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BRUTUS AS ANTAGONIST:

B r u t u s ; Caesars most trusted and close friend ,is swayed by Cassius flattery and emotive persuasive tricks ,and thus he
betray his friend . His noble grandeur is faded by a fatal imperfection ; he is an idealistic to the extent of foolishness Brutus is, and that
he truly believed that what he was doing was best for his country, he is the political idealist who acted upon the grounds of abstract
principles.Like a demigod he refrains from giving any considerations to the logic , reasoning and evidences . This political idealist
acted upon the grounds of abstract principles until he finally ran into his own sword.

F i r s t l y , B r u t u s c h a n g e s a g r e a t d e a l t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y , b o t h o b v i o u s l y a n d subtly , it is the
force of honor , nobility and principles and that drive him blind from the practicalities of life. Brutus changes from being loyal to
Caesar to being loyal to Cassius and the conspirators. The tumultuous power of his nature have been roused and thrown into disorder by
suggestions of Cassius. Brutus is guided in all things by his concepts of honor. He speaks of them often to Cassius, and he is greatly disturbed
when events force him to act in a manner inconsistent with them. Ironically, his widely reputed honor is what causes Cassius to make an all-
out effort to bring him into an enterprise of debatable moral respectability. Brutus' reputation is so great that it will act to convince others
who are as yet undecided to join. Brutus characteristically makes decisions that are essential to his and Cassius' success with much less
forethought, and after he's committed to a plan, he does not waiver. Conspiracy is not only dangerous , it is monstrous , associated with
night , darkness and evils . Brutus is not a deliberate villain but he is presented as losing his way in a nightmare world like a
phantasma , something both horrible and unreal , or a hideous dream . It is idealists who create a political terror ;they are free
from all desire for blood shedding ; but to them the lives of men and women are accidents ; the lives of ideas are true realities ;
and , armed with an abstract principle and a suspicion , they perform deeds which are at once seemingly noble and hideous
,Where to the climber upward turns his face ; but when he one attain so Caesar may.[ ] Brutus resolves that Caesar shall die
by his hand as the conclusion of a series of hypothesis and propositions that have been weaved in his brain by none other than
crafty Cassius ; there is , as it were , a sorites of abstract principles about ambition , and power , and reason , and affection ;finally,
a profound suspicion of Caesar is engendered , and his death is decreed..Edward Dowden.

Futhermore He is the most conflicted character in the play. His sense of nobility becomes his fatal flaw. Ironically, his widely reputed
honor is what causes Cassius to make an all-out effort to bring him into an enterprise of debatable moral respectability. Brutus' reputation is
so great that it will act to convince others who are as yet undecided to join. Brutus characteristically makes decisions that are essential to his
and Cassius' success with much less forethought, and after he's committed to a plan, he does not waiver. Conspiracy is not only dangerous ,
it is monstrous , associated with night , darkness and evils . Brutus is not a deliberate villain but he is presented as losing his way in
a nightmare world like a phantasma , something both horrible and unreal , or a hideous dream . It is idealists who create a
political terror ;they are free from all desire for blood shedding ; but to them the lives of men and women are accidents ; the
lives of ideas are true realities ; and , armed with an abstract principle and a suspicion , they perform deeds which are at once
seemingly noble and hideous ,Where to the climber upward turns his face ; but when he one attain so Caesar may.[ ] Brutus
resolves that Caesar shall die by his hand as the conclusion of a series of hypothesis and propositions that have been weaved in
his brain by none other than crafty Cassius ; there is , as it were , a sorites of abstract principles about ambition , and power , and
reason , and affection ;finally, a profound suspicion of Caesar is engendered , and his death is decreed..Edward Dowden

Significantly , acting like a dictator when he says we need not to take any oath or swear - supreme example of idealism .He refuses
to join in an oath with the other conspirators , this is an epitome of his idealism , an ardent republican , the ideal Roman whose
passionately maintained conception of honour makes him a demigod who declares the murder of Caesar as a noble deed for which
the so called war fighters need not to swear .What need we any spur , but our own cause and what other oath [ ] .Like a
dictator he only announces the deed to be done ; no agenda discussed no oath taking . He is so resolved that he did not ponder
over the realities and had no sound evidence to reason Caesar murder

[ soliloquy] . He had no doubts , takes complete charge and leads all the
other conspirators [ ].

Not the least ,he was so manipulative and so unsure of the legitimacy of his own act that he gives murder a status of a noble
deed , in order to disarm any opposition from masses and importantly from his own inner self. Alike Lady Macbeth he declares the
hesitant ones as cowards [ ] if they had any reservations regarding the so called noble deed that they were treacherously
planning to commit [ ]. Hazlit, - Brutus's character drives the plot.

Surprisingly , alike Macbeth he was sleepless and envious of Luccius sleep , which reveals that he himself had no real grounds of
committing such an unpardonable sin but spun may [ ].Shockingly , the time
between planning the murder and its execution is shockingly very short and filled with stress but he is deeply convinced by Cassius
for becoming a part of the conspiracy just after the very first encounter with Cassius scheming brain . The whole design to
liberate their country from the generous temper of Brutus , and his overweening confidence in the goodness of their cause and the
assistance of others .Thus , it has always been prey to their security .The humanity and sincerity which dispose men to resist
injustices and tyranny render them unfit to cope with the cunning and power of those who are opposed to them . William Hazlitt
.At the end, this one man show reaches its deserved end , he asks to be killed, because he knows that he was manipulated and that
Caesar truly did not have to die. He is truly sorry, and wants to end his life for this deed he has committed. Harold Goddard , in his
interesting chapter on Julius Caesar says of this The whole plot against Caesar had been such an error ; a supposed perception of
things that are not . Brutus defeated and brought to bay with his poor remains of friends , senses that this is no accident of
defeat but the working out of the destiny to which he committed himself long before :Night hangs upon my eyes ; my bones
would rest , that have but labored to attain this hour [ ]

.W.H.Auden in his poem Spain portrays this state of affairs as:

Today the inevitable increase in the chances of death ,


The conscious acceptance of guilt in the necessary murder .

BRUTUS AS IDEALIST

A . B r u t u s ; Caesars most trusted and close friend ,is swayed by Cassius who draws on a whole range of persuasive tricks to
convince Brutus to join the conspiracy ,and betray his friend . Brutus is very easily persuaded , and that he truly believed that what he was
doing was best for his country, he is the political idealist who acted upon the grounds of abstract principles.. His noble grandeur is
faded by a fatal imperfection ; he is an idealistic to the extent of foolishness . Consistently misjudging the people and the citizens of Rome
, basing his judgments on abstract philosophies of truth and honour reveal his impractical approach towards life of his self and
other major aspects .

B . F i r s t l y , B r u t u s c h a n g e s a g r e a t d e a l t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y , b o t h o b v i o u s l y a n d subtly , it
is the force of honor , nobility and principles and that drive him blind from the practicalities of life. Brutus changes from being loyal
to Caesar to being loyal to Cassius and the conspirators. The tumultuous power of his nature have been roused and thrown into disorder
by suggestions of Cassius. Brutus is guided in all things by his concepts of honor. He speaks of them often to Cassius, and he is greatly
disturbed when events force him to act in a manner inconsistent with them. Ironically, his widely reputed honor is what causes Cassius to
make an all-out effort to bring him into an enterprise of debatable moral respectability. Brutus' reputation is so great that it will act to
convince others who are as yet undecided to join. Brutus characteristically makes decisions that are essential to his and Cassius' success with
much less forethought, and after he's committed to a plan, he does not waiver. Conspiracy is not only dangerous , it is monstrous ,
associated with night , darkness and evils . Brutus is not a deliberate villain but he is presented as losing his way in a nightmare
world like a phantasma , something both horrible and unreal , or a hideous dream . It is idealists who create a political terror
;they are free from all desire for blood shedding ; but to them the lives of men and women are accidents ; the lives of ideas are
true realities ; and , armed with an abstract principle and a suspicion , they perform deeds which are at once seemingly noble and
hideous ,Where to the climber upward turns his face ; but when he one attain so Caesar may.[ ] Brutus resolves that Caesar
shall die by his hand as the conclusion of a series of hypothesis and propositions that have been weaved in his brain by none
other than crafty Cassius ; there is , as it were , a sorites of abstract principles about ambition , and power , and reason , and
affection ;finally, a profound suspicion of Caesar is engendered , and his death is decreed..Edward Dowden.

C .Also , He is the supporter of the republic who believes strongly in a government guided by the votes of senators. While Brutus loves Caesar
as a friend, he opposes the ascension of any single man to the position of dictator [ ], and he fears that
Caesar aspires to such power [ ]. Brutuss inflexible sense of honor makes it easy for Caesars enemies to
manipulate him into believing that Caesar must die in order to preserve the republic. Brutus' concentration on honorable and noble behavior
also leads him into assuming a naive view of the world. He is unable to see through the roles being played by Cassius, Casca, and other
conspirators that the conspiracy was only seemingly hatched in the name of Roman welfare but was indeed a personal grudge of
all conspirators . He does not recognize the bogus letters as having been sent by Cassius, although they contain sentiments and diction that
would warn a more perceptive man. Ironically , while the other conspirators act out of envy and rivalry, only Brutus truly believes that
Caesars death will benefit Rome. In other words Brutus wrong choice not only leads to wrong action , it delivers him to a marked
element of unreality in the world where he and the other conspirators inhabit. L.C.Knights

D. Significantly , Brutuss rigid idealism is both his greatest virtue and his most deadly flaw. Brutus emerges as the most complex character
in Julius Caesar . His concern for general cause is fair and acceptable but the means to such an end is a sin and is not pardonable.
He is proud of his reputation for honor and nobleness, but he is not always practical, and is often naive . During his speech, Brutus says, If
there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Caesars, to him I say that Brutus love to Caesar was no less than his. If then that friend
demand why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is my answer: not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.In his funeral speech, [
] he says a great deal about the reasons the conspirators killed Caesar, and how good it was for the country that they did this. Brutus as a naive
thinker is most clearly revealed in the scene in the Forum. He presents his reasons for the assassination, and he leaves believing that he has
satisfied the Roman citizens with his reasoned oration. He does not realize that his speech has only moved the mob emotionally; it has not
prodded them to make reasoned assessments of what the conspirators have done. Brutus major fault to the horror of every literate
member of the audience is when he blithely rejects the proposal to murder Antony . The speech in which he justifies his decision
reveals a Brutus who parodies the sensible idealist of the preceding oration on honour , a man capable of binding himself to
practical realities through the casuistic use of analogy Antony is merely the limb of Caesar .head is off [ ] Norman
Rabkin .Brutus vanities , inability to notice the vicious motives of those about him , a capacity to be deceived by analogies of his
own making , undercut the nobility of the character he possess.
E . Equally, his commitment to principle repeatedly leads him to make miscalculations: wanting to curtail violence, he ignores Cassiuss
suggestion that the conspirators kill Antony as well as Caesar [ ]. He is the only major
character in the play intensely committed to fashioning his behavior to fit a strict moral and ethical code. He quickly takes command of the
conspiracy and makes crucial decisions regarding Cicero and Antony. In another moment of nave idealism, he again ignores Cassiuss advice
and allows Antony to speak a funeral oration over Caesars body [
]. As a result, Brutus forfeits the authority of having the last word on the murder and thus allows Antony to incite the plebeians to riot against
him and the other conspirators. Brutus ill-timed generosity to Antony in granting him the funeral oration , crumbles away through the
cold unnatural euphuisms of Brutus speech in its defense ,it is hurried to its ruin when Antony at last exercises his spell upon the
fickle minded Romans. He trusts to his abstractions pitifully ;here he expects the citizens to be convinced by cold reasoning .One
breath of Antony passion s, one side of Caesar mutilated body ,will dispel the effect .G.Wilson Knight

F .At the end, this one man show reaches its deserved end , he asks to be killed, because he knows that he was manipulated and that
Caesar truly did not have to die. He is truly sorry, and wants to end his life for this deed he has committed. Harold Goddard , in his
interesting chapter on Julius Caesar says of this The whole plot against Caesar had been such an error ; a supposed perception of
things that are not . Brutus defeated and brought to bay with his poor remains of friends , senses that this is no accident of
defeat but the working out of the destiny to which he committed himself long before :Night hangs upon my eyes ; my bones
would rest , that have but labored to attain this hour [ ]

.W.H.Auden in his poem Spain portrays this state of affairs as:

Today the inevitable increase in the chances of death ,


The conscious acceptance of guilt in the necessary murder .

MARK ANTONY ORATION :

The speech of Antony at Caesar funeral , with its mastery of every phase of feeling , is a perfect sonata upon the instrument of
the human emotions .Its opening theme is sympathy with bereavement, against which are working as if in conflict anticipations of
future themes and compunction Rhetoric used as the art of persuasion and an artifice used to veil intent , rebuilds Caesar damaged image
, The speech functions to nullify the effect of Brutus convincing explanation of Caesars murder , , to bring a culmination to the conspirators
scheme of veiling their brutal act, and to shift the mood of the mob. Verbal irony, diction pregnant with passion that appeals to emotion,
repetition, props, and specific evidence stirred the emotions of Plebians , his rhetorics were appealing to reason.Antony had a
thorough sense of occasion. Antony has expend 137 lines of blank verse before he's done, using rhetoric and calculated histrionics to incite
the crowd into a mob frenzy. All quite masterful for a man who denies any ability to "stir men's blood," as he puts it.

Antony's performance on the bully pulpit should come as no surprise. It is obvious from his Act III, sc. i meeting with the conspirators that he
means something different in nearly everything he says. He even subtly mocks the senators with his lines "My credit now stands on such
slippery ground/That one of two bad ways you must conceit me/Either a coward or a flatterer." Brutus, ignoring the more sensible misgivings
of Cassius, takes Antony at his word. However, when Antony in private utters, "O, pardon me, thou bleeding piece of earth/That I am meek
and gentle with these butchers!" reveals what he has in store .

Antony is a master of the theatrical. What more dramatic effect could there be than Antony entering the forum bearing the body of the slain
leader? No matter what Brutus says, and despite the fact that the crowd is emphatically on his side, from this moment, all eyes are turned to
Mark Antony and the corpse he bears. In his trusting navet, Brutus leaves the stage to his opponent. Antony knows that the crowd is
convinced that Caesars murder happened in the best interest of Rome. He carefully tries to take a neutral ground to win the trust of the
crowd The exordium is very classic. Antony tries to establish a link, to appear trustworthy. -What follows is I come to bury Caesar, not to
praise him" funeral oration. Antony's rhetorical skill is impressive; he instantly disarms any opposition in the crowd by saying "I come to bury
Caesar, not to praise him," [3.ii.75]but quickly follows this with a subtle turn of phrase that suggests Caesar was a good man and that all that
was good of him will go to the grave. He begins with building up the image of Caesar that has been shattered by Brutus But a s he was
ambitious I slew him [3.ii.24-25]He has turned his audience's attention from the "evil ambition" of which Brutus spoke thus attacking
Brutus image whilst rescuing Caesars.

He exude the highest level of sincerity in his persuasion when he directly links the masses with Caesar He hath brought many captives
to Rome . Caesar had wept In a mocking way, Antony repeats the fact that Brutus and Cassius are good men and also questions their
logic, which helps his argument. He says, the noble Brutus hath told [the audience] Caesar was ambitious [3. ii.83,8495,100), but goes on to
question how ambitious Caesar really was. To justify his point of view and rehabilitate Caesar, Antony gives three proofs of Caesar's moderate
ambition ;Caesar payed ransoms as he was patriot and generous, Caesar wept for poor people as he had compassion for his people [
3.ii.88-92].Antony says Caesar had refused the crown three times. In the speech that follows, Antony merely sets the table for dissent. He
progressively hits upon the notes of ambition and honourable in a cadence that soon calls both terms into question. Antony's prime weapons
at the beginning are his conspicuous ambiguity regarding Caesar ("If it were so, it was a grievous fault") and Brutus ("Yet Brutus says he was
ambitious"), He questions whether this was ambition: Furthermore, he says that Brutus said Caesar was ambitious and that Brutus was an
honorable man. He repeats this so many times that it seems to mock Brutus honorability and adds a hint of sarcasm to it. With Antony saying
that Brutus was an honorable man, but then contradicting that by giving examples of how what Brutus said was wrong, Brutus argument is
weakened. Therefore, Antonys is strengthened.
The words Antony uses appeals to the audiences sense of respect for Caesar, which causes them to go against the conspirators, and, in turn,
benefits Antonys argument. After the will of Caesar is read, the audience will kiss the dead Caesars wounds and dip their napkins in his
sacred blood (IV.ii.133-134). The word sacred alters Caesars blood to make it seem like Caesar was special. This would cause the plebeians
to think of Caesar as a higher being, and therefore cause the thought that they lost something that was better than the rest.

Antony uses the clever trick of the testament, Antony incites the mob by suggesting that they have something to gain from Caesar's will. By
this means, he initiates desire but must then direct it. He begins to create the desire for revenge and each time he does so, he strengthens that
desire by reigning it in. Each time he holds them back, he builds their desire until finally they are passionate enough to do what Antony wants.

To make the effect of his words more profound he diverges their overly whelmed emotions towards Caesars mantle causes the
plebeians to feel even more sorry that Caesar is gone, which naturally results in the resentment of Caesars murderers. Antony remember[s]
the first time Caesar put [the mantle] on (3.ii169). The fact that the story was even told is bound to cause a few tears to be shed because the
audience would remember Caesar when he was alive. he draws his oration to a close by pointing to another image that will remain in the
minds of the people as they riot. He reveals Caesar's wounds. As Antony is fully aware, that image speaks far better for his cause than any
words possibly could.He names each and every butcher and reveal their cold brutal stabs in this place ran Cassius dagger .
Unkindest cut of all[ 3.ii172 - 181] Keeping that thought in mind and then hearing about who killed Caesar would snatch the remembrance
out of their minds and replace it with hate for the conspirators more Revenge , burn , kill , fire [ 3.ii200] this further added fuel to
the fire The crowd was moved by Antonys words and that he successfully brought them over to his side.

As a finishing touch, just as Antony created an impressive image by entering the Forum bearing the body of Caesar,
he strategically reads out Caesars will in the end which was a real twist, and the significant descent of Antony from the pulpit
It cause rage and anger toward Caesars murderers piquing the mob to seek out and kill the conspirators, and, consequently, leave him in
power.

More chilling, however, is Antony's cynical epilogue to the funeral speech as the mob departs: "Now let it work: mischief, thou art afoot/Take
thou what course thou wilt!" As Antony exemplifies, the art of persuasion is not far removed in Julius Caesar from the craft of manipulation.

Antonys purpose was to revolt the audience, therefore his speech is more rhythmic, incantational .It is toned in iambic pentameter , I
come to bury Caesar not to praise him which offers structure and fluidity .The themes of honour and ambition are emphasized here
through the extensive use of metaphors , images and rhetoric al questions such as Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?He is
increasingly interrupted by the crowd , after the end of every argument, Antony exploits the device antistrophe when he repeats the
expression Yet Brutus says he was ambitious, And Brutus is an honorable man. Throughout this speech there are some of the finest
examples of rhetorical irony at work , personification s The evil that men d does do lives after them [3.ii.76], rhetorical questions
and metaphors to emphasize the art of persuasion and to convey strong emotions You are not wood , you are not stones , but men
[ 3.ii.144] .There are many important images in Antony speech like the goddess of revenge let loose from hell on Rome now that
Caesar is dead , the fierce dogs ready to attack and the smell of rotting flesh emphasizing the evil of Caesar; murder .They are all
images and symbols used to foreshadow the catastrophe of Rome now that Caesar is dead . All these literary devices have been
cleverly used to trigger the crowd opposition , guilt and sense of patriotism in an artistic manner .

Steeped in the political spirit of the age , Antony knows , a s no other man , the mob which governs Rome , and is conscious of
the mighty engine he possess in his oratory to sway the mob in what direction he pleases; when his bold plan has succeeded , and
his adversaries have consented to met him in contest of oratory , then ironically conciliation becomes the natural relief to his pent-
up passion .R.G.Moulton

argumentative reasoning and sophist styles.


frstly, the speech by Brutus is quick, rather simplified and to the point. Brutus suggests that Caesar became ambitious and therefore, had to be
killed. Although his oratory is much-less wordy than that of Antony, he does offer a reasoned argument, as when he asks, Have you rather
Caesar were living and die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live all free men? (3. 2). Knowing the context of his argumentthat of the
possibility that the Senate could declare Caesar king thus effectively putting an end to the Roman Republicoffers weight to Brutus defense of
Caesars murder. Another example of Brutus use of reason are the steps of logic he displays when he says (effectively) if you love Rome, then I
have not offended you (by murdering Caesar) because I did it out of love for Rome..His argument here utilizes both pathos and logos. In still a
further statement of reason (and again infused with pathos) Brutus assures the crowd that he has the dagger ready to kill himselfif the good of
Rome should call for it. Brutus uses the expenditure of his own life (thereby comparing the lesser-value of individual life to the greater value of
Rome in general) Also, his audience can assume that Brutus does place some value on his own lifetherefore there may be little (or no question)
that he did, indeed, love Caesarandconsequentlydid have strong reasons for murdering him. Brutus argues that personal life (although
individually valuable) should/must be sacrificed (if need be) for the good of Rome. Again, it is the bigger picture of a safe, successful Roman
Republic that is important to Brutusand it is to that end that the small, personal nuances of the individualits passions, its lovesits very
existenceare to be surrendered. Brutus wins his audiencebut he fails to keep them. His mistake was in his assumption that the crowd would
stay with himtherefore, he did not need to work too hard (or too long) at maintaining his position. He would have been better served had he
heeded Cassius earlier warning.

firstly, the speech by Brutus is quick, rather simplified and to the point. Brutus suggests that Caesar became ambitious and therefore, had to be
killed. Although his oratory is much-less wordy than that of Antony, he does offer a reasoned argument, as when he asks, Have you rather
Caesar were living and die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live all free men? (3. 2). Knowing the context of his argumentthat of the
possibility that the Senate could declare Caesar king thus effectively putting an end to the Roman Republicoffers weight to Brutus defense of
Caesars murder. Another example of Brutus use of reason are the steps of logic he displays when he says (effectively) if you love Rome, then I
have not offended you (by murdering Caesar) because I did it out of love for Rome..His argument here utilizes both pathos and logos. In still a
further statement of reason (and again infused with pathos) Brutus assures the crowd that he has the dagger ready to kill himselfif the good of
Rome should call for it. Brutus uses the expenditure of his own life (thereby comparing the lesser-value of individual life to the greater value of
Rome in general) Also, his audience can assume that Brutus does place some value on his own lifetherefore there may be little (or no question)
that he did, indeed, love Caesarandconsequentlydid have strong reasons for murdering him. Brutus argues that personal life (although
individually valuable) should/must be sacrificed (if need be) for the good of Rome. Again, it is the bigger picture of a safe, successful Roman
Republic that is important to Brutusand it is to that end that the small, personal nuances of the individualits passions, its lovesits very
existenceare to be surrendered. Brutus wins his audiencebut he fails to keep them. His mistake was in his assumption that the crowd would
stay with himtherefore, he did not need to work too hard (or too long) at maintaining his position. He would have been better served had he
heeded Cassius earlier warning.

finally, as with most of Shakespeares works, much can be gleaned by the speeches of Antony and Brutus. Shakespeare imbues
his characters with truths of emotion and reason that transcend both time and distance (which is why his plays are so relevant
today). They are comprised of human elementssocial, intellectual and emotionalof which all can identify. The words of Brutus
and Antony reveal how easily and completely an audience can be both won and lost in terms of persuasion. Like the sophists, like
modern mass mediaShakespeare was well aware of which buttons to push, and when and how oftenin order to gain the
greatest persuasive advantage.

Brutus is clearly overmatched at Caesar's funeral, both by Antony's


duplicity and oration. Brutus gives a reasoned prose speech that
convinces the crowd Caesar had to die. Then, for reasons that
remain questionable even taking naivet into account, Brutus not
only yields to Antony but leaves the Forum altogether. Antony will
expend 137 lines of blank verse before he's done, using rhetoric and
calculated histrionics to incite the crowd into a mob frenzy. All quite
masterful for a man who denies any ability to "stir men's blood," as
he puts it.
The impact of the funeral orations at the Capitol demonstrates the
power of choice (whether enlightened or ignorant) in political
campaigning. The plebeians are neither coerced nor blackmailed to
support either Brutus or Antony. The orations given are, as it were,
political manifestos to which the mob responds. Brutus and Antony
represent different political ideologies between which the mob has
to make a choice and, like in a latter-day electoral process, the
plebeians are free agents in the choice they make. Ultimately, the
mob chooses Antony, quite oblivious to what the future holds for
them
SUPERNATURAL SUPERSTITION

Julius Caesar is full of cryptic omens: the soothsayer's advice for Caesar to "beware the Ides of March," bad weather, wacky animal behavior,
scary dreams, and, of course, ghosts Forces of nature play a very important role in Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare. There is much
attention paid to omens and nightmares, and how they foreshadow the death of Julius Caesar. All events that lead up to the death of Julius
Caesar are predicted by omens from multiple characters
There are many examples of how the forces of nature, omens and the supernatural show that they play many important parts in this play.
They have been shown throughout and work towards foreshadowing the death of Julius Caesar because of the interpretation and
misinterpretation of these many omens and forces of nature. Even after the death of Caesar, omens are part of what makes the many
conspirators feel guilt, sorrow and doubt.
In Julius Caesar, superstitions exist in the following areas; Caesars instructions to Calpurnia to stand in Antonios way during the festival of
Lupercalia. Caesar impresses on Antony the observance of all the ritual. He tells Antony not to forget in the haste to touch his wife for the
elders say that barren women when touched in that holy race may have their curse of sterility removed[1.ii.4-12]

In the beginning of the play, the soothsayer warns Caesar that he should Beware the ides of March (I.ii.18) the Ides of March refer to the
15thof March which is the exact day Caesar is killed. The soothsayer is an important character because he tries to warn Caesar one last time on
the 15th, but he is also ignored. The first time he states this, Caesar responds with He is a dreamer; let us leave him. Pass (I.ii.24) and the
second time The idea of March are come (III.i.1). The first time he shrugs it off, and the second time when he notices that it is the ide of
March, he thinks that since nothing bad has happened yet, nothing will. This is why the soothsayer says Ay, Caesar; but not gone (III.i.2)
meaning that it has come, but not gone and there is still time for something to go wrong. Likewise, when Calpurnia has a dream on the night
before the 15th, lightning and thunder can be heard, which is an example of a bad omen and many Romans believe this. Her dream was that
the statue of Caesar had 100 sword holes in him and the Romans had come to bathe in the blood flowing from it. She dreamt tonight she saw
my status, / Which, like a fountain with an hundread spouts,/ Did run pure blood; and many lusty Romans/ Came smiling, and did bathe their
hands in it (II.ii.76-79) After her dream, before Caesar thought any good could come of it, he sent a servant to tell a priest to do a sacrifice.
After the servant tells Caesar what happened They would not have you stir forth today./ Plucking the entrails of an offering forth,/ They could
not find a heart within the beast. (II.ii.38-40). When an animal doesnt have a heart, it was interpreted as a very bad thing, and thats what
almost kept Caesar from leaving, but persuasion made him. It doesnt matter if it was a person, and animal, or Mother Nature, anything could
have been made into a good or bad omen. In this play, many were interpreted right when it was too late to do anything about it. The
misinterpretation of important omens caused Caesar to lose his life

Not the least , but when Caesar tells this to his friend Decius when he came to pick up Caesar to go to the senate house on the 15 th.Calpurnias
dream foreshadows the death to come, but no-one believes this omen for it was portrayed as a good thing by Decius
The disorder in nature and weather also foreshadows the sinful things that were to occur in rome . To Cassius the storm is a
forewarning , Cassius thinks the bad weather and other signs are a "warning" to the Romans about Caesar's "monstrous state" of tyranny in
Rome (1.3.73; 74). To Casca the storm has sinister meanings Either there is a civil strife in heaven .send destruction [1.iii.11-13].

Even , While going to the senate house, he is interrupted by Arthidorus Hail, Caesar! Read this schedule (III.i.3) and Caesar responds with
What touches us ourself shall be last servd. (III.i.8) This is the last time and last chance to get Caesar from entering the house, but he has yet
again ignored these very important omens, and enters, to be stabbed by many senators. These are the best known parts and lines from the
play and symbolize how omens are used to foreshadow Julius Caesars death. These quotes that predict the death of Julius Caesar are
significant because it shows how many omens are used to predict how things may play out in the future. When there misinterpreted, bad
things can happen.

Before the death of Caesar, many characters used to omens to predict how to live their life, and sometimes it caused them to have odd
dreams and see things that werent necessarily there. Even after the death of Julius Caesar, there are many omens that show the conspirators
are very guilt ridden.The ghosts were mainly used to show how someone is guilt-ridden. To give a bad omen to scare people. There was also
the use of fire in the play, but only while bad things were happening, mainly as an interpretation of a bad omen. This happened a few days
before Caesars death with a woman in the street who tells Casca what she has seen. Upon a heap, a hundred ghastly women,/ Transformed
with their fear, who swore they saw/ Men all in fire walk up and down the streets. (I.ii.23-25). This relates to Caesars death because this is not
a normal thing to see or dream about. Since this woman is not one of the main characters, no-one notices how it relates or foreshadows
anything and because of how its not normal, it is seen as a bad omen. The men on fire were always ghost like people, so this is one of the
references to them. Right after Caesar is murdered, Brutuss wife Portia starts to become agitated because she kept the news of the
conspiracy to herself instead of telling Caesar and Calpurnia. In addition to the men all in fire (I.ii.25) there is another reference to fire, which
is when Portia commits suicide. This is after the death of Caesar, but is still similar, That tidings camewith this she fell distract,/ And, her
attendants absent, swallowd fire. (2.ii.209-210).

Every time there are bad omens in the play, animals, especially birds, center prominently.
When Casca talks about how fearsome the night that Cassius gathers the plotters is, there's thunder and lighting, but there's also the strange
occurrence of a nocturnal bird showing up at the marketplace at high noon, shrieking doom.
Calphurnia warns Caesar not to go to the Capitol because she's seen a war in the air, the domain of the birds.
Finally, when Cassius accepts that he has to die in the battle against Antony and Octavius, he knows it because two great eagles that fed from
the hands of soldiers were replaced the next day by ravens, crows, and kites dark birds that filled the air with shrieking and spread a shadow
of death over the army. Cassius knows the eagles feeding from soldier's hands symbolize him and Brutus, two noble men whose fates rest with
their armies. After the eagles fall, the black army of Antony and Octavius will spread the shadow of tyranny over the land, like those scavenger
birds.
Other animals show up on occasion, such as the lions both Calphurnia and Casca see in visions. Calphurnia envisions a lioness giving birth in
the streets, a strange location for this to take place. The lion that Casca saw walked by him sulkily without attacking. So the lion (king of the
jungle) acts unnaturally in the play, perhaps symbolizing the fact that Caesar, who could become king (of men) will not reach this status.

Apparition appears to Brutus when In the plains of Philippi where Brutus was sleeping, he has a real-life/dream sequence where he sees
the ghost of Caesar. The ghost of Caesar hath appeard to me/ Two several times by night: at Sardis once,/ And this last night here in Philippi
fields./ I know my hour has come. (V.v.17-19). Brutus was so guilt-ridden, ashamed, grief stricken of how he killed one of his good friends, that
he has been seeing Caesars ghost off and on a few times. Shakespeare uses the ghost as a symbol and as foreshadowing because Brutus dies at
Philippi. The ghost is used to symbolize Brutus' guilt from the murder of his friend in cold blood. He knows he has done something very bad,
and decided to kill himself because of it. He finds that it is his time now to die; he kills himself, unlike the other three conspirators who had
someone to kill them. He ends up impaling himself to die honorably.

Omens and the supernatural also scare many characters and sometimes gave false hope or false truth, but it doesnt matter because they
believe them anyways. It is the same way now, though many people dont feel as strongly towards them. Many Romans believe in these kinds
of things, but through time, omens, supernaturals and false gods dont have any real impact and are really figments of their imagination. The
omens made decisions that they should have made themselves using logic.

However, the next morning,

his wife Calphurnia wakes up frightened due to a horrible nightmare. She

tells Caesar of a battle breaking out in the heart of Rome, "Which drizzled

blood upon the Capitol," with Caesar painfully dying, such that "...The

heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes." Although Caesar

realizes Calphurnia is truly concerned about his well-being, he seeks

another interpretation, coming to the conclusion that the person who

imagines the dream may not be the wisest one to interpret it's meaning.

Later Caesar tells his faithful companion Decius about it, and he

interprets it quite the contrary, "That it was a vision fair and

fortunate," and indeed, today is an ideal day to go out, since this is the

day "To give a crown to mighty Caesar." Perhaps Decius is implying here

that today is a day where much appreciation and appraisal will be given to

Caesar, surely not the endangerment of his well-being as Calphurnia

interprets it. Caesar predictably agrees with him, as most citizens enjoy
believing the more positive of two interpretations.
1.2:CASSIUS PERSUADES BRUTUS
Cassius attempts to convince Brutus to join the conspriacy in a couple of ways, though the more effective way is through deception.First,
during the feast of Luprical in the first act, Claudius points out that Caesar is no more worthy of being crowned emperor than Brutus. He points
out Caesars many physical weaknesses, such as his girlishness when he is sick or his inability to swim for distances. These weaknesses,
however, are not enough to convince Brutus.Casius knows that Brutus' first concern is for the people of Rome, so to convince him to kill
Caesar, Casuis must first convince him that Caesar is bad for Rome. He plants the idea that Caesar is too powerful and that power causes
people to be corrupt. He then convinces Brutus that the people themselves fear Caesar and his control.To do this, Casius forges several letters
from anonymous Roman citizens and has them placed around Brutus' home where he is sure to find them. These faked letters convince Brutus
that the people would be better served if the threat of an all-powerful Caesar were removed.
He would be crown'd:
How that might change his nature, there's the question.
It is the bright day that brings forth the adder
And that craves wary walking. Crown him? that;
And then, I grant, we put a sting in him
That at his will he may do danger with.
Brutus is saying that though Caesar may be a good man now, too much power may change his nature, and turn him into something dangerous.
Logical: Brutus hears a general shout from the people and says that he is afraid that the people will choose Caesar to be their king. Cassius
then logically deduces that if Brutus fears this, then he must not want it to happen.
Emotional: Cassius appeals to Brutus loyalty to Rome "There was a Brutus once that would have brook'd the eternal devil to keep his state in
Rome as easily as a king." (I.ii)
He uses logic again by giving examples of Caesar is an ordinary man. He tells how he (Cassius) saved him from drowning and how he saw him
once fall with an epileptic fit. He concludes that Caesar is no better than himself or Brutus and does not deserve his lofty status.At Caesar's
departure, Cassius and Brutus are left onstage. Cassius, whose political purpose is to gather people around him and overthrow Caesar, tests
the waters with Brutus. He asks if he intends to watch the race and Brutus is less than enthusiastic. Brutus speaks disapprovingly of Antony's
quickness. Cassius, who is a very good reader of other people, interprets this as Brutus' dislike of the new regime and goes on to probe a little
further to find out if he will join his group of conspirators. Brutus resists the idea of speaking against Caesar, but Cassius flatters him,
suggesting that no matter what Brutus says or does, he could never be anything but a good man.
Their speech is interrupted by a shout offstage and the abruptness of it causes Brutus to display more of his feeling than he may have
otherwise. He says that he fears that the people have elected Caesar their king. Cassius has the green light now and presses his case. He
speaks of how Caesar oversteps his bounds by calling himself a god when he is only a man and not a very strong one at that. He recounts
saving Caesar from drowning. He describes the fever that left Caesar groaning and trembling. Another offstage shout adds urgency to what
Cassius says. Brutus is swayed.
With Caesar's return to the stage not crowned as Cassius and Brutus expect he looking unhappy and is none too pleased that Cassius is
lurking about with "a lean and hungry look." But Cassius is not truly tainted by this description because Caesar goes on to complain that he has
not been able to corrupt Cassius and make him fat, luxurious, and distracted by orchestrated spectacles. So Caesar sees Cassius as a good
Roman. On the other hand, Caesar worries that "Such men as he be never at heart's ease / Whiles they behold a greater than themselves,"
and he accuses Cassius of being too ambitious, which makes Cassius not a good Roman. Cassius thus cannot be categorized as good or bad
like all the other actors in this drama, he is complex and very human.
Caesar's insight into Cassius' character reveals Caesar to be an intelligent and effective man, but as Caesar leaves the stage he reveals a
physical weakness that represents a moral and intellectual weakness: He is deaf in one ear and can hear only one side of the issue Antony's.
Caesar and Antony exit, with the latter calming Caesar's fears.
The others remain onstage. Casca describes to Cassius and Brutus what all the shouting had been about, how Caesar had to tried to build
enthusiasm for his ascent to the throne by pretending disinterest. The plan backfired and the crowd shouted not because they wanted him to
be crowned but because they were responding to the theater he had created, as they "did clap him and hiss him, according as he pleas'd and
displeas'd them, as they use to do the players in the theatre." The biggest cheer arose when Caesar refused the crown and his fit of pique was
represented bodily by a fit of epilepsy.Casca reveals his own sympathies when he mentions that he had trouble keeping himself from laughing
at the scene, and Cassius invites him to dinner in order to convert him to the conspirators' cause.Brutus, not yet converted, is nonetheless
sympathetic and suggests that he and Cassius get together the next day to discuss it further. The scene finishes with Cassius alone on stage. He
mistrusts Brutus' nobility and his loyalty to the state, and decides on a ploy to convince him. Having determined the possibility of Brutus' open
mind, he will write flattering letters that seem to come from the people and will throw them in Brutus' open window. He could not do this with
any hope of success, however, were he not aware that Brutus' mind was open to the suggestion.