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Decision Model

Rita Wiryasaputra

Abstract Information systems play a major role in the approach MADM model is TOPSIS (Technique for Order

global marketplace and influence decision making process in Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution) has cardinal

day to day business activity. One of the problems found in type characteristic data. Based on several studies, the

business activity is allocating a limited resource. Problem can ranking using the TOPSIS method has the closest result to

be resolved with a system developed using Multi Attribute

the problem in the reality. Characteristic of TOPSIS

Decision Making (MADM) model and Multi Objective

Decision Making (MODM) model. MODM model will define

method is close to neutral since the best preferred

the design for the best alternative and MADM model provides alternative is defined from negative ideal solution as well as

complete selection for several alternatives which have limited positive ideal solution. The main concept of TOPSIS

resources. MADM model is used to simplify the mathematical method defines the best alternative which not only has the

form of MODM. MADM model approach, such as Technique closest distance from positive ideal solution but also has the

for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution furthest distance from negative ideal solution [1].

(TOPSIS) is used for cardinal characteristic data format. References [2] shows TOPSIS decision model with the

Decision-maker provides values for weighing criteria as an combination of Fuzzy to determine logistic location in

input to the TOPSIS methods, values are calculated with

south-east area of Turkey. This study uses qualitative data.

Entropy methodology. The output of TOPSIS methods will

provide rank to several alternatives. The rank of alternatives

Input of MADM model are weighing criteria which can be

become the decision variables in mathematical MODM model provided by decision making or using another methodology.

for linear programming to resolve the problem of limited Discrimination among several weighing criteria data is

allocated resource. Finally, decision support system defines calculated using a Entropy concept to ensure the data is

ranks of selected stores and it also presents the capacity of compatible. Entropy method is used to estimate the number

each store for distributing spare part. of data in quantity and to count relative information

weighing objectively [3]. Hsu [4] was using Entropy

Key words Decision Support Model, Entropy, Linear decision model and TOPSIS to determine vendor from

Programming, TOPSIS several hospital-outsourcing services in Taiwan. Many

problems naturally lend themselves to a linear

programming formulation, and may other problems can be

I. INTRODUCTION closely approximated by models with this structure. It helps

are achieved by using resource. The resource are

managers in planning and decision making realative to

resource allocation. Efficient solution techniques exist for

solving models of linear programming type. The output

considered inputs, and attainment of goals is viewed as the

output of the process. The degree of success of the generated from linear programming packages provides

organization and the manager is often measured by the useful what-if information concerning the sensitivity of the

ratio of outputs to inputs. This ratio is an indication of the optimal solution to changes in the models coeficient [5].

organizationals productivity, which is a reflection of the MODM model is developed from linear programming as a

organizational and managerial performance. The success of tool to obtain an optimal solution to complete the allocation

management depends on the performance of managerial problem or placement of limited resources and it is

functions, such as planning, organizing, directing and presented mathematically. Linear programming model is a

controlling. To perform their functions, managers are model that seeks to maximize a linear objective function

engaged in a continuous process of making decision. subject to a set of linear constraints [5]. The powerful for

Decision making problem is the process of finding the best linear programming model is simplex method. The simplex

opinion from all of the feasible alternatives. Decison method systematically examines corner points, using

making model is a tool that represents problem in decision algebraic steps, until an optimal solution is found. It is

making, it consists of Multi Attribute Decision Making assumed that the used of MADM model will simplify linear

(MADM) and Multi Objective Decision Making (MODM). programming mathematical model decision variables. This

MODM model is used to define the best alternative of paper propose to select store and its distribution using

design and MADM model is used to define the selection of Entropy, TOPSIS and Linear programming-Simplex.

several limited of alternatives. The selection approach in

MADM model depends on the problem characteristics and

51

II. METHODOLOGY a. Normalize each evaluated element in the matrix

Decision support systems application can be composed of a with reference criteria characteristic.

data management subsystem, a model management For the sake of having the same scale of

subsystem, a user interface subsystem [6]. It is shown measurement for the n indicators, it is assumed that

schematically in Fig. 1. Decision-making must be effective, all the initial entry values in the matrix are in the

systematic, and objective to select an appropriate store. range from 0 to 1. This is achieved by normalizing

Decision making provides input to system in form of the elements of the initial matrix according to the

selection code of spare part required, quantity of spare part Eq. (2)

required to be distributed, number of stores that will be bik

; for benefit criterion

ranked based on the existing data criteria, and limitation of

freight cost. The research adapts the study case regards to cik = bikmaks

bik min ; for cost criterion

spare part allocation using MADM TOPSIS model and

bik (2)

MODM Linear Programming-Simplex using cardinal data

b. Calculation of criteria probability is defined by P ik as

and quantitative data. The processes are shown in Fig. 2.

follows:

c (3)

Pik = m ik

Internal Data Model i =1 cik

Data Management Management

c. Measure Entropy for each criteria.

The entropy measurement of the k th criterion

User (indicator) as follows:

Eksternal Interface

k =1 [Pik ln Pik ]

1 (4)

Ek =

n

Data ln m

User

A weight assigned to an attribute (indicator or

Fig. 1. Schematic view of DSS criteria) is directly related to the average intrinsic

information generated by a given set of data in

Calculated additon to its subjective assessment. Equation (5)

Ranks state that indicators with less entropy values have

weighing

Data using

using upper level of information content and thus a higher

Conversion TOPSIS

Entropy weight is assigned to them. Equation (6) is applied

method

method to combine the objective importance Wk with the

subjective importance to evaluate the integrated

Determine the importance of the k th indicator parameter.

distribution

Lk = n ( n

1

[1 Ek ]

Output using Linear k =1 Ek ) (5)

Programming Lk * w k

WEk = n

method k =1 Lk * w k (6)

Fig. 2. Steps of system process 3. Ranks spare part store with TOPSIS method.

TOPSIS is called Technique for Order Preference by

Entropy is used to calculate weighing objectivity of criteria. Similarity to Ideal Solution. It is very effective in

TOPSIS method is used to rank alternatives in descending multiattribute decision analysis. Step to defined TOPSIS

order. After that, Linear programming method-Simplex is method as follows :

used for allocation. The research prosedures are explained a. Define matrix of normalized decision in order to

as follows: measure the score according to several indicatiors

1. Provide scoring to each spare part store according the (initial value in the matrix is scale from 0 to 1).

determined criteria. bik

The m set of data for n indicators is used to form the rik =

i =1 bik

m 2

(7)

evaluation matrix as shown in Eq.(1)

Elemen bik of the evaluation matrix represents the i th

b. Define matrix of normalized decision scale(V) where

set of data for the k th indicator. (i= 1, 2, 3,...,m; k= 1, each normalized alternative value (r ij ) times

2,...n) weighing of each criteria (WE k ) resulting to Entropy

b11 ... b1n calculation method. Normalized matrix used to find

(1) the superior project and inferior project (that is ideal

EM = ... ... ...

solution and non-ideal solution)

bm1 ... bmn WE1 r11 ... WEn r1n

V = ... ... ...

2. Calculate objectivity of weighing from the criteria using

(8)

the Entropy method as follows: WE1 r m1 ... WEn r mn

52

c. Determine the positive ideal solution and negative Several criterias have used respectively such as stock,

ideal solution based on criteria attribute delivery time, percentage of customer complaints, profit,

characteristic. level of communication. To support the normalization

maksi Vik ; if k is benefit criterion process, firstly required to know the criteria characteristic

= (V1+ , V +2 ,... V +n ) (9)

+

Sk = whether it is benefit criteria or cost criteria. Benefit criteria

mini Vik ; if k is cost criterion

is a criteria where the decision making desires maximum

mini Vik ; if k is benefit criterion value among all alternative values. Benefit criterias, such as

Sk = (

= V1 , V 2 ,... V n )( (10) stock, profit, level of communication, used in research. Cost

maksi Vik ; if k is cost criterion

criteria is the criteria where decision making desires

minimum value among all alternative values. Cost criterias,

a. Define the distances between each alternative( with such as delivery time, percentage of customer complaints,

positive ideal solution and negative ideal solution. used in research. Sample data value is converted with

Di = k =1 (Sk Sik )

n + 2

managerial criteria, the result is shown in Table 1.

(11)

D = k =1 (Sik S ) (12)

+ n 2

i k Normalization of data conversion is given in equation (14)

b. Determine the preference value to each alternative 0.50 0.8 0.40 0.33 1.00

where the reference value ( (T) is larger then it EM = 0.25 1.00 0.50 1.00 0.20 (14)

shows the preferer alternative( is chosen. 1.00 0.80 1.00 0.67 1.00

Di + Di (13) result:

4. Calculate distribution capacity of spare parts with 0.29 0.31 0.21 0.17 0.45

Linear Programming method-Simplex. The ranked EM = 0.14 0.38 0.26 0.50 0.09 (15)

alternatives become limited-function decision variable. 0.57 0.31 0.53 0.33 0.45

Steps to define the Linear Programming method, are

[7]:

Table 1. Sample data conversion of stores

a. Define objective function in maximal form.

equation. Alternatives Percentage

c. Add slack variables to each less-than (stores) Delivery of Level of

Stock Profit

or equal-to constraint and to the time customer communication

problems objective function. complaints

d. Develop an intial Simplex tableau Semarang 0.50 0.80 0.40 0.33 1.00

with slack variables in the basis and Batu Hijau -

the decision variables set equal to 0. Nusa

Compute Z j (gross profit row) and Tenggara 0.25 1.00 0.50 1.00 0.20

C j -Z j (net profit row) values for this Timur

tableau. Gunung

e. Follow these five steps until an Bayan- 1.00 0.80 1.00 0.67 1.00

optimal solution has been reached: Kaltim

1. Choose the variable with the

greatest positive C j -Z j to enter the solution. This Result of Entropy calculation for each criteria is as follow:

is the pivot column. EM = [0.87 0.99 0.93 0.92 0.85] (16)

2. Determine the solution mix variable to be

replaced and the pivot row by selecting the row

Decision making has defined initial weighing to each

with the smallest (nonnegative) ratio of the

criteria. The initial weighing which is determined by

quantity-to-pivot column substitution rate. This

criteria, is directly related to average information generated

is the pivot row.

by a cluster of Entropy value of each criteria. The initial

3. Calculate new values for pivot rows.

weighing can be summarized as the following:

4. Calculate new values for other row(s).

5. Calculation Z j and C j -Z j value for this tableau. If W k = [0.2 0.3 0.2 0.05 0.25] (17)

there are any C j -Z j numbers greater than 0,

return to step 1. If there are no C j -Z j numbers Entropy weight for each criteria is defined through the

that are greater than 0 , an optimal solution has equation below and will be used through the ranking steps

been reached. of TOPSIS method :

WE k = [0.3109 0.0189 0.1772 0.0474 0.4456] (18)

III. MODEL APPLICATION

The research uses criteria weighing which can Next step is multiplying the value to each alternative with

directly provided by decision making. It was assumed that the Entropy weighing result to obtain the normalized

several alternatives assessed based on managerial criteria.

53

weighing decision. The normalized weighing decision

matrix process is shown as follows:

0.1357 0.0116 0.1321 0.0127 0.3120

V = 0.0678 0.0093 0.1057 0.0380 0.0624 (19)

0.2714 0.0116 0.0528 0.0254 0.3120

Determination of positive ideal solution (S k +) and negative

ideal solution (S k -) are influenced by criteria characteristic

(benefit or cost), as shown in Table 2.

ideal solution

Positive ideal solution Negative ideal solution

V 1 + = min value 0.2714 V 1 - = max value 0.0678

V 2 + = max value 0.0093 V 2 - = min value 0.0116 Fig. 4. Rank result in graph form

V 3 + = max value 0.0528 V 3 - = min value 0.1321

V 4 + = min value 0.0380 V 4 - = max value 0.0127 IV. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

V 5 + = max value 0.3120 V 5 - = min value 0.0624 Result derived from the system shows ranking value

store and capacity to distribute spare part are sorted

If the difference among the positif ideal solution is larger, in descending order.

the preference value of each store is smaller. If the total The use of MADM model is simplify the formulation

preference value of store is larger, the higher the rank of of mathematical MODM model.

store. The preference value is larger will determine that Preference weighing values. Preference weighing

alternatives is selected. Through computer programming, values from criteria are influenced by the data

the calculation is more simplify and analysis process characteristic. The larger variation among the data,

involved, improve the efficiency of evaluation and the criteria weighing is also larger and more

guarantee the evaluating process to be just and fair. important.

Preference value to each alternatives will be rank in Characteristic of each criteria (benefit atau cost).

descending order, the result is given in Fig. 3. It shows that Characteristic of each criteria (benefit atau cost)

Gunung Bayan-Kaltim become the most priority store in influences ideal solution result in calculating

distribution. Fig. 4 shows the rank of the stores in graph alternative distance of each store. When the result of

form. TOPSIS result of ranked alternatives is used as varial alternative distance to the positive ideal solution is

longer, the preference value of store is smaller.

decision making (x 1 , x 2 , ..etc) linear programming model.

The mathematical form is shown in equation (20). Values

APPENDIX

on the right side of equation are store resources values such

as distributed capacity of store, cost, quantity of required. EM = Evaluation Matrix

Store resources is a process of reduction between quantity bik = Data value before normalized based on store and

stock and minimal stock. If the variable owns a relationship criteria

bik maks = Data value before normalized and has maximum

to the system then coefficient variable will be defined to a

score based on store and criteria

value of 1.

bik min = Data value before normalized and has minimum

Objective score based on store and criteria

Z = 20x 1 + 10x 2 + 30x 3 c ik = Data value which has been normalized based on

function: (Max)

score and criteria

constraints : P ik = Criteria Probability based on store and criteria

1x 1 + 1x 2 + 1x 3 = 70 Ek = Entropy value based on normalized data per

1x 1 62 criteria

1x 2 1 Lk = Lambda per criteria where the value range from 0

1x 3 9 to 1

(20)

x 1 , x 2 ,x 3 0 Wk = Initial weighing determined by decision making

WE k = Entropy weighing for each criteria

r ik = Data value normalized, based on criteria from

each store

V = Matrix of normalized decision

T = Preference value for each store alternative

Di- = each alternative distance from negative ideal

solution

Fig. 3. Rank result and optimal solution

D i + = each alternative distance from positive ideal

solution

i = 1, 2, ...m is series of store

k = 1, 2, ..n is series of criteria

54

x 1 , x 2 ..x n = Alternative decisions

REFERENCES

Criteria Decision Making Selection Model with Application to

Chemical Engineering Management Decisions, World Academy of

Science, Engineering And Technology 49, 2009.

[2] B. Erkayman, E. Gundogar, G. Akkaya, and M. Ipe, A Fuzzy Topsis

Approach for Logistics Center Location Selection, The 2011 New

Orleans International Academic Conference, New Orleans Louisiana

USA, pp.515-521, 2011.

[3] C. E. Shannon, A Mathematical Theory of Communication, The Bell

System Technical Journal vol. 27 pp. 379-423, pp. 623-656, 1948.

[4] P-F. Hsu, and M-G. Hsu, Optimizing The Information Outsourcing

Practices of Primary Care Medical Organizations Using Entropy and

TOPSIS, Springer Quality Quantity, pp. 181- 201, 2008.

[5] J. Lawrence, and B. Pasternack, Applied Management Science,

Second Edition, John Wiley&Sons, New York, pp. 48, 2002

[6] E. Turban, R. Sharda, and D. Delen, Decision Support And Business

Intelligence Systems, Pearson New Jersey, Ninth Edition, pp. 85,

2011.

[7] B. Render, R. Stair, and M. E. Hanna, Quantitative Analysis for

Management, Eight Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, pp. 328-344,

2003

Mandiri University, Jend. Sudirman KM.4 no. 629 Palembang 30113,

Indonesia (e-mail: ritasaputra@ gmail.com).

55

Proceedings

and Applied Mathematics 2012

Jakarta, Indonesia

Publisher:

Faculty of Information Technology, Tarumanagara University

ISSN: 2301 - 5403

Chairman's Preface

Vice Dean of Faculty of Information Technology, Tarumanagara University

Information technology continues to evolve and can be applied to various fields of science. Mathematics is seen as being

fundamental to the engineering, information technology, economics, medical and many other, if not all, todays applicable

sciences.

Information and communication technology (ICT) cannot be separated from our daily life; it has changed the quality of life

in positive ways. ICT is usually defined as form of technology used to create, transmit, store, organize, share or to exchange

information for decision making purpose.

Mathematics is seen as being fundamental tool for development ICT. Mathematical structures, operations, processes, and

languages provide learners with a framework and tools for reasoning, justifying conclusions, and expressing ideas clearly.

Through mathematical activities that are practical and relevant to their lives, learners develop mathematical understanding,

problemsolving skills, and related technological skills that they can apply in their daily lives and, eventually, in the

workplace.

International Conference on Information Technology and Applied Mathematics 2012 (ICITAM 2012), organized by

Faculty of Information Technology of Tarumanagara University together with Universiti Malaysia Terengganu committee, is

a forum to bring together information technology and mathematics researchers to present research results and discuss each

other to result newest findings.

I sincerely hope that all participants will have valuable experiences in ICITAM 2012 conference through gaining new

knowledges and ideas.

Finally, I would like to thank the key note speakers and invited speakers for accepting our invitation at this conference. Our

thanks also go to the committee and partners that support the ICITAM 2012 to be succsesful.

ii

Deans Preface

Welcome to The First International Conference on Information Technology and Applied Mathematics

(ICITAM 2012). ICITAM 2012 is the first conference of the series that will be held every two years.

This first ICITAM 2012 is organized and hosted by The Faculty of Information Technology

Tarumanagara University.

ICITAM 2012 is the specialized forum in Asia Pasific where Academicians, Researchers, Information

Technology Professionals, and Mathematicians gathered to present their research findings and to

exchange views, expertise, research innovations and new technologies.

There are always new things that can be explored in the field of information technology and

mathematics. On top of that, Information technology continues to evolve and can be applied to various fields of human life and

activities. Meanwhile mathematics is seen as being fundamental to the engineering, information technology, economics, medical

and health sciences, and social well being of nations.

All papers presented at ICITAM 2012 are peers reviewed from a panel of international and local peers in their respective area of

expertise. Through this process all accepted papers of ICITAM 2012 are published in the conference proceeding. Furthermore,

The papers in proceeding will be sent to be reviewed by journal Kalam Malaysia for possible publication in the journal.

Finally, I would like to thank the Keynote Speakers, Invited speakers, Authors, and Participants for joining this conference. In

addition, I would also like to thank and congratulate our Reviewers and Committee for their tireless effort and hardworking to

organized and materialized this conference.

Dean

Ery Dewayani

iii

COMMITTEES

Prof. Dr. Ismail Mohd, (Co-Chair)

Dra. Ery Dewayani, MMSI, (Co-Chair)

Jap Tji Beng, Ph.D , (Co-Chair)

Lina, Ph.D, (Co-Chair)

Agus Budi Dharmawan, M.T M.Sc, (Organizing Committee)

Ir. Jeanny Pragantha, M.Eng, (Organizing Committee)

Lely Hiryanto, M.Sc, (Organizing Committee)

Dra. Chairisni Lubis, M.Kom, (Organizing Committee)

Wasino M.Kom, (Organizing Committee)

Susany Soplanit, M.Kom, (Organizing Committee)

Helmy Thendean, M.Kom, (Organizing Committee)

Bagus Mulyawan, M.M, (Organizing Committee)

Zyad Rusdi, M.Kom, (Organizing Committee)

Viny Christianti, M.Kom, (Organizing Committee)

Tony M.Kom, (Organizing Committee)

Sani. M. Isa, M.Kom, (Organizing Committee)

Dedi Trisnawarman, M.Kom, (Organizing Committee)

Sugiyanto, MM, (Technical Committee)

Ruwanto, S.Kom, (Technical Committee)

Sumardi, (Technical Committee)

Susanti, SE, (Technical Committee)

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chairman's Preface ii

Committees iv

Table of Contents v

Present and Future Jamaiah H. Yahaya

Stochastic Programming with Recourse

Invited Speakers

Muhammad Iqbal Al-

Banna Bin Ismail

Image Texture Analysis Sony Sugiharto

Lina

Helmy Thendean

Tryanto

Agustinus Tanzil

Weight of Sentence and Weight of Feature Viny Christanti

Industry: A Study On Indonesia E-tourism Websites Muhammad Rifki Shihab

Development

Spare Part Allocation in Multiple Criteria Decision Model Rita Wiryasaputra 51

v

PermuThinkTM a Permutation Card Game Kung-Ming Tiong 56

Li-Jen Yeoh

Keng-Boon Law

Compression and Noise Reduction of Audio WAV Files Using Chairisni Lubis

Discrete Wavelet Transform and Huffman Coding Agus Budi Dharmawan 60

Riyandi

Iris Localization using Circular Hough Transform and Horizontal Christie Valentina 64

Projection Folding Reggio N. Hartono

Teresa V. Tjahja

Anto S. Nugroho

Classification Agus Harjoko

Simulation of Single Phase Buck-Boost Inverter with Buffer Purwadi Agus Darwito 75

Inductor using PSIM Soebagio

Mauridhi Hery Purnomo

Robust Tuning of Power System Stabilizer Using Particle Swarm Muhamad Haddin 79

Optimization For Dynamic Stability Improvement Dedi Nugroho

Agus Suprajitno

Soebagio

Adi Soeprijanto

Mauridhi Hery Purnomo

Temperature In The Satellite Form Of Cylinders

Karendef

Dyah Erny Herwindiati

Learning Theory: The development of Lasem Batik E-Book for Jap Tji Beng

Junior High School Students at Yogyakarta Ery Dewayani

Sri Tiatri

Divide and Conquer Algorithm for Determining Sequences Arief Fatchul Huda 95

Patterns in Spatiotemporal Clustering Ito Wasito

T. Basaruddin

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