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International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics

Volume 116 No. 21 2017, 519-535


ISSN: 1311-8080 (printed version); ISSN: 1314-3395 (on-line version)
url: http://www.ijpam.eu
Special Issue
ijpam.eu

CONGESTION CONTROL SCHEME FOR HETEROGENEOUS


WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS USING SELF-ADJUST HYBRID
MODEL
1
M.Rajesh, 2J.M.Gnanasekar
1
Vice President, Melange Technologies, Pondicherry, India
2
Professor, Venkateswara College of Engineering, Chennai, India

Abstract

Predicting Congestion Control in Heterogeneous Wireless Ad Hoc Networks is a complex


task because heterogeneous resource nodes are involved in a distributed environment. Long
execution workload on an Adhoc network is even harder to predict due to heavy load
fluctuations. In this paper, we use Bloom filter to minimize the prediction errors. We apply
Savitzky-Golay filter to train a sequence of confidence windows. The purpose is to smooth
the prediction process from being disturbed by load fluctuations. We present a new self-
adjust hybrid model (Proactive and Reactive Model) for load prediction guided by trained
confidence windows. This will address excess bandwidth and long route request delay of
proactive and reactive routing protocols. Self-adjust hybrid model (SH Model) provides a
framework for other protocols. The significant gain in prediction accuracy makes the new SH
Model very attractive to predict Congestion Control performance and also we propose path
observation based physical routing protocol named POPR for WANET. The proposed routing
protocol incorporates relative distance, direction and mid-range forwarder node with traffic
density to forward the data toward destination in order to improve physical forwarding
between and at the intersection. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol
and SH Model performs better as compared to existing solutions. The model was proved
especially effective to predict large workload that demands very long execution time as well.
At the end, we discuss extended research issues and tool development for Congestion Control
performance prediction.

Keywords: Bloom filter, Savitzky-Golay filter, self-adjust hybrid model, POPR

1. Introduction

Smart environments represent the next evolutionary development step in building, utilities,
industrial, home, shipboard, and transportation systems automation. Like any conscious
human being, the smart environment relies first and foremost on sensory data from the real

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world. Sensory data comes from multiple sensors of different modalities in distributed
locations. The smart environment needs information about its surroundings as well as about
its internal workings; this is captured in biological systems by the distinction between
exteroceptors and proprioceptors.

With respect to the performance of wireless sensor networks, the data transmission capacity
and the lifetime of the sensor networks are critical and influential towards the design of
optimal deployment strategies of these sensor networks. The fundamental limits of these two
critical performance parameters lead to a few interesting open problems. First, what is the
maximum sustainable throughput of the network? Second, what is the maximum lifetime of
the network? These questions are usually considered given a set of parameters of the sensor
network, and under the assumption that optimal network management is achievable. The set
of parameters of the sensor network under consideration includes the number of sensor nodes
in the network, as well as the area occupied by the sensor network. Issues relevant to network
management usually include packet routing, energy management, and congestion control,
which directly affect to quality of service.

One of the earliest routing protocols with Qualty of Service (QoS) impression is Sequential
Assignment Routing (SAR) [4]. SAR creates trees originating from one-hop neighborhood of
sink and takes into account two types of QoS metrics; energy resource and priority level of
each packet Multiple paths are created from a sink to source and a path may be selected based
on the QoS metrics. However, SAR is believed to suffer from overhead for maintaining the
node state. Zhi Ang Eu et al. [14] study the performance of different medium access control
(MAC) schemes based on CSMA and polling techniques for WSNs which are solely powered
by ambient energy harvesting using energy harvesters. The study is based on (i) network
throughput (S), which is the rate of sensor data received by the sink, (ii) fairness index (F),
which determines whether the bandwidth is allocated to each sensor node equally and (iii)
inter-arrival time () which measures the average time difference between two packets from a
source node. For CSMA, they compare both the slotted and unslotted variants. For polling,
they first consider identity polling. Then design a probabilistic polling protocol that takes into
account the unpredictability of the energy harvesting process to achieve good performance.
Finally, they present an optimal polling MAC protocol to determine the theoretical maximum
performance. They validate the analytical models using extensive simulations incorporating
experimental results from the characterization of different types of energy harvesters. The
performance results show that probabilistic polling achieves high throughput and fairness as
well as low inter-arrival times. Ren- Shiou Liu et al. in [19] proposed a low-overhead MAC
layer solution to address the high contention problem to improve system throughput and
reduce energy consumption.

Periods of burst transmissions with reduced contention from neighboring nodes are exploited
to efficiently clear up backlogged queues and improve the performance of CSMA. Through
analytical modeling they characterize the expected performance improvement. Using
extensive simulations on ns-2 and experiments on the 49-node sensor network test bed
(Kansei) running TinyOS it is seen that the proposed scheme can increase the throughput by

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International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

up to a factor of four. Zhi Ang Eu et al. [13] designed a probabilistic polling protocol that
takes into account the unpredictability of the energy harvesting process to achieve good
performance. They presented an optimal polling MAC protocol to determine the theoretical
maximum performance. Validation occurred with the analytical models using extensive
simulations incorporating experimental results from the characterization of different types of
energy harvesters. The performance results showed that probabilistic polling achieves high
throughput and fairness as well as low inter-arrival times.

2. Proactive Routing Protocols

A proactive routing protocol is also called a table driven routing protocol. Using one of the
proactive routing protocols, nodes in a mobile ad hoc network continuously evaluate routes to
all reachable nodes and modify routing information. Thus, a source node can get a routing
path immediately as soon as it needs one. In proactive routing protocols, each node maintains
routing information to every node in the network. The routing information is stored in a
number of tables. These tables are periodically updated and updated if there is a significant
change in the network topology. The difference between existing proactive routing protocols
lies in the way that the routing information is updated, and the type of information stored in
each routing table. Moreover, each routing protocol may maintain a different number of
tables. Several proactive routing protocols have been proposed, such as Destination Sequence
Distance Vector (DSDV) [4], the Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP) [3], and the Fisheye
State Routing (FSR) [1] [2]. The following subsections present a brief description of some
proactive routing protocols.
4. Reactive Routing Protocols

Reactive routing is also known as on-demand routing. It creates routes only when needed
by the source node. They are based on some kind of query-reply dialogue and they do not
maintain an up-to-date topology of the network. As a node has some data to be sent, it
invokes a route discovery procedure to find a route to the desired destination. Such a
procedure uses flooding the network with the route discovery, and terminates if the query
reaches the destination or reaches an intermediate node that has an active route to the
destination. Compared to the proactive routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, reactive
routing protocols have less control overhead. Thus, reactive routing protocols have better
scalability than proactive routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks. On the other hand,
using reactive routing protocols, the source nodes may suffer from long delays before they
become able to forward data packets. The following subsections give brief description of
three reactive routing protocols: Ad hoc On- demand Distance Vector routing (AODV) [5],

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Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [7], and Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA)
[9].
5. SavitzkyGolay filter

A SavitzkyGolay filter is a digital filter that can be applied to a set of digital data points for
the purpose of smoothing the data, that is, to increase the signal-to-noise ratio without greatly
distorting the signal. This is achieved, in a process known as convolution, by fitting
successive sub-sets of adjacent data points with a low-degree polynomial by the method of
linear least squares. When the data points are equally spaced, an analytical solution to the
least-squares equations can be found, in the form of a single set of "convolution coefficients"
that can be applied to all data sub-sets, to give estimates of the smoothed signal, (or
derivatives of the smoothed signal) at the central point of each sub-set.

Syntax

y = sgolayfilt(x,order,framelen)
y = sgolayfilt(x,order,framelen,weights)
y = sgolayfilt(x,order,framelen,weights,dim)

Description

y = sgolayfilt(x,order,framelen) applies a Savitzky-Golay FIR smoothing filter to the data in


vector x. If x is a matrix, sgolayfilt operates on each column. The polynomial order, order,
must be less than the frame length, framelen, and in turn framelen must be odd. If
order = framelen-1, the filter produces no smoothing.

y = sgolayfilt(x,order,framelen,weights) specifies a weighting vector, weights, with length


framelen, which contains the real, positive-valued weights to be used during the least-squares
minimization. If weights is not specified, or if it is specified as empty, [], it defaults to an
identity matrix.

y = sgolayfilt(x,order,framelen,weights,dim) specifies the dimension, dim, along which the


filter operates. If dim is not specified, sgolayfilt operates along the first nonsingleton
dimension; that is, dimension 1 for column vectors and nontrivial matrices, and dimension 2
for row vectors.

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One approach for smoothing the time series is to replace each value of the series with a new
value which is obtained from a polynomial fit to 2n+1 neighboring points (including the point
to be smoothed), with n being equal to, or greater than the order of the polynomial.

6. Bloom Filters

A Bloom filter is a space-efficient probabilistic data structure that is used to test whether an
element is a member of a set. False positive matches are possible, but false negatives are not
in other words, a query returns either "possibly in set" or "definitely not in set". Elements can
be added to the set, but not removed (though this can be addressed with a "counting" filter);
the more elements that are added to the set, the larger the probability of false positives.

Bloom proposed the technique for applications where the amount of source data would
require an impractically large amount of memory if "conventional" error-free hashing
techniques were applied

The basic bloom filter supports two operations: test and add.

Test is used to check whether a given element is in the set or not. If it returns:

false then the element is definitely not in the set.


true then the element is probably in the set. The false positive rate is a function of the
bloom filter's size and the number and independence of the hash functions used.

Add simply adds an element to the set. Removal is impossible without introducing false
negatives, but extensions to the bloom filter are possible that allow removal e.g. counting
filters.

Constructing Bloom Filters


Consider a set A {a1 , a2 ,..., an } of n elements. Bloom filters describe membership

information of A using a bit vector V of length m. For this, k hash functions, h1 , h2 ,..., hk with

hi : X {1..m} , are used as described below:

The following procedure builds an m bits Bloom filter, corresponding to a set A and using
h1 , h2 ,..., hk hash functions:

Procedure BloomFilter(set A, hash_functions, integer m)

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returns filter
filter = allocate m bits initialized to 0
foreach ai in A:
foreach hash function hj:
filter[hj(ai)] = 1
end foreach
end foreach
return filter
Therefore, if ai is member of a set A, in the resulting Bloom filter V all bits obtained
corresponding to the hashed values of ai are set to 1. Testing for membership of an element
elm is equivalent to testing that all corresponding bits of V are set:

Procedure MembershipTest (elm, filter, hash_functions)


returns yes/no
foreach hash function hj:
if filter[hj(elm)] != 1 return No
end foreach
return Yes
Nice features: filters can be built incrementally: as new elements are added to a set the
corresponding positions are computed through the hash functions and bits are set in the filter.
Moreover, the filter expressing the reunion of two sets is simply computed as the bit-wise OR
applied over the two corresponding Bloom filters.
7. Path Observation Based Physical Routing Protocol

Wireless ad hoc networks are going to be an emerged multi-hop communication exploit


among mobiles to deliver data packets. The special characteristics of Wireless network make
the communication link between mobiles to be unreliable. To handle high mobility and
environmental obstacles, most of physical routing protocols do not consider stable links
during packet transmission which lead to higher delay and packet dropping in network. Here,
path observation based physical routing protocol named POPR for WANET. POPR
incorporates relative distance, direction and mid-range forwarder node with traffic density to
forward the data toward destination in order to improve physical forwarding between and at
the intersection.

8. Proposed model

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International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

We present a new self-adjust hybrid model (Proactive and Reactive Model) for load
prediction guided by trained confidence windows. This will
address excess bandwidth and long route request delay of proactive and reactive routing
protocols. It divides the entire network into zones of variable size; every node in the network
has a zone associated to it, given by a radius of length , where is the number of hops to the
perimeter of the zone. Self-adjust hybrid model (SH Model) provides a framework for other
protocols. The route discovery mechanism source initiates the route discovery and it first
checks whether the destination is inside or outside the zone. If the destination node is within
the zone, the packet is routed using proactive approach. The destination node is outside the
zone, reactive routing is used. The significant gain in prediction accuracy makes the new SH
Model very attractive to predict Congestion Control performance and also we propose path
observation based physical routing protocol named POPR for WANET.

The proposed routing protocol incorporates relative distance, direction and mid-range
forwarder node with traffic density to forward the data toward destination in order to improve
physical forwarding between and at the intersection. Simulation results show that the
proposed routing protocol and SH Model performs better as compared to existing solutions.
The model was proved especially effective to predict large workload that demands very long
execution time as well.

A WANET is a wireless network where the wireless nodes can be located anywhere over the
globe. However, the underlying design is such that the nodes believe they are part of a single-
hop or multi-hop wireless network at the PHY and MAC layers. This is accomplished by
using Software Defined Access Points (SoDA) that are based on the idea of Software Defined
Radio (SDR). For the uplink, each SoDA samples the down-converted channel using an ADC
(analog to-digital converter). The sampled data is then multicast to the other SoDAs via the
Internet. At each end-point, the received digital signals from the other SoDAs are summed
and sent through the DAC (digital-to-analog converter) and transmitted on a designated
channel after up conversion. Then the RF environment is mixed at geographically separate
locations (albeit with a time shift). When the number of packets increases beyond the limit
that can be handled by the network resources, the network performance degrades, and this
situation is called congestion. Congestion simply means overcrowding or blockage due to
overloading .It is similar to traffic jam caused by many cars on a narrow road. Two styles of
control, proactive and reactive control, are presented. It is shown that congestion control must
happen at several different time scales.

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For WANETs where wireless channels are shared by several motes using carrier sense
multiple access (CSMA-like) protocols, collisions could occur when multiple active sensor
motes try to seize the channel at the same time. This can be referred to as link-level
congestion. Link-level congestion increases packet service time, and decreases both link
utilization and overall throughput, and wastes energy of the sensor motes. There is another
type of congestion called node-level congestion which is common in conventional networks.
It is caused by buffer overflow in the mote and can result in packet loss, and increase latency.
Packet loss in turn can lead to retransmission and therefore wastes more energy. Both link-
level and node-level congestions (illustrated in Figure 1) have direct impact on energy
efficiency and QoS.

Figure 1: Node Level Congestion and Link Level Congestion

Existing research is confined to the local broadcasting in a Stand-alone wireless ad hoc


network without interference [2],[3] and with intra-system interference [4]. However,
coexistence of multiple heterogeneous wireless networks emerges in the next generation
wireless networking, and several challenges are introduced. One of the major challenges is
that inter-system interference from different radio access technologies operating at the same
spectrum may significantly degrade the quality of signal reception. Investigations of inter-
system interference in coexisting heterogeneous wireless networks have focused on spectrum
sharing in two-tier femtocell networks [5], cellular and ad hoc networks [6], narrowband and
ultra-wideband networks [7], and cognitive radio networks [8]. More details can be found in
[9][10]. Following this trend, in this paper we study the performance of local broadcasting
in an interference-limited environment consisting of multiple heterogeneous wireless ad hoc
networks. We explore the impacts of different error control techniques (including simple

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International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

retransmission, Chase combining, and incremental redundancy [11], [12]) on the mean
number of neighbors and the probability distribution of the number of neighbors in local
broadcasting. With the probability distribution of the number of neighbors, QoS provisioning
in local broadcasting can be facilitated. An interesting question that can be raised is how
many times a source node should roadcast a message without the aid of acknowledgment
feedback (e.g. ACK/NACK) so that with a guaranteed probability the message will be
successfully received by more than a certain number of nodes. Via the probability
distribution, we may answer as follows: A source node should broadcast a message m times
so that with probability more than j nodes will receive the message successfully.

9. SH Model

The proposed (SH MODEL) method called error and congestion control protocol that has two
basic functions responsible for the PA and SH MODEL. The main intention of this protocol
is to be used as a mechanism for reducing congestion in the network by free resources to set
accurate rates and priority data needs. If two or more nodes send their packets in the shortest
path to the parent node in a crowded place, a source node must prioritize the data and uses
data that have lower priorities of a suitable detour nodes consisting of low or non-active
consciously. Due to the limited energy of sensor node, existing trails will be used instead of
creating new routes. The proposed protocols are tried to increase network lifetime and the
rate of successful packet transfer by reduction of possibility of packet loss as much as
possible. As we know there are two types of traffic at each node, local traffic and transmitted
traffic. In fact, each node can act as a source and as routers in the network. Source traffic is
created locally and by the node itself if the transmitted traffic is created through other nodes
and is sent to the upstream node to be sent to the scrap. As can be inferred, the tree structure
has a kind of injustice in terms of bandwidth allocation for sensor network nodes located at
different levels so that nodes near the sink are given a higher priority but farther nodes have
to send data through intermediate nodes, passing several steps with great delay.

To solve this problem, Proactive Approach (PA) technique, this will avoid the error, control
the congestion using Self-adjust hybrid model (SH MODEL) which will reduce congestion in
transmission channels.

First: Queuing delay is the primary congestion index.

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International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

Second: Packet loss is the next congestion index. Congestion control strategies based on
packet loss to keep high bandwidth is employed when delay based strategy act inefficiently.

Proposed algorithm is applied to the network when these two indexes have been settled. In
general case, proposed algorithm is not applied in normal case since computation is a time
consumer manner. Proposed algorithm is applied to the nodes near the base station (which
convey more traffic) after the congestion detection mechanism detected the congestion and
resolved it.

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International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

Figure 2: Scheme of the proposed congestion control protocols

10. Problem Statement

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Objective function to be maximized: s Us (Xs) (total source utility)

Constraint 1: Xik j:(i.j) L fki,j j:(j,i)L fkj,i (flow conservation per node-destination
pair)

Constraint 2: f (rate in the rate region)

Direct variables: Xs 0 (source rate) fki,j 0 (capacity allocation per link per destination)

Dual relaxation of coupled constraints, with resultant partial dual D(p) = maxxs 0,fk i,j 0
s Us (Xs) pki (Xkk - fk i,j + fkj,i

iN,kD,ik j:(i,j)L j:(i,j)L

At slower time scale, update dual variables pki for all i and k At faster time scale, solve the
following scheduling problem Max fi.j max (pki - pkj )

fi,j 0 i,j k

Sub gradient update of dual variables

pki (t+1) = [pki (t) + t (xik p(t)) -( fki,j (p(t) - fkj,i (p(t)))))]+ , j(i,j)L j:(j,i)L
where is the stepsize.

Distributed Approximate Weighted Maximum Matching to solve the scheduling problem.

11. Performance metrics and result analysis

In this paper we have considered Packet Delivery Fraction and throughput in Kilo bits per
second (Kbps) for evaluation of PA, RA and SH MODEL Congestion Control Protocol. The
simulation results obtained with the above mentioned simulation parameters are appended in
Table-1. The graph showing comparison between PA, RA and SH MODEL is shown in
Figure.3

Packet Delivery Fraction. It is the ratio of the data packets delivered to the destinations to
those generated by the sources. Packet Delivery Fraction = Total Packets Delivered to
destination / Total Packets Generated.

Table.1 Packet Delivery Fraction with varying number of Nodes.

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International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

Congestion Control Total Packets Total packets Packet Delivery


Protocol sent Received Ratio

PA 9812 9073 0.9248

RA 9838 9176 0.9327

SH MODEL 9895 9874 0.9979

10000

8000

6000
PA
4000
RA
2000 SH MODEL
SH MODEL
RA
0
PA
Total
Total
Packets Packet
packets
sent Delivery
Received
Ratio

Figure.3 Packet Delivery Fraction

Throughput

Throughput of the congestion control protocols means that in certain time the total size of
useful packets that received at all the destination nodes. The unit of throughput is MB/s,
however we have taken Kilo bits per second (Kb/s). The throughput values obtained for the
simulation parameters of table-1 is tabulated in table-2. The graph shown in figure- 4
indicates the throughput comparison of congestion control protocols, RCC, FCC and SH
MODEL

Table.2 Throughput in speed with varying number of Nodes

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Throughput in speed with varying number of Nodes

No. of. Nodes 20 50 75 100

PA 1770.41 1600.34 1999.18 2102.4

RA 4034.64 4600.76 5002.64 5454.36

SH MODEL 6554.53 7002.67 9979.99 8044.33

18000
16000
14000
12000
10000 SH Model
8000 RA
6000 PA
4000
2000
0
20 50 75 100

Figure.4. No of Nodes versus Throughput

12. Conclusion

In this paper we have evaluated the performance of SH MODEL congestion control protocol
for ad hoc networks. SH MODEL uses the proactive table-driven congestion control strategy
here as PA uses the reactive on demand error control strategy with different control
mechanisms. Experimental results showed that SH MODEL perform better for Packet
Delivery Fraction as well as Throughput.

Due to the importance of Congestion Control for Wireless Ad hoc network, we presented a
model for congestion control in WANETs. The main intention of this protocol is to be used
as a mechanism for reducing congestion in the network by free resources to set accurate rates
and priority data needs. If two or more nodes send their packets in the shortest path to the
parent node in a crowded place, a source node must prioritize the data and uses data that have

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International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

lower priorities of a suitable detour nodes consisting of low or non-active consciously.


Proposed algorithm (SH MODEL) is not applied in normal case since computation is a time
consumer manner. Proposed algorithm (SH MODEL) is applied to the nodes near the base
station (which convey more traffic) after the error and congestion detection; control the error
in network using Proactive Approach (PA) technique, which will avoid the error, control
within the zone, Reactive Approach (RA) technique, which will avoid the error, control
Outside the zone using Self-adjust hybrid model (SH MODEL) which will reduce congestion
in transmission channels. SH MODEL congestion control protocol for ad hoc networks. SH
MODEL uses the proactive table-driven congestion control strategy here as PA uses the
reactive on demand error control strategy with different control mechanisms. Experimental
results showed that SH MODEL perform better for Packet Delivery Fraction as well as
Throughput.

Due to the importance of Congestion Control for Wireless Ad hoc network, we presented a
model for congestion control in WANETs. The main intention of this protocol is to be used
as a mechanism for reducing congestion in the network by free resources to set accurate rates
and priority data needs. If two or more nodes send their packets in the shortest path to the
parent node in a crowded place, a source node must prioritize the data and uses data that have
lower priorities of a suitable detour nodes consisting of low or non-active consciously.
Proposed algorithm (SH MODEL) is not applied in normal case since computation is a time
consumer manner. Proposed algorithm (SH MODEL) is applied to the nodes near the base
station (which convey more traffic) after the error and congestion detection; control the error
in network using Proactive Approach (PA) technique, which will avoid the error, control
within the zone, Reactive Approach (RA) technique, which will avoid the error, control
Outside the zone using Self-adjust hybrid model (SH MODEL) which will reduce congestion
in transmission channels

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International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

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