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DGB Flores Urquijo


Serie integral
por competencias

Flores Urquijo
English 3
Esta obra forma parte de la Serie Integral por competencias, que Actividades de aprendizaje
English
Grupo Editorial Patria ha creado con la colaboracin de expertos Actividades que fomentan el uso de las TIC
pedagogos para cumplir con los objetivos marcados en los Portafolio de evidencias
planes de estudios de la Direccin General de Bachillerato Instrumentos de evaluacin (exmenes, autoevaluaciones,
(DGB) de la Secretara de Educacin Pblica (SEP). Nuestros coevaluaciones, heteroevaluaciones, listas de cotejo,
C autores, que cuentan con gran experiencia docente y una rbricas y guas de observacin)
M
trayectoria destacada han creado contenidos actuales y signica- En esta edicin incluimos un mejor diseo, que resulta atractivo
Y
tivos para cada materia. Por nuestra parte, los editores hemos y prctico tanto para los estudiantes como para los maestros, as
plasmado todos nuestros conocimientos y experiencia en el como referencias a nuestras nuevas herramientas pedaggicas:
desarrollo de estos libros, as como en los materiales de apoyo y
CM

guas acadmicas y estrategias docentes.


MY
tecnolgicos.
CY Para esta Serie preparamos el Sistema de Aprendizaje en Lnea
Quienes han usado y conocen las versiones anteriores de esta (SALI), herramienta de apoyo para docentes y alumnos, la cual

English 3
CMY
Serie, saben que cuenta con numerosas y bien diseadas est diseada para facilitar el aprendizaje. Se trata de un
K
secciones que facilitan la comprensin de los temas, el aprendi- Learning Management System (LMS) que permite aprender a
zaje y la labor docente. travs de video, audio, documentos, bancos de exmenes y
En esta Serie encontrars: reactivos. Contamos con cientos de objetos de aprendizaje y
Situaciones y secuencias didcticas nuestra meta es ir creciendo da a da.
Lecturas Los invitamos a conocer ms de nuestra Serie y de SALI.

Grupo Editorial Patria

Grupo Sistema de
Editorial aprendizaje

Patria
en lnea

www.editorialpatria.com.mx www.sali.org.mx

4
978-607-744-321-6
3
Edicin especial para Tabasco

Paula Flores Kastanis


Katherine Urquijo Flores

cuarta edicin 2017


Contacto Patria

correo: telfonos: correo electrnico: sitio web: fax pedidos:


Renacimiento # 180,
Col. San Juan Tlihuaca, 5354 9100 5354 9109
Azcapotzalco, 02400, (0155)
1102 1300 info@editorialpatria.com.mx WWW
www.editorialpatria.com.mx (0155)
5354 9102
Cd. de Mxico.

Grupo Editorial Patria


Divisin Bachillerato, Universitario y Profesional

Direccin editorial: Javier Enrique Callejas


Coordinacin editorial: Ma. del Carmen Paniagua Gmez
Diseo de interiores y portada: Juan Bernardo Rosado Sols
Supervisin de produccin editorial: Miguel ngel Morales Verdugo
Diagramacin: Gustavo Vargas Martnez, Jorge Antonio Martnez Jimnez
Ilustraciones y Fotografas: Jorge Gonzlez Rodrguez, Thinkstock

English 3

Edicin especial para Tabasco

Derechos reservados:
.

2010, 2013, 2016, 2017, Paula Flores Kastanis, Katherine Urquijo Flores
2010, 2013, 2016, 2017, Grupo Editorial Patria, S.A. de C.V.

ISBN: 978-607-744-321-6 (Cuarta edicin)


ISBN: 978-607-744-321-6 (Tercera edicin)
ISBN: 978-607-438-531-1 (Segunda edicin)
ISBN: 978-607-438-198-6 (Primera edicin)

Renacimiento 180, Col. San Juan Tlihuaca,


Delegacin Azcapotzalco, Cdigo Postal 02400, Cd. de Mxico.
Miembro de la Cmara Nacional de la Industria Editorial Mexicana
Registro nm. 43

Queda prohibida la reproduccin o transmisin total o parcial del contenido de la presente obra en
cualesquiera formas, sean electrnicas o mecnicas, sin el consentimiento previo y por escrito del editor.

Impreso en Mxico / Printed in Mexico

Primera edicin: 2010


Segunda edicin: 2013
Tercera edicin: 2016
Cuarta edicin: 2017
Grupo Editorial Patria

Contents Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
III
V
General Baccalaureate Generic Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII
Basic discipline competencies in English learning . . . . . . . . . . . . VII
Sections of Your book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII

1.1 .... 4
1.2 First conditional plus will, If + will . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1 Describing cause
1.3 Modals to express possibility: may, might, can, could . .
1.4 Modals in conditional sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26
27
and effect situations
BLOCK

Evidence Collection and Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28


Pair Work Evaluation - Coevaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Team Work Evaluation - Heteroevaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

2.1 Vocabulary: Transportation, food. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41


2.2 .......... 43

2
2.3 To be used to doing and to get used to doing . . . . . . 69
Comparing habits 2.4 Question words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
and customs
BLOCK

2.5 Time expressions used in the past tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75


in other communities
Evidence Collection and Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Pair Work Evaluation - Coevaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Team Work Evaluation - Heteroevaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

III
Contents

3.1 The past continuous or past progressive tense. . . . . . . . . . 89


3.2 More uses of the past continuous
or past progressive tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

3 Describing activities
3.3 When/while used in sentences in simple past
and past continuous. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
in the past
BLOCK

3.4 Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102


Evidence Collection and Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Pair Work Evaluation - Coevaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Team Work Evaluation - Heteroevaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

4.1 Phrasal verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116


4.2 Phrasal verbs related to clothing, cleaning
and household activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4 Making requests 4.3 Modals used to make requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
4.4 Lets review object pronouns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
and giving instructions
BLOCK

Evidence Collection and Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148


Pair Work Evaluation - Coevaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Team Work Evaluation - Heteroevaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Web sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

IV
Grupo Editorial Patria

Overview

ENGLISH 3

This book is the third of four that compose a series designed to comply with the update of the syllabi for the pro
gram of the subject Lengua Adicional al Espaol (English). This subject corresponds to the curriculum of the Gene
ral Baccalaureate 2009 program which incorporates a competence based approach, established by the Common
Curricular Framework or CCF (Marco Curricular Comn, MCM in Spanish).

English 3 is one of the subjects that belongs to the communication area of the curriculum, along with two other
subjects: Taller de Lectura y Redaccin (Spanish Reading and Composition) and Informtica (Computing). Ac-
cording to the CCF, the areas main objective is to promote in students the development of the following skills:
critical reading, argumentation of ideas, and effective communication in the students native language and an ad-
ditional language (in this case, English). This subject is taught in the third semester and its antecedents are the two
previous courses of English 1 and 2, and the subject called Foreign Language taught in the basic education level
(secundaria). Its purpose is to increase and consolidate the social practices of language, this is, what the expert
users of the language do to interpret and produce oral and written texts, preserving the social function of such
acts. The four courses of the English program focused on the competence based approach, dont ignore previous
approaches, specially the communicative approach, which has been one of the most relevant ones.

The main goal of English 3 is to develop the communicative competence of the second language student by de-
veloping linguistic communicative skills: oral and written production and listening and reading compre-
hension.

During the first two courses (English 1 and 2) it is intended that students recall the most relevant concepts and
skills learned in basic education. With this foundation, during the other two courses (English 3 and 4), the goal
is for students to acquire a more advanced proficiency level. Using the language teaching Common European
Framework terms, during the first year of their baccalaureate studies, it is intended for students to consolidate level
A1 and reach the threshold of level B1. English 3, published by Editorial Patria and its complementary resources,
present one of the best proposals written in Mexico to help students go beyond the minimal level expected, help-
ing them reach a higher level. This is achieved by reinforcing the previously learned structures (in secundaria),
with detailed explanations about their use, cultural notes, and by encouraging students to reflect on their learning
processes, as well as on comparative aspects of their native language and English.

V
Overview

English 3
This book is divided into four blocks. Each one develops a particular theme, which is common in the life of our
students, and is developed in specific contexts where communication and the use of language are performed
naturally. In this way, the student develops his or her proficiency by acquiring new vocabulary, reinforcing the
knowledge of grammar structures learned previously and by developing linguistic skills with appropriate practice
and evaluation.

The blocks are the following:

BLOCK 1: Describing cause and effect situations.


BLOCK 2: Comparing habits and customs in other communities.
BLOCK 3: Describing activities in the past.
BLOCK 4: Making requests and giving instructions.

The objectives of these blocks are:

Block 1: The student is able to describe facts, present and future cause and effect situations, orally and in writing,
related to personal, family and social situations.

Block 2: The student is able to compare past and present habits and routines, orally and in writing, in social and
family-related contexts.

Block 3: The student is able to describe and understand activities that are occurring at a specific moment in the
past.

Block 4: The student can interpret and make requests and give instructions, orally and in writing, in family, work,
or social communicative situations.

VI


Grupo Editorial Patria

General Baccalaureate Generic Competencies


Generic competencies are those that all baccalaureate graduates others. These competencies, along with the basic disciplines cons-
are expected to perform and that allow them to understand their titute the profile of the student who graduates from the National
surroundings (local, regional, national or international), influence Baccalaureate System.
them, have the basic tools for lifelong learning, and get along well
with others in family, social, and professional contexts, among The generic competencies are listed below. The student

1. knows and values himself and faces problems and challenges considering his goals.
2. is sensitive to art and is aware of the appreciation and interpretation of its different genre expressions.
3. chooses and practices healthy life styles.
4. listens to, interprets, and emits pertinent messages in different contexts by using appropriate media, codes, and tools.
5. develops innovation and proposes solutions to problems using established methods.
6. sustains a personal posture about topics of general interest and relevance, critically and reflectively considering others points of view.
7. learns due to his personal initiative and interest during his life.
8. participates and collaborates effectively in different types of groups.
9. participates with a critical and ethical awareness in the life of his community, region, country (Mexico), and world.
1 0. keeps a respectful attitude towards intercultural relationships and diversity of beliefs, values, ideas, and social practices.
11. critically contributes to sustainable development with responsible actions.

Basic discipline competencies in English learning


English 3 Blocks
Basic discipline competencies
1 2 3 4
1. The student identifies, orders, and interprets the ideas, data, and explicit or implicit concepts written within a text
X X X X
considering the contexts in which it was generated and received.
2. The student evaluates a text by comparing its content with the content of others based on his previous and new
X X X X
knowledge.
3. The student makes suppositions about the natural and cultural phenomena in his surroundings based on research done in
several sources.
4. The student produces texts based on the normative use of language. X X X X
5. The student expresses in writing his concepts and ideas clearly and coherently in creative texts following the introduction,
X X X X
development, and conclusion format.
6. The student arguments his own point of view in public in a precise, coherent, and creative manner.
7. The student values and describes the role of art, literature, and media in the recreation or transformation of a culture,
considering the communicative purposes of the different genre.
8. The student values logical reasoning when communicating in his daily and academic life. X X X X

9. The student analyzes and compares the origin, development, and diversity of communication systems and media.
10. The student can identify and interpret the general idea and possible development of an oral or written message in a
X X X X
second language by recurring to previous knowledge, and verbal and non-verbal elements.
11. The student can communicate congruently in a foreign language using a logical oral or written discourse according to the
X X X X
communicative situation.
12. The student can use information technologies to research and solve problems, produce materials and transmit information. X X X X

VII
Sections
1
BLOQUE

of Your book
Aplica los niveles bsicos de la ecologa en su contexto

3
Warm up

Beginning BLOCK
1.

of the block
2.
10 hours

Learning 3.
Objects
4.

5.

Learning Objects 6.

7.

Under the Learning Objects section you will find 8.

a collection of structural and notional items which


are contextualized according to the thematic unit in a
9.

logical and pertinent sequence, giving the student and At the end of this block
teacher a clear direction to follow throughout the block. the student...

Competencies to be developed Competencies to be developed

Demonstrate your knowledge, skills and attitudes


applied to real-life situations as you develop the
disciplinary competencies described in each block.

At the end of this block Warm-up


the student...
BLOCK
3 This section can be used as a diagnostic evaluation that
Learning Situation How would you solve it?
Find a detailed explanation of what are will allow you to identify the competences and knowledge
the learning outcomes you are expected you already have in order to begin the acquisition of new
to achieve at the end of each block. knowledge and the development of new skills.
Activity Sequence What do you have to do?

Learning Situation How would you solve it?


Each block begins with a challenging learning situation that can be to solve a problem, read a text, analyze
a situation, answer questions, give a presentation, write a text, discuss an issue, or do an assignment that
will help you to acquire knowledge and develop competences.
Rubrics How do you know you did it well?

Activity Sequence What do you have to do?


The activity sequence is based on a methodology to acquire knowledge and develop the necessary skills
to become competent. The activity sequence describes the process in detail, so you can easily follow the
steps, go through the activity and obtain the desired results.

Rubrics How do you know you did it well?


7
Rubrics are practical and concrete tools that help you to evaluate your performance and continuously
improve it. Rubrics evaluate not only knowledge, but also skills and attitudes.

Characteristics that constantly appears in the block of the series


You will notice that an icon follows the title of some important topics. These icons indicate the existence of additional resources to help you learn. You can
consult or download these materials from the sites that Grupo Editorial Patria have developed to you.

Portfolio of evidence Online resources Teaching resources

Throughout the book you will find several


suggestions and activities that if you follow and/or
do, you will be able to gather them as evidence Videos to Additional Audios to Teacher Teacher
in the form of written tasks, presentations or other reinforce material you reinforce themes guides strategies
type of products. difficult topics can print out and pronunciation
VIII
Grupo Editorial Patria
BLOCK
3
Applying your Knowledge

Learning Activities Applying your Knowledge


Throughout the book you will find these activities, Learning Activities
This section is designed so you can apply
they will allow you to strengthen your knowledge and your knowledge to real-life situations,
competences while doing research. analyze and solve problems you may face
as an individual or as a member of a
community or society, as well as to
improve your life in many ways.
Food for Thought

Exercises
This proposed exercises will help you to consolidate
your recently acquired knowledge, through either real Use of TIC
Food for Thought
or hypotetical situations and a the same time will help
The purpose of this section is to enrich your
to create a feeling of easyness and reasuring 46
knowledge with additional data, related
throughout your learning process.
texts, and relevant information about the
topic being covered in the block. This useful
Examples section will provide different perspectives
and contexts of the same data.
It is important to mention that you will find in each block different examples
that are designed to facilitate your learning.

At the end of the block


BLOCK
3 Grupo Editorial Patria
Evidence Collection & Portfolio
Evidence Collection & Portfolio Evidences Portfolio This section allows you to self-evaluate the knowledge acquired and
the skills you have developed throughout the block. In addition to
your evidence portfolio, these assignments will help you attain
better results in the summative evaluation that your professor will
do of your performance.
Evidence Portfolio
In this book you will find different suggestions and activities you
can use as learning evidence. These products may be written
texts, aural texts as a result of oral presentations, or different
types of projects. It is important you remember that besides
Rubrics
presenting the product, you must consider the performance
indicators that will determine the quality and accuracy of your
performance. We invite you to always aim for the highest level.
220 221

Rubrics
These will help you to verify your performance through the evaluation of the projects, products or other evidences that youll be asked to do in each
block. In general this instruments are a criteria list that will allow you to evaluate the learning level, abilities, knowledge and performance reached,
based on a particular project. These rubrics can be done in a personal or coevaluative way.

In the final pages of the book


In addition, you will find a list of supplementary resources and in some cases, vocabulary lists and glossaries.
1
BLOCK

12 hours
1
Learning
Describing cause
and effect situations

Objects

1.1 The present real


conditional or zero
conditional

1.2 First conditional


plus will, If + will

1.3 Modals to express


possibility: may,
might, can, could

1.4 Modals in
conditional
sentences

Competencies to be developed n Communicate in a foreign language by using a logical oral or written


discourse in order to compare causes and consequences of environmental
Students are able to: situations in local, national and international contexts, as well as in
everyday situations.
n Identify and interpret the general idea and possible development of an oral n Evaluate a text by comparing its content with the one of other texts
or written message about the characteristics of people, places, and things according to his/her new and previous knowledge.
in a foreign language.
n Use autonomous learning strategies using information and communication
n Identify and interpret the general idea and possible development of an technologies to obtain information about the grammatical structures and
oral or written message about causes and effects in different situations in a uses of zero and first conditionals.
foreign language.
Warm up

Science is great!

Fernando and Jason are high school students. They are talking about their science class.
They are amazed by the things they have learned. Science is based on what is called the
scientific method. The scientific method is a process for experimentation that is used
to explore observations and answer questions. Scientists use the scientific method to
search for cause and effect relationships in nature. In other words, scientists design an
experiment so that changes to one item cause something else to vary in a predictable
way. First they observe a phenomenon. Second, they ask a question related to what they
observed. To answer that question, they do research and formulate a hypothesis, which
is like making a prediction of what will happen. Third, they test their hypothesis by doing
an experiment. Sometimes, scientists repeat their experiment several times to make sure
their results are accurate. Finally, they analyze the results and draw a conclusion, which
can agree or disagree with their hypothesis. When a cause and effect relationship shows to
be true every time that it is tested, it can become a scientific law.
Scientific statements can be expressed as general truths. These are some examples
Fernando and Jason found in their general science book:

If you heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.

n Identify and interpret the general idea and possible development of an At the end of this block, the student
oral or written message in a foreign language, by using his/her previous
knowledge, non-verbal elements, and the context. n Identifies the main ideas in an aural or written text.
n Recognize and understand the implications of environmental damage in a n Describes, orally and in writing, the causes and effects of a situation.
global and interdependent context.
n Uses first conditional and zero conditional grammatical structures to
n Use information and communication technologies to investigate, solve exchange information about causes and effects.
problems, produce materials, and transmit information.
n Produce texts based on the normative use of language, considering the
intention, communicative situation, and formal elements of the language,
such as punctuation, spelling, syntax, coherence, and cohesiveness.
1
BLOCK
Describing cause and effect situations

If you freeze water, it becomes a solid. You get sick when you dont have
a balanced diet.

Your immune system responds if bacteria enter your body.


If iron is in contact with water, it rusts.
When a seed is planted in fertile soil, it grows well.

If heat is transferred, it moves from a higher temperature to


a lower temperature.

If you dont water a plant, it dies. Thanks to science, we are now able to understand many phenomena in nature
that have made our daily lives better and easier.

Text handling exercise


Answer the following questions about the text.
1. What is this text about?
2. Why do scientists use the scientific method?
3. Which are the steps in the scientific method?
If you drop something, it falls. 4. How can scientific statements be expressed?
5. What benefit does science bring to society?
Work in pairs. Student A asks the question 1 and student B answers. Then,
student B asks the question and student A answers. Alternate to ask and answer
the next three questions.
1. What happens if you heat water?
2. What happens if you freeze water?
3. If iron gets wet, what happens to it?
4. What happens if you dont water plants?
5. If a human being doesnt have a balanced diet, what happens?

1.1 The present real conditional or zero conditional


Grammar Presentation

The present real conditional or zero conditional is a structure used for talking about things which always happen under certain
conditions, also called general truths. The zero conditional indicates certainty. For example, what happens when you heat ice?
It melts. Every time you heat ice, it will melt into water. You can be certain it will always happen. So you can say: If you heat ice,
it melts. This example is based on scientific facts.

4
Grupo Editorial Patria

Another example: If you drop an apple, it falls. = An apple falls, if you drop it.
(This is an absolute truth based on scientific fact - gravity).

However, a general truth can also be something personal or not necessarily based on science. This is called a personal fact
or personal truth. The important thing about the zero conditional is that the condition always has the same result. For
example, consider a person who needs to take the bus before seven oclock in order to get to work on time. What happens
if the person takes the bus at 7:15? This person will not arrive to work on time under normal circumstances of traffic, bus
schedule, etcetera.

So, you can say: If he doesnt take the bus before seven oclock, he arrives late to work.

In everyday conversation, we use this type of conditional sentence to talk about our personal truths or someones personal
truths. For example, my friend Laura is allergic to cats. Every time she is close to a cat, she begins to sneeze.

So, I can say: If Laura is close to a cat, she sneezes.

This is true for Laura. This is a general truth for Laura. Now, lets review how the zero conditional is formed and when it is used.

A. The structure of a zero conditional sentence


A zero conditional sentence consists of two clauses: an if clause and a main clause. In most zero conditional
sentences you can use when or if and the meaning will stay the same. Look at the following example:

If clause (CAUSE) Main clause (EFFECT)


If you heat water to 100 degrees Celsius, it boils

If the first clause is the if clause, a comma is usually used. If the if clause comes second, there is no need for a
comma. Compare:

Main clause (EFFECT) If clause (CAUSE)


Water boils if you heat it to 100 degrees Celsius

In each clause of a zero conditional, we use the same verb form: the simple present tense. This is the structure:

if clause if + subject + simple present verb


Main clause subject + simple present verb

B. When to use the zero conditional


1. The zero conditional is used to talk about things which are always true, such as scientific facts and general
truths:

5
1
BLOCK
Describing cause and effect situations

EXAMPLES EXPLANATION
When you cross an international date Every time you cross a date line, the time changes. This will always happen.
line, the time changes.
The ground gets wet if it rains. This is basically always true the rain makes the ground wet.
If there is no air, wood doesnt burn. This is a scientific fact wood needs air in order to burn. No air = no fire.

2. This structure is often used to give instructions, using the imperative in the main clause:

If clause Main clause


If my sister phones, tell her to meet me at my office.
Main clause If clause
Ask your doctor if youre not sure what to do.

3. The present real conditional is used to talk about what you normally do in real-life situations.

Examples
1. If I go to a friends house for dinner, I usually take a bottle of wine or some flowers.

2. When I have a day off from work, I often go out of town.

3. If the weather is nice, my sister walks to school.

4. Kathy helps me with my homework when she has time.

5. I listen to music if there is nothing interesting on TV.

Exercise 1
From the verbs given, choose those that complete the following sentences correctly and logically.
Cause clause:
has expose mix freeze is
Effect or result clause:
catch becomes get burns stop

a) If you water, it a solid.


b) If my husband a cold, I usually it.
c) People using their cars if public transport efficient.
d) If you red and blue, you purple.
e) Phosphorus if you it to air.

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Grupo Editorial Patria

Exercise 2
Change the order of the following conditional sentences.
Example: If she eats too much chocolate, my daughter gets sick.
My daughter gets sick if she eats too much chocolate.

1. If it gets wet, iron rusts.


.

2. If you drop ice in water, it floats.


.

3. The grass doesnt grow if there is no rain.


.

4. You die if you dont eat.


.

5. If you want to make a phone call, insert a phone card in the slot.
.

6. If Mrs. Flores is not in the office, leave a message in her answering machine.
.

7. If you move, notify the bank of your change of address.


.

8. If you dont return the book to the library by the due date, you pay a fine.
.

7
1
BLOCK
Describing cause and effect situations

Exercise 3
According to the clues given, write sentences expressing personal truths. Remember to change the form of the verb
in present tense according to the subject (when the subject is a third person singular you add s or es to the
simple form of the verb).
Example: John / wear eyeglasses. John / see well
If John wears his eyeglasses, he sees well.

1. I / drink coffee. I / cant sleep.


.

2. Mary / listen to music. Mary / type faster.


.

3. We / talk in class. Teacher / get angry.


.

4. I / arrive late. My father / punish me.


.

5. It / rain. My grandmothers knees / hurt.


.

6. My neighbor / play the guitar. My dog / bark.


.

7. Andrea / eat strawberries. Andrea / get sick.


.

8. Tom / smokes. Tom / get dizzy.


.

9. Mark / stay up late. Mark / be exhausted the next day.


.

10. You / dont do homework. You / get low grade.


.

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Learning Activity 1

Using the zero conditional 3. Work with another pair of students. Give them your cards and
1. Work in pairs. Think about 10 different situations related to receive their 20 cards. Try to match each cause with its effect.
your community or the environment. They may be neutral, The other pair of students will do the same with your cards.
positive or negative situations. Example. If it is spring, people 4. At the end check with them your answers (matched cards
plant their land. cause-effect).
2. Take 20 cards. Write on 10 cards the cause clauses of your 10 5. Do the same exchange with two or three other pairs of stu-
contidional sentences. Write on 10 cards the effect clauses of dents.
your 10 conditional sentences. Mix them.

What is the difference between using If or using When?

Food for Thought

Both if and when are used in the present real conditional. Using if suggests that something happens occasionally.
Using when suggests that something happens frequently.

Examples
When I have a day off from work, I usually go out of town.
(I frequently have days off from work.)

If I have a day off from work, I usually go out of town.


(I rarely have days off from work.)

Exercise 4
Complete the following sentences using if or when.

1. 
Jack is late to work, his boss gets very angry. That is why hes always on time.

2. 
I leave work, I usually go to the fitness center to work out.

3. 
he eats, he tries to choose healthy foods.

4. Tracys car is very reliable, and she rarely has any trouble with it, but she has had a couple of
difficulties in the past. she has any problems with her car, she calls her mechanic.

5. Marthas car is terrible! It always breaks down. she has any problems, she calls the mechanic.

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6. Mary gets six weeks paid vacation a year. She loves to travel. she goes on vacation,
she always goes somewhere exotic.

7. Dessy works harder than anyone I know. I dont think she has taken a day off in three years. She loves to travel.
she takes vacation, she travels.

8. Eddie loves going to the theater. he goes to the theater, he always buys his tickets in
advance to get a good seat.

9. My literature teacher hates TV. She thinks television is a waste of time. she watches any television at all, it is usually a news
program or a documentary.

10. My aunt Alicia always calls me every Sunday in the evening. the phone rings on Sunday evenings, I pick up the phone and say
Hi aunt Alicia!

Learning Situation 1
Expressing personal truths.
Competence: The student can efficiently express general truths and cause and effect conditions in daily familiar
situations, orally and in writing.

Activity Sequence 1
1. Look at these examples.
A: What do you do when it rains?
B: When it rains, I stay home.

A: Where do you stay if you go to California?


B: When I go to California, I stay with my mother.

2. Answer the following questions in writing according to your personal truths.

a) What do you do when you feel cold?


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b) What do you do when you are hungry?


.

c) What do you do when your head hurts?


d) What do you do when you feel sad?


e) What do you do when you feel happy?


f) What do you say when you answer the telephone?


g) What do you do when you see a mouse in your house?


h) What do you do to remember something?


i) What do you say to someone if he or she sneezes?


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j) What do you say to someone who gives you something?


3. Work with a partner. Ask the above questions to your partner and listen attentively to his/her answers.

4. Exchange roles. Now, your partner will ask you the questions and you will answer them.

Food for Thought

Reading

If I finish high school, I will go to college

Read the following conversation between Kathy and Ingrid.

Kathy: Well, we are about to finish high school. In two months after the final exams we will be
preparing to go to college.
Ingrid: Yes, those are our plans, but we still need to pass the final exams. I have trouble with
math When I open my math book, my mind goes blank! I hope I can get the neces-
sary grade to pass. If I dont get the necessary grade, I will have to take a summer
course to finish high school.
Kathy: I know, but dont think about not passing. You are going to pass. I am sure. I will help you study.
Remember I am good in math. If you want to, we can start studying this weekend.
Ingrid: T hat will be great! If you help me study for my math test, I will help you fix your room. You told me you wanted to change the decoration
of your bedroom, so I can help you.
Kathy: Sounds good to me. Thats a deal. Now tell me what are your plans once you finish high school?
Ingrid: If I finish high school as planned, I will surely enter the university in August or September. I want to study Industrial Engineering. How about
you?
Kathy: When I finish high school, I will definitely enter the university too. I want to study Computer Science. You know I love computers. When I
am in front of a computer, I spend hours surfing the web. I just love it! I think it is a fascinating world.

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Ingrid: Yeah I know. So, when shall I go to your house to start studying?
Kathy: How about tomorrow afternoon?
Ingrid: So soon? Well OK. The sooner, the better. See you then tomorrow afternoon. Is four oclock fine with you?
Kathy: Great! See you tomorrow afternoon at four oclock then. Dont forget your math books, your pencils, your calculator, and paper.
Ingrid: I wont. Thank you Kathy. Bye.
Kathy: Bye Ingrid.

Now, discuss these questions with a classmate. Work in pairs. Then, the teacher will lead a class discussion. Be prepared to participate.
1. What will Ingrid do when she finishes high school?
2. What will Kathy do when she finishes high school?
3. What will you do when you finish high school?
4. Do you find any subject difficult? If so, which one?
5. Do you study better alone or with a friend or group of friends?

Learning Activity 2

Using the zero conditional 2. Identify the number of cause-effect sentences.


1. Read the following story: 3. Identify the tense of each part of the conditional sentences.
4. Explain the punctuation in each type of sentences.
W hen it rains, my roof leaks. If my roof leaks, the walls get wet.

When the walls get wet, they get moldy. 5. Write a short, simple text that includes cause-effect clauses.
I get sick if they get moldy. I go to the doctor when I get sick,. When 6. Write four examples of type zero conditional sentences and
I go to the doctor, he always says the same thing, Fix your roof! illustrate them using photographs or drawings.

Evaluation instrument
1. How many cause-effect sentences are there in the story?
2. Which tense is used in the cause clause?
3. Which tense is used in the result clause?
4. What is the punctuation difference between the conditional sentences that begin with the if / when clause and those that begin with
the result clause?

5. The text includes correct cause-effect clauses.
All the sentences some of the sentences none of the sentences
6. The four examples of type zero conditional sentences illustrated by photographs or drawings are correctly formed and written.
a) four sentences b)three sentences c)two sentences d)one sentence
7. Orally share your answers with another student and listen attentively to his/her answers.

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1.2 First conditional plus will, If + will

Grammar Presentation
Compare these two sentences:

A: If you call the doctor, he comes. B: If you call the doctor, he will come.

What these two sentences have in common is that both sentences seem to suggest that an action will take place, if a certain
condition is met.
However, there is a difference: sentence A seems to express a sort of general rule or general truth, a principle that the speaker
adheres to. That is, every time you call a doctor, he comes. That is the rule.
In sentence B the speaker merely states an intention (what is likely to happen).
We use the first conditional in offers, suggestions, warnings and threats.

FORM will
If + S + simple present (+ C), S + can + simple present (+ C )
may/might
should

S = subject C = Complement

Examples: If we hurry (present simple), we will catch the train.

If we dont hurry (present simple), we may lose the train.

If we miss it, there may be another one.

if we run, we might catch it on time.

if we know this, we should run to catch the train.

If Jonas studies hard, he can answer the math exam.

If he studies hard, he may get a grade of 100.

If he doesn't study, he won't pass.

If you are his friend, you should help him.

We use will in the result clause to express something we think will most likely happen.
We use may (modal auxiliary) in the result clause to express that something is probable (we are uncertain or not sure that it
will occur).
We use can in the result clause to express the capacity or ability of something or someone in the future action.
We use should in the result clause to express advice about the cause or if clause.

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For example:
If I finish high school in May, I will go to university (I am sure).
I may/might apply for a scholarship (this is probable, I am still not sure if I
will do it or not).
I can apply for the university (I will be able to do this because I will have a
high school diploma, which is a requirement to enter university).
I should apply for the university (I suggest to myself what to do).

Threats and warnings


First conditional sentences are often used to warn about dangerous or unusual situations.

For example, the following sentences express warnings:


If you heat that substance too much, it will explode.
If you put a metal object in a microwave oven, it will go out of order.
If you make that long distance call before seven p.m., it will be more expensive.
If Mary doesnt pay her telephone bill by Saturday, they will cut off the service.

The following sentences express threat:


If you dont give me your money, I will hurt you.
If you cross that line, you will be arrested.
If you get home after midnight, you will not go out in a month.

Exercise 5
Match the clauses in column A with the ones in column B.

COLUMN A COLUMN B

1. If I lose my job now, I wont call again.

2. If he calls me irresponsible again, I will take a long vacation and look for a new job later.

3. Jane wont speak to me again prices will rise.

4. If the demand increases, if I let her down now.

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5. Our dog Krane will start barking at you if you make faces at it.

6. Dont be offended. If Sam is annoyed, he will start yelling at people.

7. If Betty doesnt answer the phone this time, I will never help him again.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Exercise 6
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in parentheses.

1. If you ________ (not study), you ________ (fail) the test.

2. We _________ (die) if we _________ (not get) help soon!

3. If you ________ (look) in the fridge, you _________ (find) some cold drinks.

4. If there _______ (be) no oil in the engine, the car ________ (break) down.

5. I _______ (lend) you my umbrella if you ________ (need) it.

6. The sea level ______ (rise) if the planet _______ (get) hotter.

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7. If you _________ (eat) your sandwiches now, you ________ (not have) anything for lunch!

8. You ________ (be) safe in an accident if you _________ (wear) your seatbelt.

9. If he ________ (save) all his money, he _________ (be able to go) on holiday to Canada.

10. I _________ (not come) with you if you _________ (not bring) John!

Exercise 7
Complete the following sentences with the following verbs. Only use the modal auxiliary will in the result clauses.
Make the necessary changes (auxiliary, contraction of not) when using negative forms.

BUY LOOK TURN PAY GET PASS IMPROVE

EAT CONTINUE REDUCE STUDY CUT SEE BE

1. If you an apple every day, you very healthy.


2. Dolly has very long hair. She completely different if she her hair.
3. If Mary a new car, she a higher insurance.
4. If you the light on, you much better.
5. You sick if you eating high cholesterol foods.
6. If you the sugar in your diet, you your health.
7. You pass the course if you .

Exercise 8
Choose the correct answer. Some of these are zero conditional and some are first
conditional sentences.

1. If you hear a baby crying


a) what should you do? b) what you do?

2. Ill be back here by 10 p.m. tonight


a) if the train wasnt late. b) if the train isnt late.

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3. If there isnt enough milk for tonight


a) we should get some at the convenience store.
b) we get some at the convenience store.

4. I may lend you my car


a) if you will promise to be careful. b) if you promise to be careful.

5. If nobody calls by next week...


a) I sell the piano to you. b) I will sell the piano to you.

6. What will you do...


a) if that pretty girl refuses to go out with you?
b) If that pretty girl will refuse to go out with you?

Exercise 9
Write the verbs in brackets into the gaps in the first conditional.

Example: If I _ (to go) to the cinema, I (to watch) an exciting film.


Answer: If I go to the cinema, I will watch an exciting film.

1. If I (to learn), I (to pass) the exams.

2. We (not/to swim) if the weather (to be) bad.

3. If he (to have) a temperature, he (to see) a doctor.

4. Jerry (to be) very happy if his friends (to come).

5. If Anthony (to earn) a lot of money, he (to fly) to Los Angeles to visit
his cousins.

6. If we (not / to come) home in time, we (to miss) the film.

7. Mr. Robinson, the teacher, (not / to be) happy if I (to forget) my homework assignment again.

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8. If our class ( to go ) to Mexico City. I (visit) the Anthropology Museum.

Exercise 10
Complete the first five warnings and then write five warnings about things that you consider dangerous or unusual.
Use the conditional structure.
For example: If you dont tune your car, it will continue polluting the air.
1. If people continue using fossil combustibles, the earth:
.
2. If a person drives without a drivers license, he or she:
.
3. If you drive after drinking alcohol, you:
.
4. If you dont bring your book to class, the teacher:
.
5. If a person doesnt pay taxes, he or she:
.

Your warnings:
1. If .
2. If .
3. If .
4. If .
5. If .

Exercise 11
Complete the following conditional sentences with the correct form of the verb given. Your answer may
be affirmative or negative to make it logical, so add the necessary auxiliary and the negative word: not.

1. You heart disease if you eat too much meat. (get)

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2. If you dont put so much sugar in your coffee, you (put on) so much weight!

3. She completely different if she cuts her hair. (look)

4. If you an apple every day, youll be very healthy. (eat)

5. If we dont protect the green iguana, it extinct.(become)

6. Teresa wont pass the course if she .(study)

7. If I pancakes, how many ?(cook / eat)

8. You better if you turn on the lamp. (be able to see)

9. Youll pay higher insurance if you a sports car. (buy)

10. If a deer into your garden, it all your plants. (get / eat)

Apply Your Knowledge

Frequently, poems are translated from their original language to others, and sometimes, they are used as lyrics for
songs. This is a poem originally written in Spanish by Pablo Neruda, the famous poet from Chile, and read by the Ame-
rican singer Madonna. Look up the words you dont understand in a dictionary and underline and analyze the use of the
structures learned in this unit.
Listen to the audio and pay attention to the intonation given to the Reading of Nerudas poem.

If you forget me
written by Pablo Neruda, reading by Madonna

I want you to know one thing


You know how this is
If I look at the crystal moon
At the red branch of the slow autumn at my window
If I touch near the fire the impalpable ash or the wrinkled body of the log
Everything carries me to you
As if everything that exists - aromas, light, metals
Were little boats that sail toward those isles of yours that wait for me

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Well, now
If little by little you stop loving me
I shall stop loving you
Little by little
If suddenly you forget me
Do not look for me
For I shall already have forgotten you
If you think it long and mad the wind of banners that passes through my life
And you decide to leave me at the shore of the heart where I have roots
Remember
That on that day, at that hour, I shall lift my arms
And my roots will set off to seek another land
But, if each day, each hour, you feel that you are destined for me
With implacable sweetness
If each day a flower climbs up to your lips to seek me
Ah my love, ah my own, in me all that fire is repeated
In me nothing is extinguished or forgotten
My love feeds on your love, beloved
And as long as you live, it will be in your arms without leaving mine

Learning Situation 1
Applying knowledge related to future possible situations.

Competence: The student can correctly use the grammatical structures learned, especially the simple present
tense and the future tense with will.

Activity Sequence 1
Section A: Write present real conditional sentences using the information given. Decide which is the cause
or condition and which the result.

Example: I drink coffee. Not sleep.


When I drink coffee, I dont sleep.

Ride my bike to school. No rain.


When it doesnt rain, I ride my bike to school.

1. Have headache. Take aspirin.


.

2. Send flowers. Mothers birthday.


.

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3. Drink tea. Have a stomachache.


.

4. Its hot. Turn on the air conditioning.


.

Section B: Now, write first conditional sentences. Use will in the result clause if you are certain. Use may if
you consider the result a possibility.
1. Dont pay taxes. Go to jail.
.

2. Eat pizza everyday. Gain weight.


.

3. Buy tickets for the raffle. Win the first prize.


.

4. Call Frank before noon. Talk to him.


.

5. Study hard. Pass the exam.


.

Section C: Complete the sentences using the information about the verbs in parentheses.

1. You (not know) how good player Jack is until you play with him.

2. My sister (be) angry with me if she knows I took her sweater.

3. When you (come) to Los Angeles, you must come to visit us.

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4. If Chris (call) Ill give her your phone number.

5. When I see Karen I (invite) her to the party.

6. When I go to a restaurant I always (order) a dessert.

7. My dad will be furious when he (see) what you have done to his car.

8. If you (not like) this dress, Ill buy you another one.

9. If we (not hurry) , we will arrive late.

10. If Monica (need) a computer, Ill lend her mine.

11. If I see him after school, I (give) him a lift.

12. If I eat a lot, I (be) sick.

13. If I (finish) the report today, can I go out earlier tomorrow?

14. If your wife (not like) this house, will you still buy it?

15. If I (not know) what to do, Ill ask my brother.

16. Im going to learn a lot if I (pay) attention.

17. I (phone) ________ you when I get back from school. I promise.

18. I promise I (come) as soon as I finish my work.

19. He (not let) you out until you have finished your work.

20. By the time he (get) back from the business trip, Ill have left.

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Learning Activity 3

Environmental problems. What should we do? b) Photographs or drawings of the problem in your com-

1. Work in teams of three or four students. munity.

2. Identify an environmental problem that affects your commu- c) Briefly describe the problem.
nity. d) Mention which other communities have the same pro

3. Investigate what other communities in your country or other blems. Include the references of where you found the in-
countries have the same problem and what they are doing to formation.
solve it. Use information technologies to do your research. e) Write a minimum of five type one conditional sentences
4. Elaborate a proposal to solve the problem you identified in your as part of your proposal.
community. Include the following points. 5. Present your proposal to the rest of the group using the pre-
a) Name of the environmental problem.
sentation media available in your school.

Evaluation Instrument - Rubric

Criteria Needs improvement Satisfactory Well done

Identification The environmental problem is not The environmental problem is mentioned. The environmental problem or situation is
mentioned or mentioned incompletely. mentioned clearly and completely.
Photographs No photographs of the environmental Photographs are presented about the Clear photographs are presented about
problem are presented. environmental problem, but they are not the environmental problem in the
from the community. community.
Description The problem is not described or it is but The problem is described but it is not The problem is described briefly with
not sufficiently. brief or not clearly described. enough detail.
Comparison Other communities with the same Other communities with the same Other communities with the same
problem are not described or they are problem are mentioned, but need more problem are mentioned in detail.
mentioned but the problem is different. detail.
References No references are mentioned. Some references are mentioned. References are mentioned.
Conditional Less than three conditional sentences are Three or four first conditional sentences Five first conditional sentences are
included in the proposal. are included in the proposal. included in the proposal.
Oral presentation: Grammar structures are not used well Grammar structures are generally used Grammar structures are used well
Language skills most of the time. well, but there may be two or three most of the time (first conditional) and
incorrect sentences. vocabulary is appropriate.
Presentation skills Presenters are not fluent and / or dont Presenters are generally fluent, Presenters are fluent, pronounce
pronounce correctly most of the time. pronounce correctly most of the words correctly, and use presentation media.
Presentation media is not used or used and use presentation media.
inappropriately.

Extra activities 2. http://www.englishbaby.com/lessons/5840/real_life/


You may want to use these oral and listening activities found on valentine_s_day
the Internet. All are related to zero and first conditional sentences. 3. Zero and first conditional: Reading, listening, quizzes, vo-
cabulary. Reading about a soccer referee http://premierskills.
1. http://moviesegmentstoassessgrammargoals.blogspot. britishcouncil.org/learn-english/lesson-blog-zero-and-first-
mx/2009/05/marley-me-zero-conditional.html conditional

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Apply Your Knowledge

This poem has had a profound impact on many peoples lives. It presents the use of the structure we revised in this
block: conditional sentences. Underline them.
The name of this poem is If and it was written by Rudyard Kipling, Nobel Prize for literature in 1907. You may learn
more about this famous British poet and novelist (born in Bombay, India) directly from the Kipling Society web page
at http://www.kipling.org.uk/
Listen to the audio and pay attention to the intonation given to the Reading of Kiplings poem.

If
If you can keep your head when all about you If you can make one heap of all your winnings
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you, And risk it all on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you And lose, and start again at your beginnings
But make allowance for their doubting too, And never breath a word about your loss;
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
Or being lied about, dont deal in lies, To serve your turn long after they are gone,
Or being hated, dont give way to hating, And so hold on when there is nothing in you
And yet dont look too good, nor talk too wise: Except the Will which says to them: Hold on!
If you can dream and not make dreams your master, If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
If you can think and not make thoughts your aim; Or walk with kings nor lose the common touch,
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you;
And treat those two impostors just the same; If all men count with you, but none too much,
If you can bear to hear the truth youve spoken If you can fill the unforgiving minute
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools, With sixty seconds worth of distance run,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken, Yours is the Earth and everything thats in it,
And stoop and build em up with worn-out tools: And which is more youll be a Man, my son!
Rudyard Kipling

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1.3 Modals to express possibility: may, might,


can, could
Present and future
May and might + infinitive are used to express present or future possibility. May expresses a greater degree
of certainty:

You should ask him. He may/might know Susans telephone number. (Perhaps he knows her number.)
I may/might see you later. (Perhaps I will see you later.)
You should introduce yourself; he may/might not remember you. (Perhaps she doesnt/wont remember you.)
May and might are usually not used to introduce a question. Instead, we can use Do you think? or be likely to/that:

Do you think he may/might know Susans telephone number?


Are you likely to get here before 8?
Is it likely that you will get here before 8?

Could can be used instead of may and might with the verb be:

You could be right.


They could still be waiting for us.

The negative form couldnt is often used with comparative adjectives:

The food is delicious, and the staff couldnt be more polite. (they are very polite)

Except for this use, couldnt expresses negative deduction, not possibility:

Its only 10 oclock. He couldnt be at home. (He is usually at work at this time of the day.)

Can may express general possibility:

Winters in Minnesota can be really cold.

Past
May, might and could + perfect infinitive express uncertainty with reference to past actions:

We havent heard from him for ten years. He may/might/could have died. (Perhaps he has died, but we dont
know.)
But when we want to say that something was possible but did not happen, we use might or could:

He was very careless when crossing the road. He might/could have died. (He didnt die.)
I could have caught the bus if I had hurried. (I didnt hurry, so I didnt catch the bus.)

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Couldnt + perfect infinitive is often used with comparative adjectives:

It was a great year, and I couldnt have been happier. (I was very happy)

May/might not + perfect infinitive is used for uncertainty, but could not + perfect infinitive (except for the case
above) expresses deduction:

I had better call Anne. She may/might not have read my e-mail. (uncertainty)
It couldnt have been John you saw this morning. He is away on holiday. (deduction)

1.4 Modals in conditional sentences


In first conditional sentences, we use a simple present tense in the if-clause and will + infinitive in the main
clause. This is the standard form. Alternate forms with other auxiliaries are also possible. Note that first conditional
forms with modals express ideas such as permission, advice, future possibilities etc.

Read the sentences given below.


If you finish your homework, you can watch TV.
If you have a few hours to spare, you may visit the museum.
If I have time, I might make a cake.
If I arrive early, I might take a stroll around the park.
If you dont feel well, you should consult a doctor.

If and Adjectives

In a formal style, subject + be is sometimes left out after if.


If in doubt, ask for help. (= If you are in doubt, ask for help.)
If interested, please let me know. (= If you are interested, please let me know.)

Provided (that), As long as

Many words and expressions can be used with a similar meaning to if. Common examples are: imagine (that),
suppose (that), supposing (that), providing (that), provided (that), as long as, on condition that etc.
The words imagine, suppose and supposing are used to talk about what might happen.
Supposing you lost your job, what would you do?
Imagine you won a jackpot!

Provided that, as long as and on condition that are used to make conditions.

You may take two days off on condition that you work on the weekend.
You can stay with us as long as you share the expenses.

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Evidence Collection and Portfolio


Task 1. My personal truths.
Evidence: The student can efficiently express general truths and cause and effect conditions in daily familiar situations, orally and in writing.

Activity Sequence
Part 1. Complete the following sentences with your own personal truths.

Part 2. When you finish, complete the second part of this activity by writing a short paragraph that includes five general truths about
yourself. Make sure they mention things that you know well about yourself. Give additional information so your paragraph is clear. For ex-
ample, When I start feeling I am getting the flu, I take honey with lemon (personal truth). This is a family remedy that my grandmother gave
me (additional information).

Part 3. Work with a partner. Prepare a dialogue in which both of you are going to tell each other what you wrote in the paragraph. Think
about a specific situation in which this role-play can be possible. You will act out this role-play when your teacher tells you.

First part:
1. When I have a headache, I .
2. When I have a sore throat, I .
3. When I want to lose weight, I .
4. When I dont understand something in school, I .

5. When I am bored, I .

6. When I get up, I .

7. When I cant sleep, I .

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8. When I am happy, I .

9. When my mother is tired, I .

10. When I stay up late, the next day I .

Paragraph about personal truths:







Performance Indicators for Task 1

Part 1: Teacher will evaluate accuracy and message (5 points).


1. Sentences are completed with clauses in simple present tense.
2. No spelling errors. No punctuation errors.
3. Vocabulary used is appropriate.
4. Clauses are logical according to the first clause making the message clear.

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Describing cause and effect situations

Part 2: Paragraph (10 points).


1. Five personal truths are included.
2. Conditional sentences are completed with clauses in simple present tense.
3. Other sentences are grammatically correct.
4. No spelling errors. No punctuation errors.
5. Vocabulary used is appropriate.
6. Both clauses are logical.
7. Additional information is given to clarify the personal truths.

Rubric for the Paragraph Task 1

Criteria Needs improvement Satisfactory Well done

Message The student made a poor or incomplete The student made a good and complete The student made a complete and very
(Content) description of his / her personal truths. No description of his / her personal truths. Some good description of his / her personal truths.
additional information was given to clarify the additional information was given to clarify Additional information was given to clarify
information. the information, but more could have contri- the information and contributed
buted to the meaning. to the meaning.
Language Student uses a small range of vocabulary. Student uses a small range of vocabulary. Student uses an acceptable range of vocabu-
Many grammar errors in basic sentences. Several grammar errors in basic sentences. lary. Conditional sentences are correct.
Conditional sentence structures are not clear Some conditional sentence structures are not Spelling errors are few or not present.
or incorrect. clear or incorrect. Calligraphy is clear.
Many spelling errors / Difficulty understanding Several spelling errors / Difficulty understan-
calligraphy. ding calligraphy.

Evaluation Criteria
10 points Message and language well done.
8 points Message well done and language satisfactory.
6 points Message well done and language needs improvement.
8 points Message satisfactory and language well done.
6 points Message needs improvement and language well done.
7 points Message and language satisfactory.
4 points Message satisfactory and language needs improvement.
4 points Language satisfactory and message needs improvement.
2 points Message and language need improvement.

Part 3: Role-play (10 points)


1. Context in which the role-play is given is appropriate.
2. Both students interact fluently.
3. Pronunciation doesnt affect comprehension.
4. Dialogue is complete.

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Rubric for the Role-play Performance Task 1

Criteria Needs improvement Satisfactory Well done

Role The student played his / her role The student played his / her role satisfac- The student played his/her role very
performance poorly. She / he didnt show torily. She / he was enthusiastic. well. She / he was enthusiastic, and
enthusiasm. creative.
3 points
2 points 5 points
Language Student uses appropriate voca- Student uses an acceptable range of Student uses an acceptable and
bulary, but limited. Conditional vocabulary, most of the time appropriate. appropriate range of vocabulary. Con-
sentences to express general Conditional sentences to express general ditional sentences to express general
truths were incorrect most of the truths were correct most of the time. truths were all correct. Pronunciation
time. Pronunciation interferes Pronunciation is good, perhaps with few is very good, perhaps with few errors,
with meaning. errors, but understandable most of the but understandable at all times.
time.
5 points
2 points 3 points

Task 2: Describing peoples personal truths.

Competence: The student can write a description of himself / herself, and a profile of persons he / she knows well. For example, If my sister
goes to bed late, she wakes up in a bad mood.

Activity Sequence
1. Choose three people you know well (family members, relatives, friends).
2. Write a description of a profile of yourself and of these three persons. Include at least five personal truths of each one.
3. Prepare a presentation about yourself and these three persons. If possible, include a photograph of yourself and of each one. Use visual aids.
4. Deliver your presentation to your classmates.

Rubric for Oral Presentation Task 2

Needs Lacks
Competent Satisfactory
Improvement Competence
4 points 3 points
2 points 1 point

Fluency Student is fluent throughout the Student is fluent most of Student pauses unnecessarily Student is not fluent most of
oral presentation. the time during the oral during the oral presentation or the time.
presentation. has verbal interruptions (eh, uh,
words in Spanish).
Pronunciation Student pronounces correctly Student has few pronunciation Student mispronounces several Student mispronounces words
most of the time and errors errors that dont affect meaning. words or mispronounces many times, affecting the
dont affect message. some words that affect the meaning of what is being said.
message.

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Describing cause and effect situations

Needs Lacks
Competent Satisfactory
Improvement Competence
4 points 3 points
2 points 1 point
Use of language Student uses language and Student uses language and Student makes several Student makes many language
vocabulary appropriately and vocabulary appropriately and language mistakes or uses mistakes and / or doesnt use
correctly most of the time. correctly with few errors. vocabulary inappropriately. appropriate vocabulary.
Overall presentation Student presents in an Student presents in an Student does not present in Presentation lacks organization
skills organized manner and organized manner most of an organized manner and / or and other presentation skills
uses visual aids the time, and uses visual aids doesnt use visual aids nor body (body language) and / or didnt
and appropriate body language. and a fairly appropriate body language appropriately. use any visual aids.
language.
Message Description of the students Description of the students Description of the students Description of the students
profile and of the other three profile or of one of the other profile and of two of the other profile and of the other three
persons are interesting, three persons are incomplete three persons are incomplete persons are incomplete or
complete and clear. or unclear. or unclear. unclear.

Total points

Task 3: My plans: If I
Competence: The student can present to the whole class his or her plans and those of others using the first conditional. For example: If I save
enough money, I will buy a new mp3 player.

Activity Sequence
a. Read the following conditional situations. Write what you will do, can do or may do in each case.
b. You will present your answers to the whole class. Prepare visual aids to illustrate what you say. You will be evaluated according to the rubric
given.

1. If I win the lottery

I will .
I can .
I may .

2. If I graduate in a year

I will .
I can .
I may .

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3. If I get a scholarship for university


I will
.
I can
.
I may
.

4. If my friend invites me to his birthday party


I will .
I can .
I may .

5. If my parents decide to move to another city

I will .
I can .
I may .

Rubric for Oral Presentation Task 3

Needs Lacks
Competent Satisfactory
Improvement Competence
4 points 3 points
2 points 1 point
Fluency Student is fluent throughout the Student is fluent most of the Student pauses unnecessarily Student is not fluent most of
oral presentation. time during the oral presen- during the oral presentation or the time.
tation. has verbal interruptions (eh, uh,
words in Spanish).
Pronunciation Student pronounces correctly Student has few pronunciation Student mispronounces several Student mispronounces words
most of the time and errors errors that dont affect meaning. words or mispronounces many times, affecting the
dont affect message. some words that affect the meaning of what is being said.
message.
Use of language Student uses language and Student uses language and Student makes several langua- Student makes many language
vocabulary appropriately and vocabulary appropriately and ge mistakes or uses vocabulary mistakes and/or doesnt use
correctly most of the time. correctly with few errors. inappropriately. appropriate vocabulary.
Overall presentation Student presents in an Student presents in an organi- Student does not present in Presentation lacks organization
skills organized manner and uses zed manner most of the time, an organized manner and / or and other presentation skills
visual aids and appropriate body and uses visual aids and a fairly doesnt use visual aids nor body (body language) and / or didnt
language. appropriate body language. language appropriately. use any visual aids.
Message Description of the students Description of the students Description of the students Description of the students
profile and of the other three profile or of one of the other profile and of two of the other profile and of the other three
persons are interesting, comple- three persons are incomplete three persons are incomplete persons are incomplete or
te and clear. or unclear. or unclear. unclear.
Total points

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Describing cause and effect situations

Learning Log
A learning log is a space where you can record details about your learning process. Answer the following questions in your notebook and dis-
cuss your answers with a classmate and your teacher.

What did I learn in this block?






How did I learn it?




What do I need to review? (didnt learn or didnt learn well)




What do I need to do to learn this material well?




What will I do to improve my learning? (three concrete actions)



TASK 4: Playing Bingo!


Competence: The student can complete or elaborate information organizers such as charts or tables, from the interpretation of aural texts.

Activity Sequence
1. You are going to play a game called bingo. The teacher will give you a card with six boxes. In each box there is the second part of a condi-
tional sentence.
2. The teacher will read out loud the first part of several sentences.

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3. If you have the second part of the sentence, cross it out in your card.
4. The first student that crosses out all the six boxes must shout bingo! and wins.

Teacher
1. First parts are to be read to students. Results are to be written on cards. Make up the cards by writing six different results on each card.
Choose six results randomly for each card.
2. Give out the bingo cards and ask the students to read them.
3. Do the first sentence for all the class to check understanding.
4. Read out the first part of the conditional sentences in any order, but write down the order you follow to check if the answers are correct.
5. Ask students to read back their answers to check if they are correct.
6. Students can also work in pairs and have one card.

NOTE: You may want to ask the students to predict sentence beginnings or give results to their sentence beginnings (as a variant for this
exercise).

First part Result First part Result

If I go to the cinema I will watch a science fiction film. If I arrive late to class My teacher will get angry.
If I go to Orlando I will go to Disney World. If I pass the exams My mother will be happy.
If I stay up late I may fall asleep in class. If it rains I will take a taxi to not get wet.
If I eat too many candies I will feel sick. If I travel around the world I will learn about new cultures.
If it rains tomorrow I wont go to the picnic. If I go to her birthday party I will take a nice present.
If I study hard I will pass my exams. If I watch a horror film I will be very scared.
If I save some money I will buy an iPod. If I go to the beach I will buy a new bathing suit.
If the weather is nice I may go to the beach. If I go to New York I will visit the Statue of Liberty.

Evidence Collection For Your Portfolio


Task Evidence Competencies

1 Written sentences expressing personal truths and integration of Written and oral production. The student can express general and
these sentences in a paragraph. personal truths.
2 Written sentences expressing personal truths of other people. Oral Written and oral production. The student can express general and
presentation about what was written. personal of other people.
3 Written exercise indicating what he or she will, can, or may do as Reading comprehension. The student can present to others
a result of different conditions. his / her plans and those of others using the first conditional.
4 Game BINGO based on conditionals. Listening and reading comprehension. The student can complete
information.
Learning Activity 1, p. 9 Game cards: Cause Effect. Pair work. The student can demonstrate his understanding of
causes and results in a zero conditional format.
Learning Activity 2, p. 13 Paragraph including cause-effect clauses and examples of The student can identify conditions and express possible results
conditionals. to these conditions.
Learning Activity 3, p. 24 Proposal to solve an environmental problem. Teamwork. Use of information technologies. The student can
elaborate a proposal about an environmental problem in his / her
community and present it using conditional sentences.

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Describing cause and effect situations

Pair Work Evaluation Coevaluation


Honestly evaluate your classmates work and attitude.
Use the following format

Name of evaluator:
Person who is being evaluated:

Always Most of the time Sometimes Rarely

My classmate showed interest in


our assignment

My classmate worked in our


assignment

My classmate showed a positive


attitude towards learning

My classmate helped me learn

My classmate shared his/her ideas

Overall, I consider our work together was: VERY GOOD GOOD SATISFACTORY NEEDS IMPROVEMENT

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Team Work Evaluation Heteroevaluation


Honestly evaluate your classmates work and attitudes. Write the name of each of your classmates at the top of each column.

Name of evaluator:
Use the following: ALWAYS MOST OF THE TIME SOMETIMES RARELY

Name Name Name Name

Showed interest in our assignment

Worked in our assignment

Showed positive attitude during our


interaction

Helped everyone to learn

Shared his / her ideas with the


other members

Asked for help when necessary

I enjoyed working with him / her

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BLOCK

12 hours
2
Learning
Comparing habits and customs
in other communities

Objects

2.1 Vocabulary:
Transportation,
food

2.2 The habitual past


with used to
and would

2.3 To be used
to doing and
to get used
to doing

2.4 Question words

2.5 Time expressions


used in the past
tense

Competencies to be developed n Communicate in a foreign language with a logical oral or written discourse,
to describe and compare habits and customs of people in their community
Students are able to: and in other communities.

n Identify and interpret the general idea and possible development of an n Use autonomous learning strategies by using information and
oral and written message in a foreign language, using previous knowledge communication technologies to obtain information about grammatical
about recreational, school, and sport activities in the past tense. structures, and about habits and customs of different social groups.
Warm up

What did you use to do when you


were a teenager?

Listen to the following conversation between Paula and her daughter Katherine. Kathy is
a teenager. She is studying high school and is working on an assignment for her English
class. She was asked to interview her mother about things that she used to do when she was
her age. Paula was a teenager in the 70s, so this
conversation may be quite interesting for
you too.

Kathy: Mom, can I interview you for


my English class assignment?
Paula: Sure, what do you want to talk
about?
Kathy: Can you tell me what you used
to do when you were a teenager?
Paula: Well, I used to study high school.
Kathy: Did you use to wear a uniform to school?
Paula: No, I didnt. I wore a uniform in primary school, but not in high school.
Kathy: Did you use to like school?
Paula: Yes, actually I did. It was fun to go to school. I had many friends and we used
to do many things together.
Kathy: Really? What did you use to do in your free time?
Paula: Well, I used to dance, but I dont dance now.
Kathy: Why dont you dance now?
Paula: I have other things to do and worry about. Besides, I dont have the energy. I
used to go dancing almost every weekend. We also used to practice sports.
I used to play volley-ball. I was on the schools team.
Kathy: Where did you use to go dancing?
Paula: Sometimes we would go to places called discotheques, or we would
organize a party at someones house, but parties werent like the ones you go
to nowadays. I remember there used to be a place close to my house called
The Cave. It would open at about 7 p.m. and close at about 1:00 a.m. Most
of the people used to leave around midnight, but I didnt use to go there at

n Maintain a respectful attitude towards different cultures and towards the At the end of this block, the student
diversity of beliefs, values, ideas, and social practices when comparing their
habits and customs. n Finds specific information in an oral or written text about habits and
customs.
n Produce texts using language norms and considering the intention and
communicative situation, as well as the formal elements of language such n Understands past time expressions in oral and written texts.
as punctuation, spelling, syntax, coherence, and unity. n Describes and compares, orally and in writing, habits and customs of
women and men of his / her community, as well as of other cultures.
n Uses the grammatical structure used to to describe past habits and
customs of different social groups.
2
BLOCK
Comparing habits and customs in other communities

nights. You had to be 18 years old to go to discotheques. Sometimes Comprehension questions


the owners used to organize afternoon parties and we used to
go to those. They didnt use to serve alcoholic beverages in the What is the relationship between Paula and Kathy?
afternoon.

Kathy: What time did you use to get home on weekends?
Paula: Oh, around 11:00 p.m. the latest. .

Kathy: What kind of music did you listen to? Why is Kathy interviewing Paula?

Paula: Well, disco music was very popular then as well as rock-and-roll and
other genres. We also used to listen to the radio or tape recorders. .
There were no CDs.
What is the interview about?
Kathy: Did you use to chat on the computer?

Paula: Of course not! Computers were only used by adults then. Most
.
people didnt even know how a computer looked like. We used
to communicate on the phone or write letters and send them by
Mention two things that Paula used to do when she was a teenager
surface mail. Actually, I think communication was slower then, but
more personal. n That teenagers dont do nowadays.

Kathy: Did you have a cell phone?
.
Paula: Oh no! Cell-phones were not invented until the 90s. We used to call
n That teenagers do nowadays too.
our parents or friends using public phones when we were not home.

Kathy: Tell me, what did you use to do for fun? .

Paula: My friends and I used to watch TV, go to the movies, play table
games, practice a sport, or meet at a restaurant and spend hours Language understanding questions
talking.
What do you find in common in the expressions in bold type?
Kathy: Which were your favorite TV programs?
Paula: My brothers and I used to watch comedy, police or detective series.
My parents used to watch the evening news. Some programs were .
still transmitted in black and white.
What are they expressing?
Kathy: Oh, Mom! I cant imagine my life without a computer, a cell phone,
or video games. I think your life was a little boring, wasnt it?
.
Paula: No, it wasnt. Actually, I think it was very exciting. When you have
your own children, you will tell them how your life used to be as Are they talking about present or past habits?
a teenager. I am sure they will find that your life was very boring
compared to theirs.

Kathy: I think you are right! Thanks for the interview, mom. .
Paula: Youre very welcome. Could you figure out the structure or structures of a sentence that expresses
a past habit in an affirmative sentence, negative sentence and interrogative
sentence?
After listening and reading activity
Work in pairs first. Discuss these questions with a partner and then with your Affirmative:
teacher. Negative:
Interrogative:
Look at the expressions in bold type to answer the second part.

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2.1 Vocabulary: Transportation, food


Vocabulary
These vocabulary words can be used when talking about habits and customs in the past. Find the word in English of the following transport
media. Mark with an X those transport media that used to be used in the past.

Common Transportation Media

Air Land Other

Water

In the past, when people wanted to travel from one place to another, they used to do so differently than they do today. For example, people in
the 19th century used to travel more by foot or by horse than by cars or planes.

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BLOCK
Comparing habits and customs in other communities

Complete the following sentences with a logical answer.


1. Before Jason bought his car, he used to go to work by .
2. Marys school was very close to her home, so she used to go to school .
3. Before airplanes were invented, people used to travel from Europe to America .
4. Before cars were invented, people used to travel long distances .

Food
Food in the past was different in some aspects than nowadays. Today, there are many food products that are produced with special characteris
tics. For example, food with less amount of sugar or less fat is called light. You can buy canned food, frozen food, dehydrated food, precooked
food, microwaveable food, or organic food.
Find the Word in English that can describe what you see in the picture. This vocabulary can be used in the following exercise on page 41.

Organic food Canned food

Dishes
Frozen food

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Precooked food Dehydrated food

Exercise 1

Write five sentences comparing your food habits of the past with your eating habits nowadays.
When you finish writing your five sentences. Talk about them to another student. Listen to your classmates sen-
tences and discuss them.
Example: eat candy
I used to eat more candy when I was a child.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

2.2 The habitual past with used to and would


Grammar Presentation

A.Use
1. The expression used to is commonly used when talking about past habits. It means
something was true in the past, but it is not true anymore. For example,

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2
BLOCK
Comparing habits and customs in other communities

I used to live in Veracruz, but I dont anymore. Now I live in Mexico City.

I used to ride a bicycle to school, but I dont anymore. Now I drive a car.

I used to be married, but Im not anymore. Now Im divorced.

Do not use it for actions or states that happened only once. The adverbs of frequency and other time expressions with used to
emphasize the repeated actions or states.

We often used to go to the movies with my parents.


My math teacher used to be unfriendly. She never smiled.
People didnt use to have cell phones in the early 80s.

2. If we say something used to happen we are talking about repeated events and actions in the
past, usually things that happened a long time ago and are now finished.
To express this we can use either used to or would.
Look at the following examples:

When I was young I used to play with my dolls.


I would brush their hair and dress them.
(I dont play with dolls anymore, because I am an adult.

My sister and I used to go camping with our cousins.


We would go to different places at least once a month.
(This implies that we no longer go camping with our cousins every month.)

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Difference between Used to and Would


Used to can refer to permanent situations as well as habitual actions.

Example:
I used to be able to get up at nine oclock every morning. = It was possible for me to do this in
my past situation.

Would only refers to actions, but not situations.

Example:

He would get up early every morning.


Not: He would be able to get a good job in New York.

3. If you want to talk about repeated states or habits in the past, you must use used to, you can
not use would:

My cat used to meow at the neighbors dog.

I used to smoke a pack of cigarettes a day!

I used to be Mr. Garcias secretary.

I used to wear a uniform to school.

Note: Would is a modal auxiliary that can be used to express repeated habits in the past after using used to in the first sentence,
which makes the reader or listener know that you are talking about habits in the past.

For example: When I used to live in Morelia, my parents and I would visit my grandparents often. We would
go to visit them in their house in Acambaro.

4. Also when asking questions about states in the past use used to.

Example: What sort of things did you use to like when you were young?

In the negative you cannot use would without a change in meaning.

Examples:
I didnt use to play with my dolls.
(If I said I wouldnt play with my dolls, it would mean I refused to play with my dolls.)

We didnt use to go out much with my neighbors.


(If I said we wouldnt go out much, it would mean we refused to go out much.)

We would spend a lot of money on projects that didnt help the community. = It used to be
normal to spend money on these projects, but now it isnt.

They would ask a lot of crazy questions that didnt seem to make any sense. = In the past, they
asked questions that didnt relate to the situation.

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BLOCK
Comparing habits and customs in other communities

B.Form
You should use use to without a d in sentences when it follows did or didnt.

AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS
Subject Used to Base form of the verb

I
You
He / She
It used to eat sandwiches for lunch at school.
We
You
They

NEGATIVE STATEMENTS
Subject Did + not Used to Base form of the verb

I
You
He / She
did not
It use to eat sandwiches for lunch at school.
didnt
We
You
They

YES/NO QUESTIONS INTERROGATIVE


Did Subject Used to Base form of the verb

I
you
he / she
Did it use to eat sandwiches for lunch at school?
we
you
they

SHORT ANSWERS
Yes Subject Did No Subject Did + not

I I
Yes he did. No, he didnt.
they they

INFORMATION QUESTIONS
Wh-
Did Subject Use to Base form of the verb
words
Why you work in this company?
Where she live abroad?
When did they use to eat lunch?
How Mary go to school?
Who Erick call every day?

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The question form is Did you use to?


When asking a closed question you put did/didnt in front of the subject followed by use to, you cannot use would.

Did you use to go out with my sister?


Did they use to own the company?
Didnt we use to go to the same school?

Note. The general rule is when there is did or didnt in the sentence, we say use to (without d). When there is no did
or didnt in the sentence, we say used to (with d).
Be careful: Use the infinitive form in questions or negative sentences:

Did you use to take the bus to school when you lived there?

Reporters didnt use to ask so many questions!

There is also a difference between used to do something and to be used to something.

Exercise 2

Match the segments in column A with the corresponding segments in column B to form logical sentences.

COLUMN A COLUMN B

1. I used to eat a lot of candy, but a) I often used to go to the theater.

2. Jane used to work in Denver, but b) now I am on a diet.

c) now he drives.
3. Marcos used to take a bus to work, but

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BLOCK
Comparing habits and customs in other communities

Column A Column B

4. When I was a child I didnt use to eat fruit, but d) now he takes the subway.

5. When I lived in Mexico City e) now I find him boring.

6. My brothers used to go to a Catholic school f) and they wore a uniform.

7. Laura used to really enjoy Eds company, but g) now he works in Los Angeles.

8. Anthony used to play the guitar, but h) now he plays the bass.

9. We used to go to the beach for our vacation i) when we were children.

10. Tom used to have a motorcycle, but j) now I eat a lot.

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Vocabulary
Then and now
Look at the following pair of pictures. What do you see? Write sentences comparing what used to be and what is nowadays.
For example look at the first pair of photographs.
People used to listen to big radios or sound equipment. Nowadays, people listen to music on portable electronic devices.

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BLOCK
Comparing habits and customs in other communities

Learning Activity 1

What did people use to do in the 80s? e) How did people use to dance?
1. Form groups of three, four or five students. 4. According to your subtopic, you must accompany your pre
2. You will be assigned to search for information about what sentation with visual or audio aids. For example, if you talk
people used to do in the decade of 1980 in the United States about music, you can bring an audio of the music people used
and in Mexico. Your teacher may decide to change the decade to listen to, or if you talk about clothing, you can bring photo
(50s, 60s, 70s, etc.) or the countries (England, Australia, graphs or dress like the people in those days.
Canada). You may look for this information using commu 5. Present the information using the habitual past expression used
nication technologies or by interviewing people who were to in affirmative and negative sentences.
teenagers or young adults during the chosen decade.
6. Be ready to present to the rest of the group on the day your
3. Each team will be assigned a subtopic and will present it to the teacher tells you.
rest of the class. The subtopics may be:
7. After all the teams or small groups present, have a group dis
a) What did people use to do for fun?
cussion about the information you shared. What do you think
about what people used to do? Do you think life was better
b) How did people use to dress? How did they fix their hair?
(easier, more fun, nicer, etc.) than nowadays?
c) What TV programs did teenagers use to watch?
d) How did people use to listen to music?

Rubric for Oral Presentations About Past Habits

Criteria Poor Regular Good Very good

Audiences Audience demonstrated to be Audience didnt demonstrate Audience demonstrated Audience demonstrated
attention bored or not interested. interest most of the time. interest by being attentive interest by being attentive
most of the time. during all the presentation.

Organization Presentation was not Presentation was not well Presentation was somewhat Presentation was organized.
organized or was confusing organized, but the ideas organized. Ideas were Ideas were well presented,
and this caused the were clearly presented and presented clearly and the clear, and the presentation
presentation not to be fluent. presentation was fluent most presentation was fluent most was fluent.
of the time. of the time.
Presentation aids Students didnt use Students used some Students used presentation Students used presentation
(audio or visual) presentation aids or used presentation aids, but these aids according to the subtopic. aids according to their
them inappropriately were not very appropriate Aids were appropriately used subtopic, which added
according to the subtopic. to the subtopic or well used during the presentation. creativity, clarity, and
during the presentation. appropriateness to the
presentation.
Language Students didnt use the Students didnt use grammar Students used grammar Students used grammar
grammar structures learned structures to express past structures to express past structures to express
in this block to express past habits (affirmative and habits (used to in affirmative past habits (used to in
habits (used to) correctly. negative) correctly most of and negative sentences) with affirmative and negative
the time. few errors. sentences) during most of the
presentation.
Team work Members of the team didnt Some of the members of the Most of the members of All members of the group
show collaborative working group collaborated and some the group showed good showed collaborative working
skills. didnt. collaborative working skills skills and contributed equally
and contributed to present to present the topic.
the topic, although not equally.

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Exercise 3
Use the words that are scrambled to form correct and logical sentences using the verbal form used to.

1. be / used / There / church / here / to / a


2. long / used / have / to / Karen / hair


3. used / a / food / of / to / I / Mexican / eat / lot


4. of / day / She / cups / to / used / drink / a / 5 / coffee


5. very / to / expensive / used / be / Computers / 20 / ago / years


Exercise 4
Franks childhood was very different from Oscars life. Change to sentences using used to.

Example: Frank lived in an apartment. (house)

Oscar used to live in a house.

1. Frank walked to school. (take / school bus)


Oscar

2. Frank played soccer. (tennis)


Oscar

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3. Frank got good grades. (bad grades)


Oscar

4. Franks father worked at a factory. (at a bank)


Oscar

5. Frank studied French. (German)


Oscar

Exercise 5
Performance indicators: The student can use the past verbal form used to compared to the simple present tense in appropriate contexts.

Compare what you do with what your parents or grandparents used to do.
Follow the example and use the words in parentheses.

Example: I take photographs with my cell phone. (camera)


My parents used to take photographs with a camera.

1. I communicate with my friends by e-mail. (by surface mail)


.

2. I buy the groceries at a supermarket. (the local market)


.

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3. I search for information on the Internet. (the library)


.

4. I draw money from an ATM machine. (the bank)


.

5. I use a mp3 player to listen to my favorite music. (record player)


.

6. I take the subway to go to school. (trolley car)


.

7. I watch color TV. (black and white TV)


.

8. I play videogames. (table games)


.

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Exercise 6
With the information below, write a paragraph using the expressions used to and would to talk about the habi-
tual past. This is information about Mary. These are some of the things that Mary remembers from her childhood.
Beginning of the paragraph: I lived in a big house.
1. I wore a uniform every day.
2. I played with dolls.
3. I walked my dog every afternoon.
4. I went with my friends to the cinema every two weeks.
5. I did my homework when I got home from school.
Paragraph: Marys childhood
Mary remembers several things about her childhood. She used to live in a big house.




Food for Thought

However, used to has another meaning, it can be used as an adjective and we use it to talk about things that have
become familiar, and are no longer strange or new.
Used to usually comes after verbs such as be, get or become. In these cases the words used to dont
necessarily make reference to past actions:
n After a while you get used to the smell.
n She will become used to the smell.
n I was used to the smell.

Used to can be followed by an ing verbal form called gerund which indicates the habit of doing an
activity.
n Ill never get used to getting up at five oclock in the morning.
(Habitual activity= get up at five oclock.)
n It took me a while until I was used to driving in Mexico City.
(Habitual activity = drive in Mexico City.)

Learning Situation 1
Performance indicator: The student can write a report about past habits and routines and how they differ from
present habits and routines after interviewing a person.

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Activity Sequence 1
1. Interview a classmate. Ask him or her to tell you things he or she used to do as a child.
2. Write your questions on a separate piece of paper or here and then write the answers.
3. Use the answers that your classmate gave you to write a complete paragraph about what your classmate used
to do.
4. Revise your paragraph. Check for correct spelling and punctuation.

Questions and Answers


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Exercise 7
Performance indicator: The student can pronounce regular and irregular verbs in the past and the form used to fluently and with an accep
table level of comprehension.
Review the pronunciation of the following past tense forms of regular verbs. Repeat them aloud when your teacher indicates to do so.
Pronunciation endings: /id/
/t/
/d/
Example attend attended /id/
believe believed /d/
talk talked /t/
Remember that the ending pronunciation of the past verbal form used is d.
Mark with an X the correct column of the pronunciation of the following verbs.

Word Past Tense /id/ /d/ /t/

Need

Cook

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Word Past Tense /id/ /d/ /t/

Call

Cause

Change

Decide

Drop

Follow

Last

Laugh

Learn

Talk

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Word Past Tense /id/ /d/ /t/

Answer

Ask

Rob

Start

Bathe

Look

Skate

Dance

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Learning Activity 2

Listening exercise 6. Discuss the following question with your teacher and class
mates: What are some of your favorite childhood memories?
1. Go to YouTube on the Internet. What things did you use to do as a child?
2. Search for a video of Madonnas song This used to be my
playground.
Evaluation instrument Checklist
3. Listen to the song. Find at least five sentences using the expres
sion used to. 1. Student found the video of the song .
4. Discuss with your teacher and classmates the meaning of 2. Student found sentences using the expres
those sentences. sion used to.
5. Check your work by searching for the lyrics of the song on In 3. Student wrote correctly sentences from the
ternet. song using used to.

Exercise 8
Performance indicator: The student can pronounce regular and irregular verbs in the past and the form used to fluently and with an accep
table level of comprehension.

Review the following list of irregular verbs. Practice the pronunciation of these verbs by reading them aloud several times. Your teacher will help
you to identify the correct pronunciation.

Write the meaning of the verbs and use this chart for future reference.

VOCABULARY REVIEW LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS

Past Use this space to write the meaning of


Infinitive Past Simple
Participle the verb. Keep it for reference.

be was / were been

beat beat beaten

become became become

begin began begun

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Past Use this space to write the meaning of


Infinitive Past Simple
Participle the verb. Keep it for reference.

bend bent bent

bet bet bet

bite bit bitten

blow blew blown

break broke broken

bring brought brought

build built built

burst burst burst

buy bought bought

catch caught caught

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Past Use this space to write the meaning of


Infinitive Past Simple
Participle the verb. Keep it for reference.

choose chose chosen

come came come

cost cost cost

cut cut cut

deal dealt dealt

dig dug dug

do did done

draw drew drawn

drink drank drunk

eat ate eaten

fall fell fallen

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Past Use this space to write the meaning of


Infinitive Past Simple
Participle the verb. Keep it for reference.

feed fed fed

feel felt felt

fight fought fought

find found found

fly flew flown

forbid forbade forbidden

forget forgot forgotten

freeze froze frozen

get got got

give gave given

go went gone

grow grew grown

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Past Use this space to write the meaning of


Infinitive Past Simple
Participle the verb. Keep it for reference.

hang hung hung

have had had


hear heard heard

hide hid hidden

hit hit hit

hold held held

hurt hurt hurt


keep kept kept

know knew known

lay laid laid


lead led led

leave left left

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Past Use this space to write the meaning of


Infinitive Past Simple
Participle the verb. Keep it for reference.

lend lent lent


let let let
lie lay lain

light lit lit

lose lost lost

make made made

mean meant meant


meet met met

pay paid paid

put put put

read read read

ride rode ridden

ring rang rung

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Past Use this space to write the meaning of


Infinitive Past Simple
Participle the verb. Keep it for reference.

rise rose risen

run ran run

say said said


see saw seen

seek sought sought

sell sold sold

send sent sent

set set set

sew sewed sewn / sewed

shake shook shaken

shine shone shone

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Past Use this space to write the meaning of


Infinitive Past Simple
Participle the verb. Keep it for reference.
shoot shot shot

show showed shown

shrink shrank shrunk


shut shut shut

sing sang sung

sink sank sunk

sit sat sat

sleep slept slept

speak spoke spoken

spend spent spent

split split split

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Past Use this space to write the meaning of


Infinitive Past Simple
Participle the verb. Keep it for reference.

spread spread spread

spring sprang sprung

stand stood stood


steal stole stolen

stick stuck stuck

sting stung stung

stink stank stunk

strike struck struck

swear swore sworn

sweep swept swept

swim swam swum

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Past Use this space to write the meaning of


Infinitive Past Simple
Participle the verb. Keep it for reference.

swing swung swung

take took taken

teach taught taught

tear tore torn

tell told told

think thought thought

throw threw thrown

understand understood understood

wake woke woken

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Past Use this space to write the meaning of


Infinitive Past Simple
Participle the verb. Keep it for reference.

wear wore worn

win won won

write wrote written

Learning Situation 2
Performance indicator: The student can discriminate important data from not relevant in an oral exercise about past
habits and routines which are not performed in the present by using extended listening comprehension strategies.

Activity Sequence 2
1. Students pretend they are elderly people. They are each given a piece of paper detailing a job that they used
to have (fictitiously) when they were younger.
2. Then tell the group three things that they used to (or didnt use to) do.
3. The group tries to guess what the job was, asking Did you use to... questions if necessary. Only allow five
questions and three guesses.
To The Teacher: You can make this activity a fun activity for your students by choosing uncommon and wonder
ful jobs.

Learning Activity 3

Listening and speaking about 4. Translate the answers to English and write them as sentences
another persons past habits. with used to.
5. Work with another student in pairs. Tell your classmate what
1. Interview your mother or father. your parent used to do when he or she was a teenager.
2. Ask your parent what did he or she use to do as a teenager. 6. Listen to your classmate tell you what his or her parent used to do.
7. Compare your parents habits and customs in the past with
3. Write down the answers in Spanish.
the ones of your classmates parent.

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Evaluation instrument Interview 3. Student wrote down the answers in Spanish.


Check if done or not. 4. Student translated the answers to English and wrote sentences
1. Student interviewed one of his parents or relative. using used to.

2. Student asked information about past habits to his interviewee.

Rubric to Evaluate Conversation About Parents Past Habits

Well done Student tells his / her classmate what his / her parent used to do when he / she was a teenager using the structu-
re to express past habits used to. Pronunciation is good, grammar is correct, student is fluent, conversation flows
well. Student listens to his / her partner respectfully and attentively.
Good Student tells his / her classmate what his / her parent used to do when he / she was a teenager using the struc-
ture to express past habits used to. Some pronunciation errors that affect communication are present, as well
as some grammar inaccuracies. Conversation flows smoothly. Student listens to his / her partner respectfully and
attentively most of the time.
Regular Student doesnt use appropriately the structure used to when telling his / her partner the answers from the
interview he / she did to his / her parent. Conversation doesnt flow smoothly. Pronunciation mistakes affect
correct delivery of the message and / or student doesnt listen to his / her classmate attentively.
Poor Student doesnt use the structure used to when telling his / her partner the answers from the interview with
his / her parent. Conversation does not flow. Many pronunciation errors that affect message are present. No
reciprocity when listening to his / her classmate.

2.3 To be used to doing and to get used to doing

Grammar Presentation
Used to do is different from to be used to doing and to get used to doing

to be used to doing
We use to be used to doing to say that something is normal, not unusual. It refers to the present tense or present
habit. This form indicates that a situation has become normal for a person. We can also be used to something, like the
weather, crowds, etcetera.

n Im used to living alone. Ive done it for a long time.

n Martha has lived in London for over a year so she is used to understanding the British accent.

n My cousins always lived in a city with hot weather so they arent used to the cold weather here.

to get used to doing


We use to get used to doing to talk about the process of something becoming normal for us.

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n She has started working nights and is still getting used to sleep
ing during the day (she is in the process of acquiring the habit of
sleeping during the day).

n I have always lived in a city but now Im beginning to get used to living on this farm
(living on the farm is not habitual for me yet).

Exercise 9
Write sentences indicating what the following people are used to doing nowadays. Use the words given. Follow the example.
Example: John gets up at five oclock in the morning everyday.
John is used to getting up at five oclock in the morning.
1. My mother gets to bed after midnight.

2. Jason drives back from work at six p.m. There is always traffic at that time.

3. Mr. Lawrence does exercise an hour a day.


4. Dr. Reynolds reads medical information every day.


5. Sandras husband is always late. Sandra always waits for him.


6. Sally is a computer programmer. She spends hours in front of the computer every day.

Learning Situation 3
Performance Indicator: The student can identify personal important information in a written text by using ex
tended reading comprehension strategies.

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Activity Sequence 3
1. Read the following texts about Placentia, Canada, and how Christmas was celebrated there in the past.
2. Look up in the dictionary the words or phrases you dont understand.
3. Answer the questions following the text.
4. Do the exercises following the text.

Where is Placentia?
Stretched across a forested coastal area on the Avalon Peninsula and approximately 100 km southwest of St. Johns, Pla
centia continues to grow vigorously today. Maintaining the areas charm as a strategic location for business while remain
ing one of the most picturesque communities in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, Placentia will always be known
as The pleasant place.

Voiseys Bay

ATL A NTIC
O CE A N
Labrador

Placentia

NEWFOUNDLAND
St. Johns
Placentia

Particular days and months, which held special significance for the people, were celebrated throughout the year. Christmas was one
of the most festive seasons.

How was Christmas celebrated in Placentia long ago?


Father, along with the boys, used to go a couple of days before Christmas and cut the tree. The tree
would usually be put up a day before Christmas Eve and the entire family would take part in the
decorating. There used to be some store-bought ornaments but many used to be homemade. The
children would color in pictures on small pieces of paper and hang them on the tree along with
streamers, which were made by folding two long strips of paper together. As there was no electri
city, people used to light the tree with candles. People used to place the candles in small three-sided
wooden cases and put in among the branches. The children used to receive some small toys, bal
loons, and fruit. To get an apple or an orange in those days was considered a real treat. Quite often
they used to get a pair of boots or some clothes that they needed.
Christmas Eve used to be a fast day. No meat was eaten and only one main meal was served. (This meal was usually
dinner.) For breakfast and supper the people used to have a very light snack. It was mainly because they didnt eat all day
that the people cooked a big meal after midnight mass. Neighbors would drop in and everyone was given something to
eat, along with a drink. They usually used to dance then and this continued all night.
The children used to get up bright and early on Christmas morning and after they had opened their stockings they
would be brought to mass. At the house the older people used to dance to the accordion or whatever instrument was
available. Other times they would wander around all night and visit as many homes as they could.

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For three consecutive nights after Boxing Day*, the children from the schools used to do needle work and then the
adults would play cards. Sometimes a person would win a novelty such as a can of pineapple.
Christmas officially ended for the people on January 6th which was called Old Christmas Day. On this day, people
used to take down their trees and used to put away the ornaments for the following year.
*Boxing Day: the first weekday after Christmas observed as a legal holiday in parts of the Commonwealth of Nations,
including Canada, and marked by the giving of Christmas boxes to service workers (as postal workers).

Taken from: A project created by Laval High School students entitled Arts, Culture and Music of the Placentia
Area. Last edited March, 2003.Adapted by P. Flores and K. Urquijo. Available at: http://www.laval.k12.nf.ca/
Commun2001/Special.htm

Reading Comprehension questions


1. Was Christmas celebrated differently in Placentia long time ago?
2. How did people in Placentia obtain their Christmas tree?
3. What kind of ornaments did people in Placentia use to decorate their tree with?
4. How did people use to illuminate the tree?
5. Why did people use to lighten their trees that way?
6. What did the children use to receive as Christmas presents?
7. Why did people use to eat lightly on the day before Christmas?
8. Why did children use to get up early on Christmas Day?
9. What did older people use to do on Christmas Day?
10. When did Christmas used to officially end years ago?

Understanding questions
1. What are three things that people used to do in Placentia years ago and are still done today?







2. What are three things that people used to do in Placentia to celebrate Christmas that arent done nowadays?







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3. What are some things you used to do on Christmas when you were a child and you dont do anymore?







4. What things did you use to do on Christmas when you were a child that you still do nowadays?







Learning Situation 4
Performance Indicator: The student can discriminate important data from not relevant data in an aural text about
past habits and routines which are not performed in the present by using listening comprehension strategies.

Activity Sequence 4
1. Interview an elderly person. Ask him or her to tell you things he or she used to do when he or she was a young
adult or a child. Tell the person you want to talk about activities that they dont do anymore.
2. Write your questions on a separate piece of paper and then write the answers the person gives you. Listen
carefully.

Possible questions









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3. Be prepared to give an oral presentation about what your interviewee used to do to the rest of the group. You
may use visual aids to help you give the presentation. You may use the interview at the beginning of this lesson
as an example.

2.4 Question words


Question words are also called wh questions because they include the letters W and H.

Question words Meaning Examples

who person Whos that? Thats Nancy.

where place Where do you live? In Boston

why reason Why do you sleep early? Because Ive got to get up early

when time When do you go to work? At 7:00

how manner How do you go? By car

what object, idea or action What do you do? I am an engineer

which choice Which one do you prefer? The red one.

whose possession Whose is this book? Its Alans.

whom object of the verb Whom did you meet? I met the manager.

what kind description What kind of music do you like? I like quiet songs

what time time What time did you come home?

how many quantity (countable) How many students are there? There are twenty.

how much amount, price (uncountable) How much time have we got? Ten minutes

how long duration, length How long did you stay in that hotel? For two weeks.

how often frequency How often do you go to the gym? Twice a week.

how far distance How far is your school? Its one mile far.

how old age How old are you? Im 16.

how come reason How come I didnt see you at the party?

Asking questions
1. If you ask about the subject of the sentence, simply add the question word at the beginning:
Example:
James writes good poems. Who writes good poems?

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2. If you ask about the predicate of the sentence (the part of a sentence which contains the verb and gives infor
mation about the subject), there are three options:
n If there is a helping (auxiliary) verb that precedes the main verb ( for example: can, is, are, was, were, will,
would...), add the question word and invert the subject and the helping (auxiliary) verb.
Examples:
He canspeakChinese. Whatcan hespeak?
They areleavingtonight. Whenare they leaving?

n If you ask about the predicate and there is no helping (auxiliary) verb and the verb is to be, simply add
the question verb and invert the subject and the verb.
Example:
The play wasinteresting. Howwas the play?

n If there is no helping (auxiliary) verb in the the predicate and the main verb is not to be, add the auxi
liary do in the appropriate form.
Examples:
They go tothe movies every Saturday. Wheredo they go every Saturday?
He wakes up early. Whendoes he wake up?
They sent a letter. Whatdid they send?

2.5 Time expressions used in the past tense


Expression Examples

Yesterday Today is October 20. Yesterday was October 19.

the day before yesterday The day before yesterday was October 18.

(period of time) ago

two days ago I visited my cousin two days ago.


five minutes ago Mark arrived five minutes ago.
ten years ago We lived in Leon ten years ago.

last (year / month / week / Friday) I traveled to England last month.


Jeremy worked in this company last year.

the _____ before last (year, month, week) We watched an excellent movie the week before last.

until Until last year, we lived on Main Street.

for + (period of time) We lived in Veracruz for two years.

before (time or event) She called before 1 oclock.


She called before lunch.
She called before you arrived.

in the ______ (morning, afternoon, evening) They walked to school in the morning.
at night, at noon I talked to my mom at noon.
This is used in the past when this time of the day already
passed.

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Evidence Collection and Portfolio


Task 1. Write about the past habits of a person using information about past actions and talk about them.
Evidence: The student can distinguish and exemplify in isolated sentences, orally and in writing, the simple past and the verbal form used
to compared to the single present.

Activity Sequence
Diana is a third-year university student. The sentences below tell about her life when she was in high school.

1. Restate the sentences below with used to.


2. Follow the example: In high school, Diana wore a uniform to school every day.
Diana used to wear a uniform to school every day.
3. Use the sentences to write a paragraph about Dianas life when she was in high school. You may add sentences to make your writing more
interesting. You also may change the order of the sentences from the one given in the exercise. You may join information if you consider
it appropriate.
4. Work with a classmate. Tell him / her what you wrote in your paragraph.

Sentences
1. When she was in high school, Diana lived at home with her parents.
.

2. She shared her room with her sister.


.

3. She didnt have a lot of homework.


.

4. She had a lot of time to watch television and talk on the phone with her friends.
.

5. Her mom woke her up to go to school every morning.


.

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6. Her father helped her with her math homework.


7. She and her friends spent a lot of time at the gym.


.

8. She didnt drive to school every day.


9. She went to library to do research when she had a project in school.


.

10. Diana rode her bicycle in the afternoons.


Paragraph:





Evaluation
Sentences (10 points)
Give one point for each sentence that is written correctly with used to. Spelling errors will be marked down 0.5 points.

Paragraph (10 points)


Completeness: All ideas are included. Take off 0.5 points for each sentence or idea that is not included (5 points) .
Accuracy: All sentences in the paragraph are correctly written.
Order is logical. No spelling or punctuation errors (5 points).

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Creativeness: Information is added which makes paragraph livelier or more interesting. Student uses transition words or phrases to con
nect ideas (3 extra points).

Oral activity (10 points)


Assessment of each students oral presentation will be done by the teacher. Teacher will evaluate pronunciation, fluency, and intonation.

Task 2. Demonstrating grammatical accuracy.

Evidence: The student can use and answer questionnaires to verify grammatical accuracy of the structures learned in this block.

Activity Sequence
1. Complete the sentences with logical information using the verb in parentheses. You may use: to get used to, used to, to be used to.
2. Check your answers with another classmate. Modify if necessary.
3. Give to teacher for final checking and evaluation.

Example: We are not used to living (live) in such a cold climate. We have always lived in a warm place.

Sentences
1. When my father was a student he ______________________________. (work)
2. I cant ______________________ (work) nights, but I need the job. I hope I can change to the morning shift soon.

3. Mayra ______________________ (live) alone. She feels very lonely.

4. When I worked in the city, I _________________(get up) very early to get to the office on time. I lived far away from my job.

5. After living in an apartment, I think Edward is beginning to __________________ (live) in his


new house. He looks happy.

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6. Arthur _____________(be) a gardener, so he __________________(sit) in an office all day.


7. Since Mr. Harrison retired from his job, he needs to ________________ (have) little to do.

8. In his last job Fred ____________________ (wear) a suit and tie. Now he wears jeans.

9. I ____ just _________________(wear) eyeglasses, when the doctor decided to change


them for contact lenses.

10. My family ________________ (have) dinner together, but now everyone has different things to do.

Choose the appropriate verb to complete the following sentences with the correct form of the be used to expression. Use the verb in the ing
form.
SHARERIDEGET UPLIVEGREET
1. I leave home at six oclock every morning, so I ___________________ very early.
2. Shes German, so she _______________________ someone with a kiss.
3. John and Jane have a large family, so they _____________________ in big houses.
4. They come from a big family, so ________________________with their brothers and sisters.
5. His parents usually drive him everywhere, so Danny ______________________ ____________ a bus.

EVALUATION (Total 15 points)


Grant one point for each correct answer. Deduct 0.5 point for every spelling mistake.

Task 3. Talking about past habits.

Evidence: The student can deliver brief oral presentations to his / her classmates describing his / her past habits and routines.

Activity Sequence
1. Do you have special memories from your childhood? Your memories may be of the place where you grew up, the toys that you used to
play with, or the things you used to do with your friends.
2. Choose some of the things you used to do and describe them in a short composition.
3. Then work with a small group (three or four students) and take turns telling each other your stories.

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4. Take notes of what your classmates tell you. When everyone has finished, retell what they said taking information from your notes. Your
classmates will tell you if you are right or wrong.

Example: When I was a child I used to live in Acapulco. My friends and I used to play on the beach. We loved to play with the sand and we used
to build sand castles. One summer, we built a very big castle and received a lot of good comments from our older family members.

Paragraph




Rubric for the paragraph Past Habits

Criteria Needs improvement Satisfactory Well done

Message The student made a poor or incomplete The student made a good description of his The student made a good description of
(Content) description of his or her past habits / or her past habits / customs. It is evident that his or hers past habits / customs-showed
customs. Understanding of the situations is the message is understood. creativity and good understanding of the
unclear or poor. situation.
Language Student uses a very small range of voca- Student uses a small range of vocabulary. Student uses an acceptable range of voca-
bulary. Several grammar errors in basic sentences. bulary. Simple sentences are usually correct.
Many grammar errors in basic sentences. Simple sentence structures are sometimes Spelling errors are few.
Simple sentence structures are not clear or unclear or not present. Calligraphy is clear.
not present. Several spelling errors / Difficulty understan-
Many spelling errors / Difficulty understan- ding calligraphy.
ding calligraphy.

Evaluation Criteria
10 points. Message and language well done.
8 points Message well done and language satisfactory.
6 points Message well done and language needs improvement.
8 points Message satisfactory and language well done.
6 points Message needs improvement and language well done.
7 points Message and language satisfactory.
4 points Message satisfactory and language needs improvement.
4 points Language satisfactory and message needs improvement.
2 points Message and language need improvement.

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Notes from classmates 1 presentation:





Notes from classmates 2 presentation.





Notes from classmates 3 presentation.





Rubric to evaluate Listening Comprehension Past Habits

Criteria Needs improvement Satisfactory Well done

Understanding The student took very few, poor, inaccu- The student took slightly inaccurate or The student took accurate and complete
(Note Taking) rate or incomplete notes of past habits / incomplete notes of past habits / customs notes about the information that his / her
customs of his / her classmates. of his / her classmates. classmates was given.
Oral Student retells the information given by his / Student retells the information given by his Student retells the information given by his /
Production her classmates inaccurately. / her classmates accurately, but maybe her classmates accurately and completely.
(Retelling) Many pronunciation errors. incomplete. Few pronunciation errors.
Some pronunciation errors.

Evaluation Criteria
10 points Note taking and retelling well done.
8 points Note taking well done and retelling satisfactory.
6 points Note taking well done and retelling needs improvement.
8 points Note taking satisfactory and retelling well done.
6 points Note taking needs improvement and retelling well done.
7 points Note taking and retelling satisfactory.
4 points Note taking satisfactory and retelling needs improvement.
4 points Retelling satisfactory and note taking needs improvement.
2 points Note taking and retelling needs improvement.

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2
BLOCK
Comparing habits and customs in other communities

Task 4. How did people use to do things?


Evidence: The student can access Internet sites in English to gather information that allows him or her to elaborate a report about the habits
of people in the past in contrast with their present habits.

Activity Sequence
1. Search on the internet for a site where you can get information about the habits of people in the past related to a specific topic (getting
married, dating someone, performing a job, having fun, etcetera).
2. Write a report about the habits of people in the past in contrast with present habits.
3. Deliver your report to the teacher on the assigned day.

Topic:
.
Web Site:
.

Report








Task 5. Talking about past habits and customs.


Evidence
The student can write a report after doing a comparative research about the past and present habits and customs of people in his / her com
munity, family, or neighborhood.
The student can describe to his / her group the information obtained from his / her research using visual aids.

Activity Sequence
1. Choose two families, communities, or neighborhoods to compare.
2. Do some research on past and present customs or habits of the people in these families, communities, or neighborhoods.
3. Elaborate a comparative chart.
4. With the information you researched, write a report.
5. Present your report to the whole class using visual aids.

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Rubric for Oral Presentation

Needs Lacks
Competent Satisfactory
Improvement Competence
4 points 3 points
2 points 1 point

Fluency Student is fluent throughout the Student is fluent most of the Student pauses unnecessarily Student is not fluent most of
oral presentation. time during the oral presen- during the oral presentation or the time.
tation. has verbal interruptions (eh, uh,
words in Spanish).
Pronunciation Student pronounces correctly Student has few pronunciation Student mispronounces several Student mispronounces words
most of the time and errors errors that dont affect meaning. words or mispronounces many times, affecting the
dont affect message. some words that affect the meaning of what is being said.
message.
Use of language Student uses language and Student uses language and Student makes several langua- Student makes many language
vocabulary appropriately and vocabulary appropriately and ge mistakes or uses vocabulary mistakes and / or doesnt use
correctly most of the time. correctly with few errors. inappropriately. appropriate vocabulary.
Overall presentation Student presents in an orga- Student presents in an organi- Student does not present in Presentation lacks organization
skills nized manner and uses visual zed manner most of the time, an organized manner and / and other presentation skills
aids, as well as appropriate and uses visual aids and a fairly or doesnt use visual aids nor (body language) and / or dont
body language that enhance appropriate body language. body language appropriately. use any visual aids.
the presentation.

Total points

Evidence Collection For Your Portfolio


Task Evidence Competencies

1 Paragraph about what people used to do when they were Oral production. The student can distinguish orally and in writing what
young others formal.
2 Grammar exercise The student can demonstrate grammatical accuracy of the structures
reviewed in this block related to past habitual actions.
3 Recording of oral presentation talking about past habits. Oral Production and listening comprehension. The student can deliver a
brief oral presentation about past habits and routines and understand his
classmates presentations.
4 Written and oral Report: How did people use to do Oral production. Listening comprehension. Reading comprehension. Use
thngs (specific topics) of information technologies. The student can search about past habits and
customs and elaborate a report comparing what used to be done to what
is currently done.
5 Written report: Talking about past customs and habits. Reading comprehension. Written production. The student can search for
information to write a report on past habits and customs.
Learning Activity 1, p. 48 Written and oral report about what people used to do in a Teamwork. Use of information technologies. The students can write and
specific decade and topic. talk about past habits and customs using the expression used to in all
forms.
Learning Activity 2, p. 56 Listening comprehension exercise answering questions Listening comprehension. Using information technologies. The student
after viewing a video on Internet. can demonstrate his/her listening comprehension skills by answering
questions about an aural text.
Learning Activity 3, p. 66 Interview to another person about his / her past habits. Oral production. The student can interview another person about his / her
past habits and then present the results to the rest of the group.

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Comparing habits and customs in other communities

Pair Work Evaluation Coevaluation


Honestly evaluate your classmates work and attitude.
Use the following format

Name of evaluator:
Person who is being evaluated:

Always Most of the time Sometimes Rarely

My classmate showed interest in


our assignment

My classmate worked in our


assignment

My classmate showed a positive


attitude towards learning

My classmate helped me learn

My classmate shared his / her


ideas

Overall, I consider our work together was: VERY GOOD GOOD SATISFACTORY NEEDS IMPROVEMENT

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Team Work Evaluation Heteroevaluation


Honestly evaluate your classmates work and attitudes. Write the name of each of your classmates at the top of each column.

Name of evaluator:
Use the following: ALWAYS MOST OF THE TIME SOMETIMES RARELY

Name Name Name Name

Showed interest in our assignment

Worked in our assignment

Showed positive attitude during our


interaction

Helped everyone to learn

Shared his / her ideas with the


other members

Asked for help when necessary

I enjoyed working with him / her

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BLOCK

12 hours
3
Learning
Describing activities
in the past

Objects

3.1 The past


continuous or
past progressive
tense

3.2 More uses of the


past continuous
or past progressive
tense

3.3 When / while


used in sentences
in simple past
and past
continuous

3.4 Connectors

Competencies to be developed n Identify and interpret the general idea and possible development of an
oral or written message in a foreign language by using their own previous
Students are able to: knowledge.
n Communicate in a foreign language using a logical oral or written discourse
n Maintain a respectful attitude towards the relationship among cultures, to describe and compare the activities done by their group with those of
diversity of beliefs, values, ideas and social practices, when describing their other social groups.
own activities and those of other social groups.
Warm up

Read the following text that describes what was


happening last night when the famous secret agent,
James Wong, found the multiassassin George Creep.
After reading the text, discuss with your teacher
possible endings to this story.
It was close to midnight. The famous secret agent James
Wong was driving through town. It was raining. The
wind was blowing strongly. Nobody was walking in
the streets. Suddenly, he saw the killer at the end of the
street. He was standing beside a telephone booth on the
corner of Madison and York. He was smoking a cigarette.
He was wearing a black raincoat and Wong could see a
bulk in the right pocket that looked like a gun.
Wong stopped at a distance. He turned off the engine and was watching the scene
attentively. He had to do something. He couldnt let the criminal escape. A few minutes
later, two men in black coats appeared at the end of the street. They were looking for
the murder and were they also looking for Wong? The killer hid behind the telephone
booth. He took out his gun. He was pointing at the two men. Wong needed to do
something quickly He was alone against three armed men. What do you think he did?

Give your opinion to the class.

I think James Wong



Look at the words in bold type.


n What are these words describing?
n When did these actions occur?
n What do you see in common?

n Use autonomous learning strategies using information and communication At the end of this block, the student
technologies in order to obtain information using the grammatical forms
learned in this block. n Explains the activities that were happening in different contexts.
n Produce texts based on language norms, considering the communicative n Identifies specific information in an oral or written text about activities that
intention and situation, as well as the formal elements of language such as happened in his / her community, in other parts of his / her state, in his /
punctuation, spelling, syntax, coherence and cohesiveness. her country and in the world.
n Uses grammar structures in the simple past and past continuous to describe
activities that happened at a specific moment.
3
BLOCK
Describing activities in the past

Food for Thought

The world changed on 9/11, 2001


The devastating attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon stunned people across the world.
Most can remember exactly what they were doing as the shocking images were played and replayed.
In a series of interviews with the BBCs World Service, Radio 4 and BBC News Online (*), some
people recall how they heard about the dramatic events of September 11, 2001 and how it affected their
lives. Here are two of these testimonies:

Lisa Lefler Aon Insurance Company

World Trade Center, South Tower, floor 103


I heard what sounded like a jet going supersonic, which I thought was very odd. I looked out my window and all I
saw was this huge fireball that was coming at me. I thought: Im getting out of here. So I grabbed my purse and
started screaming: Fire, fire, get out. Theres a fire, lets go. I headed for the stairs and walked down to 78. But
there were also elevators running and one happened to open in front of myself and a couple of my co-
workers so we jumped in. We got down to the ground lobby. The cops were directing that we couldnt
go out onto Church Street. So we had to go through the mall and we popped out, I think, on Broadway.
So we go onto Broadway and it was complete chaos. There were papers flying all over the place. My
cell phone wasnt working; my friends cell phone wasnt working.
We were heading down towards some of our colleagues offices, but then one of the
people I was with said: My sister - I have to get to my sister.
By this time we were about a block away when the other plane hit. And then I heard
somebody that was saying: A missile just hit the Trade Center, I saw a missile hit.
And I just remember I was looking at him like he was crazy.


Katie Hochbaum
15-year-old schoolgirl, New York
Stuyvesant High School, lower Manhattan

There was this girl who was usually late for class and she came running in and said a plane had just hit one of the
World Trade Center towers. No-one really believed her. People were laughing. From the classroom I was in, I saw many
ambulances were coming down the street and there were a lot of cop cars everywhere.
Eventually they told us they were evacuating the building. People were turning around and taking pictures. But I
think it just wasnt really sinking in for me. It didnt seem real. It hadnt really hit me.
We walked pretty far. The girl that I was walking with lived in uptown Manhattan. I had no way to get home and she
was really nice and she offered to let me stay there for the night so my dad could pick me up the next day.
Television was broadcasting the same pictures over and over. People were falling out of buildings or the buildings
were collapsing.
It was horrifying. I was in a classroom where I got a pretty good view of what was happening before I was evacuated
and I didnt want to have to watch it over and over. Even once is more than enough.

Source: BBC News UK edition. Accessed on October 30, 2004.


Available at <www.esl-lounge.com/level2/lev2whatwereyoudoing.shtml>

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1. What do you think was happening around Lisa when the plane hit the building she was in?
2. What do you think the President of the United States and all the high officials were thinking at the moment
of these attacks?
3. What were you doing when this happened? Share your answers with your teacher and classmates.

3.1 The past continuous or past progressive tense


Grammar Presentation
The past continuous tense (also called the past progressive tense) is commonly used in English for actions which were going on (had
not finished) at a particular time in the past. In this Block we will revise the form and the function of this tense, and practice
some of them. In Block 4, we will continue the revision and practice.

1. Past continuous - Form


The past continuous of any verb is composed of two parts: the past tense of the verb to be (was/were), and the base of the main
verb + ing.

Subject Was/were Base form verb -ing

They were walking

You were listening to her carefully

Affirmative

Laura was walking

A man was screaming

Negative

She was not walking

The cell phone wasnt working

Interrogative

Was the building collapsing?

Example: to study, past continuous

Affirmative Negative Interrogative

I was studying I was not studying Was I studying?


You were studying You were not studying Were you studying?
He, she, it was studying She wasnt studying Was she studying?
We were studying We werent studying Were we studying?
You were studying You werent studying Were you studying?
They were studying They werent studying Were they studying?

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Describing activities in the past

Examples:
Laura was studying when the teacher arrived.
I was carefully putting the snake in the basket, when it bit me.

NOTE: When you are using a verb tense with more than one part such as past continuous
(was putting), adverbs often come between the first part and the second part (was
carefully putting).

2. Past continuous, function


The past continuous describes actions or events in a time before now, which began in the past and was still going on at the
time of speaking. In other words, it expresses an unfinished or incomplete action in the past.

A.To describe the background or atmosphere


in a story written in the past tense
Remember our introductory exercise to this unit about James Wong? Read the following example:

The sun was shining and the birds were singing as the mother rabbit came out of the hole. The other
animals were relaxing in the shade of the trees, but the rabbit moved very quickly. She was looking for her
baby, and she didnt notice the fox that was watching her behind the bushes.

B. To describe parallel or simultaneous actions

l l
=l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l ll ll ll ll ll l
l l
l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll

Past Present Future

When you use the past progressive with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions were happening
simultaneously at the same time. In these sentences you may use the adverb while which indicates this simultaneity. While can
be placed at the beginning of the first clause or before the second one.

Examples:

n My dad was watching the TV while my mom was making dinner.

While Eleanor was reading, the other students were listening


n 
attentively.

n They were eating dinner, discussing their plans and having a good time.

For example: Consider the first sentence.


My dad was watching the TV while my mom was making dinner.

My dad started watching the evening news at nine oclock and my mom started making dinner (maybe a little
before nine oclock). At a moment, both were dong their activities during the same period of time (from nine to 10
oclock) and both finished their actions later (maybe at 10:30 p.m.) Here is a diagram:

9:00 9:30 10:00


(Dad) watching TV watching TV watching TV
(Mom) making dinner making dinner making dinner

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C. Ongoing action at a specific time


X
l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l ll ll ll ll ll l
l l
l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll

Past Present Future

Examples:
Last night at 6:00 p.m., I was attending a lecture.
At midnight, we were still driving to Guanajuato.

Food for Thought

Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are not complete sentences.
Some clauses begin with the word when such as ...when she called or ...when it bit me.
Clauses with the past continuous usually start with while. While expresses the idea during the time. Study the exam-
ples below. They have the same meaning.

Exercise 1
Describe the environment of this office. Fill in the blanks with the past continuous tense of an appropriate verb.

TYPE TALK GIVE WAIT


ARGUE WAVE COMPLAIN DIE
When I walked into the office, several secretaries and clerks , some on the pho-
nes. I saw a man that looked like the boss directions to another employee. On the other side
of the counter, some customers to be helped. One customer with a secretary
and his hands. He looked a little angry. Others to each other about the bad service.

Exercise 2
Ongoing action at a specific time.
Tell a specific time in the past when you were doing these things. Write it down. Then, work in pairs. Tell your
classmate your answers and listen to his or hers.
EXAMPLE: study
I was studying at 10:30 last night.
1. sleep
2. study
3. watch television
4. talk on the phone
5. walking to school
6. eat breakfast
7. listening to my dad

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Describing activities in the past

8. take a shower
9. getting dressed
10. do my homework

Exercise 3
Work with a partner. Take turns asking questions using What were you doing...? and the words given. He / She
will answer. Write your questions and answers in the space provided.
EXAMPLE: at seven oclock this morning
A: What were you doing at seven oclock this morning?
B: I was taking a shower.

1. at six oclock this morning.




2. at 11:00 oclock last night.


3. at six oclock yesterday afternoon.


4. at this time yesterday.


5. at this time last Sunday.


6. before class began.


7. all morning.


8. at midnight last night.

Exercise 4
1. Work in groups of three students. Assign yourselves as student A, student B, and student C.
2. Then, take turns asking questions using What were you doing...? Each one of you will answer.
3. Write in the columns the answers to the questions what you were doing at the times indicated in the column
on the left (Time).

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4. Practice making combined sentences.

Example
Student A was having breakfast at 7:00 a.m. this morning while student B was taking a shower.
While Student A was having breakfast at 7:00 a.m. this morning, student B was taking a shower.

Student A Student B Student C

7:00 a.m. this morning


4:00 p.m. this afternoon
10:00 p.m. last night
3:00 p.m. yesterday afternoon
8:00 p.m. on Sunday evening
11:00 p.m. on Saturday night
6:00 p.m. on Saturday evening
10:00 a.m. on Saturday morning

Cultural Note

Live the language!


What do you know about English?
English is the third most common first language (native speakers), with around 402 million people in 2002. English is ranked in the third place of
people who speak it in the world. The first place is Chinese (five varieties of the language) and the second place is Spanish.
It has lingua franca status in many parts of the world, due to the military, economic, scientific, political and cultural influence of the United Kingdom
and later the United States. Where possible, virtually all students worldwide are required to learn some English, and knowledge of English is virtually
a prerequisite for working in many fields and occupations. Higher academic institutions, for example, require a working command of English.

Food for Thought

What were you doing on September 19, 1985?


When something really important happens in your country or in the world, you can usually remember exactly
what you were doing at that time many years later. The day that a man first walked on the moon is one of those
times. There are very interesting stories from people who remember what they were doing on July 20, 1969,
when the American astronaut Neil Armstrong walked on the moon. Heres an example of what a person said:
On July 20, 1969 my wife and I were at my fathers house watching the event on TV. The reason I remem-
ber this so well is that while we were watching Neil Armstrong walk on the moon, our first child, Luanne,
exactly 10 months old (born Sept. 20, 1968) took her first steps. She was walking at the same time the
astronaut was walking on the moon.

Your Turn
Maybe your parents are too young to remember the first moon walk, but surely they remember what they or their
relatives were doing when Mexico suffered two terrible earthquakes on September 19 and 20,1985. Read the
following information and then do the exercises.

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Describing activities in the past

Mexicos Earthquakes: September 1985


At 7:17 a.m. September 19, 1985, a powerful earthquake registering 8.1 on the Ri-
chter scale, rocked central Mexico. Another earthquake, 7.3 on the Richter scale,
followed on September 20 in the evening. The quakes were centered in the coastal
mountains of the Michoacan Province and caused substantial damage throughout
central Mexico, including in Mexico City - some 240 miles East of the epicenter.
Severe damage occurred to about 500 buildings in Mexico City with widespread light
to moderate damage in other parts of the country. Quake killed over 8,000 people (some sources report up to 10,000). Mexico City
has been rocked several times in the past. It is largely built upon soft, poorly consolidated lake sediments from the former Lake Texco-
co, which was drained by the Spanish following their occupation of the region.
These were some of the things that were going on during that terrible morning in Mexico City downtown area. Read them and
discuss them with your teacher and classmates.

n People were crying for help.




n Buildings were coming down.


n Ambulances were circulating everywhere.


n Men and women were helping each other.


n Some parents were looking for their children.


n The police force was trying to calm people.


n Some people were helping to rescue others from under the fallen buildings.

Can you think of other things that were happening? Write them down in your notebook.

Learning Situation 1
Competence: The student can understand and write simple documents that include descriptions of activities that
he/she or a third person was doing in the past and actions that interrupted such activities.

Activity Sequence 1
1. Work individually. What major events have taken place in your lifetime that you have strong memories of ?
2. Make a list of those events. Write at least three statements.
3. Choose the one you remember the best.
4. Then, write a short paragraph about what you were doing the day when that event occurred. Write it in the
space provided.
5. Then revise it and check the grammar and spelling. Give it to your teacher on the assigned date.

Memorable events
1.
.

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2.
.
3.
.

What was I doing when?






.

Learning Situation 2
Competences:
The student can discriminate important data in an aural text about actions that were being done in the past.

The student can perform short dialogues/role-plays in which he/she narrates situations that were in progress at a
specific time in the past.

Activity Sequence 2
1. Interview two people: your mother, father, uncle, aunt, or/and a neighbor. Ask them what they were doing on
the morning of September 19, 1985 when the earthquake occurred.
2. Write your questions and their answers in your notebook. Let them tell you what was happening around
them at the moment of the quake. Give them an opportunity to speak as much as they want.
3. Take careful notes and then write the complete sentences as soon as you can after the interview.
4. Be prepared to present orally to your classmates, the stories you heard from your relatives and/or friends. The
teacher will give you the presentation guidelines and will tell you when you will present.

Learning Activity 1

Intercultural awareness 4. Describe what happens in the cities or towns where these fes-
tivals take place. Whats the festivals name? When does the
1. Work in groups of three or four students. festival take place? Where? What do people do? What events
go on during the festival? Why do they celebrate this?
2. Search on the Internet for information about local or national
5. Bring the information to class on the date your teacher as-
festivals in the United States or the United Kingdom related
signs. Be prepared to have a group discussion about your find-
to fruits, flowers, or food in general. For example from http://
ings and the ones of your classmates. Compare what is done in
www.americaslibrary.gov/
your country and what is done abroad.
3. Search on the Internet or in the library for information about 6. After the discussion, write a one-page article as if you had gone
local or national festivals in your state or Mexico related to to the festival as a past narration. Use simple past and past con-
fruits, flowers, or food in general. tinuous tenses.

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Describing activities in the past

3.2More uses of the past continuous


or past progressive tense
Grammar Presentation
D. To express a change of mind or plans
We use the expression instead to express a change of mind or choice.

Pamela was preparing lunch instead of clearing the house because there was no food prepared.

We can also use it to express future plans that changed. We usually introduce the reason with the word because.

My parents were leaving town on Sunday, but they decided to stay because my little sister is sick.

Exercise 5
Tonys parents went out yesterday afternoon to visit some relatives. Tony was supposed to do his homework as-
signments and some house chores. When his parents came back, they noticed he hadnt. They asked him to tell
them what he was doing all afternoon instead of doing his homework assignments and house chores. They also
wanted to know the reasons.

Tony had to: This is what Tony was doing:

4:00 - 4:20 p.m. Water the garden Play video games (from 4 to 4:40 p.m.)

4:30 5:00 p.m. Bathe the dog Talk on the phone (4:40 to 5:00 p.m.)

5:00 6:00 p.m. Do homework Watch TV (from 5:00 to 6 p.m.)

6:00 6:30 p.m. Wash the dishes Play soccer in the street (from 6:00 to 7:00 p.m.)

Tony said:
Example
Instead of watering the garden, I was playing video games from 4 to 4:40 p.m.



Answer Tonys mothers questions. Tell us what he was doing and what he wasnt doing (according to the
schedule his mother gave him).
Example: What was Tony doing at 4:30 p.m.?
He was playing video games. He wasnt watering the garden.
1. Where was Tony playing soccer at 6:15 p.m.?

2. When was Tony watching TV?

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3. Why wasnt Tony doing his homework at 5:30 p.m.?



4. Who was Tony talking to on the phone at 4:45 p.m.?

5. What were Tonys parents doing yesterday afternoon?

Food for Thought

Some verbs are never used in progressive or continuous tenses. These


Correct Sentence Not
are called stative verbs because they describe states or conditions, not
movement or action. He understood what we were saying. not was understanding
The rock weighed 500 pounds. not was weighing
Some stative verbs: think (when it means have an opinion-- I thought her
boyfriend was very handsome) believe / agree / understand / know / re- We wanted to go to the movies. Not were wanting
member / forget / mean / doubt / like / love / hate / imagine / want / wish The early Mayans believed in many gods. Not were believing
/ have (to possess) / say / tell / report / cost / seem / appear / weigh / My sisters boyfriend had a nice sports car. not was having
measure

Vocabulary

Review
Rooms in a house / apartment:

Bedroom
Dressing room
Dinning room

Living room Laundry room


Kitchen

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Describing activities in the past

Basement Bathroom Yard

Vocabulary and Past Continuous. Exercise


Match two activities and write down an explanation describing parallel or simultaneous actions. Then, work in pairs. Tell your class-
mate your sentences and listen to his or hers.

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Exercise 6
A. Think about what people do in their homes in the mornings. Look at the following pictures of an apartment building. This pictures were
taken yesterday at 7:00 in the morning. Write in the lines below what they were doing. Then, work in pairs. Tell your classmate your sen-
tences and listen to his or hers. Do the same after exercise B.

401 402

301 302

201 202

102
101


Example:
1. The person in apartment 102 was reading the newspaper. .
2. .

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Describing activities in the past

3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .

B. Now, combine the activities that people of two different apartments were doing at 7:00 a.m. yesterday. Follow the example:
Example:
1. (102 and 301)
The woman in apartment 102 was reading the newspaper while the person in the apartment 301 was sleeping.
2. 101 and 202

.
3. 201 and 402

.
4. 302 and 401

.

Exercise 7
What Were You Doing?
Work in pairs. One of you will read the following dialogue between two people at an office. The other one will only
listen. After reading it, the person who only listened will answer the questions below. The person, who read, will
check if the answers are correct.

Michelle: I telephoned you yesterday afternoon but you didnt answer. Where
were you?
David: I was in another room when you called. I didnt hear the phone rin-
ging until it was too late.
Michelle: What were you working on?
David: I was photocopying a report that I needed to send to a client. What
were you doing when you telephoned?
Michelle: I was looking for Tom and couldnt find him. Do you know where
he was?
David: Tom was driving to a meeting.
Michelle: Oh, I see. What did you do yesterday?
David: I met the representatives from Drivers in the morning. In the
afternoon, I worked on the report and was just finishing when
you telephoned. What did you do?

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Michelle: Well, at nine I had a meeting with Miss Anderson. After that, I did some research.
David: Sounds like a boring day!
Michelle: Yes, I dont really like doing research. But it needs to be done.
David: I agree with you on that, no research - no business!

Questions:
1. What was David doing when Michelle telephoned?
.
2. What was Michelle doing when she telephoned David?
.
3. Where was Tom when Michelle telephoned David?
.
4. What did David do yesterday morning?
.
5. When did Michelle have a meeting with Miss Anderson?
.

Learning Situation 3
Competence: The student can complete charts, tables, organize information, etc., based on the written or oral
information obtained, reporting actions that were occurring in the past.

Activity Sequence 3
PART A
1. Think about what people do in their apartments in the afternoons and evenings.
2. Draw a similar building on a large sheet of paper.
3. Draw or cut photographs from old magazines and newspapers of people doing dif-
ferent activities that can be done in their homes during the afternoons or evenings.
You set the time of the day.
4. Look up the verbs in your list at the end of Block 2 or in a dictionary.
5. Prepare an oral presentation to give to your classmates (in small groups or to the
whole class).

PART B
1. Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions using your apartment building draw-
ing. Ask yes/no questions. (For example: Was the man in apartment two washing the dishes?, Were the chil-
dren in apartment five watching TV?, etcetera)
2. Ask and answer information questions. Make questions using where, what, who, when.

Example:
Where was the man reading the newspaper and drinking a cup of coffee? He was in the dining room.

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3.3When / while used in sentences in simple past


and past continuous
Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the
word when such as ...when she called or ...when it bit me.
Clauses with the past continuous usually start with while. While expresses the idea during the time. Study the
examples below. Contrast simple past with past continuous.
We use the past continuous in descriptions of actions, when actions last some time and/or are in progress.
n The sun was shining, the birds were singing.
n On Sunday it was raining, and I didnt go out, so just imagine! (I cant describe to go out, but I can describe
the fact that rain poured for some time.)
Compare it to the past simple: We use the past simple to state an event took place.
n It rained on Sunday. (I dont want to evoke the atmosphere, just to state that it happened.)
n The other day, we did this and that (went out, had lunch, visited our, got some new furniture)
A combination of both tenses is usual when there are two sentences joined by when or while. You get a past simple
in the part where an action (short) takes place and a past continuous in the part where an action was happening before
the former, during the former, and after the former: While I was driving in the rain, I forgot about your birthday.
Of course, it is possible to get different combinations:
n While I was driving in the rain, I was listening to the music I borrowed from you.
n When I was a child, I lived in Madrid. (I used to live in Madrid.)
n When we were in Paris, we were always visiting museums! (We used to live in Paris.)

3.4Connectors
Some linking words used in past narratives: first, after, later
When narrating a sequence of events, sentences should be linked by words called linking words or connectors.
For example, you may list the order of events by using words such as: first, second, third, etcetera.
Other words indicate sequence in time: after, after a while, after that, later.

As, when and while


All three of these words can be used to talk about actions or situations that take place at the same time. There are
some differences.

Background action or situation


We can use all three words to introduce a longer background action or situation, which is / was going on when
something else happens / happened. Note that we usually use a progressive tense for the longer background
action or situation.
As-clauses usually introduce less important information. They most often go at the beginning.
n As I was driving to work, I saw him walking down the street.
When- and while-clauses can go at the beginning or end of sentences.
n I was having my lunch when the telephone rang.
n While they were having a nap, somebody broke into the house.

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Simultaneous long events


While is used to say that two longer actions or situations go/went on at the same time. We can use progressive or
simple tenses.
n While he was watching TV, I was working.
n He prepared drinks while I cooked hamburgers.
As is used to refer to two situations which develop or change together. We normally use simple tenses.
n As I get older, I get more optimistic.
n As he came into the room, all rose to their feet.
When is used to refer to ages and periods of life.
n His parents died when he was ten.

Simultaneous short events


To talk about two short actions or situations that happen / happened at the same time, we usually use as. When
is also possible.
n As I opened my eyes, I saw a strange sight.

Reduced clauses
It is often possible to drop subject + be after when and while.
n Start when ready. = (Start when you are ready.)
Source: perfectyourenglish.com

Learning Activity 2

Past narrative (storytelling) 4. You are asked to write a short story for children with a moral
1. Work in groups of three or four students. lesson. The story must be written in past tense. You may use
simple past and past continuous.
2. Read the following fable by Aesop called The Ant and the
Grasshopper. This is an old fable (story that intends to teach us 5. Take Aesops fable as an example. Remember your audience is
a lesson about life). children, so use simple language and make it attractive for them.
6. Bring your story to class on the date your teacher assigns. Be
During all the summer, the ant worked hard trying to put to- prepared to read it to your classmates.
gether the food that he would need for the long, cold winter.
While the ant was working the grasshopper was having a good 7. After your presentation, discuss with your classmates the mo
time. He was jumping and singing some happy songs. He was ral lesson it intends to give.
enjoying the sun and the flowers. When winter came, the ant
had a lot of food to eat. On the contrary, the grasshopper had
nothing to eat. The grasshopper went to visit the ants house one
day. He was very hungry and cold. He begged the ant to give
him some food. The ant looked at him and asked: What were
you doing all summer long? The grasshopper answered: I was
jumping and singing all summer. Then, go and dance now, the
ant told the grasshopper, and closed the door.
3. Discuss the fable with your classmates and teacher. Which is
the moral lesson of this story?

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Evidence Collection and Portfolio


Task 1. What was my friend doing last Saturday at?

Evidence: The student can complete charts, tables, organize information, etc., based on the written or oral information obtained, reporting
actions that were occurring in the past.

Activity Sequence
1. Interview two friends. Ask them what they were doing last Saturday at the specific times included in the chart.
2. Then write complete sentences using the past continuous about what they were doing.
3. Write sentences comparing what each one was doing at the same times.

Time Friend 1:____________ Friend 2:____________

5:00 a.m.
7:00 a.m.
9:00 a.m.
11:00 a.m.
1:00 p.m.
3:00 p.m.
5:00 p.m.
7:00 p.m.
9:00 p.m.
11:00 p.m.

A. Activities that your friend 1 was doing at


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

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B. Activities that your friend 2 was doing at


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

C. Now, compare what friend 1 was doing at the same time that friend 2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Evaluation:
1. Each sentence is worth one point.
2. Student must use past progressive tense to express actions done during a period of time in the past.
3. In Section C, students should describe the actions performed by the two friends that occurred simultaneously. Past progressive tense
should be used using the word while to connect both actions.
4. Spelling should be correct. For every two errors, one point should be marked off.

Task 2. Investigating a crime.


Evidence: The student can report orally and in writing actions that another person was doing during a period of time in
the past as if he/she were a detective, using the grammatical structures learned in this block.

Situation: A crime was committed yesterday in your neighborhood. You have been called to the police station
as part of an investigation. You are asked to tell the detective what you were doing last night at the time the crime
took place.

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Activity Sequence
1. Work in groups of five or six students or as a whole group.
2. One of you will play the role of a detective. You are all suspicious.
3. Each one of you will answer what you were doing last night between 8:30 p.m. and 12:30 a.m. Whatever you say can be used against you
in the investigation. You need to have a good alibi to not be accused for the crime.
4. The detective will ask each person in the group: What were you doing last night at about 11:30? You will have to answer the question
according to what the detective asks you. Be prepared to answer all the questions.
5. At the end, the rest of the group will decide who committed the crime.

Evaluation
You will be evaluated according to the following:
Student used past continuous or simple past appropriately. Yes No
Student used appropriate vocabulary correctly. Yes No
Student answered all the questions asked. Yes No

TASK 3. Writing a report.

Competence: The student can write a report to an authority about the activities that he/she was doing at specific moments in the past.

Activity Sequence
1. Your boss was out all day yesterday.
2. When he came back this morning, he wanted to know what you were doing at specific times.
3. Write a brief report, telling him / her what you were doing at the following times: 9:00 a.m., 11:00 a.m., 1:00 p.m., 3:00 p.m., 5:00 p.m.

REPORT

Dear Mr. ___________________:

At your request, I am sending you the report about my activities yesterday.







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TASK 4: What were you doing at 8:00 a.m. this morning?


Competence: The student can give an oral presentation using a written report about different alibis that suspects give when being accused of
something.

Situation: There was a robbery at an apartment building at 405 Madison Street. Miss Scarlett, the woman who was robbed, lives in apartment
102. She called the police at about 11:00 a.m. She said she left her apartment at 7:55 a.m. and that when she returned to her apartment after
going to the supermarket, she noticed the door was open. Her bedroom was a mess. She realized she had been robbed.
Look at the pictures below. You are a police officer who is sent to investigate the crime. Write sentences describing what the people declared they
were doing at 8:00 o'clock this morning. Then, prepare an oral presentation to give to your boss, the head of the police department.

402 403
401

301 302 303


202
201 203

101 102 103


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Follow the example

.
says he
Apartment 101: Mr. Jones

POLICE REPORT

Name of officer:
Time:
Date:
Apartment 102
Place: 405 Madison Street
e: Miss Laura Scarlett
Person who reports the crim
9:00 o'clock this morning.
asked what they were doing between 8:00 and
Declarations: People were
.
Apartment 101:
.

.
Apartment 103:
.

.
Apartment 201:
.

.
Apartment 202:
.

.
Apartment 203:
.

.
Apartment 301:
.

.
Apartment 302:
.

.
Apartment 303:
.

.
Apartment 401:
.

.
Apartment 402:
.

.
Apartment 403:

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Evaluation task 4

Report
Student wrote eight complete sentences. Evaluate each sentence according to the following characteristics.

1. Complete sentence.
2. Subject agrees with the picture (singular, plural, man, woman, child).
3. Past continuous tense is used correctly.
4. Spelling of words in the sentence is correct.
5. Capitalization and punctuation are used correctly.

Each sentence = 5 points.


Total points = 40.

Oral presentation
Student reports the declarations of the people in the 12 apartments in the building. Evaluate each sentence according to the following
characteristics.

1. Uses complete sentence.


2. Subject agrees with the picture (singular, plural, man, woman, child).
3. Past continuous tense is used correctly.
4. Pronunciation of words in the sentence is correct.
5. Fluent when giving the presentation.

Total points = 20.

TASK 5. Using the past progressive tense.

Competence: The student demonstrates understanding and correct use of the verb to be in the past as an auxiliary and the verbs with an
ing ending in the past progressive tense in written or oral consolidation exercises.

Activity Sequence
1. Read the following paragraph.
2. Do exercise 1 below following the example given.
3. Look at the picture for Exercise 2.
4. Answer the questions using the present continuous tense.

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EXERCISE 1
In the summer of 2003, Jason was studying at the University of Texas in Austin. He was living with a roommate
in a dormitory on campus. He wasnt receiving money from his parents. That is the reason why he was working
in a fast food restaurant and practicing his English. He was going out with a French girl called Nicole. She wasnt
studying. All summer, she was preparing to go to the Olympic Games in Torino Japan 2006. She was on the ice
skating team.
Make questions and answer them. Follow the example.
* What / Jason / do / Austin?
Q: What was Jason doing in Austin?
A: He was studying at the University of Texas.
1. When / Jason / study / University of Texas?
.
2. Where / Jason / live?
.
3. Where / Jason / work?
.
4. Why / Jason / work?
.
5. Who / Jason / go out with?
.
6. What / Nicole / do / all Summer?
.

Exercise 2
Look at the following picture. This happened last week.

Answer the following questions.


1. What was the boy wearing?
.
2. What is the lady wearing?
.
3. What were they doing?
.
4. What was the man in the back doing?
.

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5. Where were they cutting the cake?


.

EXERCISE 3
Describe what is happening in the photograph.















Evidence Collection For Your Portfolio


Task Evidence Competencies

1 Information chart about past simultaneous activities. The student can complete graphic organizers based on written or
aural texts reporting past continuous actions.
2 Role play: Police report about a crime (written and oral). Teamwork. Listening and speaking skills. The student can report
actions that others were doing in the past.
3 Report of past activities (using past tenses). Written production. The student can write a report to an authority
describing his/her activities at a specific moment in the past.
4 GAME Playing detective (using past continuous). Teamwork. All communicative skills The student can act out
role plays about alibies of different people involved in a criminal
situation.
5 Written and oral exercises. The student can demonstrate understanding of content of this
block by doing oral and written production exercises.
Learning Activity 1, p. 91 Intercultural awareness written article and oral report. Teamwork. Using information technologies. The student can write
and give oral presentation about the results of an investigation
related to local or national festivals.
Learning Activity 2, p. 99 Storytelling. Short written narration and reading it aloud. Teamwork. The student can create a story for children with a
morale to demonstrate their understanding of past tenses.

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Pair Work Evaluation Coevaluation


Honestly evaluate your classmates work and attitude.
Use the following format

Name of evaluator:
Person who is being evaluated:

Always Most of the time Sometimes Rarely

My classmate showed interest in


our assignment

My classmate worked in our


assignment

My classmate showed a positive


attitude towards learning

My classmate helped me learn

My classmate shared his/her ideas

Overall, I consider our work together was: VERY GOOD GOOD SATISFACTORY NEEDS IMPROVEMENT

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Team Work Evaluation Heteroevaluation


Honestly evaluate your classmates work and attitudes. Write the name of each of your classmates at the top of each column.

Name of evaluator:
Use the following: ALWAYS MOST OF THE TIME SOMETIMES RARELY

Name Name Name Name

Showed interest in our assignment

Worked in our assignment

Showed positive attitude during our


interaction

Helped everyone to learn

Shared his / her ideas with the


other members

Asked for help when necessary

I enjoyed working with him / her

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BLOCK

12 hours
4
Learning
Making requests
and giving instructions

Objects

4.1 Phrasal verbs

4.2 Phrasal verbs


related to
clothing, cleaning
and household
activities

4.3 Modals use


to make requests

4.4 Lets review


object pronouns

Competencies to be developed n Communicate in a foreign language using a logical oral or written discourse
which is congruent with the communicative situation.
Students are able to: n Use autonomous learning strategies using information and communication
n Maintain a respectful attitude towards the relationship among cultures, technologies in order to obtain information about the grammatical forms
diversity of beliefs, values, ideas and social practices, when describing learned in this block.
activities that are done by their classmates. n Produce texts based on language norms, considering the communicative
n Identify and interpret the general idea and possible development of an intention and situation, as well as the formal elements of language
oral or written message in a foreign language by using their own previous (punctuation, spelling, syntax, coherence and cohesiveness).
knowledge about household activities or chores and school activities that
are done by teenagers in different social contexts.
Warm up

Anything else?

Janes parents are about to leave to the


airport. They are going to spend a weeks
vacation in Cancun. Jane and her sister
Ana are still in school, so they will stay
home. Janes mom and dad are giving her
some important instructions about what
she and her sister need to do during their
absence. Read their conversation.
Mom: Well Jane, we are about to take off for Cancun, but there are
several things we want you to do during these days.
Jane: Sure Mom! What do you want me to do?
Mom: First of all, please dont forget to pick up your sister Ana. She went to Alices
house to study. They have to go over some notes for tomorrows exam and
turn in an important History project.
Jane: No problem. I will pick her up at 7:00 p.m.
Mom: On your way to Alices house, please drop your fathers suits off at the
cleaners. Call up first to ask them at what time they close.
Jane: Dont worry. I will find out their schedule before I go to pick Jane up.
Mom: I wasnt able to wash the dishes, so please clean the kitchen up as soon
as you can.
Jane: I will do that as soon as you leave.
Mom: Dont forget to set your alarm clock. You need to get up early tomorrow and
drop by your aunt Carols house. Remember you have to pick out the dress you
will wear to Marys party next week. She can have it ready for you in three days.
Jane: Yes, I know. She is a great seamstress, but I still need to think over what color
I want.
Mom: When you go to see your aunt, give her back the magazines she loaned me.
They are on my night table.
Jane: Yes, I will.
Mom: Dont forget to take out the garbage every day, feed the dog, turn the lights
off, and turn on the entrance alarm before you go to bed.
Jane: No Mom, I wont forget.
Mom: Oh! I just remembered we ran out of milk. Go to the supermarket and buy some.
Phone Dr. Rowen and call off the appointment I have with him next week and
tell him I will call him back when we return to make another one.

At the end of this block, the student n Identifies and understands specific data in an oral or written text related to
household chores that teenagers do in different cultures.
n Asks for and exchanges information, orally and in writing, about household n Uses some phrasal verbs and modals to make requests and give
activities or chores and school activities that are done by teenagers. instructions.
n Asks for something and gives instructions in familiar contexts,
distinguishing which register is appropriate when giving an instruction and
which one when asking for something politely.
4
BLOCK
Making requests and giving instructions

Jane: Yes, Mom.


Mom: I also need you to go to the sports club and fill out an application for a bigger
locker. The one your sister has now is very small.
Jane: Yes, Mom. I also want to get information. I want to take up a yoga class next
month.
Mom: Ok. I have to leave. As soon as we check in our hotel, I will call you. Please look
after your sister and take care of yourself.
Jane: I will Mom. Anything else?
Mom: No, Jane. If I remember something else, I will call you from the airport. Good-bye Jane.
Jane: Good-bye Mom Dad have a nice trip.
Dad: Good-bye dear. See you in a week.
Activity: Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.
What is Janes mother telling her?
Is she giving her instructions?
Is she asking Jane to do something?
Look at the pair of words that appear together in bold type in the dialogue.
What do they have in common?
Look at the pair of words that appear almost together in bold type in the dialogue.
What do they have in common?
Write the pairs of words in the following space. What do you think they mean? The first three are given to you.

4.1 Phrasal verbs


Write on the column labeled MEANING the meaning of each phrasal verb. Look at the photographs and check the meaning on internet or
looking them up in a special phrasal verb dictionary. The first three are done for you.

Phrasal Verbs Meaning Phrasal Verbs Meaning


Take off leave on a trip
Pick up go to get someone
Go over review or check

Call up

Turn in

Find out
Drop off

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Phrasal Verbs Meaning Phrasal Verbs Meaning

Clean up Give back

Take out
Get up

Drop by Turn off

Pick out
Turn on

Run out (ran out)


Think over

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Making requests and giving instructions

Phrasal Verbs Meaning Phrasal Verbs Meaning

Call off
Take up

Call back
Check in

Fill out
Look after

Grammar Presentation
Used to do is different from to be used to doing and to get used to doing
A phrasal verb consists of a verb and a preposition (like on, in, under) or an adverb (like up, down, away) that modifies or changes
the meaning.

Example: I ran into my teacher at the movies last night. run + into = meet
He ran away when he was 15. run + away = leave home

The word or words that modify a verb in this manner can also go under the name particle.
Phrasal verbs can be divided into groups:
1. Separable verbs: with some separable verbs, the object must come between the verb and the particle:

Example: Jane will go to pick her sister up at 7:00 p.m.

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With some separable verbs, the object can come before or after the particle, though when a pronoun is used it comes before
the particle:

Example: Turn the TV off.


Turn off the TV.
Turn it off.

2. Inseparable verbs: the object must come after the particle (preposition or adverb).

Example: Jane will look after her sister.

3. Intransitive verbs: These dont take an object. Therefore, they are not separable.

Example: They had an argument, but theyve made up now.

Although some phrasal verbs are classified in groups according to the preposition they have, they dont follow any specific rule to
convey the meaning. Sometimes, a phrasal verb has more than one meaning. You need to memorize them. In this book we include
a list of some of the most commonly used phrasal verbs. We suggest you apply them in meaningful sentences in order to learn them.

4.2 Phrasal
verbs related to clothing, cleaning
and household activities
Phrasal Verb Meaning Example Sentence

Have on Have on means wear on ones body My mother has her new dress on.

You need to put on a sweater. It is cold


Put on Put clothing on ones body (to wear it) outside.

Put on clothing to see if the size is correct and You need to try shoes on before buying them.
Try on
how it looks on ones body

Take someone or something (on the way Could you drop me off at the bank?
Drop off
somewhere, often by car)

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Phrasal Verb Meaning Example Sentence

Take off Japanese people take their shoes off when


entering a house.
Off means remove from the surface of
something

Clean off My mother asked me to clean off the table. We are going to eat soon.
Dust off Can you dust the shelf off? It is very dusty.
Wash off I cant wash this paint off my hands.
Clean out There are many things I dont need in this drawer. I have to clean it out.

Out means remove from the inside of Dad is sweeping out the leaves from the
something garage.
Sweep out

Help out Assist, help My mother often helps me out with my children.
After a party at home, it is not very pleasant to clean the kitchen up.

Clean up


Wash up My mother wants us to wash up. We will have dinner in five minutes.

Up means lift or remove something that A glass fell and broke on the floor. Be careful when
Sweep up dropped or fell. It also means completely you sweep the pieces up.

Tell your brother to pick up his toys.

Pick up

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Phrasal Verb Meaning Example Sentence

Pick up also means to go to get someone (like Mark picks up his sister from school everyday.
Pick up
someone who is waiting or is at a specific place)
Dont forget to turn off the lights in the living room before you go to bed.

Off means stop something such as the flow


Turn off
of water or an electrical appliance


It is a little dark in here. Would you please turn the lights on?

On means start something such as the flow


Turn on
of water or an electrical appliance

Turn down If you dont turn down your CD player, Mom will throw it out!
I cant hear the radio. Could you please turn
it up?

Down and up refer to sound levels or volume


Turn up

Learning Activity 1

Expressing household activities using phrasal verbs 5. Bring your photographs or pictures to class posted on a large
1. Work in pairs. sheet of cardboard or paper indicating which phrasal verb can be
used. Write a complete sentence using this phrasal verb on the
2. Review the list 4.2 of phrasal verbs related to clothing, clean- separate sheet of paper or behind the photograph or picture.
ing and household activities.
6. Deliver to your teacher according to his/her instructions.
3. Find other phrasal verbs that relate to household activities.
You may search in English books or on the Internet.
4. Find photographs or pictures in magazines (or your personal
photos) that represent a household activity or chore that can
be expressed using these phrasal verbs. Find as many as you
can. This will be considered as part of your evaluation.

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Making requests and giving instructions

Exercise 1
Ricardo, Monica, and their three sons, Ricky, Alonso, and Emiliano are a modern
family. Both parents work, so all help out in the house chores. In pairs, take turns
asking and answering questions about their activities using the phrasal verbs in
the previous chart. Use the example as a model.

Example: clean up the kitchen on Saturdays / Alonso


Question: Who cleans up the kitchen on Saturdays?
Answer: Alonso cleans up the kitchen on Saturdays.

1. pick up the toys / Emiliano.


Q.
?
A.
.

2. take out the garbage / Ricky.


Q.
?
A.
.

3. wake up the children / Ricardo.


Q.
?
A.
.

4. help the kids out with homework / Ricardo and Monica


Q.
?
A.
.

5. sweep out the garage / Alonso.


Q.
?
A.
.

6. clean off the table before dinner / Emiliano.


Q.
?
A.
.

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7. call up Grandma on Sundays / the kids.


Q.
?
A.
.

8. pick up clothes at the dry cleaners / Ricky.


Q.
?
A.
.

9. drop off the kids at school / Monica.


Q.
?
A.
.

10. pick up the kids after school / Ricardo.


Q.
?
A.
.

Exercise 2
Demonstrate you can appropriately use object pronouns with separable phrasal verbs in written exercises. Com-
plete the following sentences with a logical and correct phrasal verb, pronoun, and particle. There may be more
than one correct answer.
Example: We dont need that light there, so I turned it off.
1. Oh, no! I spilled the milk on the table. Now I have to ______________________________.
2. Before buying that pair of shoes, I think I will ______________________________.
3. The music is very loud. Please, ________________________.
4. It is very hot in here. Where is the air conditioning switch? I am going to ________________________.
5. Your hands are dirty. Go and ________________________.
6. Oh, no! Its very late. Ill ask my father to ______________________ at school on his way to work.
7. My brother left many books and papers on my desk. I need to _________________ first so I can work on it.
8. A. Where are my eyeglasses?
. B. What do you mean? You ________________________!
9. This box is very heavy. Can you ________________________?
10. Its getting cold. I think I will ________________________ my sweater.

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Other frequently used separable phrasal verbs


and other meanings
Phrasal Verb Meaning Example Sentence

1 Bring up Raise children My Grandmother brought 10 children up.


Mention a topic Jack brings up our engagement each time he can.
2 Call back Telephone again Did Charles call you back?
3 Call off Cancel We planned a trip to Acapulco. We had to call it off due to
the bad weather.
4 Call up Telephone (verb) Yesterday I called my father up.

5 Cut out Cut, remove Save the newspaper. I want to cut an article out.

6 Do over Repeat a task I made a mistake on my assignment. I have to do it over.


7 Figure out Understand, solve (a problem); decide This math problem is difficult. I cant figure it out. I need
some help.
8 Fill out Complete a form Please fill out this form with all your personal information.

9 Find out Discover, learn I need to find out the price of that house.
10 Get back Return I heard the caught of the thief. Did you get your stolen wallet
back?
11 Give away Give something to someone else for We have many clothes we dont use. Why dont we give
free them away to the people in the orphanage?
12 Give back Return something Nicholas gave me back the math book he borrowed last
week.
13 Hand in Submit something The teacher told us to hand in our assignment next Friday.
14 Hang up Put the receiver on a hook, put Please, hang the phone up. I am expecting an important call.
something on a hook
15 Hold up Delay The airline held the flight up because there was a technical
problem.
Rob Two masked men held up the convenience store on the
corner.
16 Leave out Omit Dont leave out any information asked for on the form.
17 Look over Examine; review; read quickly The doctor wants to look over my lab results before he gives
me a diagnosis.
Take good notes in class and look them over before the
exam.
18 Look up Search for information in a list or in If you dont understand a word, look it up in the dictionary.
a book
19 Make up Invent a story My little sister always makes up an excuse for not doing her
homework.
20 Pick out Select, choose We need to pick out a dress for the graduation party.

21 Point out Mention, indicate Mr. Jacobson pointed several problems out.
22 Put away Store or save It is always good to put away some money in case of an
emergency.
23 Put off Postpone We will have to put off our trip to Europe until we have all the
money we need.
24 Put on Put clothing on the body It is cold outside. I think you should put on a heavy sweater
or a coat.
25 Put out Extinguish You cant smoke in here. Please put out your cigarette.

26 Start over Begin again Lets start the review over from the beginning.

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Phrasal Verb Meaning Example Sentence

27 Take off * Remove clothing or accessories You should take off your hat when you go into a church.
Take a vacation I need to take some days off from work to visit my grandma.
Shes sick.
28 Take out Take outside Theres a lot of garbage. Please, take it out.
29 Talk over Discuss The employees talked the project over.
30 Think over Think about something carefully Your suggestion sounds interesting. Let me think it over.
31 Throw away Discard; put in the garbage He told me to throw away all the papers we dont use.
32 Try out Test, experiment with We need to try out the new car.
33 Turn on Activate device or apparatus Turn on the lights. It is a little dark in here.
34 Turn down Reduce the volume Mary told me to turn down the radio because the baby is
sleeping.
35 Turn off Take away electricity The news program ended, so I will turn off the radio.
36 Turn up Arrive unexpectedly or after a delay We were watching TV when suddenly, Albert turned up at
our door.
37 Try out Test Before buying a used car, it is a good idea to try it out.
38 Use up Use completely Before we buy more food, we need to use up all.
39 Wake up Cause someone to stop sleeping I need an alarm clock to wake me up.
40 Work out Find a solution, resolve something We need more money to finish building. I hope we can work
it out.
*Take off has several meanings. As a separable verb, it can mean take a vacation, as shown above, and remove clothing, as shown in the
previous list of phrasal verbs related to clothing. Take off can also be an inseparable phrasal verb meaning leave.

Exercise 3
Look up the meaning of the following phrasal verbs in a dictionary or on the Internet. Complete the chart.

Phrasal Verb Meaning Example Sentence

Fill up

Blow up

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Phrasal Verb Meaning Example Sentence

Set up


Take down


Talk over


Make out

Exercise 4
Now, fill in the blanks of the following sentences with one of the phrasal verbs included in each group of sentences. If necessary, make any
changes in the verb tense.

GROUP 1. a) fill up b) hold up c) bring up d) blow up


1. These articles focus on the need to reduce the number and size of committee members attention, and they ____
the topic constantly.
2. November 5th is Guy Fawkes Day in England. It is the anniversary of the Gunpowder Plot to _____ King James I
and Parliament in 1605.
3. This Colombian coffee is fresh and it is really good. Would you like me to_____ your cup again?
4. The school bus has not arrived yet. There must have been some sort of a ____as the bus usually is on time.

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GROUP 2. a) make up b) look up c) pick up d) use up


1. There was a terrible storm last month, and the lights kept going off and the fuses were burnt each time. James
changed the fuses whenever this happened; therefore, he had to____ the stock of fuses we had.
2. It is now becoming a custom for children to ____ scary stories during stormy nights and Halloween parties.
3. Monkeys often use their tails as a fifth arm to ____ objects and swing through trees.
4. It has always been a good habit to ____ doubtful words or points in a dictionary, encyclopedia or other
reference book.

GROUP 3. a) take down b) take off c) put away d) throw away


1. There is always a lot of work to be done at the end of the day at the library. Most of the books should have been _____ in their correct place.
2. Yesterday I felt sick, so I decided to _____ a day _____.
3. While you are tidying up your bedroom and desk think of what things you wont be needing and just _____ them _____.
4. In court trials shorthand machines are used to _____ every word spoken by all participants in a case. The record must be accurate, to
safeguard the rights of all the involved in a case.

GROUP 4. a) turn on b) turn off c) turn down d) turn up


1. Im cold. Do you mind if I _____ the air conditioning _____?
2. I can hardly hear the radio. Can you _____ it _____ a little?
3. Its cold in here. Im going to _____ the heater _____.
4. I thought I could borrow some money from Pete, but I didnt. I never thought he would _____ me _____.

GROUP 5. a) give back b) hold up c) hand in d) hang up


1. Anne is very upset. When she was walking home last night, two men _____ her _____ and took her purse
and jewelry.
2. Id like to talk longer, but Id better _____. My sister needs to make a call.
3. Youd better get started on your report. You know that you have to _____ it _____ at 8:30 tomorrow morning.
4. Dont forget to _____ the books _____ to your friend. She lent them to you over a month ago.

GROUP 6. a) call off b) put off c) put on d) point out


1. The supervisor had to attend a last minute conference. Due to this, the inspection was _____ for next Wednesday morning.
2. They _____ a new play at the theater last weekend. Have you had a chance to see it?
3. We dont have school today. The mayor had to _____ classes _____ because of the traffic caused due to the floods.
4. It is very important that teachers _____ to their students the new theories and its applications.

GROUP 7. a) read over b) give away c) do over d) make out


1. You shouldnt _____ those newspapers _____; they still have valuable information regarding the
research you have been working on.
2. Toms writing is very small. I almost need a magnify glass to _____ it _____.
3. I need to _____ the report that Ben gave me this morning before I send it to the supervisor.
4. Oh, no! I forgot to save my report before I turned the computer off! Now Ill have to _____ it all _____ again!

GROUP 8. a) put away b) put off c) put on d) put out


1. _____ your raincoat _____ before you leave the house. The weather forecast predicted cold winds and storms for this afternoon.
2. The teacher asked the students to _____ their papers before they opened the test booklets.

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3. Smoking is not allowed in here. Please _____ your cigarettes before you enter.
4. The parents meeting had to be _____ for next week, as the energy cut down lasted longer than
expected.

GROUP 9. a) set up b) talk over c) try on d) try out


1. Jim was telling me that he hopes his parents _____ their relationship problems _____ before they get divorced.
2. After shopping all morning for shoes, I feel much too tired to _____ the pants _____ before buying them.
3. _____ this massage chair - it feels great!
4. I cant believe it! My Mom _____ me _____ with her friends son.

GROUP 10. a) turn on b) turn off c) turn down d) turn up


1. Stephen wanted to join the military but the recruiting officer had to _____ his application _____ because he is hard of hearing in one ear.
2. Are you really listening to the radio, or should I _____ it _____?
3. Please _____ the light; its too dark in here and we dont want to ruin our eyesight, do we?
4. The radio is very low. I cant hear it. Could you please _____ it _____ a little.

GROUP 11. a) leave out b) bring up c) fill out d) fill up


1. I just received the mail with the application form. I will _____ it _____ and mail it right away!
2. Lucys parents died when she was a baby. Her grandparents _____ her _____.
3. Please dont _____ my glass with water. Actually, I am not that thirsty.
4. When I make the list of those who attended the meeting, remind me to not _____ your name _____!

GROUP 12. a) call back b) cut out c) point out d) start over
1. You need to practice more. _____ the song _____ right from the beginning.
2. Ana was busy when I called her an hour ago. She told me to _____ her _____ tonight.
3. My three-year-old niece likes to _____ paper dolls _____ from this book.
4. The teacher always _____ our mistakes _____ so we can pay more attention and not repeat them.

Inseparable Phrasal Verbs (Transitive)


The lexical part of the verb (the part of the phrasal verb that carries the verb-meaning) cannot be separated from the prepositions (or other parts)
that accompany it. For example, Alice has waited on tables since she was a teenager.

Phrasal Verb Meaning Example Sentence

1 Call on Visit The doctor called on my grandfather because he was very sick.
Ask to recite in class The teacher called on Sergio for the answer to her question.

2 Check into Enter, register We checked into a five-star hotel.

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Phrasal Verb Meaning Example Sentence

3 Check out of Leave a place where the person We checked out two days later.
previously registered
4 Come across Find something; meet someone Did you come across my math book? I cant find it.

Recover from sickness or Alex got over his sisters death after a long time.
5 Get over
disappointment

6 Get through with Finish Everyone wants to get through this project as soon as possible.

7 Go over Review I need to go over my notes before the exam.

8 Go over to Go to visit Im going over to visit aunt Georgia next week.

9 Go through Use up; consume Our government went through the budget
10 Keep up with Stay equal to (in time, distance, money, I was absent for two weeks. I cant keep up with the class.
work, etcetera)
11 Look after Take care of My friend Brenda asked me to look after her dog while she was out of town.

12 Look into Investigate The police is looking into the case of robberies in the neighborhood.

13 Look for Search Please help me look for my keys. I cant find them anywhere!

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Phrasal Verb Meaning Example Sentence

14 Move out Leave a house or apartment My landlord will raise the rent, so I need to move out next month.

15 Put up with Tolerate; live with How do you put up with this pollution?

16 Run into Meet I ran into my ex-boyfriend when I was window shopping at the mall.

17 Run across Find by chance My mom ran across my first tooth while she was looking for something else.
18 Take after Resemble My son Jose Antonio takes after me, but my daughter Kathy takes after her dad.
19 Wait on Serve Mariana has been waiting on tables to help her mother pay her tuition.

Exercise 5
Replace the verbs in italics with phrasal verbs from the previous list. Pay attention to the placement of noun
and pronoun objects.

1. Last week, I found some old photographs while I was cleaning up my closet.
.

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2. We have to finish our project so we can go to the party tonight.

3. Mr. and Mrs. Gates registered at the most expensive hotel in town.

4. Anthony is tired of his rude neighbor. He says he isnt going to tolerate him anymore.

5. I am going to get information on the price before renting that house.

Exercise 6
Underline all the separable and inseparable phrasal verbs in the following text. Discuss the meaning of the verbs.

Back to school

Mike was a terrible student in high school. Paying attention in class was very hard for him. He had to do many
assignments over because the first time he did them they were wrong. He couldnt keep up with his classmates.
Consequently, his attitude was poor.
He wanted to get through with school as quickly as possible, finish, and get a job. So,
when he finally graduated, he moved out of his parents house and rented an apartment.
He worked at a restaurant and made little money. Life was not easy for him.

Mike went through a lot during the last five years, but he grew up. Finally, at age twenty-
five, he thought he had to go back to school. After looking into several school programs, he
decided to study accounting because he had an ability to add up numbers mentally.

At night school, he came across Tom, a friend he had in high school who took a few years off
before starting college. He didnt feel alone.

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Learning Situation 1
Competence: The student can identify the form and function of some phrasal verbs.

Activity Sequence 1
1. Rewrite the previous text Back to school substituting the underlined phrasal verbs by their meaning.
2. Make the necessary changes according to the verbs you use.
3. Check the grammar, spelling, and punctuation of your sentences.
4. Share your results with another pair of students.
5. Discuss your answers.
















Learning Situation 2
Group Project
1. Divide in teams of three students.
2. Go to the library and/or do an Internet research. Find 20 more phrasal verbs that are not included in this
lesson and make a chart writing the phrasal verb, its meaning, and a sentence applying it correctly. You can
find the meanings in a phrasal verb dictionary. You can consult the following web pages: (http://www.eng-
lishpage.com/prepositions/phrasaldictionary.html) Phrasal verb reference: http://esl.about.com/library/
weekly/aa011198.htm
3. Illustrate your sentence.
4. Be prepared to give an oral presentation to an audience about the phrasal verbs you chose.

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Cultural Note

Australias food
Australian cuisine today is a blend of cuisine from all parts of the world combined with
true indigenous cuisine. The local seafood, lamb roast, kangaroo meat, Irish stew, sausage
and mash potatoes of the early migrants, and other main aboriginal foods, have now been
complemented with lasagna, kebabs, mousaka, sweet and sour pork, dim sums, hot curries,
bouillabaisse, venison, frankfurter dishes and many more (see glossary on the next page to
find out more about these dishes).
In addition, the advent of tourism has created a whole new range of modern day foods skillfully
prepared with the abundant supply of local and imported ingredients. World class Australian
wines have also added to the enjoyment of this rich Australian cuisine, enjoyed by all Australians
and visitors to the country.
The aborigines have been using Australias natural food resources for the last 40,000 years. Bush foods include deli-
ciously tangy fruits from the rainforests, aromatic herbs from the woodlands, delicate snowberries from the southern
highlands, spicy bush tomatoes from the desert, and rich meats from kangaroo and emus.
Throughout the majority of Australian history, Australian cuisine was based on traditional Anglo-Celtic British and
Irish food, brought to the country by early settlers from the British Isles. Later, in the 19th and especially 20th century,
food began to reflect the influences of Mediterranean and Asian cultures, introduced by many immigrants who arrived
in Australia during this period.
This is a recipe of a typical Australian dish called Apricot Chicken.
There are many different versions of this dish. Chicken pieces can be used instead of breast. The French onion soup
can be left out, and sour cream can be added prior to serving. It can also be casseroled, oven or microwave, and
served with rice or vegetables of choice.

Ingredients
1/2 kg chicken breast 2 tablespoons butter
2 x 60 g packets French onion soul 1 tablespoon corn flour
1 onion 1 teaspoon curry powder
1 carrot 1 small or medium tin of apricots in juice or syrup to taste
Serves 4

Steps
1. Melt butter in a frying pan and brown the chicken pieces.
2. Remove meat from the pan.
3. Add sliced onions and diced carrot to the pan and cook until tender. Do not burn.
4. Mix the corn flour well with the apricot juice, and add to the pan.
5. Mix the French onion soup with one cup of water, and the curry, and add to the pan.
6. Simmer and then add the chicken and apricots to the pan and cover.
7. Simmer slowly until chicken is tender and cooked, stirring occasionally.
8. Serve with rice.

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Glossary

Mousaka = a Middle Eastern dish of ground meat (as lamb or beef ) and sliced eggplant often
topped with a seasoned sauce.

Kebab = cubes of meat (as lamb or beef ) marinated and cooked with vegetables usually
on a skewer.

Dim sums = traditional Chinese food consisting of a variety of items (as steamed or fried dumplings,
pieces of cooked chicken, and rice balls) served in small portions.

Curries = plural of curry, a food, dish, or sauce in Indian cuisine seasoned with a mixture
of pungent spices; also: a food or dish seasoned with curry powder.

Bouillabaisse = a highly seasoned fish stew made with at least two kinds of fish.

Venison = the edible flesh of a game animal and especially a deer.

Frankfurter = a cured cooked sausage (as of beef or beef and pork) that may
be skinless or stuffed in a casing.

Game meat = meat from the limbs of animals.

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Learning Activity 2 Actividad de aprendizaje

Talking about what I do with and for others Peer evaluation check list for conversation about
1. Work in pairs. daily activities using object pronouns
2. Tell your classmate what you usually do every day, especially 1. My classmate told me what he / she usually does every day.
what you do with others and for others, from the time you
wake up until you go to bed. Try to think about activities that 2. My classmate used some phrasal verbs in his / her description.
you can express using phrasal verbs.
For example: I wake up at 6 a.m. every day. I pick up my clothes 3. My classmate mentioned some object pronouns in his / her description.
and put them in their place. I help out my mother in the house
chores. My mother gives me breakfast. I have a brother. I go with
4. His / her pronunciation was clear.
him to school. My father drives us to school.

3. Evaluate your classmate after you listen to him / her and he /
5. I understood everything he / she said.
she will evaluate you as you speak to him / her. Your teacher

may go by and evaluate you as well.

4.3 Modals used to make requests


Grammar Presentation
We use can in offers, requests and instructions.

n Can I help?
n Can you help me out?
n When you finish that, you can take out the garbage.

Could is used to make polite requests. We can also use can for these but could is more polite. If we use could in reply to
these requests, it suggests that we do not really want to do it. If you agree to the request, it is better to say can.

Questions Possible answers

Could you help me, please? Of course I can.


I could help you if its really necessary but Im really busy right now.

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Questions Possible answers

Could you lend me some money? I could lend you some money but I need it back tomorrow without fail.

Could you drop me off at the gym? I could drop you off two blocks away. Is that okay?

It is also a polite way to ask someone to allow you to do something.

n Could I open the window?


n Could I give the book back to you next week?

Would and Would like is also used to make requests.

Possible answers
Questions / Requests
Affirmative Negative

Would you like some ice cream? Yes, please. No, thank you.

Would you like to go out for lunch? Yes, of course. Sorry, but I cant go today.

Exercise 7
Use could you or could I to make requests following the example. Then, work with a partner and make him / her
those requests and write down his / her answer.
Example: find some paper for me.
Q. Could you find some paper for me, please?
A. Yes, I can.

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1. ask you a question.


Q.
.
A.
.
2. explain the instructions.
Q.
.
A.
.
3. give me a glass of water.
Q.
.
A.
.
4. recommend something to eat.
Q.
.
A.
.
5. have a cup of coffee, please.
Q.
.
A.
.
6. fill the bottle with milk.
Q.
.
A.
.
7. help me, please.
Q.
.
A.
.
8. get some information from you.
Q.
.
A.
.
9. close the window.
Q.
.
A.
.
10. turn down the radio.
Q.
.
A.
.

Exercise 8
Work with a partner. Ask and answer questions. Use would you like to? with the following cues. Give true answers.
Example: learn French.
Q. Would you like to learn French?
A. Yes, I think it is a nice language.
1. change your eating habits.
Q.
.
A.
.

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2. learn to surf.
Q.
.
A.
.
3. take out the garbage.
Q.
.
A.
.
4. call up a friend.
Q.
.
A.
.
5. get a massage.
Q.
.
A.
.
6. eat at an elegant restaurant.
Q.
.
A.
.
7. go to the cinema.
Q.
.
A.
.
8. try out the new pizza restaurant.
Q.
.
A.
.

Food for Thought

Reading
Kangaroos
A kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning large foot). In common use,
the term is used to describe the largest species from this family, especially the Red Kangaroo, Antelope Kanga-
roo, Eastern Grey Kangaroo and Western Grey Kangaroo. Kangaroos are endemic to the continent of Australia.
The smaller macropods are found in Australia and New Guinea.
Larger kangaroos have adapted much better to changes made in the Australian landscape by humans and though
many of their smaller cousins are endangered, they are plentiful. They are not farmed to any extent, but wild kan-
garoos are shot for meat, sport, and to protect grazing land for sheep and cattle. Although there is some contro-
versy, harvesting kangaroo meat has many environmental and health benefits over sheep or cows grazed for meat.
The kangaroo is a national symbol of Australia: its emblem is used on the Australian coat of arms, on some of its
currency, as well as by some of Australias best known organizations, including Qantas, the Australian airline. The
kangaroo is important to both Australian culture and the national image and consequently there are numerous
popular culture references.
The word kangaroo derives from the Guugu Yimidhirr ** word gangurru, referring to a grey kangaroo. The name was first
recorded as Kangooroo or Kanguru on 4 August 1770, by Lieutenant (later Captain) James Cook on the banks of the
Endeavour River at the site of modern Cooktown, when the ship HM Bark Endeavour was beached for almost seven weeks
to repair damage sustained on the Great Barrier Reef. Guugu Yimidhirr is the language of the indigenous people of the area.

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A common myth about the kangaroos English name is that kangaroo was a Guugu Yimidhirr phrase for I dont un-
derstand you. According to this legend, Captain James Cook and naturalist Sir Joseph Banks were exploring the area
when they happened upon the animal. They asked a nearby local what the creatures were called. The local responded
Kangaroo, meaning I dont understand you, which Cook took to be the name of the creature. The Kangaroo myth
was debunked in the 1970s by linguist John B. Haviland in his research with the Guugu Yimidhirr people.
Male kangaroos are called bucks, boomers, jacks, or old men; females are does, flyers, or jills, and the young ones are
joeys. The collective noun for kangaroos is a mob, troop, or court. Kangaroos are often colloquially referred to as roos.

** Guugu Yimithirr (many other spellings) is an Australian aboriginal language, the traditional language of the Guugu Yimithirr people of Far North
Queensland. Most of the speakers today live at the community of Hopevale, about 46 km from Cooktown.

Learning Activity 3

Are you asking me or telling me what to do? 5. Could you please speak more slowly? I didnt under-
I. Work in pairs. stand.
a) a boss to a secretary
II. Discuss the following questions. Who would make these re-
b) a customer to a sales person
quests? If you disagree, give each other your arguments and
both decide on choosing only one. c) a visitor to a company
Who would make these requests? Which one would you d) somebody whose English is not perfect
consider a polite order? 6. Would you mind opening that suitcase?
1. Could you tell me how much it costs? a) a customs officer
a) a boss to a secretary b) a customer to a sales person
b) a customer to a sales person c) a visitor to a company
c) a visitor to a company d) somebody whose English is not perfect
d) a policeman to a prisoner 7. Would you mind telling me who your present
2. Could you say that again please? I didnt understand. supplier is?
a) a boss to a secretary a) a boss to a secretary
b) a customer to a sales person b) a customer to a sales person
c) a visitor to a company c) a sales person to a customer
d) somebody whose English is not perfect d) somebody whose English is not perfect
3. Could you tell me if the price includes sales tax? 8. Would you mind spelling your name please?
a) a boss to a secretary a) a boss to a secretary
b) a customer to a sales person b) somebody answering the phone
c) a hotel receptionist to a visitor c) a visitor to a company
d) somebody whose English is not perfect d) a customs officer
4. Could you fix us two black coffees please, Barbara? 9. Could you tell me how to pronounce specialization?
a) a boss to a secretary a) a boss to a secretary
b) a customer to a sales person b) a customer to a sales person
c) a visitor to a company c) a visitor to a company
d) somebody whose English is not perfect d) somebody whose English is not perfect

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10. Would you mind working late tonight?


12. Could you tell me if you have any in stock?

a) a boss to a secretary a) a boss to a secretary
b) a customer to a sales person b) a customer to a sales person
c) a visitor to a company c) a visitor to a company
d) somebody whose English is not perfect d) somebody whose English is not perfect
11. Could you tell me where Mr Browns office is?

III. Write a dialogue using formal expressions of request and or-
a) a boss to a secretary ders or commands in a home or school communicative situa-
b) a customer to a sales person tion. Make sure you include phrasal verbs.
c) a visitor to a company IV. Present your dialogue to the rest of the group. Act your dia-
d) somebody whose English is not perfect logue using visual aids when possible.

Rubric to Evaluate Dialogue Written Presentation

Criterion Needs improvement Satisfactory Well done

Punctuation (period, More than 10 punctuation errors. 5 to 10 punctuation errors. No punctuation errors.
quotation marks, commas,
exclamation points,
question marks, etcetera)
Spelling More than 10 spelling errors. 5 to 10 punctuation errors. No spelling errors.
Grammar More than 7 grammar errors. 4 - 7 grammar errors. 3 or less grammar errors.
Requests Most of the requests / commands are not Requests / commands are made but some Requests are made with the appropriate
made appropriately nor according to register, are not appropriate according to register or register, according to the context and
context, communicative situation. context or communicative situation. communicative situation.
Coherence Dialogue is rather incoherent in most of its Dialogue has coherence flaws. Some illogical Dialogue is coherent and flows smoothly. All
parts. or unrelated ideas are present. the dialogue relates to the situation given and
is organized logically.

Rubric to Evaluate Dialogue Oral Presentation

Criterion Needs improvement Satisfactory Well done

Fluency and intonation Dialogue doesnt run smoothly. Students are One of the students may not be fluent Students are fluent most of the time and
not fluid and dialogue is misunderstood or not or not utilize an appropriate intonation utilize an appropriate intonation when
clearly heard by the audience. when speaking, but dialogue flows and is speaking.
understood.
Vocabulary Most of the words are incorrect or Some words are inappropriate or incorrectly Mostly appropriate.
inappropriate for the situation presented. used.
Grammar More than 7 grammar errors. 4 - 7 grammar errors. 3 or less grammar errors.
Pronunciation Not well pronounced most of the time, rather Well pronounced most of the time and clearly Well pronounced, clearly spoken and with
unclear. spoken. appropriate intonation.
Acting / Presentation skills Audience was inattentive or bored. Well acted. Message was understood by Well acted, audience was attentive and
audience. enjoying the dialogue.

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4.4 Lets review object pronouns


Personal pronouns have different forms depending on ifthey act as subjects or objects.
A subject is a word which does an action and usually comes before the verb, and an object is a word that receives an
action and usually comes after the verb.

Subject Pronouns Object Pronouns

I me
you you
she her
he him
it it
we us
they them

For example, in the sentence: Yesterday Kevin called his mother.


Kevin is the subject and his mother is the object.

The pronoun he can be used instead of Kevin and the pronoun her can be used instead of his mother. Yesterday he
called her.
We use subject pronouns as subjects of sentences and object pronouns as objects. Look at the following examples.

Subject Pronouns and Example Sentences Object Pronouns and Example Sentences

1st person I I kicked the ball. me John kicked the ball to me.

Singular 2nd person you You like to study. you John wants to talk to you.
3rd person he He drinks soda. him Mary doesnt like him.
(male)

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Subject Pronouns and Example Sentences Object Pronouns and Example Sentences

3rd person she She likes ice cream. her John kissed her.
(female)

Singular

3rd person it It bit John. it John smashed it.


(non-person)


1st person we We enjoy going to the movies. us The politician spoke to us.



2nd person you You are the best students. you I wouldnt lie to you.

Plural



3rd person they They are not happy. them Mary didnt invite them.

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Separable Phrasal Verbs


The object may come after the following phrasal verbs or it may separate the two parts.
Examples

I called up my father. I telephoned my father.


I called my father up. I telephoned my father.
I called him up (using object pronoun). I telephoned him.

We need to fill out the application form.


We need to fill the application form out.

When the object of the following phrasal verbs is a pronoun, the two parts of the phrasal verb must be separated:
We need to fill it out.

Phrasal verbs related to school or studies


Phrasal Verb Meaning Example Sentence

Add up Total Your answer is incorrect because you didnt add up the last group of
numbers.
Finish up up can mean completely. In some cases it cues not change the Class is over. Please finish up your exercise.
basic meaning of the verb. In this case finish up means to completely
finish.
Write up Write completely. Please write up a summary of this text for tomorrow.
Check in Receive. I need to go to the library to check these books in.
Check out Take books or movies from the library. Last week I checked out three books.


Do over Repeat, do again. Your essay has many spelling and grammar errors. Please do it over.
Look over Read or look at quickly. Jerry needs to look over his notes before the exam.
Fill in Give information (on a form). Please, fill in all the spaces with the correct answer.


Fill out Complete (a form). I have to fill out this application form to ask for a scholarship.
Hand in or Turn in Give (for example, to a teacher) usually after completion. The teacher told us to hand in our compositions in class, but Mary
turned her composition in late.
Hand out Give (for example, to the students). Mrs. Flores handed out a verb list to her students last class.
Hand back Return (for example to the students after correction). Our teacher handed back our compositions today.

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Exercise 9
Part A. Based on the clues, write questions to a classmate and answers. Use the pronoun form in your answer.
Pay attention to the verb tenses.

Example: finish up your homework / yes, 15 minutes ago.


A. Did you finish up your homework?
B. Yes, I finished 15 minutes ago.

1. the teacher hand back the assignment / Yes, during yesterdays class.
Q.
.
A.
.

2. fill out the application form last week / No.


Q.
.
A.
.

3. add up the transportation expenses / No, but I will.


Q.
.
A.
.

4. do your history project over / Yes, this morning.


Q.
.
A.
.

5. check the books out of the library yesterday / No, two days ago.
Q.
.
A.
.

6. write the chemistry lab report / Yes, an hour ago.


Q.
.
A.
.

7. look over your essay to check for mistakes / Yes, before I printed it.
Q.
.
A.
.

8. turn in your book report / Yes, the day before yesterday.


Q.
.
A.
.

Part B. Work in pairs. Take turns asking and answering the questions in Part A. Use the pronoun form in your answer.

Learning Situation 3
Talking about my school activities.
Competence: The student can demonstrate that he knows and masters a sufficient number of phrasal verbs that al-
low him to give and understand instructions in a wide range of situations.

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Activity Sequence 2
1. Write a paragraph describing some of your last weeks school activities using phrasal verbs related to school or
studies.
2. Check your paragraph for correct usage, grammar, and spelling.
3. Prepare to present your information orally to your classmates (your teacher will indicate to you when you will
do this).
My last weeks school activities








Learning Activity 4

Sometimes this could happen Checklist to evaluate role-play


in a school (role-play) 1. Students presented a school-related situation.
1. Work in teams of three to four people. 2. Students used phrasal verbs correctly.
3. Students used phrasal verbs in this context.
2. Review the different lists of phrasal verbs in block 4, especially
those on pages 115-117 and 139 related to school. 4. Students pronounced most of the words correctly.
5. Most of the time, students used grammatical structures co
3. Think about a situation in school in which you can apply as
rrectly.
many of these phrasal verbs as possible.
6. Evaluate the presentation on a 1-5 scale (5 is the best 1 is the
4. Prepare a role-play situation by writing a script (dialogues) lowest).
between students and/or teachers to present to the rest of the

a) Creative
group.

b) Realistic
5. The teacher will indicate to your classmates to write down as

c) Well-performed
many phrasal verbs as they identify in your role-play situation
as a listening comprehension exercise.
d) Interesting
7. Students:
6. After you finish your role-play, your teacher will check with
the rest of the group how many phrasal verbs they identified
a) Were enthusiastic
compared to the phrasal verbs you used.
b) Acted well
7. You will be evaluated according to the criteria described in the
c) Spoke clearly
following checklist. All students must participate in the role-play.
d) Spoke loudly

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Checklist to evaluate listening 3. Student wrote down % of the phrasal verbs


from audience members used by the role-playing group.
1. Student was attentively listening to his / her classmates. 4. Student wrote % of the phrasal verbs cor-
rectly.
2. Student was respectful and quiet.

The imperative
Grammar Presentation

Review: The imperative


We can use the imperative to give a direct order.

n Take that chewing gum out of your mouth.

n Stand up straight.

n Hand in your homework on Tuesday.

We can use the imperative to give instructions.

n Turn on your computer.


n Fill in the blanks with the correct answer.
n Pick up the package at 6:00 p.m.

We can use the imperative to make an invitation.

n Come in and sit down. Make yourself at home.


n Please start without me. Ill be there shortly.
n Have a piece of this cake. Its delicious.

We can use the imperative on signs and notices.

n Push the button.

n Use only in case of emergency.

n Insert one dollar.

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We can use the imperative to give friendly informal advice.

n Speak to him. Tell him how you feel.


n Have a quiet word with her about it.
n Dont go. Stay at home and rest up. Get some sleep and recover.

We can make the imperative more polite by adding please.

n Please be quiet.
n Please come.
n Sit down, please.

Food for Thought

Reading

1. The lion and the mouse


The lion and the mouse is an Aesop's fable. In the fable, a lion wants to eat
a mouse who wakes him up. The mouse begs forgiveness and promises to
return the favor if ever he is given the opportunity. He also makes the point
that such unworthy prey as he should not stain the lion's great paws. The lion
is moved to uncontrollable laughter and when he recovers, lets the mouse go,
stating that he has not had such a good laugh in ages.
Later, the lion is captured by hunters and tied to a tree; the lion roars with all his
might so that someone might help him. The mouse hears the lion's pleas and
frees him by gnawing through the ropes. The moral of this story is stated in the
last line of the fable:
Little friends may prove great friends.

"No act of kindness, no matter how small, is ever wasted."

2. The fox and the grapes


One hot summer's day a fox was strolling through an orchard till he came to a bunch of grapes just ri-
pening on a vine which had been trined over a lofty branch. "Just the thing to quench my thirst," quoth
he. Drawing back a few paces, he took a run and a jump, and just missed the bunch. Turning round
again with a one, two, three, he jumped up, but with no greater success. Again and again he tried after
the tempting morsel, but at last had to give it up, and walked away with his nose in the air, saying: "I am
sure they are sour."
It is easy to despise what you cannot get.
Carefully read these two fables, describe the characters, the intention and the moral.

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Evidence Collection and Portfolio


Task 1. Phrasal Verb.

Evidence: The student can demonstrate that he knows and masters a sufficient number of phrasal verbs.

Activity Sequence
1. Answer all the questions individually with true information about yourself.
2. Work in pairs.
3. Ask the first five questions to your partner.
4. Exchange roles. Answer the next five questions.

Questions
1. Is it difficult for you to keep up with the other students in this class?
.

2. Did you look into other schools before you decided to study here?
.

3. When was the last time you took a day off from school? Why did you do this?
.

4. Did your teacher tell you to do your homework over? Did you do it?
.

5. Are you planning to go over to a friends house tonight?


.

6. At what time do you wake up every day?


.

7. Do you try on all the clothes you buy?


.

8. Would you like to start your education over again?


.

9. Do you go over your notes before an exam?


.

10. Do you always hand in your school work on time?


.

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Task 2. Giving instructions.

Evidence: The student can role-play dialogues related to instructions given by a parent or boss to his child or employee on what he / she has
to do in his absence.

Activity Sequence
1. Work in pairs.
2. Write a dialogue between a parent and his / her son or daughter about the following situation: The son / daughter wants to go out on
Saturday with some friends. There are many things that need to be done at the house. The mother / father asks him / her to do some
house chores in order to have permission to go.
3. Use at least 10 different phrasal verbs.
4. Revise for correct usage of phrasal verbs.
5. Edit your dialogue for correct grammar.
6. Present your dialogue to the rest of the group.

Dialogue
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

Rubric for evaluating written dialogue

Usage: Students use phrasal verbs appropriately to give instructions related to house chores.

10 phrasal verbs: 5 points


9-8 phrasal verbs: 4 points
7-6 phrasal verbs: 3 points
5-4 phrasal verbs: 2 points
3-2 phrasal verbs: 1 point

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Grammar: Sentences are correctly written.


90-100% sentences correct 5 points
70-80% sentences correct 4 points
60-70% sentences correct 3 points
50-60% sentences correct 2 points
40-50% sentences correct 1 point
Less than 40% 0 points

Rubric for Oral Presentation of Dialogue

Well done: 5 points


Students perform dialogue fluently and using the appropriate register (informal). The situation is developed well and creatively. Parent and
childs roles are well performed. Pronunciation and correctness of language is almost error-free.

Satisfactory: 3 points
Students perform dialogue fluently most of the time, using the appropriate register (informal). The situations are developed according to
instructions. Parent and childs roles are performed satisfactorily. Pronunciation and correctness of language is correct most of the time, with
some errors.

Elementary: 1 point
Students perform dialogue with difficulty. The situation is developed, but lacks appropriateness or/and is incomplete according to instruc-
tions. Pronunciation and language use is mostly incorrect.

TASK 3a. Using phrasal verbs.

Evidence: The student can appropriately use object pronouns with separable phrasal verbs in oral and written exercises.

Activity Sequence
1. Read the following sentences.
2. Fill in the blanks with the correct particle. Then change the sentence order substituting the object for its pronoun if possible.

Example: I would like to look over the plans.


I would like to look them over.

1. I threw ________ my husbands letter by accident.


.
2. Please think my suggestion _______ and give me your opinion.
.

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3. I cant figure __________ the answer to this difficult math problem.


.
4. Nowadays it is really difficult to bring _________ kids.
.
5. I need to drop _________ a package at the delivery service.
.
6. Every day, Mr. Peterson picks ________ his wife at work.
.
7. My boss tried _______ a new software, but he didnt like it.
.
8. There is no reason to fight with your boyfriend. You can work ________ your problems by talking.
.
9. The noise from the birds woke __________ Alice at 6:00 a.m.
.
10. Jane calls ___________ her mother every Sunday.
.

Evaluation Criteria for Task 3a


Give one point for each sentence that is correctly answered: appropriate phrasal verb and pronoun when necessary.
Dont give half-points.
Any spelling error must be penalized with half a point as long as the phrasal verb and pronoun are correct.

TASK 3b. Using phrasal verbs.

Evidence: The student can appropriately use object pronouns with separable phrasal verbs in oral and written exercises.

Activity Sequence
1. Complete the following sentences with an appropriate phrasal verb.
2. Write the correct object pronoun when appropriate.
3. Check your answers with a partner.
take off look into go over get along with give away
turn off pick up go through try out put away
1. I dont know the answer to your question. However, I will _________ and give you an answer tomorrow.
2. The bath tub is full. _______ the water, please.

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3. I made a lot of mistakes on my composition. I need to _________ with my teacher.


4. Martha and I are sisters. I __________very well.
5. After washing the dishes, I always ________ in the cupboard.
6. Sandys toys are all over the floor. Now, she has to __________.
7. Last week Mark was sick, so he had to ___ two days _____ from work.
8. I had an accident last year and spent two weeks in the hospital. I hope I never __________ anything like it again.
9. I have a lot of clothes that I dont use anymore. I think I will __________ to someone who needs them.
10. Before you buy a used car, __________. It may have mechanical problems.

Evaluation Criteria for Task 3b


Give one point for each sentence that is correctly answered: appropriate phrasal verb and pronoun when necessary.
Dont give half-points.
Any spelling error must be penalized with half a point as long as the phrasal verb and pronoun are correct.

TASK 4. Following instructions (reading).

Evidence: The student can complete diverse graphic organizers (charts, tables, etc.) based on written texts about instructions or requests.

Activity Sequence
Part A
1. Read the lists of actions. What are they instructions for?
2. Write in the column on the right, the action that corresponds to each set of instructions.

Actions

3. Making a paper airplane


1. Polishing your shoes

4. Cooking spaghetti
2. Applying for a passport

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5. Planting a tree 8. Buying a train ticket

9. Finding a place
6. Changing a light bulb

10. Getting money from a cash machine


(atm)
7. Filling the car tank with
gasoline

Instructions Action

Fill a pan with water. Put it on the


cooker and heat the water
until it is boiling.

Stop beside the pump. Turn off the engine.

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Instructions Action

Turn left at the end of the road, then right at the traffic lights.
Dig a hole bigger than the roots.
Put manure or compost at
the bottom of the hole.

Switch off the electricity. Carefully remove


the old bulb from the socket.

Fold the paper along the dotted line.

Go to the government office and ask for a form. Then fill the form in carefully, and
attach a photograph of yourself.
Choose the ticket you want by pressing one of the buttons. Then put the right
money in the slot.

Remove any loose dirt with a brush. Then apply


the polish using a cloth.

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Instructions Action

Put your card into the machine. Then press the keys to enter your personal number.

Part B
1. Work individually.
2. Read the following instructions on how to change a flat tire (taken and adapted from E-How at http://www.ehow.com/).
3. Underline the main aspects of the instructions on how to change a flat tire.
4. Make a drawing that explains the main steps. You may use photographs. Use a dictionary to find out the meaning of the words you dont
understand.
5. Prepare to give an oral presentation using your drawings or visuals.

Instructions
Things Youll Need
Car manual , spare tire, jack, tire tool, gloves

Step 1
Before you ever have a flat, it is crucial to familiarize yourself with your car. Read the instructions to
change a tire in your car manual. Locate your spare, jack, and tire tool and make sure access is not obs-
tructed. Work the jack and find the correct placement according to your manual. Add to the trunk work
gloves, and a pair of wheel chocks. Add disposable paper coveralls to avoid getting your clothes dirty.

Step 2
At the point you think you have a flat tire, drive to where the ground is level and firm and you can safely pull seve
ral feet off the side of the road. Put your car into park, engage the parking break, and put on your hazard lights.

Step 3
Get out your equipment: spare, jack, tire tool, pipe, wheel chocks, and gloves. Put on coveralls and gloves if you
have them. Place the wheel chocks on both sides of the tire diagonally opposite from the flat. For example, if your
rear driver-side tire is flat, secure the front passenger-side tire, and viceversa.

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Step 4
Take off the hubcap and loosen lug nuts "before" jacking up the car. If your car is raised, the tire will spin
when you try to loosen the nuts. Remember the handy phrase: Rightie tightie, lefty loosey. Loosen the
nuts, skipping every other one until youve worked your way around the wheel.

Step 5
Now it is time to jack up the car. Your car manual shows the proper positioning of the jack. Raise
the car enough to get the flat off and accommodate the spare tire.

Step 6
Completely remove the lug nuts and store in a safe place, then, remove the flat.

Step 7
Put the spare tire on with the air valve facing out and screw on the lug nuts, again alternating until you finish the wheel.

Step 8
Lower the car and re-tighten the lug nuts using your pipe for leverage.

Step 9
Put your tools, hubcap and the flat in your trunk. If the flat is too heavy to get in your trunk, you can drag it further off the road and come back
for it later with help. You will need the rim, so dont forget where you leave the tire!

TASK 5. Following instructions (speaking - listening).


Evidence: The student can complete simple charts and lists based on information taken from aural texts about activities, requests, and
instructions that must be done

Activity Sequence
Everyone knows how to do something. This task will give you the opportunity to show your classmate how to do something. It can be a food
recipe, a handcraft, a decoration, etcetera.

1. Think about something simple you know how to do or gather the information from a relative or friend, or look up information on the
Internet.
2. Write down the instructions below.
3. Prepare to give an oral presentation to your classmates. You may use objects (items or ingredients), drawings, photographs, etc. Check the
rubric before so you know how you will be evaluated.
4. Deliver your speech or presentation on the assigned date.

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Rubric for Task 5: Following instructions (listening)

Excellent Good Adequate Unacceptable


Skill Area
5 points 4 points 3 points 1-2 points

Pronunciation There were almost no There were some There were frequent Because of too many
pronunciation errors. pronunciation errors, but the pronunciation errors, but the pronunciation errors, the
information was quite clear. information could still be information was totally
inferred. incomprehensible.
Grammar There were almost no There was good control of There was some control of Because there was virtually
grammatical errors and the grammar, though with some grammatical structures, but no control over grammar,
information was very well errors. The information was with many errors so that overall the information was totally
conveyed. still clear. meaning was affected. incomprehensible.
Fluency Speech was smooth and There were some pauses There were numerous pauses Speech was too hesitant
effortless. but they did not interfere with and the flow of speech was and fragmentary, so that
conveying the meaning. interrupted but the overall the meaning was totally
meaning could still be inferred. incomprehensible.
Preparation Student was well prepared and Student was prepared and Student was somewhat Student was not at all
used visual aids. Used notes used visual aids, but these prepared, but needed to read prepared. Had no visual aids
appropriately. were not used well. from notes quite often. or read the entire presentation
from notes or other resource.
Vocabulary The student uses appropriate Few vocabulary terms were Many vocabulary terms used Inappropriate usage of
vocabulary. inappropriately used. incorrectly. vocabulary most of the time.

TASK 6. Following instructions (listening).


Evidence: The student can take notes about oral instructions she / he is asked to follow.

Activity Sequence
1. Choose a task given by a classmate (Task 5) or your teacher will tell you which one to listen to.
2. Take notes about the oral instructions given.
3. Show notes to your classmate or teacher.
4. Your teacher will evaluate your listening skills.
Task listened to: ________________________________
Task given by: ________________________________

Instructions





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Rubric to Evaluate Task 6.


All instructions were understood and notes were well taken by student 10 points
Most of the instructions were understood by student 8 points
Half of the instructions were understood by student 6 points
The student understood only a few of the instructions given 4 points
The student didnt understand the instructions and didnt take notes appropriately No points

TASK 7. Following instructions (listening)

Evidence: The student can role-play dialogues related to instructions given by a parent or boss to his child or employee on what he/she has
to do in his absence.

Activity Sequence
1. Work in teams of two or three students.
2. Prepare a dialogue to role-play in front of your group. Choose one of the following situations.
a) A teenager wants to go to a party the following night. His mother or father says he or she can go with several conditions: do several
house chores and activities. The student that plays the role of the mother and father must give at least eight chores for the teenager to
do. If your team has three members, the other student on the team can role-play as a brother, a sister, or someone else that helps the
teenager to follow the instructions.
b) A boss is giving instructions to an employee of what to do in the office or workplace in his absence. Include at least eight different
activities the employee must do related to his job responsibilities. Employee asks questions to clarify the instructions given.
c) A teacher is giving several instructions to her/his students. Include at least eight different commands or instructions related to school
activities. Student or students ask questions to clarify the instructions given.
3. Present your dialogue in front of the group or in front of another team.

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List of Phrasal Verbs


This list is for your personal reference. It includes some of the phrasal verbs covered in this block and others. Those that appear with an asterisk (*)
are inseparable phrasal verbs.

A Ask out Ask someone to go on a date


B Bring about Cause
Bring up 1) Rear children 2) Mention or introduce a topic
C Call back Return a telephone call
Call in Ask to come to an official place for a special reason
Call off Cancel
Call on* 1) Visit 2) Ask a student a question in class
Call up Call on the telephone
Catch up (with)* Reach the same position or level as someone
Check in* Register at a hotel
Check into* Investigate
Check out 1) Borrow a book from a library 2) Investigate
Cheer up Make (someone) feel happier
Clean up Make clean and orderly
Come across* Find by chance
Cross out Draw a line through
Cut out Stop an annoying activity
D Do over Repeat
Drop by* Visit informally
Drop in (on)* Visit informally
Drop off Leave something/someone somewhere
Drop out (of)* Stop going to school or class
F Figure out Find the answer by logic
Fill out Complete a form
Find out Discover information
Get along (with)* To have a good relationship with
Get back (from) 1) Return from somewhere 2) Receive again
Get in, get into* 1) Enter a car 2) Arrive
Get off* Leave any vehicle
Get on* Enter any vehicle
Get out of* 1) Leave a car 2) Avoid some unpleasant activity
Get over* Recover from an illness
Get through* Finish
Get up* Arise from bed, a chair, etcetera

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Give back Return something to someone


Give up Stop doing something
Go over* Review or check
Grow up* Become an adult
H Hand in Submit an assignment
Hang up 1) Stop a telephone conversation 2) Put up clothes on a line or a hook
Have on Wear
K Keep out (of) Not enter
Keep up (with)* Stay at the same position or level
Kick out (of) Force (someone) to leave
L Look after* Take care of
Look into* Investigate
Look out (for)* Be careful
Look over Review or check
Look up Look for information in a reference book
M Make up 1) Invent 2) Do past work
N Name after Give a baby the name of someone else
P Pass away* Die
Pass out 1) Distribute 2) Lose consciousness
Pick out Select
Pick up 1) Go to get someone 2) Take in ones hand
Point out Call someones attention to
Put away Remove to an appropriate place
Put back Return to original position
Put off Postpone
Put on Dress
Put out Extinguish a cigarette, fire
Put up with* Tolerate
R Run into Meet by chance
Run across Find by chance
Run out (of) Finish a supply of something
S Show up* Appear, come to
Shut off Stop a machine, equipment, light, etcetera.
T Take after* Resemble
Take off 1) Remove clothing 2) Leave on a trip 3) Leave the ground (airplane)
Take out 1) Take someone on a date 2) Remove
Take over Take control

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Take up Begin a new activity


Tear down Demolish, reduce to nothing
Tear up Tear into many little pieces
Think over Consider
Throw away Discard; get rid of
Throw out Discard; get rid of
Throw up Vomit
Try on Put on clothing to see if it fits
Turn down Decrease volume
Turn in 1) Submit class work or assignments 2) Go to bed
Turn off Stop a machine, equipment, light, etcetera
Turn on Start a machine, equipment, light, etcetera
Turn out Extinguish a light
Turn up Increase volume or intensity

Evidence Collection For Your Portfolio


Task Evidence Competencies

1 Question and answer exercise using phrasal verbs. The student can use a good number of phrasal verbs appropriately when
answering questions.
2 Role play giving instructions/orders. Pair work. Listening and speaking skills. The student can perform a dialogue
between a father and son, boss and employee, etc., giving instructions and
orders using phrasal verbs.
3 Exercise using phrasal verbs. Written production. The student can appropriately use separable phrasal verbs
in oral and written exercises.
4 Graphic organizers completed by following Listening and reading comprehension. The student can demonstrate he or
instructions. she understands instructions by creating graphic organizers after following
instructions.
5 and 6 Demonstration speech: Delivery of the speech and Listening and speaking skills. The student can deliver a demonstrative speech
taking notes of speeches given by others. that gives instructions about how to do something or how something is done.
7 Following and giving instructions (Role play). Listening and reading comprehension. The student can demonstrate he or
she understands instructions by role playing an appropriate situation.
Learning Activity 1, p. 117 Pictionary of Phrasal Verbs related to household Pair work. The student can demonstrate his / her understanding of phrasal
activities using phrasal verbs. verbs by making a Pictionary about them.
Learning Activity 2, p. 131 Daily report of activities using phrasal verbs. Pair work. The student can share information with another student about what
he or she does for others and with others using phrasal verbs.
Learning Activity 3, Dialogue using formal expressions of request, orders, Pair work. The student can distinguish and use appropriately different expre-
p. 135-136 or commands in an appropriate situation. ssions of formal request, orders, and command in a specific situation (written
and orally).
Learning Activity 4, Role play about what happens in a school using Teamwork. The student can appropriately use phrasal verbs related to school
p. 141-142 phrasal verbs appropriately. and work situations in an oral presentation based on a written script.

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4
BLOCK
Making requests and giving instructions

Pair Work Evaluation Coevaluation


Honestly evaluate your classmates work and attitude.
Use the following format

Name of evaluator:
Person who is being evaluated:

Always Most of the time Sometimes Rarely

My classmate showed interest in


our assignment

My classmate worked in our


assignment

My classmate showed a positive


attitude towards learning

My classmate helped me learn

My classmate shared his/her ideas

Overall, I consider our work together was: VERY GOOD GOOD SATISFACTORY NEEDS IMPROVEMENT

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Team Work Evaluation Heteroevaluation


Honestly evaluate your classmates work and attitudes. Write the name of each of your classmates at the top of each column.

Name of evaluator:
Use the following: ALWAYS MOST OF THE TIME SOMETIMES RARELY

Name Name Name Name

Showed interest in our assignment

Worked in our assignment

Showed positive attitude during our


interaction

Helped everyone to learn

Shared his / her ideas with the


other members

Asked for help when necessary

I enjoyed working with him / her

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Glossary

Glossary

Verbos Irregulares

Infinitivo Pasado Simple Participio Pasado Traduccin


Arise Arose Arisen Surgir, levantarse
Awake Awoke Awoken Despertarse
Be Was / were Been Ser, estar
Bear Bore Borne / born Soportar, dar a luz
Beat Beat Beaten Golpear
Become Became Become Llegar a ser
Begin Began Begun Empezar
Bend Bent Bent Doblar
Bet Bet Bet Apostar
Bind Bound Bound Atar, encuadernar
Bid Bid Bid Pujar
Bite Bit Bitten Morder
Bleed Bled Bled Sangrar
Blow Blew Blown Soplar
Break Broke Broken Romper
Breed Bred Bred Criar
Bring Brought Brought Traer, llevar
Broadcast Broadcast Broadcast Radiar
Build Built Built Edificar
Burn Burnt / burned Burnt / burned Quemar
Burst Burst Burst Reventar
Buy Bought Bought Comprar
Cast Cast Cast Arrojar
Catch Caught Caught Coger
Come Came Come Venir
Cost Cost Cost Costar

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Cut Cut Cut Cortar


Choose Chose Chosen Elegir
Cling Clung Clung Agarrarse
Creep Crept Crept Arrastrarse
Deal Dealt Dealt Tratar
Dig Dug Dug Cavar
Do (Does) Did Done Hacer
Draw Drew Drawn Dibujar
Dream Dreamt / dreamed Dreamt / dreamed Soar
Drink Drank Drunk Beber
Drive Drove Driven Conducir
Eat Ate Eaten Comer
Fall Fell Fallen Caer
Feed Fed Fed Alimentar
Feel Felt Felt Sentir
Fight Fought Fought Luchar
Find Found Found Encontrar
Flee Fled Fled Huir
Fly Flew Flown Volar
Forbid Forbade Forbidden Prohibir
Forget Forgot Forgotten Olvidar
Forgive Forgave Forgiven Perdonar
Freeze Froze Frozen Helar
Get Got Got / gotten Obtener
Give Gave Given Dar
Go (Goes) Went Gone Ir
Grow Grew Grown Crecer
Grind Ground Ground Moler
Hang Hung Hung Colgar
Have Had Had Haber o tener
Hear Heard Heard Oir
Hide Hid Hidden Ocultar
Hit Hit Hit Golpear
Hold Held Held Agarrar, celebrar
Hurt Hurt Hurt Herir
Keep Kept Kept Conservar
Know Knew Known Saber, conocer

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Glossary

Kneel Knelt Knelt Arrodillarse


Knit Knit Knit Hacer punto
Lay Laid Laid Poner
Lead Led Led Conducir
Lean Leant Leant Apoyarse
Leap Leapt Leapt Brincar
Learn Learnt / learned Learnt / learned Aprender
Leave Left Left Dejar
Lend Lent Lent Prestar
Let Let Let Permitir
Lie Lay Lain Echarse
Light Lit Lit Encender
Lose Lost Lost Perder
Make Made Made Hacer
Mean Meant Meant Significar
Meet Met Met Encontrar
Mistake Mistook Mistaken Equivocar
Overcome Overcame Overcome Vencer
Pay Paid Paid Pagar
Put Put Put Poner
Read Read Read Leer
Ride Rode Ridden Montar
Ring Rang Rung Llamar
Rise Rose Risen Levantarse
Run Ran Run Correr
Say Said Said Decir
See Saw Seen Ver
Seek Sought Sought Buscar
Sell Sold Sold Vender
Send Sent Sent Enviar
Set Set Set Poner(se)
Sew Sewed Sewed / sewn Coser
Shake Shook Shaken Sacudir
Shear Shore Shorn Esquilar
Shine Shone Shone Brillar
Shoot Shot Shot Disparar
Show Showed Shown Mostrar

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Shrink Shrank Shrunk Encogerse


Shut Shut Shut Cerrar
Sing Sang Sung Cantar
Sink Sank Sunk Hundir
Sit Sat Sat Sentarse
Sleep Slept Slept Dormir
Slide Slid Slid Resbalar
Smell Smelt Smelt Oler
Sow Sowed Sowed / sown Sembrar
Speak Spoke Spoken Hablar
Speed Sped Sped Acelerar
Spell Spelt Spelt Deletrear
Spend Spent Spent Gastar
Spill Spilt / spilled Spilt / spilled Derramar
Spin Spun Spun Hilar
Spit Spat Spat Escupir
Split Split Split Hender, partir, rajar
Spoil Spoilt / spoiled Spoilt / spoiled Estropear
Spread Spread Spread Extender
Spring Sprang Sprung Saltar
Stand Stood Stood Estar en pie
Steal Stole Stolen Robar
Stick Stuck Stuck Pegar, engomar
Sting Stung Stung Picar
Stink Stank / stunk Stunk Apestar
Stride Strode Stridden Dar zancadas
Strike Struck Struck Golpear
Swear Swore Sworn Jurar
Sweat Sweat Sweat Sudar
Sweep Swept Swept Barrer
Swell Swelled Swollen Hinchar
Swim Swam Swum Nadar
Swing Swung Swung Columpiarse
Take Took Taken Coger
Teach Taught Taught Ensear
Tear Tore Torn Rasgar
Tell Told Told Decir

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Glossary

Think Thought Thought Pensar


Throw Threw Thrown Arrojar, tirar
Thrust Thrust Thrust Introducir
Tread Trod Trodden Pisar, hollar
Understand Understood Understood Entender
Undergo Underwent Undergone Sufrir
Undertake Undertook Undertaken Emprender
Wake Woke Woken Despertarse
Wear Wore Worn Llevar puesto
Weave Wove Woven Tejer
Weep Wept Wept Llorar
Wet Wet Wet Mojar
Win Won Won Ganar
Wind Wound Wound Enrollar
Withdraw Withdrew Withdrawn Retirarse
Wring Wrung Wrung Torcer
Write Wrote Written Escribir

Autopista Motorway (UK) /


Transportes Highway or Freeway (USA)
Autopista de peaje
Toll-paying motorway
Accidente
Accident
Avera
Breakdown
Aceite
Oil
Batera
Battery
Acelerar
To accelerate
Bici
Bike
Andn (de estacin)
Platform Bicicleta
Bicycle
Aparcamiento Car park (UK) / Billete
Ticket
Parking lot (USA) Caja de herramientas
Tool-box
Aparcar ; Estacionar
To park Camin Lorry (UK) /
Arranque
Starter Truck (USA)
Asiento
Seat Cap Bonnet (UK) /
Hood (USA)
Asiento del conductor
Drivers seat
Carretera
Road
Asiento del pasajero
Passenger seat
Carretera de peaje
Toll road
Asiento trasero
Back, Rear seat Cinturn de seguridad
Safety belt
Atasco ; Embotellamiento Traffic jam Coche
Car
Autobs
Bus Coche cama (tren)
Sleeping car
Automvil
Motorcar Coche restaurante (tren) Luncheon car

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Cdigo de la circulacin Highway code Parada de taxis


Taxi rank
Compartimento
Compartment Paso a nivel
Level crossing
Conductor/a
Driver Pedal de embrague
Clutch pedal
Consigna de equipajes
Left luggage office Pedal de freno
Brake
Cuentakilmetros
Milo meter Permiso de conduccin
Driving licence
Equipaje
Luggage Piezas de recambio
Spare parts
Estacin de autobuses
Bus station Pinchazo
Blow-out ; Puncture
Faro
Headlight Placa de matrcula Number plate (UK) /
Ferrocarril
Railway License Plate (USA)
Frenar
To brake Polica de trafico
Traffic police
Garaje
Garage Portaequipajes de tren
Luggage rack
Gasolina
Petrol (UK) / Gas (USA) Portaequipajes Carrier
Gra Breakdown truck de una bicicleta
Guardagujas
Points man Portaequipajes Boot (UK) / Trunk (USA)
en un coche
Ida y vuelta
Return ticket
Rales
Rails
Jefe de estacin
Station master
Retrovisor exterior
Wing mirror
Lmite de velocidad
Speed limit
Revisor
Ticket inspector
Limpiaparabrisas
Windscreen wiper
Rueda de recambio
Spare wheel
Llenar el deposito To fill the tank
de gasolina Sala de espera
Waiting room
Seguro contra accidentes Accident insurance
Locomotora
Engine
Semforo
Traffic lights
Maleta
Suitcase
Seal de alarma
Emergency signal
Maletn
Briefcase
Seal de trfico
Road sign
Manillar
Handlebar
Surtidor de gasolina
Petrol pump
Maquinista
Engine driver
Taxi Cab / Taxi / Taxicab
Mecnico
Mechanic
Taxista
Taxi driver
Metro Tube /
Underground (UK) / Transbordo
Change / Transfer
Subway (USA) Tranva
Tram
Motocicleta
Motorcycle Tren
Train
Mozo
Porter Tren expreso
Express train
Multa
Fine Tnel
Tunnel
Palanca de cambio Gear change Vagn
Carriage
de velocidades Velocmetro
Speedometer
Parabrisas
Windscreen Ventanilla
Window
Parachoques Bumper (UK) / Viajero
Passenger
Fender (USA) Vas
Tracks
Parada de autobs
Bus stop Volante
Steering wheel

169
Web sites

Web sites

Note to the teacher: The following web sites are free and subject 2.3 To be used to doing and to get used to doing
to changes by the author or entities that sponsor them. Please http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-
check they are active before you assign them to your students. exercise-used-to.php#.Up61smTuJ3I
http://speakspeak.com/english-grammar-exercises/
BLOCK 1 intermediate/used-to-be-used-to-get-used-to

1. Describing cause and effect situations 2.4 Time expressions use in the past tense

1.1 The present real conditional or zero conditional http://www.tolearnenglish.com/exercises/exercise-english-2/


exercise-english-24228.php
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/support-files/
http://www.gingersoftware.com/grammarbook/verbs/the-
conditionals_zero_form.pdf
past-simple-tense/
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/330/grammar/
0cond1.htm
1.2 First conditional BLOCK 3
http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/support-files/ 3. Describing activities in the past
first_conditional_form.pdf 3.1 The past continuous or past progressive tense
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame. http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/past-continuous-
asp?id=3226 exercise-1.html
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/tenses/past_
BLOCK 2 progressive_statements.htm
3.2 More uses of the past continuous and past progressive
2. Comparing habits and customs in other communities
tense
2.1 Vocabulary: Transportation, food
http://autoenglish.org/gr.pascon.i.htm
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/quizzes/
http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/pastcontinuous/
crosswords/transport.shtml
exercise2.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/quizzes/ 3.3 When/while used in sentences in simple past and past
crosswords/food.shtml continuous
2.2 The habitual past with used to and should http://www.5minuteenglish.com/nov12.htm
http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/usedto/exercise1.swf http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.
http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame. asp?id=734
asp?id=1734 3.4 Connectors
http://www.english-grammar-lessons.com/should/exercise5.swf http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame.
http://www.esl-classroom.com/grammar/shouldandmust1.html asp?id=5346
http://a4esl.org/q/f/y/zz99maa.htm

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http://www.englishexercises.org/makeagame/viewgame. http://www.phrasalverbexercises.com/
asp?id=1792 http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/phrasal-verbs-quiz.
htm
4.3 Modals used to make requests
BLOCK 4
http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-
4. Making requests and giving instructions exercise-modals.php#.Up67ZGTuJ3I
4.1 Phrasal verbs http://www.englishdaily626.com/modals.php
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/ 4.4.- Lets review objet pronouns
quizzes/2009/08/090821_btk_phrasals.shtml http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/grammar-
http://www.esl-lounge.com/student/phrasal-verbs/4pv1- exercise-object-pronouns.php#.Up67p2TuJ3I
phrasal-verb-generator-1.php https://elt.oup.com/student/englishfile/elementary/a_
4.2 Phrasal verbs related to clothing, cleaning and household grammar/file04/grammar04_c01?cc=global&selLanguage
activities. =en&mode=hub

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