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MAINTENANCE TRAINING NOTES

T1 42-400l500 & 72-212A (MPC) ref 72


V1.6

ATA 70 ENGINE SYSTEMS

This publication will not be updated on a regular basis.


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General description

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The basic engine installed on the ATR 72-212A aircrafts is Pratt & Whitney PW127F turboprop.
The engine is certified for a 2,475 SHP max take-off rating. In case of one engine failure, there is an automatic power increase to 2,750 SHP (Reserve
Take-Off).
The power plant consists of a two spool gas generator centrifugal compressors-axial turbines, and constant speed propellers with variable pitch. This
assembly is enclosed in a nacelle fitted to the wing.
Control of the torque and the propeller speed is basically achieved through the throttle levers.
These levers transmit the input commands from the flight compartment to the engine and propeller, in order to establish the basic fuel flow and the
propeller speed.
Engine systems consist of the following systems:
Power plant,
Engine controls,
Engine fuel & control,
Engine oil,
Engine air,
Engine indicating,
Engine ignition and starting.
The power plant control system is composed of:
the Power Levers (PL),
the Condition Levers (CL).
Located on the centre pedestal, these levers control basically the torque and the propeller speed. They transmit the input commands from the flight
compartment to the engine and propeller, in order to establish the basic fuel flow and the propeller speed.
The Power Levers contol through the HMU the fuel flow from reverse (REV) to maximum power (MAX PWR) position.
The Condition Levers controls directly the PVM input lever.
Note: A PVM/HMU connecting rod controls the HMU HP fuel shut-off valve.
The engine fuel system enables delivery of a fuel flow corresponding to the Power Lever position and compatible with the engine operating limits.
The fuel supplied from the A/C tank flows through a heater and a low pressure filter.
A fuel heater outlet temperature indicator is provided on the centre instrument panel.
The fuel flows through the fuel pump unit and the hydromechanical unit (HMU). A "Fuel Clog" light illuminates when the fuel pump unit filter (HP filter) is
clogged and the by-pass valve opens.
The HMU has two functions:
to meter the fuel flow to the engine, the excess being returned to the HP pump inlet,
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to provide the HP fuel to the engine feed jet pump located in the fuel feeder tank.
A fuel flow meter is provided on the centre instrument panel. A fuel cooled oil cooler (FCOC) provides cooling of the lubricating oil by using fuel system as
cooling source.
Metered fuel passes to fuel nozzles via the flow divider.
The oil system is a self-contained system which supplies oil to the turbomachine (bearings, accessory gearbox), the Propeller Reduction Gearbox (RGB)
and the propeller accessories.
The system keeps the oil at a suitable temperature and pressure for a correct lubrication in all engine operating conditions.
The engine ventilation is provided by the air activated by the venturi effect of the engine jet.
Some equipment like AC generator and DC starter / generator have their own ventilation system.
A correct ventilation is necessary to keep the operating temperatures within the required limits and enable an adequate operation of the engine.
Engine parameters are displayed in the flight compartment by means of indicators, located on the centre instrument panel.
The main engine parameters are:
Torque indication: TQ,
Propeller speed indication: Np,
Interturbine temperature: ITT,
High pressure compressor speed: NH,
Low pressure compressor speed: NL,
Fuel temperature,
Instant fuel flow / fuel used: FF / FU,
Oil temperature / Oil pressure: Oil Temp / Press.

The engine ignition system provides a quick light up of the fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber. It comprises two ignition exciters, two ignition leads
and two igniter plugs.
The system is controlled by the ENG START panel. One or both igniters (A / B) can be supplied. The selection is performed by the ENG START selection.

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Engine system cockpit panels

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Engine Interfaces

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Engine Features

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Engine system safety and precautions

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Power plant description

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Fuel and Oil systems

USABLE FUEL The total quantity of fuel usable in each tank is 2500 kg (5510 lbs). Note : 2250 kg(4960 lbs) for an ATR 42-500 .
The pressure for refueling cannot exceed 3.5 bars maximum.
Only approved fuel can be used on this aircraft. A chart shows the acceptable fuel and their characteristics.
The maximum concentration allowed for approved fuel anti-icing additives is 0.15 % per volume:
Phillips PFA 55 MB
AMI-I-27 686 D.
Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether as defined in MIL-I-27686 E.

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The oil system capacity is 17.39 kg (38.3 lbs).


Over a 10 hour period, the maximum oil consumption does not exceed 0.5 lb/hr (approx.: 250 cc/hr).
Only approved oils of the same type brand can be used for engine oil servicing. Here is the list of the various approved oils:
Aero Shell Turbine Oil 500
Aero Shell Turbine Oil 560
Royco Turbine Oil 500
Royco Turbine Oil 560
Mobil Jet Oil II
Mobil Jet Oil 254
Castrol 4000
Castrol 5000
Exxon Turbo Oil 2380

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Engine mounts

For each engine, the rear mount is secured to the wing front spar, at RIB 11 on spar upper surface and RIBS 10 and 12 on spar lower surface.
The mount lower section is attached to the underwing box.
An engine mount is a truss structure composed of titanium tubes welded onto V-shaped fittings.
The three front fittings comprise the engine-mount forward fittings.
The four rear fittings enable attachment of the front mount to the rear mount through the intermediate frame.

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For each engine, the engine-mount connection is provided by a flexible attachement system comprised of:
2 forward lateral shockmounts,
1 forward upper shockmount,
2 aft lateral shockmounts.
The 5 shockmounts ensure the suspension and the damping of the engine on its mounts.
The forward lateral shockmounts are composed of a support attached to the engine and two elastomer elements. The elatomers are secured by means of
screws in the center of which the mount attachment bolt is recessed.
The forward upper shockmount is composed of a support attached to the engine and two elastomer elements. The elastomers are secured by means of
screws in the center of which the mount attachment bolt is recessed.
The aft lateral shockmounts are composed of a support attached to the engine and comprising a canister in the center of which the mount attachment bolt
is recessed.
This canister comprises two elastomer elements.

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A torque compensation system is used on the engine to limit its angular rotation.
The system is mainly composed of a torque tube linked to the engine mounts and fixed to the engine through two bearings.
The torque tube is associated to two rods via two levers.

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Engine cowls

The nacelle is designed to transmit the forces induced by the power plant. It supports the engine and related equipment.
Nacelle consists of:
Engine lateral cowls for maintenance tasks,
Removable fairings for easy maintenance and engine removal,
A main frame (under wing box) and fairing assembly.

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Two opening cowls hinged by curved fittings on a longitudinal support beam attached between the mount forward upper fitting and the intermediate frame.
Cowl locking is provided by quick fasteners of the "COWL CLOSED" type and each cowl opens from bottom to top.
The travel of each cowl is limited by a telescopic rod. Cowl sealing is achieved by seal with integral retaining heads.
The structure of the cowls is made of carbon-Nomex sandwich panel covered with bronzemesh film on the external face.

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The removable fairings are the seven following panels. Click on each for more information.
The rear side cowls are attached by quarter-turn screws. They are made of Carbon-Nomex sandwich panel covered with a bronzemesh film on the
external face. A titanium band reinforces the internal face.
The central beam is on the upper area of the nacelle. It is between the two lateral cowls.
The rear upper cowl is bolted to the structure. It is made of Kevlar-Nomex sandwich panel. The inside and the outside of the panel are covered with a film
of Alutisse (alumesh).
The front upper cowl is bolted to the structure. It is made of light alloy 2024 panel. The outer face is covered with a bronzemesh film.
The engine air intake is bolted to the rest of the cowl by means of a stainless titanium frame. It is made of monolithic Kevlar covered with alumesh.
The air intake cowl is bolted to the front mount and intermediate frame. The air intake cowl is a Carbon-Nomex sandwich structure which is supported by a
titanium sub-structure. The assembly is covered on the outer with a bronzemesh film.

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The underwing box located on the nacelle rear section consists of three elements:
A stressed structure formed by a stiffened box structure made of light alloy and bolted to a formed section secured to wing lower section,
A lower fairing bolted to the structure and made of Kevlar-Nomex sandwich panels,
An aft fairing bolted to the structure and made of Kelvar-Nomex sandwich panels.
The underwing box receives the forces transmitted by the lower trusses of the rear mount and provides an aerodynamic profile to the nacelle rear section.

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Fire seals

A fire wall located above the combustion chamber is designed to avoid fire to go under the wing.

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A hole in the curved upper section of the fire wall enables to go through the engine air bleed duct.
A hole, blanked by a plate, enables access to the engine aft hoisting point.
Continuity of the fire wall delimiting the engine fire zone is ensured by:
The upper part of the intermediate frame,
The median sections of the frame,
The internal wall of the exhaust pipe.

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Engine exhaust

The engine exhaust system consists of two parts: the jet pipe and the exhaust pipe.
These pipes are located between the back of the engine and the box under wing.

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The jet pipe is attached to the engine by a flange with 24 bolts. It is made of Inconel 625 and designed to obtain the optimum engine jet thrust.
The exhaust pipe serves for the evacuation of the burnt gases and of the engine ventilation air flow. It is heat insulated so as to limit temperature rise
outside the nozzle.
The nozzle is designed to resist to accoustic vibration to 130 dB without damage . The exhaust pipe inner skin is manufactured from a fireproof material.

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Engine electrical harness

ELECTRICAL HARNESS:
The electrical system provides the aircraft and engine components with the power necessary to supply:
the control systems,
the indicating systems,
the transmission of electrical signals generated by the various sensors.
There are two groups of harness:
the engine harness,
the harness associated with the mount.

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ENGINE ELECTRICAL HARNESS:


The engine electrical harness comprises several different routes, it distributes the electrical power as follows:
Route M: various systems like engine ignition control, low pitch indication.
Route M/A: route minimising the routing in the area with high probability risk of engine bursting.
Route S: sensitive circuit like oil temperature indication, torque indication.
Route P: power circuit like feathering electro-pump, propeller de-icing.
Route G/A: feeders and AC generator energization.

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MOUNT ELECTRICAL HARNESS:


The mount electrical comprises different routes, it distributes the electrical power as follows:
Route M: various systems like air intake de-icing control, propeller brake.
Route S: sensitive circuit like engine fire detection, PVM electrical connections.
Route S/A: route minimising the routing in the area with high probability risk of turbine bursting.
Route M/A: route running out of the area with high probability risk of turbine bursting.
Route G/C: feeders and AC generator energization.

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Engine drains

The drain system is composed of lines collecting fluids (oil, fuel) from the engine accessories and interfaces, and routing them outboard. Most of drains
discharge the fluids directly overboard through the manifold and then through the drain mast.
The oil is discharged separately from the fuel.
The engine/accessory interfaces and the propeller brake are drained up to the drain manifold. The oil is then discharged out of the nacelle, separately
from the fuel.
The engine draining points and the fuel line shroud drainage (located above the firewall) allow discharging the leaks outboard of nacelle either, depending
on configuration, directly or through drain manifold and drain mast assembly.

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At engine shutdown, the fuel from the nozzle manifolds is drained towards the ecological drain tank and re-introduced in the engine supply system (after
the fuel heater). The ecological fuel tank overflow is discharged outboard of nacelle either, depending on configuration, directly or through the drain mast.

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The engine draining points and the fuel line shroud drainage (located above the firewal) are connected to the drain manifold then to the drain mast to
discharge the leaks outboard when necessary.

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Note: All the vertical webs in the lower cowl are designed to allow fluid flow toward ports located in cowl lower points.

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Engine description and storage

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Engine handling is performed by brackets attached to the RGB and to the gas generator rear flange.
Engine has the capability of being installed with or without propeller.

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STORAGE
To avoid engine corrosion damage, two cases of storage are envisaged:
Engine stored ON the aircraft.
Engine stored OFF the aircraft.
The duration of storage can be shared in 4 periods:
From 0 to 7 days.
From 8 to 28 days.
From 29 to 90 days.
Above 90 days.

ENGINE ON AIRCRAFT
From 0 to 7 days:
Seal off all openings to engine.
From 8 to 28 days:
Tank and reduction gear box oil analysis to verify if acidity and water content. Discarded if out of the norm.
Seal off all openings to engine.
Engine must run at least one time every 7 days until oil temperature reaches 70C minimum.

ENGINE OFF AIRCRAFT


From 0 to 7 days:
Seal off all openings to engine.
Store engine in a sheltered location.
From 8 to 28 days:
Place 500 gr of desiccant on wooden racks in exhaust duct.
Seal off all openings to engine.
Store engine in a sheltered location.

ENGINE ON OR OFF AIRCRAFT


From 29 to 90 days:
Preserve fuel system.
Preserve oil system.
Place 500 gr of desiccant and humidity indicator on wooden racks in engine exhaust duct.
Seal off all openings to engine.

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Ensure window is provided in exhaust duct closure to facilitate observations of humidity indicator.
Over 90 days:
Wash engine external.
Carry out a visual inspection.
Apply anti-corrosion fluid inhibitor to engine external surfaces.
Preserve fuel system.
Preserve oil system.
Desiccant and humidity indicator on wooden racks in Tail pipe.
Seal off all openings to engine.
Ensure window is provided in exhaust duct closure to facilitate observations of humidity indicator.
Spray exposed accessories drive path with engine oil and protect with shipping covers.

ENGINE ON AIRCRAFT
If over 90 days and indeterminate (Alternate procedure):
Tank and reduction gear box oil analysis to verify if acidity and water content. Discarded if out of the norm.
Seal off all openings to engine.
Engine must run at least one time every 7 days until oil temperature reaches 70C minimum Wash engine external.
Every 30 days carry out oil analysis and visual inspection of the engine external (corrosion) Spray exposed accessories drive path with engine oil
and protect with shipping covers.
Reference: from Pratt & Whitney Canada Maintenance manual 72-00-00 Engine servicing.

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Air inlet section

The air inlet section consists of the front inlet case and the rear inlet case bolted together at flange C. The front air inlet case is bolted to the RGB at flange
B.
The front inlet case has the Engine Electronic Control (EEC) and the Autofeather Unit (AFU) mounted on the left side. The engine oil tank is an integral
part of the rear inlet case.

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Compressor section and Accessory GearBox (AGB)

The compressor section comprises the low pressure (LP) and high pressure (HP) independent centrifugal compressors.
These are contained within the LP diffuser case (flange D to E), the intercompressor case (flange E to F) and the front of the gas generator case (flange F
to K).

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Each compressor (LP & HP) is supported by two bearings: a ball bearing and a roller bearing.
From the HP shaft, an inclined bevel gear shaft transmits drive to the Accessory Gear Box (AGB). The Accessory Gear Box contains drives for:
Oil centrifugal breather impeller (de-oil the pressurized air coming from the bearing cavities),
Starter / generator (DC),
Fuel HP pump,
Oil pump pressure and scavenge pumps (RH side).

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Combustion section

The combustion chamber is an annular reverse-flow design, which permits to increase gas ejection speed. The combustion chamber is contained in the
gas generator case.
The fuel manifold is mounted around the exterior of the gas generator case, with 14 spray nozzles which protrude into the combustion chamber liner. Two
igniter plug bosses are provided on the gas generator case, with corresponding bosses in the liner.
Note: The gas generator case incorporates a bleed adapter, which supplies P3 air for off-engine use.

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Turbine section

The turbine section is composed of:


two axial turbine stages (LP & HP),
two axial free turbine stages.
The LP and HP pressure stages drive the low and high pressure compressors. The high pressure stage incorporates a cooled vane ring and cooled
blades permitting an increase in turbine inlet temperature.
The two axial free turbine stages drive the reduction gear box (RGB) through the powershaft. It is supported by 2 bearings: a ball bearing and a roller
bearing.

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Pressure and temperature station

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Boroscope ports description

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Reduction GearBox (RGB) description

The engine two-stage power turbine provides the drive for the Reduction Gear Box (RGB). On the LH side, the components installed on the RGB are the
following:
ACW generator,
propeller brake (on right engine only).

On the RH side, the components installed on the RGB are the following:
the electric feathering pump,
the overspeed governor and HP pump,
the Propeller Valve Module (PVM).

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When the engine turns, the power turbine drives the helical input gearshaft clockwise.
The input gearshaft engages with the first stage helical gears which turns counterclockwise.
The two second stage gears drive the single large second stage gear clockwise and then the propeller shaft, the idle drive gearshaft and the HP pump-
overspeed governor gearshaft.

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Engine controls description

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The power controls of each engine is composed of:


the power levers (PL),
and the conditions levers (CL).
The power levers (PL) are located on the centre pedestal. They control the fuel flows from maximum power (MAX PWR) to reverse (REV) position through
HMU and the EEC. They also act on the propeller blade pitch through the Propeller Valve Module (PVM) and the Propeller Electronic Control (PEC).
The conditions lever (CL) are located on the centre pedestal. They enable the automatic propeller regulation through the PEC, control the propeller
feathering by activating the feather solenoid in the Propeller Valve Module (PVM) and the fuel Shut-Off valve in the HMU.
Each Power Lever is connected to the HMU and through the power control lever rod to the PVM for propeller operation.
The HP fuel shut-off rod connected to the PVM lever is controlled by the Condition Lever.
The Power Lever (PL) positions are the following:
Max Reverse (MAX REV),
Ground Idle (GI),
Flight Idle (FI),
Take-off (TO) on white mark,
Max Power (MAX PWR).
Power levers displacement above Flight Idle position is not possible when the gust lock lever is set on.
The Condition Lever positions are the following:
Fuel shut-off (FUEL SO),
Feather position (FTR),
AUTO position (which allows propeller speed selection through the Power Management (PWR MGT) selector position),
100% Override (OVRD).

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PL and CL actuated microswitches operation

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Power and Condition Levers positions are transmitted to the aircraft systems through microswitches unit installed under the pedestal.
HP air bleed valve opening control:..............................................................................OPEN Landing gear not down
warning:......................................................................CLOSED Low pitch stop retraction and reset of the OVSPD governor to 118%
Np:...................................................OPEN Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 1 T.O. configuration:............................................................CLOSED
Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 2 T.O. configuration:............................................................CLOSED Auto switching to manual mode when
E.E.C failed:...........................................................................CLOSED 100% Np control:........................................................................CLOSED
HP air bleed valve opening control:..............................................................................OPEN Landing gear not down
warning:......................................................................CLOSED Low pitch stop retraction and reset of the OVSPD governor to 118%
Np:...................................................OPEN Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 1 T.O. configuration:............................................................CLOSED
Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 2 T.O. configuration:............................................................CLOSED Auto switching to manual mode when
E.E.C failed:...........................................................................CLOSED 100% Np control:..............................................................................OPEN
HP air bleed valve opening control:..............................................................................OPEN Landing gear not down
warning:......................................................................CLOSED Low pitch stop retraction and reset of the OVSPD governor to 118%
Np:...................................................OPEN Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 1 T.O. configuration:............................................................CLOSED
Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 2 T.O. configuration:............................................................CLOSED Auto switching to manual mode when
E.E.C failed:.................................................................................OPEN 100% Np control:..............................................................................OPEN
HP air bleed valve opening control:..............................................................................OPEN Landing gear not down
warning:............................................................................OPEN Low pitch stop retraction and reset of the OVSPD governor to 118%
Np:...................................................OPEN Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 1 T.O. configuration:..................................................................OPEN
Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 2 T.O. configuration:..................................................................OPEN Auto switching to manual mode when
E.E.C failed:.................................................................................OPEN 100% Np control:..............................................................................OPEN
HP air bleed valve opening control:........................................................................CLOSED Landing gear not down
warning:............................................................................OPEN Low pitch stop retraction and reset of the OVSPD governor to 118%
Np:...................................................OPEN Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 1 T.O. configuration:..................................................................OPEN
Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 2 T.O. configuration:..................................................................OPEN Auto switching to manual mode when
E.E.C failed:.................................................................................OPEN 100% Np control:..............................................................................OPEN
HP air bleed valve opening control:........................................................................CLOSED Landing gear not down
warning:............................................................................OPEN Low pitch stop retraction and reset of the OVSPD governor to 118%
Np:..............................................CLOSED Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 1 T.O. configuration:..................................................................OPEN
Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 2 T.O. configuration:..................................................................OPEN Auto switching to manual mode when
E.E.C failed:.................................................................................OPEN 100% Np control:..............................................................................OPEN
HP air bleed valve opening control:..............................................................................OPEN Landing gear not down
warning:............................................................................OPEN Low pitch stop retraction and reset of the OVSPD governor to 118%
Np:..............................................CLOSED Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 1 T.O. configuration:..................................................................OPEN
Armament signal "ATPCS" system engine 2 T.O. configuration:..................................................................OPEN Auto switching to manual mode when
E.E.C failed:.................................................................................OPEN 100% Np control:..............................................................................OPEN
"FUEL" SO warning extension:.........................................................................OPEN Feather solenoid in the

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ATA 70 PL and CL actuated microswitches operation Page 78/ 259

PVM:...................................................................................OPEN Np governing cancel (EEC):................................................................................OPEN


Feathering control signal (to PEC):..................................................................................OPEN 100%
Override:...........................................................................OPEN
"FUEL" SO warning extension:.........................................................................OPEN Feather solenoid in the
PVM:...................................................................................OPEN Np governing cancel (EEC):................................................................................OPEN
Feathering control signal (to PEC):..................................................................................OPEN 100%
Override:......................................................................CLOSED
"FUEL" SO warning extension:.........................................................................OPEN Feather solenoid in the
PVM:...................................................................................OPEN Np governing cancel (EEC):................................................................................OPEN
Feathering control signal (to PEC):..................................................................................OPEN 100%
Override:......................................................................CLOSED
"FUEL" SO warning extension:.........................................................................OPEN Feather solenoid in the
PVM:...................................................................................OPEN Np governing cancel (EEC):...........................................................................CLOSED
Feathering control signal (to PEC):..................................................................................OPEN 100%
Override:......................................................................CLOSED
"FUEL" SO warning extension:.........................................................................OPEN Feather solenoid in the
PVM:.............................................................................CLOSED Np governing cancel (EEC):...........................................................................CLOSED
Feathering control signal (to PEC):............................................................................CLOSED 100%
Override:......................................................................CLOSED
"FUEL" SO warning extension:...................................................................CLOSED Feather solenoid in the
PVM:.............................................................................CLOSED Np governing cancel (EEC):...........................................................................CLOSED
Feathering control signal (to PEC):............................................................................CLOSED 100%
Override:......................................................................CLOSED

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Cable routing description

The Power Levers are linked to a microswitch unit.


The microswitches transmit signals to the various systems according to the angular position of the Power and Condition Levers.
A push pull cable connects the Power Lever to a cable quadrant located close to the electronic racks.
Cables are routed on the upper fuselage towards wing through a bulkhead connector to a wing cable quadrant.

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ATA 70 HP fuel shut-off valve description Page 82/ 259
HP fuel shut-off valve description

The HP fuel shut-off valve is integral with the HMU.


The Condition Lever passing through the Propeller Valve Module (PVM) is connected by a rod to the HMU to the Fuel Shut-Off Valve.

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ATA 70 HP fuel shut-off valve description Page 83/ 259

When the Condition Lever is in FSO position:


Fuel Shut-Off valve is closed,
the FUEL SO fire warning light integral with the Condition Lever is deactivated,
feather pump is deactivated.
Note: to set the CL out of FTR or FUEL SO, it is necessary to pull the trigger on the lever.

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ATA 70 Gust lock description Page 84/ 259
Gust lock description

The gust lock lever is located on the pedestal, between the two Power Levers (PL).

V7026 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Gust lock description Page 85/ 259

The Gust lock lever is used to:


On ground, ensure protection of the flight controls (ailerons and elevators) against gusts of wind, and it limits the Power Levers dispacement above
Flight Idle (FI).
In "OFF" position, the flight controls (ailerons / elevators) are free as well as the Power Levers.

V7026 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Idle gate description Page 86/ 259
Idle gate description

The Idle gate lever is located on the pedestal panel, between the two Power Levers (PL).

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ATA 70 Idle gate description Page 87/ 259

The Idle gate function is used to prevent Power Lever (PL) angle reduction below Flight Idle (FI), in flight as soon as both landing gear absorbers are
released.
Note: this gate is automatically inhibited, at landing, as soon as one main landing gear shock absorber is compressed.

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ATA 70 Idle gate description Page 88/ 259

In case of Idle gate system failure, the idle gate does not automatically engage in flight or does not automatically retract at landing, the "IDLE GATE FAIL"
light illuminates in amber and the CCAS is acticated.
An Idle gate lever allows manual override:
in flight: push, an amber light appears,
on ground: pull, an amber light appears.

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ATA 70 Idle gate operation and schematics Page 89/ 259
Idle gate operation and schematics

In flight, the idle gate is de-energized and prevents the power lever to be selected inadvertently below "FI" (Flight Idle).
At take-off, when airborne, an idle gate failure (disagree between the aircraft configuration and gate status) will be identified by the single chime, caution,
IDLE GATE on the crew alerting panel and IDLE GATE FAIL on the control pedestal.
At landing, the trigger is lifted and the idle gate solenoid is energized by the ground/flight logic allowing the power lever to be moved back to reverse.
Note: on case of failure, the knob will be pulled manually overriding the logic.

V7028 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Engine fuel and control description Page 90/ 259
Engine fuel and control description

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ATA 70 Engine fuel and control description Page 91/ 259

The engine fuel system enables delivery of a fuel flow corresponding to the Power Lever position and compatible with the engine operating limits. The
engine fuel system consits of:
The fuel filter / heater assembly supplies the engine HP pump with clean heated fuel to prevent icing. A fuel heater outlet temperature indicator is
provided.
The fuel flows through the HP fuel pump which supplies the Hydromechanical Unit (HMU). It is equipped with a filter and a bypass valve.
The HMU has two functions:
- to meter the fuel flow delivery to the engine,
- to provide the HP motive flow required by the fuel tank jet pump. The HMU acts with the Engine Electronic Control (EEC).
A fuel flow / fuel used (FF / FU) indicator is installed on the centre instrument panel.
The fuel cooled oil cooler (FCOC) provides cooling of the RGB lubricating oil by using fuel as cooling source.
The flow divider schedules the metered fuel between the primary and secondary fuel manifolds.
The ecological tank collects fuel at engine shutdown. This fuel is returned to engine fuel pump inlet at next engine starting, thus eliminating fuel loss
and pollution.

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ATA 70 Engine fuel and control cockpit location Page 92/ 259
Engine fuel and control cockpit location

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ATA 70 Fuel filter / heater description Page 94/ 259
Fuel filter / heater description

The fuel filter / heater is located on the left side of the engine just above the oil pressure filter.

V7032 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Fuel filter / heater description Page 95/ 259

The fuel filter / heater unit includes:


a filter with an independing bypass valve,
a fuel heater (fuel / oil exancher).
Note : a fuel temperature sensor is located at filter / heater unit outlet.

V7032 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Fuel pump description Page 96/ 259
Fuel pump description

The fuel pump is located behind the HMU.

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ATA 70 Fuel pump description Page 97/ 259

The fuel pump assembly is composed of:


a 74 micron filter located before the gear pump,
a pump, spur gear type,
a 10 micron filter located at high pressure fuel pump outlet. It contains a bypass valve (open at 45 PSI) and a pressure switch indicating clogging
which triggers "FUEL CLOG" caution light.

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ATA 70 HMU (HydroMechanical Unit) description Page 98/ 259
HMU (HydroMechanical Unit) description

The HMU (Hydromechanical Unit) is mounted on the fuel pump.

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ATA 70 HMU (HydroMechanical Unit) description Page 101/ 259

The fuel control is provided by the HMU. It provides the required fuel quantity to the nozzles.
The computation of the fuel quantity supplied to the fuel nozzles is made by the HMU. HMU computation parameters are the following:
The fuel enters the HMU from the HP pump with a constant flow. This flow is split by the bypass valve into three flows, two bypass return flow to the pump
and to the motive flow valve, and one for the nozzles (via the metering valve).
The metering valve is pneumatically actuated; in the pneumatic servo block, the reference pressure is P3 (HP compressor outlet pressure).
A controlled reduction of P3 pressure results in a variable PY pressure which, when opposed to a bellow device moves the piston of the metering valve.
The EEC controls a stepper motor located in the HMU. The stepper motor regulates PY pressure for modulating fuel flow as requested (electronic mode).
The pneumatic servo block is also managed by the Power Lever input (manual mode). A Rotary Variable Differential Transducer (RVDT) transmits Power
Lever position (PLA) to EEC.
The HMU is also mechanically connected to the Condition Lever through the PVM for the Fuel Shutt-Off (FSO) function.
The HMU supplies the motive flow valve which is installed on the wing forward spar, and through it, the engine feed jet pump located in the fuel feeder
tank.

V7035 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Electronic Engine Control (EEC) description Page 102/ 259
Electronic Engine Control (EEC) description

The Engine Electronic Control (EEC) is located on the left side of the engine.
In normal operation, the fuel control is managed by the Engine Electronic Control (EEC).
Two modes are available:
EEC mode,
manual mode.
The EEC Processes several inputs which are compared with reference data stored in its memory. From these, commands are generated and transmitted
to the stepper motor in the HMU to adjust fuel flow in order to obtain the required NH and power. EEC supply is 28 VDC BUS 1, BUS 2 and EMER BUS.

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Electronic Engine Control (EEC) operation

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ATA 70 Electronic Engine Control (EEC) operation Page 105/ 259

The normal operating mode is the EEC mode. the EEC inputs are the following:
28 VDC: electrical power supply,
NH1 and NH2: signals from speed pick-ups,
NP and TQ2: signals from torque sensor n2 which uses both coils,
TQ2: torque shaft environment temperature,
PLA: signals from the RVDT in the HMU,
T1.8:signals from probe on the rear inlet case,
P amb: ambient pressure in the nacelle, used in case of loss of ADC information.
PWR MGT selector position (TO, MCT, CLB, CRZ),
EEC switch,
ENG TRIM switches: used to electronically trim the engine or to reset the EEC memory,
Status of engine bleed valves,
Np fuel governing cancel signal from Condition Lever FTR position,
Uptrim signal from the AFU of opposite engine in case of engine failure,
ADC: provides EEC with ambiant temperature, altitude and indicated air speed as primary inputs (engine sensors will be used as back-ups),
ADC switch: selection of ADC data to both EECs,
Prop brake ON signal to increase NH for hotel mode operation.

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ATA 70 Electronic Engine Control (EEC) operation Page 106/ 259

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ATA 70 Electronic Engine Control (EEC) operation Page 107/ 259

The EEC outputs are the following:


Torque: signal sent to torque indicator (digital) to show the amount of torque being produced by engine (for this indication, both coils of TQ2 sensor
are used),
Stepper motor: signal sent to stepper motor in the HMU to vary Py in order to change fuel flow,
Fail fix: signal to freeze stepper motor when EEC fails, in order to keep the power steady,
Np governing cancel: signal to stepper motor to reduce fuel flow when condition lever is set to FTR or propeller brake is locked or ATPCS activated,
Handling bleed valve (HBV): signal sent to the servo valve of the HBV to vary P2.5 bleed,
Fault latch: Bite loaded on MFC maintenance panel, indicating that a fault has been detected,
Uptrim function (and uptrim light): fuel flow increases, through the stepper motor, following a failure of the opposite engine,
Fault codes are stored in the EEC memory. They are shown by means of the MCDU and indicates the suspected line replaceable unit failure,
Auto relight when NH < 60%,
Digital signal to PEC (IAS and Alt. pressure).

V70C8 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 EEC trim / LRU switches description Page 108/ 259
EEC trim / LRU switches description

Engine trim / LRU switches are located on the right maintenance panel.

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ATA 70 EEC trim / LRU switches description Page 109/ 259

EEC internal faults and engine line replaceable units faults are stored in the EEC memory.
Fault codes are displayed through the MCDU.
Once a fault is detected, the EEC will send a fault latch signal to the MFC, as a result, the BITE LOADED on the MFC maintenance panel will turn yellow.
If the fault detected is of a such magnitude as to seriously affect accurate control of the engine, the EEC will cease control and will generate a FAIL FIX
signal. The stepper motor in the HMU will freeze fuel control, EEC 1/2 fault legend flashes amber and the CCAS is activated.

V70C9 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 EEC trim / LRU switches operation Page 110/ 259
EEC trim / LRU switches operation

V70D1 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 EEC trim / LRU switches operation Page 111/ 259

Conditions before trim:


The A/C must be on ground with engines not running.
Power lever in "GI" position.
EEC pb selected (No fault / no off).
PEC pb selected (No fault / no off).
Place ENG / EEC / PEC selector in EEC position.
On MCDU, select "Maintenance" submenu then "PEC / EEC".
Verify that the PEC's are not selected, then select "Trim EEC1".
Note: FDEP code on MCDU could be change depend on A/C version.
Execute actions displayed on the MCDU :
Press bleed pb in off position (off legend is on).
Make certain power MGT is in TO position.
Read on MCDU the FDEP code 0003.
Place power lever 1 in "TO" position.
Read on MCDU the FDEP code 0043.
Place selector switch in "TRIM" position during more than 5 seconds.
Read on MCDU the FDEP code 0443.
TRIM sequence is then initiated and runs automatically.
TRIM is OK.
Execute actions displayed on the MCDU :
Release TRIM switch. After about 15 sec.
Read on MCDU the FDEP code 4043.
Place Power Lever on "GI" position.
Read on MCDU the FDEP code 4003.
The TRIM EEC procedure is completed.
Replace ENG/EEC/PEC selector in neutral position.
On MCDU return to the MPC.

V70D1 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 EEC ARNIC data base switch description Page 112/ 259
EEC ARNIC data base switch description

EEC Arinc data bus plug and switch are located on the right maintenance panel (702VU).

V7041 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 EEC ARNIC data base switch description Page 113/ 259

EEC Arinc data bus permits to load engine 1 or engine 2 EEC data through the bus plug connected to engine 1 or engine 2 using the switch.

V7041 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Flow meter and use indicator Page 114/ 259
Flow meter and use indicator

The flow meter is located on the RH side of the engine.

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ATA 70 Flow meter and use indicator Page 115/ 259

The flow meter or fuel flow transmitter does not use any electrical power. The maximum flow across this transmitter is 700 kg/h.
The transmitter is a turbine type. At each rotation, one permanent magnet mounted on the rotor and on the turbine passes in front of a coil and generates
one pulse. The fuel flow meter is measured and transmitted to the indicator. The indicator processes pulses and capacity and supplies both fuel flow
pointer and fuel used.

V7047 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 FCOC (fuel cooled oil cooler) description Page 116/ 259
FCOC (fuel cooled oil cooler) description

V7048 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 FCOC (fuel cooled oil cooler) description Page 117/ 259

The Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler cools the propeller Reduction Gearbox lubrication oil.

V7048 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Flow divider / dump valve description Page 118/ 259
Flow divider / dump valve description

The flow divider valve and dump valve are mounted on the fuel inlet manifold adapter located at the 6 o'clock position on the core case.

V7050 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Flow divider / dump valve description Page 119/ 259

The flow divider valve schedules the metered fuel, from the HMU, between the primary and secondary fuel manifolds as a function of primary manifold
pressure.

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ATA 70 Fuel nozzle Page 120/ 259
Fuel nozzle

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ATA 70 Fuel nozzle Page 121/ 259

14 fuel manifold adapters and nozzles are mounted all around the gas generator case. They are connected to the primary manifolds and secondary
manifolds.
There are 10 nozzles connected both to the primary manifold and to the secondary manifold.
4 nozzles are only connected to the secondary manifold.
10 nozzles have a fine hole for primary fuel flow and an annular orifice for secondary flow.
4 nozzles have no center hole and are equipped for secondary flow only.

V7052 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Fuel drain tank Page 122/ 259
Fuel drain tank

The fuel drain tank is installed below the engine in the bottom structure.

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ATA 70 Fuel drain tank Page 123/ 259

At shut down, fuel is returned to the drain tank from the flow divider / dump valve. Fuel in the tank lifts the float and unseats the float valve from the orifice.
At the next start, fuel from the HMU flows through the ejector pump.
The venturi effect of the ejector pump creates a pressure drop. This unseats the non-return valve and draws the fuel from the drain tank back to the fuel
heater.
When the drain tank is empty, the float valve drops and closes the orifice. The non-return valve will prevent fuel from filling the drain tank through the float
orifice when the engine is not running.

V7053 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 FF/FU indicator description Page 124/ 259
FF/FU indicator description

The dual FF/FU indicator is located on the center instrument panel (4VU).
The FF/FU indicator is composed of:
A pointer which indicates the engine mass fuel flow. This scale is graduated in kg/h x 100.
A FU counter. On the digital read out, fuel used is indicated in kg. This value is computed by integration of the fuel flow parameters.
A FU reset knob. The fuel used counter is reset to zero by pulling associated reset knob.
Note: In case of failure (internal failure of the indicator power supply loss), all the digits will move out of view and the pointer will be back under zero.
The FF/FU indicator shows fuel flow and fuel used metered through the flow meter, in HMU output.

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ATA 70 Fuel clog indicator description Page 126/ 259
Fuel clog indicator description

Fuel clog caution lights are located on the upper centre instrument panel.
A 10 filter embodying a clogging bypass is installed at pump outlet.
For each engine, a fuel clog indicator permits to indicate if the fuel pump filter is clogged.

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ATA 70 Fuel clog indicator description Page 127/ 259

A fuel clog light illuminates when the pressure switch on the fuel pump outlet filter detects a pressure of 25 PSI.

V7056 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Fuel temperature indicator description Page 128/ 259
Fuel temperature indicator description

The fuel temperature indicators are located on the centre instrument panel.
The fuel temperature sensor is located on the left side of the engine.

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ATA 70 Fuel temperature indicator description Page 129/ 259

The fuel temperature indicator receives the fuel temperature sensor signal, processes pulses and supplies fuel temperature indicating pointer.
The indicator comprises three sectors:
yellow sector, from -54C to 0C,
green sector, from 0C to 50C,
yellow sector, from 50C to 57C,
the red dash begin from -54C and from +57C.

V7058 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Engine oil system description Page 130/ 259
Engine oil system description

V7061 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Engine oil system description Page 131/ 259

The oil system is a self-contained system which supplies oil to the turbomachinery (bearings, accessory gearbox), the propeller reduction gearbox (RGB),
and the propeller accessories (PVM, Overspeed Governor, feathering pump,...).
The system keeps the oil at the temperature and pressure enabling the correct lubrication of each element in engine operating conditions.
The oil is stored in the oil tank which is integral with the air inlet casing and situated below the engine centre line. The oil tank capacity is 14 liters (3.75 US
gal.)
A gear pump driven by the accessory gearbox (AGB) supplies oil cooler (ACOC) fitted with a bypass for low temperature.
A pressure relief valve returns oil to the tank to prevent a pressure surge when starting is performed with cold outside temperature.
From the ACOC the oil flows to the pressure regulating valve.
The valve maintains a constant oil pressure in relation with the air pressure in n3 and n4 bearing cavity and oil pressure taken from a tapping in the line
to n6 and n7 bearings. If the oil pressure overcomes air pressure, the valve opens and connects the pressure line to the return line, this to maintain a p
of 60 +/- 6 PSI above reference cavity pressure with NH > 75%.
From the ACOC the oil flows to the pressure filter. It is fitted with a bypass in case of clogging to ensure adequate flow.
From the filter, the oil flows in two directions:
to the fuel heater and to the fuel cooler (FCOC), then to the reduction gearbox,
to the check valve housing.
Inside the gearbox, the oil flows into an internal oil cavity (or auxiliary oil tank) which is pressurized and always full.
The oil flows from the tank to the electric feather pump and to the overspeed governor and HP pump assembly. Oil from the internal oil cavity is also
distributed to the reduction geartrain and bearings.
In the check valve housing, the oil flows in two directions:
one part goes through a passage in the housing wall to the n1 and n2 bearing cavity and to the accessory gearbox,
the other part goes through the check valve which prevents major oil leakage, while internal pressures are not built up.
As soon as the pressure reaches 46 PSI (NH rotor speed equal 25 to 30%), the check valve opens and oil flows to the n 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 bearing cavities.
Oil is scavenged from the reduction gearbox accessories, gears and bearings drains into a cavity fitted with a chip detector in the bottom of the Reduction
GearBox. The oil flows, to the scavenge pump then through the scavenge filter which is fitted with a bypass in case of clogging, and then to the tank.
Oil from the accessory casing and n1 bearing cavity is scavenged by gravity. The n2 bearing cavity oil is scavenged through a venturi by gravity aided
by oil pressure.
Oil from the n3, 4 and 5 bearing cavities is scavenged by gravity and assisted by air (blowdown). The n6 and 7 bearing cavity oil flows through a
scavenge pump to the tank.
Oil is cooled by the Air Cooled Oil Cooler (ACOC). A thermal actuator controls the oil cooler flaps. Flaps are closed when oil temperature is lower than
71C. When flaps are closed, a cut out in the front of the flaps allows airflow in the engine air intake bypass duct.
In hotel mode, the airflow is inverted. The thermal actuator opens the oil coller flaps. The airflow passes through the ACOC and goes in the LP
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ATA 70 Engine oil system description Page 132/ 259

compressor.

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Main oil tank description

The oil tank is located behind the turbomachinery air intake and situated below the engine centre line.

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ATA 70 Main oil tank description Page 135/ 259

The oil tank capacity is 14 liters (3.75 US gal.).

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ATA 70 Oil pump pack description Page 136/ 259
Oil pump pack description

The oil pump pack is located on the right side of the engine. The pack comprises a pressure pump and two scavenge pumps.

V7064 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Oil pump pack description Page 137/ 259

A gear pump is driven by the AGB. A pressure relief valve returns oil to the tank to prevent a pressure surge during cold starting.

V7064 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Pressure relief valve description Page 138/ 259
Pressure relief valve description

The pressure relief valve is located on the oil pump pack, on the right side of the engine.

V7065 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Pressure relief valve description Page 139/ 259

The pressure relief valve prevents pressure surge during engine starting at low outside air temperature.
It opens at 260 PSI permitting to the oil to flow back to the oil tank.

V7065 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Air Cooled Oil Cooler description Page 140/ 259
Air Cooled Oil Cooler description

The air cooled oil cooler (ACOC) is installed at the aft end of the engine air intake bypass duct and enables regulation of the oil temperature.

V7066 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Air Cooled Oil Cooler description Page 141/ 259

The ACOC is composed of an aluminium alloy casing and a fin block where there is a single passage of the oil and the air in a crossed pattern.
A bypass line controlled by a thermostatic valve enables the direct passage of the oil without crossing the ACOC at low temperature.

V7066 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Flaps system description Page 142/ 259
Flaps system description

The movable flaps are located at the ACOC outlet, in the nacelle contour.
The removable flaps are controlled by a thermal actuator (integral with the ACOC) in contact with the oil outflow.
The flap position (more or less open) depends on the oil temperature. The flaps are completely closed for an oil temperature less or equal to 71C.

V7067 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Flaps system description Page 143/ 259

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ATA 70 Pressure regulating valve description Page 144/ 259
Pressure regulating valve description

The pressure regulating valve is located under the main oil filter engine left hand side.

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ATA 70 Pressure regulating valve description Page 145/ 259

The pressure regulating valve piloted by the air pressure in the transfer gearbox casing regulates oil pressure to ensure satisfactory lubrication of the
bearings.

V7071 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Fuel heater and FCOC (Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler) description Page 146/ 259
Fuel heater and FCOC (Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler) description

The Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler (FCOC) is located on the right upper side of the Reduction Gearbox.
The fuel (filter/) heater is located on the left side of the engine just above the oil pressure filter.

V7072 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Fuel heater and FCOC (Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler) description Page 147/ 259

In the fuel heater (or fuel filter / heater), the heat transfers from oil to fuel.
The Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler (FCOC) cools the propeller reduction gearbox lubrication oil.
For more information, refer to fuel filter / heater and FCOC chapters in fuel engine system.

V7072 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Check valve description Page 148/ 259
Check valve description

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ATA 70 Check valve description Page 149/ 259

The check valve is closed at engine starting.


The check valve prevents major oil leakage while internal pressures are not yet built up. As soon as the pressure reaches 48 PSID, the check valve opens
and all the bearings are lubricated.

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ATA 70 Breater venting system description Page 150/ 259
Breater venting system description

The breather circuit is located on the engine right hand side.

V7074 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Breater venting system description Page 151/ 259

Air used for labyrinth sealing of bearing cavities is vented overboard through the centrifugal breather in the Accessory Gearbox.
The centrifugal breather separates air from oil. Oil is centrifuged outwards and is drained to oil tank. Air is vented through the centre of shaft.

V7074 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Oil pressure transmitter description Page 152/ 259
Oil pressure transmitter description

The oil pressure transmitter is located on the engine right hand side.

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ATA 70 Oil pressure transmitter description Page 153/ 259

The oil transmitter range is from 0 PSI to 90 PSI.


The transmitter signal varies linearly with the oil pressure and is sent to the TEMP/PRESS indicator which converts it into an analog indication and an
alarm signal if the oil pressure drops below 40 PSID.
The alarm signal triggers the red light on the indicator itself. This warning is inhibited when the Condition Lever is set to FSO (Fuel Shut-Off) and for 30
seconds whenever the Condition Lever is set from FSO to FTR (Feather).

V7075 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Low pressure switch description Page 154/ 259
Low pressure switch description

The oil low pressure switch is located on the engine right hand side.

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ATA 70 Low pressure switch description Page 155/ 259

Engine running, when the switch detects a pressure less than 40 PSID, it sends a low pressure signal to the MFC 1(2) which generates the following
warnings:
ENG1 (ENG2) on CAP,
Continuous Repetitive Chime,
WARNING lights.

Above warnings are not generated if the Condition Lever of the engine in low pressure is set to FSO (Fuel Shut-off) or the TAKE-OFF INHIBIT function is
activated and for 30 seconds whenever the Condition Lever is set from FSO to FTR (Feather).

V7076 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Oil temperature sensor description Page 156/ 259
Oil temperature sensor description

The oil temperature sensor is located on the left side of the engine, on a taping upstream of the fuel heater and the check valve housing.

V7077 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Oil temperature sensor description Page 157/ 259

The oil temperature sensor range is from -20C to 140C.


The probe resistance varies linearly with the oil temperature and sends a signal to the TEMP / PRESS indicator which converts it into an analog indication.

V7077 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Pressure/temperature indicator description Page 158/ 259
Pressure/temperature indicator description

The oil indicating system is composed of one dual PRESS / TEMP indicator for each engine with a low pressure warning light.
The oil PRESS / TEMP indicator receives signals from:
an oil temperature sensor located on the left side of the engine, on a tapping upstream of the fuel heater. The indication range is from -40C to
+140C.
an oil pressure transmitter installed on engine right side (lower section). The indication range is between 0 and 90 PSI.
Note: In case of failure of the indicator, the pointers are positioned to -40C for the temperature and 0 PSI for the pressure.
In case of pressure loss, the oil pressure pointer is positioned in low stop and the red light comes on.

V7078 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Engine air system description Page 159/ 259
Engine air system description

Nacelle ventilation:
A correct ventilation is necessary to keep the nacelle temperature within acceptable limits and enable an adequate operation of the engine and
equipments like ACW generator and DC starter / generator which have their own ventilation.

Engine air system:


In addition, air is used for bearing cavities pressurization, engine internal cooling, and aircraft services.

V7080 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Nacelle ventilation description Page 160/ 259
Nacelle ventilation description

Nacelle ventilation is ensured by aerodynamic airflow, propeller airflow and the venturi effect created by engine exhaust gases.
The nacelle is divided in two zones by the fire wall located at the forward end of the engine core case:
Zone 1 is the zone comprising the engine and accessories,
Zone 2 is divided in two sub-zones (2 and 2A) separated by semi-sealed walls.

V7081 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Nacelle ventilation description Page 161/ 259

Zone 1 is the zone comprising the engine, the Reduction GearBox, the equipments and accessories installed on the Accessory GearBox.
The air inlet in this zone is provided by two lateral scoops and one upper scoop.
Cooling and ventilation air outlet is provided at level of engine exhaust by the venturi effect of the engine jet.
The purpose of ventilation, in this zone, is to maintain temperature at 120C.

V7081 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Nacelle ventilation description Page 162/ 259

The ACW generator ventilation is provided by zone 1 air ducted by casing attached to the ACW generator. The air flows from the rear to the front part of
the ACW generator. Air is discharged radially, forward of ACW generator.
The starter / generator ventilation is provided by scoops located on the right side cowl.

V7081 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Nacelle ventilation description Page 163/ 259

To avoid temperature increasing in zone 1, the air leaving the LP compressor shroud bleed is discharged outboard of nacelle via an articulated duct
assembly.
In the same way, the air leaving the Handling Bleed Valve (HBV) is discharged overboard through the left lateral port.

V7081 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Nacelle ventilation description Page 164/ 259

Zone 2 comprises sub-zones 2 and 2A. The purpose of the separation is to obtain from one compartment with distorted shape, several regular
compartments, which is a condition for a correct ventilation.
Sub-zone 2 comprising the slat area between engine and fuselage:
the air inlet is provided by a scoop located in the upper rear cowl,
the air outlet is provided by two inverted scoops at the outlet of the cavity and by holes located in the wing leading edge upper surface.
Sub-zone 2A is delimited by the underwing base, aft of the engine nacelle:
air enters in this zone through a passage leading from sub-zone 2,
air is discharged out of the zone through an outlet located in the aft lower section of the underwing base.

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ATA 70 Engine ventilation description Page 165/ 259
Engine ventilation description

Air from LP (P2.5) and HP (P3) compressor stages is utilized for sealing bearing cavities, to assist oil scavenging, for internal engine cooling and off-
engine use.
P3 air is also used for the fuel regulation and the propeller overspeed governor.
Air for cooling and sealing is provided by a switching valve located in the intercompressor case.
Labyrinth seals are used throughout the turbomachinery to seal air and oil passages. To prevent oil leakage from a bearing cavity, air pressure is applied
to one side of the seal to oppose oil pressure on the internal side. This principle is also used to maintain pressure differentials in air system.

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ATA 70 Engine ventilation description Page 166/ 259

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ATA 70 Engine ventilation description Page 167/ 259

Air, for N1 and N2 bearing pressurization, comes from the switching valve via an external pipe and the intercompressor case.
Air is then vented towards the Accessory GearBox (AGB).
N3 and N4 bearing seals are pressurized by air from the switching valve through internal passages (P2.5).
Air is then vented towards the Accessory GearBox (AGB).
N5 bearing cavity and seals receive air from switching valve chamber through an internal passage and from a vent at the rear HP impeller.
Air is used to scavenge the bearing cavity and is vented through engine exhaust.
Air for sealing and pressurization of N6 and N7 bearings and cavity comes from holes in the power turbine shaft and stubshaft.
Air is then vented towards the Accessory GearBox (AGB).
The intercompressor case provides bleed ports for:
aircraft air systems (P2.5 and P3),
HMU reference (P3),
air switching valve,
Handling Bleed Valve.

V7082 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 P 2.5 check valve Page 168/ 259
P 2.5 check valve

The P2.5 Check Valve is installed in the LP bleed line.

V7083 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 P 2.5 check valve Page 169/ 259

The P2.5 Check Valve is a butterfly type spring loaded closed.


It allows P2.5 supply to aircraft air conditioning and pressurization system.
In addition, it prevents P3 from flowing back to the intercompressor case when P3 bleed line is supplying above systems.

V7083 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Air switching valve Page 170/ 259
Air switching valve

The air switching valve is located in the intercompressor case.

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ATA 70 Air switching valve Page 171/ 259

The bearing seals are pressurized by P2.5 or P3 air or a mixture of both.


The air switching valve ensures an adequate air supply during starting by directing P3 air to areas normally pressurized by P2.5 (during initial startup, P3
is the only pressurized air available).
The valve consists of inner and outer housings, a piston and a spring retained by the cover.
When the engine is started, P3 increases at a faster rate than P2.5. The valve spring holds the valve against the seat, blocking P2.5 air. P3 air enters the
intercompressor case through slots in the valve housing, and exits through the adapter to the rear inlet case.
P2.5 increases with increasing NH, and at 40% to 45% NH, it overcomes the spring. It pushes the valve and piston up to block P3 air. P2.5 air enters the
intercompressor case and also replaces P3 air in the power turbine shaft seal housing situated in the rear inlet case.

V7084 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 Handling bleeding valve (HBV) description Page 172/ 259
Handling bleeding valve (HBV) description

The Handling Bleed Valve (HBV) is installed on the exhaust pipe. Its outlet is connected to a scoop provided on the nacelle left upper side.

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ATA 70 Handling bleeding valve (HBV) description Page 173/ 259

The Handling Bleed Valve (HBV) is a piston type valve, air pressure operated, controlled by the EEC.
Its purpose is to bleed low pressure compressor air (P2.5) to provide adequate surge margin and good steady state engine power characteristics.

V7085 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 HBV operation Page 174/ 259
HBV operation

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ATA 70 HBV operation Page 175/ 259

ENGINE START
During engine start the HBV is closed.
Note: when closed HBV is de-energized.
TRANSIENT OPERATION
Slam acceleration at low altitude, the HBV is held shut to provide rapid engine response.
TRANSIENT OPERATION
Slam acceleration at high altitude, HBV opens.
Note: HBV starts to close when NH stabilizes.
TRANSIENT OPERATION
Slam deceleration HBV opens. Slam deceleration followed by slam acceleration HBV opens to provide adequate surge margin.
Note: HBV starts to close when NH stabilizes.
STEADY STATE
EEC mode:
HBV fully open at PLA < 55 (on HMU),
HBV fully closed at PLA > 60 (on HMU).
STEADY STATE
Manual Mode, with EEC "OFF". The HBV is still AVAILABLE:
HBV start to open at 72% NH,
HBV fully open between 76 / 87% NH,
HBV closed at 90% NH.
HBV FAILURE
When HBV is failed, torque indicator displays " - - - ".
Note: when torque sensor 2 is failed, display indicates " 0 0 0 ".

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ATA 70 Indicating description Page 176/ 259
Indicating description

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ATA 70 Indicating description Page 177/ 259

Engine parameters are displayed in the flight compartment by means of indicators located on the centre instrument panel.
The main engine parameters are:
torque indication (TORQUE),
propeller speed indication (Np),
InterTurbine Temperature (ITT),
high pressure (NH) and low pressure (NL) compressor speed,
instant fuel flow / fuel used (FF/FU),
oil temperature / oil pressure (OIL),
fuel temperature.
Engine parameters are recorded in the AIDS part of the FDAU for Engine Condition Trent Monitoring.

V7088 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 TQ/ITT/NH-NL indicators operation in case of EEC failure Page 178/ 259
TQ/ITT/NH-NL indicators operation in case of EEC failure

V7095 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 TQ/ITT/NH-NL indicators operation in case of AFU failure Page 179/ 259
TQ/ITT/NH-NL indicators operation in case of AFU failure

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ATA 70 TQ indicator and sensors description Page 180/ 259
TQ indicator and sensors description

The torque sensors are located on the Reduction GearBox (RGB) casing at 4 and 8 o'clock, when looking forward.

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ATA 70 TQ indicator and sensors description Page 183/ 259

There are two torque shafts located in the Reduction GearBox.


Torque shaft consists of two concentric tubes (shafts) each carrying a toothed wheel, both tubes are attached together at the rear end only.
The torque tube is connected at both ends and will twist when torque is produced, while the reference tube connected only at the front end cannot be
twisted.
The gap between the teeth on the torque tube and the teeth on the reference tube will change in proportion of the produced torque.
There are two torque sensors, one for each torque shaft, mounted on the right and left side of the Reduction GearBox.
Each torque sensor protrudes into the Reduction GearBox and picks up on teeth of the torque tube and reference tube toothed wheels.
Each sensor detects the phase difference between the teeth on the torque tube and the teeth on the reference tube.
The electromagnetic pulses (sign waves), generated when the teeth pass through the sensor's magnetic field, are transmitted to the AFU and EEC.

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ATA 70 TQ indicator and sensors description Page 184/ 259

Torque sensor TQ1 (left side) provides only one torque signal to the gage (ANALOG) for indication through the AFU.
Torque sensor TQ2 (right side) provides two torque signals to the EEC:
one signal for power management and torque indication on gage (DIGITAL),
one signal is used as a back up.
Torque sensor TQ2 also provides a signal corresponding to the power turbine rotational speed (NpT) for the EEC.
Torque sensors have a built-in resistive temperature device (RTD) for correction of torque shaft stiffness due to temperature change.

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ATA 70 TQ indicator and sensors description Page 185/ 259

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ATA 70 TQ indicator and sensors description Page 187/ 259

TORQUE INDICATOR DESCRIPTION


(1) POINTER indicating torque value.
(2) DIGITAL display counter indicating torque value (accurate indication).
(3) Bite pushbutton allowing to test the indicator. When the pushbutton is pressed, the pointer moves up to the blue dot located at 115% and the counter
display 115%.
(4) Bug target torque displays the optimum torque value processed by the FDAU in accordance with PWR MGT selection except on TO position where
RTO is displayed.
(5) Manual bug displays the target torque set in accordance with the power tables.
(6) Manual bug control.
TORQUE INDICATOR UTILIZATION
In case of failure of the indicator, all digits are erased and the pointer shows a value < 0.
When the target torque signal is lost, the bug pointer moves to 22,5%.

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ATA 70 ITT indicator and thermocouples sensors description Page 188/ 259
ITT indicator and thermocouples sensors description

Nine thermocouples are located around the LP turbine case.


An oil thermal compensation sensor T6 trim resistor, connected in parallel with the thermocouples, is located at 3 o'clock when looking forward.

V7091 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 ITT indicator and thermocouples sensors description Page 189/ 259

The thermocouples are connected together in parallel and to a junction box. The thermocouples junctions, studs and wiring are made of chromel and
alumel material.
An oil thermal compensation sensor (T6 Trim resistor) is connected in parallel to the thermocouples.
The probe value is calibrated for each engine and marked on the engine data plate.
The output signal corresponding to the average value obtained from thermocouples is sent to the ITT indicator and displayed in analog and digital form.

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ATA 70 ITT indicator and thermocouples sensors description Page 190/ 259

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ATA 70 ITT indicator and thermocouples sensors description Page 191/ 259

ITT INDICATOR DESCRIPTION:


(1) Pointer indicating ITT value.
(2) Digital display counter indicating ITT value (accurate indication).
(3) Alert light illuminates amber and the CCAS is activated when ITT > 800C or 715C in hotel mode.
(4) Bite pushbutton allowing to test the indicator. When the pushbutton is pressed, the pointer and the counter display 1150C. Amber light (3) illuminates
and CCAS is activated.

ITT INDICATOR UTILIZATION:


As soon as air / fuel mixing has flamed up, the ITT increases and must be monitored to avoid exceeding the limits.
Limits:
Red mark: 765C (temperature limit during normal take-off).
Red dashes: 800C (temperature limit in uptrim conditions).
Red point H: 715C (temperature limit in hotel mode).
Red point: 840C (temperature limit for 20 sec.).
Red point S: 950C (temperature limit for 5 sec. for engine start).
If ITT exceeds the limits, the engine must be stopped immediatly.
Note: In case of indicator failure, all digits are erased and the pointer shows a value < 0.

V7091 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 NH-NL indicator and sensors description Page 192/ 259
NH-NL indicator and sensors description

Two identical sensors (NH1, NH2) are located on the accessory gearbox.
The NL transmitter is positioned at 4 o'clock, when looking forward, near the right rear lateral LP diffuser pipes.

V7093 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6
ATA 70 NH-NL indicator and sensors description Page 193/ 259

Speed sensing is based on the principle of magnetic induction to produce an electrical signal.
Each sensor consists of a magnetic rod and at least one wire coil.
The magnetic rod has an inherent magnetic field (flux). As a gear tooth passes the sensor, this magnetic field is interrupted and a current is created
(induced) through the coil.
The frequency of current pulses is interpreted by the indicator or EEC as a corresponding RPM.

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ATA 70 NH-NL indicator and sensors description Page 194/ 259

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ATA 70 NH-NL indicator and sensors description Page 195/ 259

NH-NL INDICATOR DESCRIPTION:


(1) Pointer indicating NH value.
(2) Pointer indicating NL value.
(3) Digital indicator indicating NH (accurate indication).
(4) Bite pushbutton allowing to test the indicator. When the pushbutton is pressed, the pointers move up to the blue dot located at 115% and the counter
displays 115%.

NH-NL INDICATOR UTILIZATION:


The NH is used to monitor the starting sequence or an inflight relight.
Note: In case of failure of the indicator, all digits are erased and the pointers shows a value < 0.

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ATA 70 Ignition and starting description Page 196/ 259
Ignition and starting description

The ignition system provides a quick light up of the fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber. It comprises two ignition exciters, two ignition leads and
two igniter plugs.
The system is controlled by the ENG START panel.
An IGN blue light illuminates on the MEMO panel in case of automatic relight and / or manual ignition.

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ATA 70 Ignition and starting description Page 199/ 259

The starting system is an all electric system which permits to start the engines on ground and in flight.
Electrical power for the starting system can be supplied from the aircraft main battery, the external DC power unit or by the other engine (on ground only)
through the main electrical power panel.
System fault indications are shown on the overhead panel.
The main components of the system are:
the ENG START panel,
the BPCU, GCUs,
start contactors,
the starters / generators.

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ATA 70 Normal engine starting operation Page 200/ 259
Normal engine starting operation

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ATA 70 Normal engine starting operation Page 201/ 259

Make sure that the external power is connected.


Selecting ENG START selector to "START A" for example, causes the arrows to illuminate on the MAIN ELEC PWR panel indicating that the batteries are
disconnected of the batteries charge circuits and discharging.
Pressing START 1 pushbutton provides a master start signal to the BPCU which outputs a start init signal to the GCU.
Comment: When connected, the GPU has priority over all other sources: selection is made by the BPCU.
The GCU closes the start contactor. As a result, the HP compressor starts to rotate.
In addition, the START 1 "ON" light illuminates white and an ignition signal is ready to be routed to the ignition system.
Comments: START 1 pushbutton has got a momentary self held switch function; such a function will illuminate the "ON" white light through the GCU
closing the starter contactor. The ON light will illuminate as long as the above contactor is kept closed, meaning that all the logics are met.
At 10% of NH, the Condition Lever is moved from "FUEL SO" to "FTR". This causes the fuel shut-off valve to open and the fuel to flow to the combustion
chamber.
At the same time, ignition is initiated, causing the fuel / air mixture to light up.
At 45% of NH the speed sensor signal from the S/G de-energizes the start contactor and the power source. As a result the spark plugs are de-energized
and the "ON" light extinguishes: now the engine is at the self sustaining speed.
When the pressure delivered by the fuel HP pump is high enough, a part of the pressurized fuel is derived to the motive flow valve which opens causing
the engine feed jet pump within the feeder tank to take over on the electrical fuel pump. As a result, the "RUN" light extinguishes.
Restore ENG START selector to "OFF", amber arrows extinguish.

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ATA 70 Normal engine starting operation Page 202/ 259

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ATA 70 Normal engine starting operation Page 203/ 259

Assuming that engine 2 is running and external power is not available.


Selecting ENG START selector to "START A" for example.
Pressing START 1 pushbutton provides a master start signal to the BPCU which outputs a start init signal to the GCU. The arrows illuminates on the
MAIN ELEC PWR panel indicating that the batteries are disconnected of the batteries charge circuits and discharging.
As engine 2 is running, the BPCU selects automatically a cross start by connecting the main battery.
Note: Cross start is inhibited in flight.
At the same time the start connector is controlled to close.
Now the starter generator is power supplied through the starter contactor. As a result, the HP compressor starts to rotate.
In addition, the START 1 "ON" light illuminates white and an inhibition signal is ready to be routed to the ignition system.
At 10% of NH the Condition Lever is moved from "FUEL SO" to "FTR". This causes the fuel shut-off valve to open and the fuel to flow to the combustion
chamber.
At the same time, ignition is initiated, causing the fuel / air mixture to light up, and the generator 2 start contactor is closed to help the main battery.
At 45% of NH the speed sensor signal from the S/G de-energizes the start contactor and the power source. As a result the spark plugs are de-energized
and the "ON" light extinguishes: now the engine is at the self sustaining speed.
When the pressure delivered by the fuel HP pump is high enough, a part of the pressurized fuel is derived to the motive flow valve which opens causing
the engine feed jet pump within the feeder tank to take over on the electrical fuel pump. As a result, the "RUN" light extinguishes.
Restore ENG START selector to "OFF", amber arrows and START 1 extinguish.

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The engine starting by main battery is required on groung when DC external power is not connected and in flight in the case of one of the two engines had
been stopped.
The logical sequences of engine starting by main battery are the same as those described in engine starting by external power.
Comment: Engine 2 start from battery leads normally to provide electrical and air conditioning to the aircraft through the hotel mode operation provided
that the propeller brake is locked.

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Assuming the external power is connected.


Caution: During dry or wet crank, it is recommended to select the electrical fuel pump of the concerned engine to "RUN", in order to avoid HP fuel pump
cavitation.
Dry motoring: A dry motoring could be performed following a start abort operation to ventilate the engine.
Caution: During motoring, respect the operating limits of starter: 3 starter cyles of 30s each at 2 minutes interval followed by 15 min off.
Selecting ENG START selector to "CRANK" for example, causes the arrows to illuminate on the MAIN ELEC PWR panel indicating that the batteries are
disconnected of the batteries charge circuits and discharging.
Pressing START 1 pushbutton provides a master start signal to the BPCU which outputs a start init signal to the GCU.
The GCU closes the start contactor. As a result, the HP compressor starts to rotate and will not exceed 20%.
In addition, the START 1 "ON" light illuminates white.
And a ignition signal is routed to the ignition system and not validated because no power supply is available for the ignition system nor fuel because the
Condition Lever is selected at FUEL SO.
This is called a dry motoring.
Restore the system:
ENG START rotary switch to OFF & START ABORT (arrows extinguish),
when NH is equal to 0% select the fuel pump off.
Wet motoring: A wet motoring is used to check possible fuel leak(s) following failure or maintenance tasks.
A wet motoring operation is close to a dry motoring except:
spark plugs circuits breaker have to be pulled (not shown),
the Condition Lever has to be selected to FTR at 10% of NH and fuel flow monitored.
Select ENG START rotary selector to "CRANK" causes the arrows to illuminate on MAIN ELEC PWR panel. Pressing START 1 pushbutton provides a
master start signal to the BPCU which outputs a start init signal to the GCU. The GCU closes the start contactor. As a result, HP compressor starts to
rotate and will not exceed 20%.
Setting the Condition Lever from FSO to FTR opens the fuel shut-off valve in the HMU allowing fuel to flow through the divider to the nozzles. Fuel is then
sprayed in the combustion chamber.
The last wet motoring must be imperatively followed by a dry motoring.
Restore:
ENG START rotary selector to OFF & START ABORT,
Condition Lever to FUEL SO,
fuel pump off
circuit breakers resetted (not shown).
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Ignition operation

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When ENG START selector is set to any START position, the BPCU checks the start and battery contactors position.
By pressing START 1 (2) pushbutton and provided there is no failure in the GCU, the BPCU closes contactor, allowing electrical power to supply the start
line. The ignition exciter B is now supplied.
At 10% NH, the Condition Lever is set to FTR to open the HP fuel valve in the HMU.
When engine speed reaches 45% NH:
ON light extinguishes,
starter disengages,
power supply to igniter is cut off.
Ignition on ground is complete.

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In flight, with START A or START B or START A & B selected, both igniters are operating.
By pressing START 1 (2) pushbutton and provided there is no failure in the GCU, the BPCU closes contactor, allowing electrical power to supply the start
line. Both igniters A and B are now supplied.
At 10% NH, the Condition Lever is set to FTR to open fuel valve in the HMU.
When engine speed reaches 45% NH:
ON light extinguishes,
starter disengages,
power supply to igniters A and B is cut-off.
Ignition in flight is complete.

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The automatic relight function is ensured by the EEC. This function is activated when:
CL is above FTR,
NH drops below 60%,
the EEC is ON.
The two igniters are supplied and the IGN blue light illuminates.
Note: If the decreasing of NH occurs during an Automatic Take-Off Power Control sequence, the auto feather signal generated by the AFU will cut-off the
supply of the igniters.

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Manual ignition replaces the automatic relight function when EECs are off and weather conditions are bad (cloudy or icing conditions).
When "MAN IGN" pushbutton is activated and the Condition Lever is not in Fuel Shut-Off, both igniters are supplied. ON blue light in the pushbutton and
IGN blue light on the MEMO panel illuminate.

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Alerts during starting operation

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Start fault alert light


The amber "FAULT" alert light illuminates when:
the Gust lock is not ON, PROP BRAKE switch ON, prop brake locked,
a GCU detects a failure,
the starter remains engaged after 45 % NH.
It also illuminates for the protective functions provided for the engine starting systems:
contactor position coherence protection,
differential fault protection.
Gust lock not ON, PROP BRAKE switch ON, prop brake locked
When ENG START rotary selector is on any position, the following alerts appear:
MASTER CAUTION light flashing amber and single chime,
ENG amber light on CAP,
associated START2 FAULT amber light on ENG START panel.
GCU failure
During starting, if the GCU detects internal failure, or a system component failure, a signal is sent to the BPCU which inhibits the starting sequence and
the following alerts appear:
Master CAUTION light flashing amber and single chime,
ENG amber light on CAP,
associated START FAULT amber light on ENG START panel.
Starter remaining engaged
If the starter remains engaged (ON light remaining illuminated) after 45 % NH, the following alerts appear:
Master CAUTION light flashing amber and single chime,
ENG amber light on CAP,
associated START FAULT amber light on ENG START panel.
Differential fault protection
The differential protection (p) circuit controlled by the GCU's allows to detect any short circuit occuring in a zone extending from the neutral side of the
S/G winding to the S/G contactor. When the GCU detects a p fault in any part of the associated channel, the related starting operation is inhibited and
the following alerts appear:
Master CAUTION light flashing amber and single chime,
ENG amber light on CAP,
associated START FAULT amber light on ENG START panel.

Note: This differential protection is operating only on ground while in flight it is inhibited.
Contactor position coherence protection

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On ground with ENG START selector switch in START (A or B or A+B or CRANK) position, the position of SC's is detected by the BPCU. If the contact
position of one of three (1KG, 2KG, 3KG) start contactor is different from the commanded one, the starting sequence is inhibited and the following alerts
appear:
Master CAUTION light flashing amber and single chime,
ENG amber light on CAP,
associated START FAULT amber light on ENG START panel.

Note: In flight, the same thing occurs but the start cycle initialization is not inhibited.
X start fault
On ground, during second engine starting if the DC GEN does not come on line to supply the starting line between 10% and 45 % NH the following alerts
appear:
Master CAUTION light flashing amber and single chime,
ELEC amber light on CAP,
X START FAULT amber light on MAIN ELECTRICAL POWER panel.

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Ignition exciter description

Two ignition exciters are attached on the RH side of the engine by means of shockmounts.

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The two exciters are sealed and fitted with one input connector and output connector.
The input connector supplies the ignition exciter with 28VDC and the output connector is used to connect the high voltage leads supplying each plug.
The ignition exciters transform the 28VDC in high voltage pulses. Each independant secondary discharge circuit has a plug and produces a hundred
sparks per minute.
The energy contained in the spark (approximately 2 joules), is discharged to the plug by a cold spark (low intensity).

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High voltage leads description

The high voltage leads are located on the right and left lower part of the engine.

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Two identicals leads provide the high voltage distribution. They transmit the power supplied by the ignition exciter to each plug.
Those leads are made of a copper central core embedded in silicone and plastic conduit and a shield to avoid interferences.
Each cable end is fitted with a connector enabling connection between the ignition exciter and the plug.

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Ignition plugs description

The plugs are installed at 4 o'clock and 8 o'clock, at level of the combustion chamber and are adjacent to the fuel nozzles.

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Each igniter has a central electrode enclosed in annular semi-conducting material.


The electrical potential developped by the ignition exciter is applied across the gap between the central electrode and the shell.

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Engine system controls and indicators

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<1> ENG START rotary selector


OFF START ABORT: Ignition circuit is deenergized. Starting sequence is disarmed or interrupted.
CRANK: Enables engine cranking.
START A: Only ignition exciter A is supplied on ground.
START B: Only ignition exciter B is supplied on ground.
START A and B: Both ignition exciters are supplied.
<2> START pb
ON (pb pressed in). ON light illuminates white. In case of starting light will extinguish automatically when NH reaches 45 % which "identifies"
sequence end.
FAULT illuminates amber and the CCAS is activated if :
- starter remains engaged after 45 %
- GCU fails during starting
- on RH engine when ENG START selector is in one of the START positions, the propeller brake is ON but the gust lock is not engaged.
<3> MAN IGN guarded pb
Manual ignition is selected by depressing the guarded pb. Exciters are continuously energized on both engines. On light illuminates blue.

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<1> PROP BRK pb


ON: propeller brake engagement
OFF: propeller brake releasing
UNLK : The It illuminates red and after 15 s the CCAS is triggered to indicate that the propeller brake is not locked in the fully locked or the fully
released position.
<2> Ready Lt
The Iight illuminates green when engagement or disengagement conditions are met.
<3> PROP BRK Lt
Illuminates blue when the propeller brake is fully locked.
Extinguished when the propeller brake is fully released.

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<1> Manual target


Controlled by the knob, displays a manually selected torque target.
<2> FDAU target
Displays the maximum torque value computed by the FDAU depending on the PWR MGT selection (except on the T.O position where reserve T.O
torque is displayed).
<3> Pointer
Actual torque is displayed from the AFU.
<4> Test pb
Allows to test the ind. During test, both counter and pointer will display 115%.
<5> Digital counter
Actual torque is displayed from the EEC.
<6> Knob
Enables setting of target bug.
<7> Digital counter & pointer
Actual NP is displayed from 0 to 120% NP.
<8> Test pb
Allows to test the ind. During test, both counter and pointer will display 115% (blue dot).
<9> Pointer
Actual ITT is displayed
- Green sector: 300-765C
- Red point + H: 715C
- Amber sector: 765-800C
- Red mark: 765C (Temperature limit during normal take-off)
- White/red mark: 800C (Temperature limit in uptrim conditions)
- Red point: 840C (Temperature limit for 20 sec)
- Red point + S: 950C (Temperature limit for 5 sec for start)
<10> DIGITAL counter
Actual ITT (T6) is displayed.
<11> Test pb
Allows to test the ind. during test, both counter and pointer will displayed 1150C (blue dot).

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<12> Alert Light


Illuminates amber and the CCAS is activated when ITT > 800C or 715C in hotel mode.
<13> HP pump fuel filter pressure > 45 PSI.
Filter blocked and by passed, CCAS is activated.
<14> Pointer
Actual NL is displayed.
- Green sector: 62-104.2%
- Red mark: 104.2%
<15> Pointer
Actual NH is displayed.
- Green sector: 62-102.7%
- Red mark:102.7%
<16> Fuel temperature is displayed from -54 to +57C.

<17> Digital counter


Actual NH is displayed.
<18> Test pb
Allows to test the ind. During test, both counter and pointer will display 115% (blue dot).
<19> FF indication
The mass fuel flow to the engine is indicated by a pointer on a scale graduated in kg/h X 100.
<20> OIL PRESS indication
Actual oil pressure is displayed from 0 to 90 PSI.
Red mark : 40 PSI.
<21> OIL TEMP indication
Actual oil temperature is displayed from 0 to 140 C.
Red mark : 140C.
<22> FU counter
On the digital read out, fuel used is indicated in kg.
<23> FU reset knob
The fuel used counter is reset to 0 by pulling associated ind. reset knob.
<24> OIL LOW PRESS Light

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Illuminates red when OIL PRESS indication drops below 40 PSI. A separate pressure switch activates the CCAS at 40 PSI.

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The power levers control the powerplant thrust from max rated torque to max reverse. Power levers quadrant has three clearly identified sectors :
Green sector : PLA from FI to 52.6
This sector is characterized by a mechanical stop at FI This stop can be overriden thus enabling both power levers to be positioned in the range from FI to
reverse.

White sector : PLA from 65.5 to 68.5


This sector is characterized by a notch which determines the normal position of power levers. When power levers are set at takeoff notch, the engine fuel
control system delivers the max rated power corresponding to PWR MGT selection.

Red sector PLA from 81 to 87 (forward stop)


The beginning of this sector, characterized by a ramp threshold, is used during Go Around (GA) or at take off in the event of ATPCS failure. The power
delivered is Reserve Take Off (RTO), irrespective of the mode selected on the PWR MGT rotary selector. In this position, the engine torque corresponds to
the target torque calculated by the FDAU (RTO). NOTE :The ramp threshold may be overridden, thus enabling the lever to be positioned up to the stop of the
plat quadrant. This procedure must remain EXCEPTIONAL. It is AN EMERGENCY PROCEDURE WHICH WILL PROVIDE UP TO 15% more power than
RTO.

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The condition levers control the propeller speed, feathering-unfeathering, and the HP fuel shut off valve. The characteristic positions are :
100% OVRD : manually setting of the maximum NP.
AUTO : propeller speed depends on the position of the PWR MGT selector.
FTR : the propeller is controlled to feather.
FUEL SO : the HP fuel shut off valve in the HMU is controlled to close.
NOTE : It is necessary to act on a trigger located on the lever side to travel,
from AUTO to FTR (and return),
from FTR to FUEL SO (and return). A red Iight incorporated in the lever will illuminate if a fire is detected on the associated engine provided CL is
not in FUEL SO position.

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<1> IDLE GATE FAIL light


Illuminates amber and the CCAS is activated when the gate does not engage automatically in flight or does not retract automatically at landing.
<2> IDLE GATE lever
Enables manual override in case of failure of the automatic logic.
- In flight: push
- On ground: pull. An amber band appears.

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<1> PWR MGT rotary selector


Made up of two independant parts (front and back). Provides FDAU, PIU and EEC with basic power requirements corresponding to the selected
position.
- For left engine with the back part of the selector.
- For right engine with the front part of the selector.
<2> PEC "SGL CH" Its
SGL CH Iight illuminates amber when one channel of propeller electronic control is lost .
The system will automatically be transfered to the other channel.
<3> PEC FAULT pbs
FAULT: illuminates amber and CCAS is activated when the two channels are lost.
OFF: (pb released) PEC is deactivated and Np is blocked at 102.5% whenever power is sufficient.

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<1> EEC pb
Pb pressed in: EEC adjusts HMU action, by controlling the stepper motor which lowers fuel flow ordered by HMU.
OFF: (pb released) The HMU controls only NH as a function of PL angle. OFF It illuminates white.
FAULT: Illuminates amber and the CCAS is activated when an EEC failure is detected. Power is locked at its pre- failure value.
<2> ATPCS pb
Pb pressed in:
- if depressed on ground, uptrim and autofeather function are preselected.
- if depressed in flight, only the autofeatherfunction is preselected.
OFF: (Pb released) Uptrim and autofeather functions are deselected.
ARM: Illuminates green when arming conditions are met.
<4> UP TRIM light
Illuminates green when the uptrim signal is sent to the associated engine at the beginning of ATPCS sequence.
<3> LO PITCH light
Illuminates amber when the actual blade angle is lower than the normal FI blade angle. This light is illuminated during all ground operation below FI.
The CCAS is activated in flight only.

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<1> Allows to check the correct functioning of the ATPCS. This rotary selector is spring loaded to the neutral position.

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<1> EEC/PEC SEL switch


Used to select EEC or PEC depending on appropriate maintenance test on Engine TRIM switches or LRU (line replaceable unit) code failures.
<2> Engine TRIM test and LRU switches
Switch with two stable positions used to :
- Test EEC or PEC channel. Maintenance data appear on the FDEP. (Selected by EEC/PEC SEL switch).
- Perform EEC or PEC trim to ensure that power delivered corresponds to PL position (can be performed with engine not running and PL in the
notch) or LRU code failures.
<3> BUS ARINC switches
Bus arinc function is tested.
<4> Prop Overspeed test switches
Used to test hydraulic part of overspeed governor. First OVSPD threshold is tested at 102% Np. on the affected engine.
<5> Prop Overspeed test switches
Used to test hydraulic part of overspeed governor. First OVSPD threshold is tested at 102% Np. on the affected engine.
2nd OVSP threshold is tested at 106% Np.
<6> Propeller Feather Pump test switch
This switch with two stable positions enables to test the feathering pump. For safety reasons, this test is impossible in flight.
<7> Propeller LOW PITCH test switches
With the test switch on PLA > FI position, the PL low pitch protection switch and feather solenoid are tested.
With the test switch on PLA < FI position, secondary low pitch solenoid is tested.
Note : In both cases, LOW PITCH light illuminates

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Check recording of EEC failure message

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The maintenance BITE function allows the display of maintenance information through the MCDU.
Warning : Max weight will be selected on APM panel to access on MFC bites with the MCDU.
The MPC gets access to existing MFC BITE data in the relevant computer and makes the maintenance functions available.
The basic memory or the flight fault memory choice gives access to the same menu : Select BASIC MEMORY.
Select MISC2 Sub-menu to access to the maintenance messages.
Fault maintenance codes appears in plain text. Example : code 7 EEC1 Fail Latch.
The MPC can get only the information that the EEC has recorded a failure in its memory. To have more information about the EEC memory, select
maintenance page then PEC/EEC.
Return to the MPC menu.

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Reading of EEC memory

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EEC PROCEDURES
Procedure for reading failure code recorded by the EEC.
Note: this procedure is performed engines shutdown.
By means of MCDU select "maintenance page" and "PEC / EEC" page.
Place EEC/PEC selector switch in EEC position.
Select "code EEC 1" for engine 1. Code 1 appears on the display, the reading sequence is initialized.
On maintenance panel, lift the safety and place selector in LRU position, then replace it in its initial position.
The failure code is displayed in plain text on the MCDU.
Repeat the action on the selector, until failure code 2 is displayed. The reading of EEC memory is completed.
Note: The signification of each code is also given in repair section of Pratt and Whitney maintenance manual.
On MCDU, return to the main menu.
On the right maintenance panel, set EEC / PEC SEL in center position.
Message read on FDEP is 0025. The recorded code failure is 0025. Please have a look at FAULT CODE 25 MAINTENANCE MANUAL for more
information.
Last message read on FDEP is 0002 (end).
On the right maintenance panel, set EEC / PEC SEL in center position.
End of this maintenance operation.
FAULT CODE : 25
Fault Name: Backup Channel Failed Discrete Wrap Around Fault
Criticality: 3
Channel : Backup
Setting logic: The backup channel has detected a "wrap-around" failure on the fault light output line. In other words, the PEC has detected that this low-
side switch output is at 0V without being commanded or is open / floating when the PEC is trying to drive the output to 0V. The PEC doesn't actually
control the light but rather provides an input to the PIU.
Trouble shooting:
1.If fault code 81 is also stored, replace the PEC.

2.Ensure that there is continuity between PEC harness connector Ppin E and the backup channel fail input pin on the PIU connector.

3.If continuity is found, replace the PIU. If continuity is not found, repair the wriring harness between the PEC and the PIU.

4.Replace the PEC.

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ATA 70 ENGINE SYSTEMS


General description 2

Engine system cockpit panels 6

Engine Interfaces 7

Engine Features 8

Engine system safety and precautions 13

Power plant description 17

Fuel and Oil systems 19

Engine mounts 22

Engine cowls 27

Fire seals 34

Engine exhaust 36

Engine electrical harness 38

Engine drains 41

Engine description and storage 45

Air inlet section 54

Compressor section and Accessory GearBox (AGB) 56

Combustion section 58

Turbine section 59

Pressure and temperature station 60

Boroscope ports description 62

Reduction GearBox (RGB) description 72

Engine controls description 74

PL and CL actuated microswitches operation 76

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Cable routing description 80

HP fuel shut-off valve description 82

Gust lock description 84

Idle gate description 86

Idle gate operation and schematics 89

Engine fuel and control description 90

Engine fuel and control cockpit location 92

Fuel filter / heater description 94

Fuel pump description 96

HMU (HydroMechanical Unit) description 98

Electronic Engine Control (EEC) description 102

Electronic Engine Control (EEC) operation 104

EEC trim / LRU switches description 108

EEC trim / LRU switches operation 110

EEC ARNIC data base switch description 112

Flow meter and use indicator 114

FCOC (fuel cooled oil cooler) description 116

Flow divider / dump valve description 118

Fuel nozzle 120

Fuel drain tank 122

FF/FU indicator description 124

Fuel clog indicator description 126

Fuel temperature indicator description 128

Engine oil system description 130

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ATA 70 Summary Page 258/ 259

Main oil tank description 134

Oil pump pack description 136

Pressure relief valve description 138

Air Cooled Oil Cooler description 140

Flaps system description 142

Pressure regulating valve description 144

Fuel heater and FCOC (Fuel Cooled Oil Cooler) description 146

Check valve description 148

Breater venting system description 150

Oil pressure transmitter description 152

Low pressure switch description 154

Oil temperature sensor description 156

Pressure/temperature indicator description 158

Engine air system description 159

Nacelle ventilation description 160

Engine ventilation description 165

P 2.5 check valve 168

Air switching valve 170

Handling bleeding valve (HBV) description 172

HBV operation 174

Indicating description 176

TQ/ITT/NH-NL indicators operation in case of EEC failure 178

TQ/ITT/NH-NL indicators operation in case of AFU failure 179

TQ indicator and sensors description 180

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ATA 70 Summary Page 259/ 259

ITT indicator and thermocouples sensors description 188

NH-NL indicator and sensors description 192

Ignition and starting description 196

Normal engine starting operation 200

Ignition operation 210

Alerts during starting operation 216

Ignition exciter description 220

High voltage leads description 222

Ignition plugs description 224

Engine system controls and indicators 226

Check recording of EEC failure message 248

Reading of EEC memory 252

V70D4 Copyright 2001-2008 - ATR Training Centre - All right reserved For Training Only ACOS v1.6