O. On heating at 90 C


this loses some of its water of crystallisation to form a different hydrated form of iron(II) sulfate,
FeSO4.xH2O.

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3.40 g of FeSO4.xH2O was dissolved in water to form 250 cm3 of solution.

A 25.0 cm3 sample of this solution was acidified and titrated with 0.0200 mol dm3 potassium
manganate(VII).

In this titration 20.0 cm3 of this potassium manganate(VII) solution was required to react fully with
the Fe2+ ions present in the sample.

(a) The MnO4 ions in the potassium manganate(VII) oxidise the Fe2+ ions in the acidified solution.

(i) Explain, in terms of electron transfer, the meaning of the term oxidise in the sentence
above.

.............................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................... [1]

(ii) Complete and balance the ionic equation for the reaction between the manganate(VII)

ions and the iron(II) ions.

MnO4 (aq) + 5Fe (aq) + .........H (aq) .........(aq) + 5Fe (aq) + .........H2O(l)
2+ + 3+

[3]

(b) (i) Calculate the number of moles of manganate(VII) used in the titration.

[1]

(ii) Use the equation in (a)(ii) and your answer to (b)(i) to calculate the number of moles of

Fe2+ present in the 25.0 cm3 sample of solution used.

[1]

(iii) Calculate the number of moles of FeSO4.xH2O in 3.40 g of the compound.

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[1]

(iv) Calculate the relative formula mass of FeSO4.xH2O.

[1]

(v) The relative formula mass of anhydrous iron(II) sulfate, FeSO4, is 151.8.

Calculate the value of x in FeSO4.xH2O.

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[

1 A sample of a fertiliser was known to contain ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, and sand
only.

A 2.96 g sample of the solid fertiliser was heated with 40.0 cm3 of NaOH(aq), an
excess, and all of the ammonia produced was boiled away.

After cooling, the remaining NaOH(aq) was exactly neutralised by 29.5 cm3 of 2.00 mol
dm3

HCl.

In a separate experiment, 40.0 cm3 of the original NaOH(aq) was exactly


neutralised by

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39.2 cm3 of the 2.00 mol dm3 HCl. (
i
v
)
(a) (i) Write balanced equations for the following reactions.
U
s
NaOH with HCl e

y
o
............................................................................................................................ u
r
........ (NH4)2SO4 with NaOH
a
n
............................................................................................................................
........ s
w
e
r
(ii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of NaOH present in the 40.0 cm3 of the s
original
t
NaOH(aq) that was neutralised by 39.2 cm3 of 2.00 mol dm3 HCl. o

(
i
i
)

a
n
d

(
i
i
i
(iii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of NaOH present in the 40.0 cm3 of )
NaOH(aq) that remained after boiling the (NH4)2SO4.
t
o

c
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
e

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) SO4.
4 2 ( o
v u
) n
t
U ,
s
e i
n
y
o m
u o
r l
e
a s
n ,
s
w o
e f
r
s (
N
t H
o
)
(
i S
) O

a
n
d

(
i
v
)

t
o

c
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
e

t
h
e

a
m

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that
4 2 4

reacted with the NaOH.

(vi) Hence calculate the mass of (NH4)2SO4 that reacted.

(vii) Use your answer to (vi) to calculate


the percentage, by mass, of (NH4)2SO4
present in the fertiliser.

Write your answer to a suitable number of


significant figures.

[9]

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2 Ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, is widely used as a fertiliser.

In order to determine its percentage purity, a sample of ammonium sulfate fertiliser was
analysed by reacting a known amount with an excess of NaOH(aq) and then titrating the
unreacted NaOH with dilute HCl.

(a) Ammonium sulfate reacts with NaOH in a 1 : 2 ratio.

Complete and balance the equation for this reaction.


(NH4)2SO4 + 2NaOH .......NH3 + ................ + ................

[2]

(b) A 5.00 g sample of a fertiliser containing (NH4)2SO4 was warmed with 50.0 cm3 (an excess)

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of 2.00 mol dm3 NaOH.

When all of the ammonia had been driven off, the solution was cooled.

The remaining NaOH was then titrated with 1.00 mol dm3 HCl and 31.2 cm3
were required for neutralisation.

(i) Write a balanced equation for the reaction between NaOH and HCl.

....................................................................................................................................

(ii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of HCl in 31.2 cm3 of 1.00 mol dm3 HCl.

(iii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of NaOH in 50.0 cm3 of 2.00 mol dm3 NaOH.

(iv) Use your answers to (i), (ii) and (iii) to calculate the amount, in moles, of NaOH

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used up in the reaction with (NH4)2SO4.

[7]

(v) Use your answer to (iv) and the equation in (a) to calculate the amount, in moles, of

(NH4)2SO4 that reacted with NaOH.

(vi) Use your answer to (v) to calculate the mass of (NH4)2SO4 that reacted with NaOH.

(vii) Hence, calculate the percentage purity of the ammonium sulfate fertiliser.

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The flight path from Beijing to Paris is approximately 8195 km.

A typical intercontinental jet airliner burns 10.8 kg of kerosene for each kilometre
covered.

(i) Calculate the mass, in tonnes, of C14H30 burnt on a flight from Beijing to Paris.
[1 tonne = 1 000 kg]

(ii) Use your equation in (b) to calculate the mass, in tonnes, of CO2 produced during
this flight.

[4]

(c) In a redox reaction, 0.83 g of lithium reacted with water to form 0.50 dm3 of aqueous
lithium hydroxide.

2Li(s) + 2H2O(l) 2LiOH(aq) + H2(g)

(i) Calculate the amount, in moles, of lithium that reacted.

(ii) Calculate the volume of hydrogen produced at room temperature and pressure.
(
i

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ii) Calculate the concentration, in mol dm3, of the LiOH(aq) formed.

[5]

(d) When heated in chlorine, all of the alkali metals react to form the
corresponding chloride.

Describe what you see when sodium is heated in chlorine and write a balanced
equation for the reaction.

description

..........................................................................................................................................

..........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

.... equation

......................................................................................................................................
.
.
.

[
2
]

(d) When an excess of chlorine was reacted with 0.72 g of titanium, 2.85 g of a chloride A
was formed.

(i) Calculate the amount, in moles, of titanium used.

(ii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of chlorine atoms that reacted.

(iii) Hence, determine the empirical formula of A.

(iv) Construct a balanced equation for the reaction between titanium and chlorine.

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.................................................................................................................................. [4]

(c) The salt sodium phosphate, Na3PO4, is a water-softening agent.

(i) Write the equation for the complete neutralisation of phosphoric acid with aqueous
sodium hydroxide.

............................................................................................................................................

Sodium phosphate was prepared from 50.0 cm3 of 0.500 mol dm3 H3PO4 and an excess of
aqueous sodium hydroxide.

(ii) How many moles of H3PO4 were used?

(iii) Use your equation in (c)(i) to calculate how many moles of sodium hydroxide are
required.

[3]

(d) Phosphorus sulphide, P4S3, is used in small amounts in the tip of a match. On striking a
match, this compound burns.

(i) Construct an equation for this reaction.

............................................................................................................................................

(ii) Both oxides formed in (i) dissolve in water to give acidic solutions. Construct an equation
for the reaction of each oxide with water.

............................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................[4]

[Total : 9]

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