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Module 6

Materials and Hardware



Ferrous metals
Allay steels
Non ferrous metals
Aluminium alloys
Chemical abbreviations
Identification of metals
Practical tests
Heat treatments - plain carbon steels
Case hardening
Heat treatments - alloy steels
Heat treatment - aluminium alloys
Destructive testing of metals
Non metallic materials
Fibre reinforced plastics
Manufacture of composite components
Adhesives - general
Destructive testing of composites
Degradation of composites
Sealants and bonding agents


You should have a good knowledge of the following terms which are used
throughout this book, so, using a piece of paper define each of their meanings.
Take no more than about 30 minutes. The answers are given below.

* Stress
* Density
* Fatigue
* Toughness
* Brittleness
* Hardness
* Softness
* Ductility
* Malleability
* Resistivity (p)

Stress. Defined as force per unit area. In the SP system it is the Pascal (Pa) and
is defined as a Newton per square meter N/m2. In the imperial system it is
pounds per square inch (psi).The higher the stress levels a material can take
the better. Note that stress units are the same a s pressure units,

Density. This is the amount of "substance" in a material. It is defined as "mass
per unit volume" ie, Density = kgs/m3. Dense material such as lead is said
(incorrectly) to be heavy. A kg of lead is no heavier than a kg of feathers. As an
example aluminium h a s a density of 2700 kg/m3 and steel is 7900 kg/m3. For
aircraft the less dense a material is the better - provided is retains those
desired properties such as high strength etc.

Fatigue. Fatigue is associated with cyclic stress. All materials should be
resistant to fatigue. Fatigue is serious and has been the cause of many aircraft
accidents. Normally the stress level that causes fatigue failure is well below
that required to cause the part to fail under normal tensile stress.

Toughness. This is the ability of a material to absorb an impact load. Rubber is
tough - ordinary glass is not. Toughness is a good quality, without it metals
would fracture at the slightest knock.

Brittleness. The opposite to toughness.

Hardness. The ability to resist scratching and indentation. Glass is hard, wood
is not. Bearings and piston rings for example should be hard so as to resist

Softness. The opposite to hardness. When two surfaces are in rubbing contact
with each other, such as some bearings then one is usually made softer than
the other so it will wear first - usually the easier one to replace.

Ductility. The ability of a material to be permanently deformed by the
application of a tensile load. Wire is drawn into shape by being pulled through
a series of dies and is said to be ductile (Drawn - Dies - Quctile).

Malleability, The ability of a metal to be permanently deformed by the action of
a compressive load - hammering for example. Rivets are malleable as they are
formed by compression.

Resistivity. This gives the resistance of a body in terms of its dimensions. It is
called (p) rho. The resistance of a n object can be found from the equation

Where p is in ohm metres, L is length in metres and A is cross sectional area in
m2. Copper has a resistivity of 1.7 ohm metres whereas steel has a resistivity of
15 ohm metres. Copper is a better conductor than steel.


Metals can be divided into two main groups - ferrous and non ferrous.



Ferrous (Fe) Metals

These metals have an iron base and include all the plain carbon steels, allc
steels, cast irons and wrought iron. A plain carbon steel is a steel which
contains only iron (Fe) and carbon (C) between about 0.15% and 1.4% C.

0 0.02 0.1 5 1.4 4.5


Fe metals can be divided into 3 main groups - irons, plain carbon steels and
alloy steels.



Fig. 3 Fe METALS

The following pages contain tables relating to properties and uses of metals
used on aircraft. Some metals are almost never found on aircraft - such a s cast
iron - but they have been included because they are found in aircraft related



Cast iron Brittle, weak, casts well, resists Machine beds, frames
u p to 4.5% C crushing. Good anti-friction and details. General
properties, self lubricating. castings, bearings.
Good vibration damping Pistons, Piston rings.
qualities. Density 7700kglm3.

Wrought iron Ductile, malleable, soft, easily Cores of dynamos,
0.02% C magnetised, easily welded. lifting chains, crane
Density 7800kg/m3. hooks.
Mild steel Ductile, less malleable. Bolts and nuts.
(low carbon) Stronger and harder than General workshop
0.15 to 0.3% C wrought iron. Easily forged, machined components.
welded, machined or stamped Girders, forgings, car
to shape. Density 7800kg/m3. body panels.
p = 15ohmm.

Medium Higher strength than mild steel Leaf springs, wire ropes
carbon steel and responds readily to heat general tools, axles,
0.3 to 0.5% C treatments to increase its crankshafts. Used in
toughness and hardness. high strength areas -
fuselage joints, bolts,
hinge pins etc.

...... For this reason the included table is of the more commonly used elements used in steels to produce particular properties.. Coil steel.ball bearings "Alloy Steels") can be altered.... Has a Precision instruments... CHROMIUM (Cr) 3 Great hardness..................... without loss of ductility. carbon steel.. 12........... TABLE 2 ........ MANGANESE (Mn) 1... would be difficult......... NICKEL (Ni) 3-5 Increased hardness Case hardened parts.......... Ball and roller bearings........ Alloy Steels The main difficulty when studying alloy steels is that there is such a wide range of alloys that.......ALLOY STEELS ELEMENT Yo QUALITIES USES ... ........... Tungsten helps the steel to retain its hardness at high temperatures....... than 3% chromium. 36 Non-magnetic...... trying to commit the details to memory..TABLE I CONTINUED High carbon More expensive than medium Cutting tools..5 Greater strength than Welds easily ..5% to 1.... low co-efficient of "Invar" steel......... linear expansion........ Alloy steels By adding other elements the Chromium increases (See table properties of plain carbon steel hardness .. 12 Very tough..17 Nearly non-corrodible.. 0.......................... acts a s 5% nickel and harder a purifier........... ... Easily worked..4% C harder. or even a small part of them... 27 Non-magnetic almost non-corrodible......... Nickel increases strength and toughness also resistance to fatigue..... Parts exposed to "wear and tear"....... Tougher and springs......

................. VANADIUM (V) 20 Increase strength Chrome-vanadium without loss of ductility...... Besides the qualities of stainless steel they are non magnetic......... Permanent magnets... and Precision instruments 64 Fe. 35 Easily magnetised...... CHROMIUM 18-8 Stainless steel None magnetic...... AUSTENITIC STEELS & There are several Same uses as above....... co-efficient of linear expansion (0.... ........ Pipelines..............9)... Typically resistance is required............. (Mild steel has a co-efficient of 15.-.-.....TABLE 2 CONTINUED .... contains 18% Cr & 8% Ni..... NICKEL & 1-2 Stainless steel Magnetic.... - INVAR Contains 36% Ni. Has a low and gauging systems.. . 14% tungsten is used 20 in high speed steel drills...... Work a t higher speeds and temperatures......-.....-.. Used in drills etc working at temperatures higher than 600°C.... though other grades of "non corrodible steel" are available... IRONS austenitic steels but most are based on 18:8 stainless steel. steels for valves and other springs.. COBALT (Co) 12 With tungsten. crankshafts engine and airframe parts................. 3-5 Great strength toughness Gears..-......where heat corrosion. STAINLESS STEEL Almost zero rate of Structures ..... MOLYBDENUM (Mo) 2-4 Similar effect to tungsten...................- TUNGSTEN (W) U p to Very hard up to 600°C..-.....-...0).......

. Good resistance to scaling at dull red heat temperatures.............. TITANIUM ALLOYS High strengthlweight ratio.... TABLE 3 .... 13% chromium and 3% tungsten... Used to replace steel Good physical properties with a saving in weight. Fire Tensile strength u p to proof bulkheads.. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- HIGH PERMEABILITY Soft iron was used Transformer cores.. Will work at higher temps. Various trade names are available eg Columax contains 8%Al..... and corrosion resistance..TABLE 2 CONTINUED VALVE STEELS For aero engines..NON-FERROUS METALS MATERIAL PROPERTIES USES . STEELS Cobalt. Heat 1300MPa.. u p to 480°C.... STEELS but metals such as (Those that can be Permalloy (78% Ni) and magnetised and Mumetal (75% Ni) are de-magnetised easily) now more common. tungsten.. 4% chromium Hacksaw blades. . HIGH SPEED STEELS Typically contain 18% Drills.. 23% Co and 3% Cu......... PERMANENT MAGNET May contain u p to 35% Permanent magnets....... 14% Ni... Works at temp. turbine engines... and 1% vanadium. shields. usually Valves. and fan blades in p = 2. contain 13%Ni...... than high carbon steel without affecting the temper.6 ohm m.. Used for compressor Density 4500kg/m3....

Solders well. ductile. nickel. Monel tensile strength u p to 1170MPa. pipe fittings. Poor corrosion Bombs and flares. contacts. and silicon. Alloyed to give airframe structures. electrical and corrosion resistant.7ohmm Weak . MAGNESIUM Soft. tubing. Density 1800kg/m3. BRASS Contains copper. Prone to Aircraft wheels. Corrosion resistant. Good wearing. malleable. ductile.about 200 to 400MPa. temperatures. anti-friction bushes. Used as electrical conductivity. lead. Different coppers classified by CDA (Copper Development Association). Tubing. MAGNESIUM ALLOYS Cast well. Lightly stressed manganese. Will burn in under some conditions. Electrical High thermal and conductors. tin. Light alloys.TABLE 3 CONTINUED NICKEL Hard. resistant. p = 1. particularly when in powder or swarfe form. castings. Density 8500kgIm3. Withstands high temps. zinc. a base for brass and resistant to corrosion bronze. COPPER Tough. aluminium. Anti corrosive. Turbine blades and hot Corrosion resistant at high end fittings. Some brasses have a tensile strength u p to lOOOMPa . Density 8900kg/m3. filter elements. NICKEL ALLOYS Good strengthlweight ratio. Some alloys contain 80% Ni 20%Cr. and corrosion. it strength as pure magnesium is weak and soft.

7 1OOkg/m3... aluminium. --- LEAD Soft. small parts...... Stronger and good in compression....300 kg/m3... corrosion.. zinc.. nickel........4 o h m m Gold film windscreens... SOLDER Tin and lead..... Good corrosion Protection of steel resistance........ Density 9000kg/m3......... M a s s balance weights... MONEL METAL Contains 70% Ni. point.. silicon... Pipe lines..... ZINC Soft. Strong and ductile..... ......... ... Low melting Soft soldering. now removed for safety reasons... tin and Bearing bushes. BRONZE phosphorous... resistant...... ...... DEPLETED Hard.......... TUNGUM Contains copper...... nickel and Bearing bushes Lead dloy... ductile.. Radiator matrix. ZINC ALLOYS Low cost low melting Inexpensive comme* :a1 point castings....... ductile corrosion Used for tin plating... weak. Resistant to corrosion.. PHOSPHOR Copper...... electrical contactors........... Resistance to fatigue and Not in common use.. . p = 2. Alloyed to make solder........ Good corrosion resistance.. .... Used for plating some Density 19.. and 30% Some structural uses Cu.... mass balance weigh. Similar properties to brass...... Counter balance a n ~ Density 11300kg/m3.......... GOLD Soft........ Density parts.....00Okg/m3... and tucker pop rivets.. URANIUM Density 19..... TIN Soft........ tin..... Alloyed to lead to make solder....TABLE 3 CONTINUED BRONZE Copper...........

-... They are expensive. -..-.......-...... .. An American coding system for wrought alloys is based on the main alloying element a s follows: CODE MAIN ALLOYING ELEMENT None .-.-. . difficult to form and machine but meet the needs for strength and operating conditions Aluminium Alloys . Requires heat treatment. ALUMINIUM See table 4 Wheels. Zinc 3. . The British Standards cover: BS 1470 to 75 . ... crankcases 1 I....non-ferrous These are supplied in the wrought or cast form and may be heat treatable or non heat treatable.. castings..-..-. aircraft structure Super Alloys ... Manganese 2..-... -. Aluminium Wheels.Aircraft DTD Specifications. and its alloys..Aircraft (DTD = Directorate of Technical Development)... .. ....5%.99% pure aluminium Copper Manganese Silicone Magnesium Magnesium 8r..Cast BSL Series .-.%.......Wrought BS 1490 ..-.also non-ferrous This class of metals is mainly based on nickel and cobalt (Inconal for example) with strengths u p to 1450MPa.....TABLE 3 CONTINUED CADMIUM Corrosion resistant.. Anti corrosive plating..... ELEKTRON Magnesium.---.. .. . silicon Zinc Other ..... ---------....-....-.5%. -----------------------------------------------------. May be cast or wrought......

with 4. aluminium = 2700 kg/m3).5% copper. (Refer to the section on Heat Treatments in this book). Some A1 alloys will increase their strength with time after heat treatment (age hardening). * Notch sensitive (a small scratch is liable to develop into a crack). Example 1.. others require precipitation heat treatment to bring on the process and some alloys will not age harden at all.The first digit indicates the main group. 0. * Good thermal and electrical conductivity (p = 5). (this would make a weight saving on the construction of a Boeing 747 for example of about 14. the second digit indicates any modification to the original alloy and the last two digits indicates the actual alloy in the group or the impurity level.6% manganese and 1. .000 Ibs (6400kg).5% magnesium (xx24) and strain hardened (xxxx-H4). * Less corrosion resistant than aluminium. drawings etc and details of what they mean found in tables. -k Fatigue limited (see the section in this book "Testing of Metals").0 = Annealed wrought Duralumin. . Aluminium-lithium alloys are now being developed that have a 10% lower density (lighter) and are u p to 20% stronger than existing A1 alloys. original alloy (xOxx).T2 = Annealed cast Duralumin. Example 2. Strain hardening is not used much on A1 alloys used on aircraft.T6 = Solution treated and artificially aged Duralumin. . The codings are specified on the metal specification (packets for rivets). Duralumin and any suffix after the forth digit would indicate. for example: 20 17. (Density = 2800 kg/m3. * Up to 8 times stronger than aluminium with little or no increase in weight. * Less malleable and ductile than aluminium. 2025-H4 indicates aluminium copper alloy (2xxx). To modify +lie properties of A1 alloys heat treatments are used. A1 alloys generally have the following properties: * Good strengthlweight ratio. 7 series alloys have a strength approaching that of steel and are widely used on aircraft.

.... Fair corrosion resistance.. Used in critical Al ALLOYS structural areas.. Withstands relative high temperatures.... and conductivity....1% Good for casting.3% Magnesium 1.. .6% Manganese 0.-.. used for cladding..5% Magnesium 0.... "Age hardens".0% heads.. (Cast) Iron 0.. Magnesium 1.-.5% Pistons and cylinder Silicon 1. parts...--...5% Pistons and cylinder (Cast) Nickel 2... . 2000 SERIES Damage tolerant... "Y" ALLOY Aluminium Copper 4... Must be heat treated... Aluminium.5% aircraft and engine Zinc 0. heat treatment to age harden..-.. . Used in strength critical areas.5% Nickel 1. Must be heat-treated.5% Aircraft structures. Strong.7% heads.7% Silicon 0.. (Wrought) Density about 113 that of steel.zinc.TABLE 4 ALUMINIUM & ITS ALLOYS -. corrosion resistant.- MATERIAL PROPERTIES USES ALUMINIUM Soft.. malleable. Little strength..... ALPAX Aluminium....0% Intricate castings. tubes.. Corrosion resistant Heat treatment as above.. Requires heat treatment and low temp.... Strong as mild steel.-.-. Used in light alloys a s High electrical and thermal a base material.. HIDUMINIUM Copper 2.... Low thermal expansion.... Structural parts.... Sheets. .7% Manganese 0.. 7000 SERIES Main alloying element ..2% Iron 1.. "Age Hardens".-.... Copper 4..7% ALCLAD Dural sheet with coating of (Wrought) aluminium...-... DURALUMIN Nearly as strong as mild steel... .. rivets.....-.... (Compare as a conductor. Used Density 2700kg/m3.... mild steel at 7800kgIm3). Silicon 13. Resistant to corrosion and fatigue.

TABLE 4 CONTINUED ---. Chemical Abbreviations These are used extensively within the industry and while you need not remember them specifically you should have some knowledge of the more commonly used terms eg: Aluminium Carbon Cadmium Cobalt Chromium Copper Iron Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Nitrogen Nickel Oxygen Lead Tin Titanium Vanadium Tungsten Zinc IDENTIFICATION MARKINGS ON METALS The CAA specifies that materials used in the manufacture of aircraft parts shall comply with a t least one of the following specifications: * British Standard Aerospace Series (BSAS) Specifications. * Specifications prepared by an organisation approved by the CAA. * DTD Specifications. produced for newer A1 ALLOYS aircraft to replace both the 2000 and 7000 series. * Specifications approved by the CAA. .---------------- LITHIUM Improved strengthlweight Several types being BASED ratio.

Some sheet metals have a coloured disc 3" (76mm) diameter painted on them with additional colours added a s concentric rings 1. If the colour scheme has not been applied by the manufacturer then it should be applied by the operator before the metal is placed in bonded store. The colours may be applied as a band or bands across the corner of sheet metal bearing the identification stamp. Stamp marking should not be used on: * Stressed parts where the stamp might cause stress concentration. Strip material will have the bands painted on one printed all over with the material specification eg. The metal must. The metal . * Thin section metals. Marlung Methods Materials during manufacture should be marked as soon as possible during their production run with one or more of the following methods: (a) Metal stamp marking (not usually on titanium).usually in sheet form . For material in coil form the colours will be marked a t intervals. roller. . (b) Markings produced by a die or mould used in the shaping of the metal. On some sheet metals the bands may be painted near one edge of the metal and at right angles to it.5" (38nlm) wide.BSAS and DTD specifications make provision for the material to be marked by the inspector as well a s other markings to ensure full identification. of course. The marking should not be easily removed and should not damage the metal. (c) Marking by rubber stamp. or in some cases on both ends. An alternative method to colour coding is overall marking. be printable and the metal must not be affected by the print. * Parts or materials machined to close tolerances. Standard Colour Scheme A widely used system for the identification of metals is the standard colour scheme. BSL 72 (L72). (d) Using a colour scheme. * Metals of hard surface finishlspecial surface finish. The scheme is additional to any identification requirements laid down in the various specifications. or printing machine.

When the specification number of a material is changed eg. Some metals which differ only in surface condition or intended usage but are the same basic material are given the same colour code. This means that most metals are required to have an additional protective film treatment applied a s soon a s possible after production. Examples of the terms used. This means that if there is any chance of corrosion etc occurring during storage then the metal must be given an anti-corrosive treatment sufficient to protect it during the expected storage life. green. from a DTD number to a BS number. The Approved Certificate must also be annotated. white. then a n additional band of black paint is added to the colour scheme and the protective film is added u p to the black band. (See heat treatments). This may be a clear film. red. yellow (and violet for aluminium rivets).material solution treated and requires precipitation treatment. Metals with the same specification but with different heat treatment conditions or properties havc different colour codes. Colours Current colours used are: black. but if it is coloured. brown. then the colour code will not be changed unless there is a significant change in the material itself. . Heat Treated Material Material that is released in a heat treated state other than that stated in th specification must be marked in red with the appropriate term to denote thp condition. blue. (See Heat Treatment Symbols in the book entitled "Drawing" in ~ l l i s series). such as red lanolin resin. (c) NOT AGED . (a) AS ROLLED (b) ANNEALED .Protective Film Treatments All metals are required by regulation to be capable of storage without deterioration.material in its softest condition.

* Test report. If the material has to be cut (sheet or strip) and used in smaller piecesthen always cut from the sidelend furthest from the identification. 4.The Identification Marking The marking should contain the following information: A The specification number. If the correct material is not available check the alternative spares list. 2. * The manufacturer. 3. This does not apply to "all over marking" material. and if that does not help contact the aircraft manufacturer. If in doubt about the identification of a piece of metal then it is not to be used on aircraft. General Always use material specification as laid down in the aircraft maintenance/repair manual (SRM). 5. If in the stores also check specification with the Approved Certificate/EASA Form 1 and/or other documents from the manufacturers. Always positively identify the material from the colour coding /specification numbers. A The inspection stamp (where necessary). A Batch number (and cast number where appropriate). The following two tables are practical workshop tests for the identification of metals and are not to be used for the identification of metals to be used on aircraft. blank .

..... ......... yellow non- bursting.. High High pitch Harder to chip Pale grey.. Silky blue grey Red no1 Steel pitch ring....... Low Medium Bright silvery Bright Carbon pitch ring..... fine Bright Carbon ring......... Tungsten Very high Will not chip.......PRACTlCAL TESTS FE METALS NOTE WHEN BEHAVIOUR APPEARANCE TYPES OF METAL DROPPED ON WHEN OF SPARK ANVIL CHIPPED FMCTURE FROM A GRINDlNG WHEEL Grey No ring Chips easily Dark grey Dull Cast crystals of red Iron uniform size non- bursting...... following the wheel.. -- Wrought Low pitch Easily chipped... burstin.----- Stainless Steel Copper is not deposited when copper sulphate solution is applied.. . yellow. as above large crystals yellow few Steel carbon bursts.. all Steel steel........... PRACTICAL TESTS TABLE 5 ..... Course Bright Iron ring.... but chips bursting.......... bend. Austenitic Steels Non magnetic .......... fibrous grain.. than low carbon crystals.... Chips bend... fine crystals..

JC Increase "springiness". White sparks when held against a grinding wheel. Caustic soda turns the surface white. Heat treatments can produce the following properties: * Increase strength. lighter than aluminium and non magnetic. * Better macbineability. Titanium Lighter than steel. * Increase softness. Non-magnetic and melts with a soldering iron. light and mon-magnetic. * Increase toughness. Solder White. Caustic soda turns the surface white and the edge black. Magnesium White in colour. Will mark on paper and crackles when bent. Alclad More springy than aluminium. Soft and bends easily. .TABLE 6 . heavy and soft. Some heat treatments can affect the anti-corrosive properties of a metal though they are not normally heat treated for this reason. * Increase hardness. Alloy Fillings ignite in a flame. HEAT TREATMENTS Metals may have their properties changed by alloying. casting and heat treatable properties. A Better strength and fatigue resistant properties. Duralumin The same properties a s Alclad except that the application of caustic soda turns the surface black. Copper sulphate causes effervescence and the surface to turn black. The heat treatment of a metal normally involves heating the metal to a specific temperature and then cooling at a specific rate.PRACTICAL TESTS NON FE METALS METAL TEST Aluminium White in colour. Alloying can give a metal: * Better anti-corrosive properties.

the pearlite changes to austenite.4 1.HEAT TREATMENT OF PLAIN CARBON STEELS QUESTION What does "plain carbon" mean? (2 mins) ANSWER A steel containing Fe and C only When steel is heated its temperature increases steadily until it is momentarily checked a t the "critical" or "arrest" point. called the Upper Critical Point (UCP).8 1.r Critical Point (LCP). If steels having different carbon contents are heated in this way and the "arrest" points plotted o n a graph.and line DEC represents the higher arrest points and i.O 1.4 0. Pearlite gets its name from its pearl-like appearance (under the microscope) and is made up of fine plates of cementite and ferrite. When viewed under the microscope the micro structure of plain carbon steel looks similar to the views shown in figure 5. 4 IRON CARBON EQUALIBRIUM DIAGRAM Micro Structure of Steels.6 0. and if all these points are joined an Iron Carbon Equilibrium Diagram is produced (figure 4).2 1. Most of the heat treatments that are carried out on plain carbon steels relate to the LCP and UCP temperatures on the iron carbon equilibrium diagram.2 0.6 % CARBON Fig. without temperature rise. The ferrite is pure iron and cementite is iron carbide. 0 0. At this point the metal absorbs heat and changes occur in the structure of the metal. When heated to just above the LCP (line AEB on the graph) about 700°C. After this period has passed the temperature continues to rise as before. .. Line AEB of figure 4 represents the lower arrest points and is called the Low. The ferrite and cementite does not change.

When the metal is cold worked internal stresses are set up which make it weak and brittle. The steel is heated to its annealing temperature and allowed to cool naturally in still free air.87% C Fig. Produces a hard brittle steel. Slower quenching produces a tougher (and not so hard) steel. Hardening. Relieves the brittleness in a hardened steel. . Some steels are heated to 600°C which produces a high strength steel. (Hard) Annealing. Tempering. Normalising. and just above the LCP for steels with a higher carbon content. Quench in water. J. In general the higher the temperature the less the hardness and the greater the toughness. This will refine the structure of the steel and convert it to its softest possible state. On low carbon steel Low Temperature Normalising may be carried out using a temperature about 500°C. AT 0. Examples : * Some structural steels 600°C (Tough). to relieve this condition normalisirig is carried out.87% C. tough and with good ductility. This process allows the structure to be refined back to its normal condition after working. Drills. Heat to the same temperature as for hardening but cool a s slowly as possible by leaving the part in the ashes or furnace and allowing the furnace to cool naturally. Reheat a hardened steel to between 2 0 0 to 300°C and cool or quench. -k Springs 300°C. (The cooling rate is not critical). Heat to just above the UCP for steel u p to 0. i s called Solid Solution where the whole structure becomes austenite.87% C ALL PEARLITE CEMENTITE ABOVE 0. 5 MICROSTRUCTURE OF STEELS When heated to higher t h a n the UCP (line DEC on the graph) the metal goes into what. taps and dies 240°C.

Tempering . 5.030 in (0. The part is placed in molten sodium cyanide at 920°C to produce a case of about 0. The parts are heated to 500°C in a box through which is passed ammonia gas. Hezt the part to a cherry red and dip in a box of carburising compound (Kasenite). The process is normally carried out in the following sequence: 1. Hardening.slow cooling from the carburising temperature. The parts are packed in Kasenite (a carbon rich compound) in sealed metal box and heated u p to 900°C. Repeat the process 2 or 3 times but with a lower temperature each time.25mm). Used on certain alloy steels containing aluminium and chromium called Nitriding Steels. reduce the brittleness and increase the toughness. Refining (as described above). CASE HARDENING Applied to low carbon steels to produce a hard wearing "outer skin" whilst still retaining a tough inner core.Refining. Repeated 3 or 4 times to give a "case" of about 0.76mm) after 90 hours. Carburising (eg introducing extra carbon into the "outer skin" c- the metal).13mm) thick. Produces a case thickness of 0.005in (0. 2. Prolonged heating above the UGP can cause the grain structure to coarsen (the grains to get bigger and the structure more brittle).0 loin (0. Heat to about 900°C a n d quench. . necessary. Cvanide Hardening. The low temperature and the fact that there is no quenching required means that there is less likelihood of distortion. This process is usually carried out on steels that have been case hardened. Box Process. so refining will reduce the size of the crystalline structure. 3. Four hours a t this temperature produces a case thickness of 0.040in (1. Nitriding. Annealing . Methods of Carburising Open Hearth.02mm).

...........35% C Stainless 13% Cr 950 OIL 600 Steel 0... to describe all the heat treatments that may be carried out... if not impossible in a single book.4% Cr Steel (En 3 1) 1% C Low Alloy 5% Ni 850 OIL 600 Nickel 1..4% C ..... The following table attempts to give some idea a s to the range of alloy steels and the Hardening and Tempering heat treatments..........1% C Stainless 18% Cr 950...1075 OIL 100-750 Steel (1818) 8% Ni High Speed 18% W 1320 OIL 550 Steel 4% Cr 1% V.4% C Steel 0.....5% Mn 840 OIL 650 Manganese 0..................HEAT TREATMENTS OF ALLOY STEELS METAL APPROXIMATE HARDENING COOLING TEMPERING COMPOSITION TEMP ("C) ("c) Pearlitic 1...... Stainless 18% Cr 950 OIL 650 Steel (S80) 2% Ni 0...... the heat treatment is carried out using an Equilibrium Diagram which is more complex than the Iron Carbon Equilibrium Diagram shown above... 0.............5% Cr Chrome Steel 0. .4% C Pearlitic 810 OIL 150 Chromium 1.HEAT TREATMENT OF ALLOY STEELS There is such a wide range of alloy steels that it is difficult... TABLE 7 .6% C Again..............5% Mo Austenitic 14% Mn 1000 WATER Manganese Steel 1% C Pearlitic 5% Ni 860 OIL 600 Nickel Steel 0......

The soaking time will be specified a s well as the quenching process. It will specify treatments.which is not fully understood .other than for cooling/quenching. The metal maq be heat treated in a salt bath but it is more convenient to use an electric oven. Only carried out after solution treatment and accelerates the process of hardening. Solution Treatment NOTE.causes a marked reduction in the toughness of the metal and. The metal is heated to a specific temperature usually within the range 460°C to 540°C for a period of time then quenched in cold or boiling water. Rivets so treated must be formed (used) within 2 hours of treatment. can only be revealed by destructive testing of test pieces after the heat treatment process. Initially makes the metal soft but allows the process of age hardening to occur. (b) Precipitation Treatment.Note. For example. TO HEAT TREAT A PARTICULAR ALUMINIUM ALLOY REFERENCE MUST ALWAYS BE MADE TO THE APPROPRIATE SPECIFICATION/PROCESS DOCUMENTS. Example: To heat treat L'72 refer to British Standards BSL72. temperatures may be approximate to 30" or so. to make things more difficult. . IMPORTANT NOT ALL ALUMINIUM ALLOYS CAN BE HEAT TREATED AND THOSE THAT CAN MUST BE HEATED TO SPECIFIC TEMPERATURES WITHIN SPECIFIC TOLERANCES. Metals can be lightly fabricated/ bent within this period. Nickel-chrome steels are prone to a defect known a s "temper brittleness" when being tempered through the range 250°C to 400°C. Makes the metal soft for working. This will soften the metal for a short period only and will allow the metal to age harden .with a n increase in strength. Note the temperatures here are quite specific. The term has n0thin. with most ferrous metals.g to do with putting the metal into a salt bath or any other type of solution . (c) Annealing. HEAT TREATMENT OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS The heat treatments that can be carried out to A1 alloys are as follows: (a) Solution Treatment. The process of heat treatment requires the metal to be heated for a specifie~ time at a specified temperature then cooling or quenching in a specific way. They will attain their design strength in 2 to 4 days (see graph). temperatures and cooling methods. The problem . Solution Heat + Treat to 495°C 5°C.

storage time up to 150 hours. I t is common in the industry to use a domestic freezer . In many cases it also makes the metal more prone to corrosion. In general the metal is heated to a specific temperature within the range 360°C to 420°C and after the soaking time. allowed to cool in still air. Precipitation heat treatment temperatures are low. where specified. usually within the range 100°C to 200°C and so&ng times may be u p to 20 hours. rivets previously solution treated can be kept in a cold storage cabinet next to where the work is being carried out. Cooling may be by quenching in cold water or cooling in still air. The metal may attain its design strength within 2 to 20 hours. Rivets removed from the cabinet must be used within 2 hours. Refrigeration To slow down the process of age hardening the metal may be refrigerated immediately after solution treatment. PRECIPITATION TREATED STRENGTH t TIME --t Fig. After precipitation the strength of the metal is greater than if it is allowed to age harden naturally (see figure 6). will greatly accelerate the rate of age hardening. Annealing This permanently softens the metal for working (unless heat treated further). minus 20°C. For example. 6 GRAPH OF STRENGTH AGAINST TIME Precipitation Treatment This process. Storage time will depend on temperature eg.

Hot water. for exaxple are: 26 SWG sheet (0. must not be heat treated because they will warp due to contraction/expansion.64" 0.but do not over soak. 5. 6. The rivets can then be put in the freezer close to where the work is being carried out and used. Oil. So the only treatment we can carry out . Made u p parts. riveted plates solution treatment. . 2 hours worth. Most cooling/quenching for aluminium alloys is 2 or 5 above. QUESTION If a rivet h a s to be heat treated.or put in a refrigerator straight away.0457mm thick) 10 mins rivets 15 mins 16 SWG sheet (0.if allowed by the specification . The quenching methods listed below start with the fastest method first.1163mm thick) 25 mins Quenching Always quench or cool in accordance with the specificatian.and that's not possible.18" 0. Still air. Warm oven. Soaking Times This is the time the part is kept in the over/salt bath a t the specified temperature. which may be the other side of the airfield. 1. Brine (salt water) 2. It must be used within 2 hours of removal from the refrigerator. If we precipitated the rivet it would make it too hard to form. We cannot heat treat rivets that have already been formed. Times. 4. ANSWER Lets analyse the wrong answers first. And the rivet must be used within 2 hours . Cold water (not warmer than 20°C). 3.Doing it this way means that when doing a big repair a large quantity of rivets can be heat treated in the heat treatment shop. In general the larger the part the ionger the soaking time . This means we cannot anneal the rivet so as to make it soft for working as it would be required to solution treat after forming . can you work out what sort of heat treatment would be carried out? (10 mins). at a time.

The parts should also be thoroughly cleaned prior to putting in a salt bath because a dirty part can cause a violent reaction with the molten salts (effectively a small explosion). 2. . Rivets should be put in a bag and labelled. 3. Cleaning [t is most important that parts treated in a salt bath should be thoroughly cleaned after treatment (the salts are highly corrosive). If splashed with molten salts wash off immediately and seek medical advice. Rivets These are usually placed in a wire basket for treatment. Only heat treat A1 alloys where it is laid down in the specification for that metal. Also parts quenched in brine must be thoroughly washed and dried as it is also corrosive. bolted and joined sections should not be heat treated. These use salts that melt at high temperatures and have significant safety issues attached to their operation. Some salts can be u p to 600°C and will cause severe burns. it should be marked with the appropriate symbol denoting the treatment to which it h a s been subjected. Thermostatically controlled electrically heated ovens. Identification Of Heat Treated Conditions Immediately after the material h a s been heat-treated. Riveted up. Limitations on Heat Treatments Clad aluminium alloy sheet should not be heat treated more than 3 times. Salt baths. If any treatment is dlowed for a specific rivet it will be solution treatment. that recommended in British Standards 1470 to 1477 and that recommended by in SP4089. Air heated furnaces. There are two identification systems in general use in the UK ie.Methods of Heating 1.

Material which has been precipitation-treated only. or a s forged. * Modulus of elasticity etc. bolt and screw stock). The tests are carried out in a laboratory with special test equipment and qualified personnel. THE TENSILE TEST An accurately machined test piece is placed in a machine and stretched under a tensile load until it breaks.1477 Material in the annealed condition. Material which has been annealed and lightly drawn (at present applicable only to rivet. e. straight and/or drawn to size.Identification System Recommended in British Standards 1470 . a s rolled. toughness.g. Material which has been solution-treated and will respond effectively to precipitation treatment. This test provides data on: A Ultimate tensile strength (UTS). Material in the "as-manufactured"condition. The te: - are normally destructive in that they damage the metal in some way. Yield point. Each process normally tests for one property. TESTING OF METALS Various tests are carried out on metals (and other materials) to ascertain the material's properties in terms of strength. a s extruded. Material which has been solution-treated and precipitation- treated. without subsequent heat treatment of any kind. x Elastic limit. hardness. Material which has been drawn after solution treatment (at present only applicable to wire). J. etc. . Material which has been solution-treated and requires no precipitation treatment.

When the test piece is stretched. For mild steel the elastic limit is well defined.1% Proof Stress). Of course in normal use the part will not be loaded past its elastic limit. Proof stress is that stress that is required to produce an elongation of the test piece by 0. I I-PLASTIC DEFORMATION (PERMANENT DEFORMATION) ULTIMATE TENSILE STRENGTH LOAD YIELD POINT OR STRESS ELASTIC EXTENSION The test piece will return to its original length when the load is removed EXTENSION OR STRAIN Fig. . The ultimate tensile strength of the test piece is shown where the graph is at its highest. 7 GRAPH OF STRESS AGAINST STRAIN FOR MILD STEEL Proof Stress Some metals. during the early stages it behaves elastically. For 0. do not show a marked elastic limit and yield point. A graph is plotted of load (stress) against extension (strain).1% of its original length (0. therefore it is difficult to compare the test results of one specimen with another. In the later stages it behaves plastically . a s is the yield point where the metal takes on a permanent set.2% Proof St-ress the change in length is other words it takes on a permanent stretch (or permanent set) so that if the load were removed the test piece would stay at its "new" length.2%. In other words if the load were removed the test piece would return to its original length. This is the highest load the metal will take before it breaks.and from this graph certain facts can be ascertained. when tested. For this reason values are recorded of Proof Stress.

A special machine presses a small steel ball into the surface of the test piece for a period of 10 . There are several different test methods available. - - d diameter of the indentation in mm. D - - diameter of the ball in mm.1% OF GAUGE LENGTH Fig. the force in kg.15 seconds with a certain force and the Brinell Hardness Number (HB) is found from the formula (there is no need to remember it): - where F . The Brinell Hardness Test This uses a hard steel ball and is covered by British Standards 240. ANSWER Hardness is the ability to resist scratching and indentation. 0. (measured using a graduated microscope) . 8 METHOD OF DETERMINING 0.1%PROOF STRESS HARDNESS TESTING QUESTION Define Hardness (2 mins). and they all rely on indenting the surface of the metal with a n "indentor" and measuring the indentation size or depth.

A force is applied of between 5 to 120kg. For very hard materials. This shallow pyramid shaped head is pushed into the surface of the material for a period of 1 5 seconds. The test value would be found by calculation or from tables and quoted as: HRB = 60 HR = Rockwell Test B - . When quoting the HV number it is usual to specify the load used eg: where HV = Vickers Hardness Number 30 = 30 kg force 650 = hardness value The Rockwell Hardness Test rhis is covered by British Standard 89 1 and unlike the others it measures the depth of indentation of a standard indentor. and it is better to use another method such as the Vickers Hardness Test. Nine scales of hardness are available and the amount that the indentor moves into the metal is measured by a Dial Test Indicator (DTI)fiied to the test equipment. it is usual when quoting the HB number to quote the ball diameter as well as the force applied eg: where HB = Brinell Hardness Number. The diagonals of the indentation are measured and the Vickers Hardness Number (HV) is either calculated or found from tables. 10 = 10mm ball.Because different values can be obtained by using different diameter balls on the same test piece. The Vickers Hardness Test This is covered by British Standards 427 and uses a diamond head. ball deformation becomes a problem. 3000 = force in kg. Scale B 60 = Hardness number .

It is opposite to brittleness.The Shore Scheroscope Test This involves the dropping of a small diamond pointed hammer onto the surface to be tested and measuring the height of the re-bound. This test leaves no visible impression. the mass in kg.the higher the rebound the harder the metal. The pendulum will continue on its swing to reach a certain height on the other side of the test machine. The height of the rebolxnd is measured against a special graduated scale . g h . The height that it would have reached had there not been a test piece in the way is already known. acceleration due to gravity (9. .81m/s2). where PE = Potential Energy (Joules). TOUGHNESS TESTING QUESTION Define toughness. datum height in metres. (2 mins) ANSWER This is the ability of a material to absorb an impact load. A heavy pendulum is supported at a set height by a latch a n the impact testing machine. When the pendulum is released it swings down and breaks the test piece clamped in a special jaw a t the bottom of the swing arc. m - . Most tests involve hitting the test piece with a mass of known energy and ascertaining how much energy is used to break the test piece. The amount of energy in the pendulum is known a s a function of Potential Energy (PE) in Joules. so the height that it reaches after striking a test piece is an indication of the amount of energy taken out of the swinging pendulum to break the test piece. . The test piece must break for the test to be valid.

subjected to prolonged loading often a t high temperatures. The end is broken off in the test. It is a problem with: * J e t engine turbine blades. 9 IMPACT TESTING MACHINE The lzod Test This uses a notched test piece supported vertically in a vice like jaw. Each test will normally produce a graph of Creep Strain against Time (figure 10). PENDULUM RELEASE CATCH SCALE 8 POINTER BRAKE TO STOP 1. CREEP TESTING Clreep is the slow plastic deformation of metal. . Creep is tested for by using several test pieces (of the same metal) and subjecting each test piece to a particular load and temperature. The Charpy Test This uses a notched test piece laid across a gapped jaw. PENDULUM AFTER AFTER TEST Fig. * Structures subject to aerodynamic heating during high speed flight. This test piece is snapped in the middle by the swinging pendulum.

levels well within the design maximum normal stress. All fatigue testing involves the loading and unloading of a test piece a number of times until it breaks. FATIGUE TESTING QUESTION What is fatigue? (5 mins) ANSWER It is the cyclic stressing of a part. . The test machine can vary but a common method is to use a rotating test piece loaded downwards so that one revolution of the test piece will produce one load reversal. The test cycles (N) are then recorded against the load (stress) on a graph. The stress level is normally well within the elastic limit level and therefore it could be considered to be harmless. A bearing is fitted at the free end of the test piece with a mass carrier fitted to the bearing. CREEP STRAIN TIME Fig. 10 GRAPH OF CREEP STRAIN AGAINST TIME During primary creep the metal is "settling in" and hardening is occurring. IT IS NOT. Failure can occur due to fatigue at strt . Tertiary creep is dangerous because it can lead rapidly to lose of appropriate clearances and component failure. Secondary creep occurs over the life time of the component and is generally very slow. A bar (test piece) of circular cross section is clamped in a chuck which is rotated by an electric motor.

Another (identical) test piece is fitted. The result is a n increased value for N. After many tests. The test piece rotates. the mass is reduced slightly and the whole process is repeated. 12 GRAPH OF STRESS AGAINST CYCLES (PLAIN CARBON STEEL) . 11 FATIGUE TESTING MACHINE The mass carrier always hangs vertically downwards so that when the motor rotates the test piece. This is also plotted on the same graph. When the test piece fails. all the points on the graph are joined up. the mass carrier falls down. Tested in a corrosive atmosphere producing corrosion fatigue STRESS IT 0 0 CYCLES (N) Fig. A heavy mass is placed on the mass carrier. - MASS CARRIER 'CUT-OFF SW'TCH 'I POWER SUPPLY Fig. and a graph. This value (N) is plotted on a graph against stress (o). The cage over the machine is put in place and the motor switched on. Effectively being bent u p and down once every revolution. The rev counter on the motor shows the number of revs (and hence cyclic loads) that has occurred to failure. each with a slightly reduced load on the mass carrier. REV COUNTER BEARING TEST PIECE \ \ C / MOTOR \ 0 . as shown in figure 12 is produced. contacts the cut-off switch and stops the motor. the test piece is put through one complete cyclic loading for each revolution.

. for plain carbon steels. 0 CYCLES (N) Fig. acids and alkalis combine with metals to form salts. Generally metals are inherently unstable in their commercial form and fairly readily combine with other elements to degrade the metal.As you can see. Fatigue Limit Some metals do not exhibit a fatigue limit and no matter how low the stress level fatigue failure will occur at some time.the higher the stress the sooner the failure. titanium. . however. hydroxides etc. If the stress is raised too high then failure will occur. Some metals. The structure might be "lifed" and after a certain life span withdrawn from service. For example. 13 GRAPH OF STRESS AGAINST CYCLES (Non Ferrous Metals & Austenitic S t e e l ) CORROSION Corrosion results from the fact that most metals will try to revert to their natural or more stable state. platinum. With structures made of metals with no fatigue limit then special inspection/ tests are carried out on the structure at regular intervals whilst in service. metals react with oxygen to form oxides. Figure 13 shows the graph produced by metals that do not have a fatigue 1jlB. are very stable and strongly resist corrosion eg. gold. if the stress level is kept low enough then failure will not occur under normal silver etc.

the reactions may be broadly divided into two: * Oxidation or "dry" corrosion. water vapour. This forms a barrier (for some metals) that prevents further attack by the oxygen on the metal. OXIDE THICKNESS t TIME --+- Fig. A general curve of oxidation rate with time is shown in figure 14. gas turbine engines. or some other electrically conducting liquid. It h a s been noted that the rate of oxidation falls sharply with increase in film thickness. etc. It can occur where metals are in contact from combustion products from internal combustion engines. k Electrochemical or "wet" corrosion. 14 OXIDATION RATE COMPARED TO TIME WHEN TEMPERATURE VARIES The oxide film that forms on metals generally tends to protect them from further corrosive attack. Jt can be seen that as temperature increases so does the oxidation rate. The rate of oxidation depends on the environment and the nature of the oxide film. . Some films are more permt:able than others and some adhere more strongly to the metal than others. Oxygen reacts instantly with bare metal to form a film that adheres to the metal surface.Although there are a large number of reactions that may occur between metals and their environments. The reaction between a metal and its environment without the intervention of an electrolyte. Oxidation This term is applied to corrosion where no electrolyte is present. Requires a n electrolyte such as impure water.

For example. CURRENT FLOW Fig. 15 SIMPLE CORROSION CELL The corrosion cell. known a s the galvanic series. The pd between two metals can be measured with a sensitive voltmeter and recorded and a list drawn u p of all metals. One of the areas or surfaces becomes anodic (+) a n d the other becomes cathodic (-). The electrolyte provides the current path. joining copper t. is minute in size but will join with other cells to attack large areas. . It is usual to specify the electrolyte used with the table (the most common being seawater).Electrochemical Corrosion This is the most commonly met with category of corrosion. or follow grain boundaries inside the metal. The main factor affecting the rate of corrosion attack is the pd between the two joined metals or between two areas of the same metal. The anodic area usually corrodes while the cathodic area has material added to it. or two areas within the same surface. the metal that is likely to corrode out of the two can be found by reference to the Galvanic Series. The Galvanic Series The Galvanic Series lists metals in pd order with the least noble a t one end and the most noble at the other. A pd (potential difference measured as voltage) exists between two surfaces. (The table shows low carbon steel to be less noble than copper). when joining any two metals together. This means that.o low carbon steel would result in the low carbon steel corroding if corrosion started. It can take many forms but usually always takes place in the presence of water or water vapour with traces of other substances. a s shown in figure 15. or form deep pits.

and a s a green discoloration on copper and its alloys. Those metals marked with a r ~asterisk (") may be found in more than one position in the table depending on their actual composition. a whitish grey powder on aluminium and its alloys and magnesium alloys. since one type of corrosion invariably leads to another. can be very serious and may develop into Stress Corrosion and Fatigue Corrosion. Pitting Corrosion. TABLE (PART) OF THE GALVANIC SERIES IN SEA WATER MOST NOBLE END (pd = +0. Surface Corrosion. .6V) LEAST NOBLE END Types of Corrosion Corrosion rarely occurs in one form only. The pd locally in the metal causes the corrosion to develop into the metal forming pits. often more serious. It occurs on the surface of metals but can develop into pitting corrosion.2V) Graphite Platinum Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy Titanium (pd = OV) Stainless Steels* Ni-Cu Alloys Silver Nickel Ni-Cr Alloys Lead Bronzes Brass* Copper Tin Cast Iron Low Carbon Steel Cadmium Al Alloys Zinc Magnesium (pd = -1.The least noble end may be called the Active end and the most noble end may be called the Passive end. Appears as a reddish brown rust on steels. Often starts with surface corrosion. sometimes very deep.

the load. This is similar to stress corrosion but the loads are cyclic. The process is a continuous cycle (a form of positive feedback) that will eventually lead to the failure of the part. Stress will be increased by cracks and Pitting Corrosion because they reduce the amount of good metal left which is capable of taki. This is turn leads to a deepening pit and even higher stress levels. so the corrosion may not be readily visible externally. Identification of these types of corrosion is not easy so Non Destructive Techniques (NDT) are used such a s X-rays etc. Of course.often a t stress levels well below the ultimate stress level the part will fail at". With a n increase in the depth of the pit the amount of remaining metal is reduced so increasing the stress level which will open u p the pit more to allow further corrosive attack. Though it may be seen around the faying edges. it goes without saying that. Corrosion Fatigue.. The definition of fatigue is "Cyclic stressing of a part . For many metals fatigue will eventually cause failure but with corrosion present in the pit failure occurs significantly earlier. 16 STRESS CORROSION Stress Corrosion. Metals under stress generally corrode more rapidly than unstressed metals. With the development s f a pit the stress level a t the end of the pit increases. . if stress/fatigue corrosion is found iL. Can develop where metals are in contact. Can occur between two different metals in contact (see the Galvanic Series) or between two identical metals having had different heat treatments. Galvanic Corrosion. PITTING CORROSION SURFACE CORROSION CORROSION STRESS / CONCENTRATION Fig. ~ t s early stages then appropriate rectification (usually replacement of the part) will prevent failure. The main areas of attack are the faying surfaces (contact surfaces).

Intercrystalline Corrosion. The most usual cause of fretting is vibration and this can be induced into the airframe or components by the engines. On the other hand it may not develop near the surface and external indications may never appear . This is a most serious form of corrosion a s it is very difficult to detect. in which case a crack or small blisters may become visible. CORROSION / LESS NOBLE NOBLE METAL Fig. The combined action of the corrosion process and the fretting will cause rapid deterioration/wear of the joined parts locally .if it is suspected that it is there in the first place. metal to metal joints etc.AMM. around bolt heads. always try to join metals that are the same material. Occurs in bolted joints. If assemblies are not attached securely enough to each other and are subject to vibration then fretting corrosion can occur. Signs of the corrosion should be looked for along the faying edges of skin panels. ideally having had the same heat treatment.SRM). It usually occurs between the grain boundaries of alloys and is within the metal. It may develop close to the surface.until it is too late . GRAINS ROSlON OR CRYSTAL Fig. Internally it can be detected by using X-rays or ultrasonic testing . and. 18 HIGHLY MAGNIFIED SECTION SHOWING GRAIN STRUCTURE AND INTERCRYSTALLINE CORROSION Fretting Corrosion. riveted joints and other assemblies subject to fretting (slight rubbing movement between the joined parts). electric/hydraulic/pneumatic motors/pumps and it can also be induced aerodynamically by propellers. rivets. or the Structure Repair Manual . But a t any rate always u s e the correct jointing compound (check the Aircraft Maintenance Manual -. rotor blades a n d flutter. The heat a n d friction developed promotes oxidation which is rubbed into a powder called "cocoa" powder. 17 GALVANIC CORROSION Where metals have to be joined.when the part fails.

Joints should be correctly and securely assembled with jointing compound a s specified in the AMM (and correctly lubricated for splined shafts etc). This corrosive attack occurs along the grain boundaries within the metal.Quilting or Pillowing. Crevice Corrosion. It is found in rolled A1 alloys and tends to follow the direction of the rolling. and assemblies should be checked for signs of cocoa staining. pitting or rivet holes. and spreads radially along the boundary of the cladding and the parent metal. 20 T H E RESULT O F EXFOLIATION CORROSION a0 - . Affects alclad Al alloys. hence the name for the condition (figure 20) . Corrosion penetrates the outer layer (cladding) of the metal either via a damaged area. 19 CREVICE CORROSION Filliform Corrosion. CORROSION Fig. Exfoliation Corrosion. The effect of severe exfoliation corrosion is to produce a quilt like texture to the surface of the metal. Also the areas remain damp longer than open areas. Fig. May be impossible to see unless it becomes severe. Occurs in crevices and areas where a lack of ventilation prevents the metal maintaining its natural protective oxide film.

Mercury spillage also causes rapid and serious chemical change in aluminium alloys which will normally require replacement. The best preventative measures are the identification and frequent inspections of suspect areas and prompt rectification of any damage found. Cavitation Corrosion. The combined effect of cavitation erosion and corrosion can cause rapid metal removal with decreased machine efficiency and eventual failure. compressor and turbine blades and aerofoil leading edges. sulphides. The slime can also affect the operation of the fuel system comporlents by clogging fuel filters etc. This is caused by a sudden drop in pressure which allows gas bubbles to form. Erosion Corrosion When corrosion occurs in the presence of a fast moving fluid the rate of corrosive attack may be much higher than would occur in a slow moving or still environment.compounded if the air contains particles such as water droplets or dust particles .part of a sand storm or a cloud thrown u p by a volcano.a s happens when a n aircraft flies through a d u s t cloud . Caused by spilt acids and alkalis and will cause serious damage unless quickly neutralised. The initial action on most of these components is the removal of the protective/outer layer by the abrasive action of the air . a n d acids. Commonly found on propeller leading edges. These areas become anodic and a corrosive attack begins. Occurs in aircraft fuel tanks d u e to the growth of micro-organisms which require the water content of kerosene fuels for their development. erosion resistant coatings. My happen occasionally because of rapid fluid system pressure drop or may be nearly continuous a t positions in the system such as spur gear pumps where the teeth inter-mesh. liquid or gas. The result can be that material is worn away (of the gear teeth) and if the atmosphere is corrosive then corrosion will occur. They will give off corrosive substances such a s ammonia. In certain fluid systems cavitation can occur within the fluid. . On propellers a n erosion strip may be fitted. Prevention/darnage reduction on engine components is usually achieved by the use of hard. AcidIAlkali Corrosion. rotor blade leading edges.Microbiological Corrosion. The fluid may be in the form of a powder. The growth collects as slime on the tank walls affecting the electrolyte concentration locally. Metal may be removed from the material surface either as dissolved ions or as solid particles.

The solution reacts with the surface of the metal to form a metallic phosphate which is highly anti- corrosive. copper. a n precious metals are used for plating. PROCESS APPLlCATION Electro . Cementation The part is coated with a plating metal by being heated whilst in contact with a dust or powder of that metal. eg aluminium (calorising) and zinc (sherardising). parkerising.PlatingThe surface of the part is covered with a thin layer of metal by being exposed to a solution of a metallic salt which is decomposed by electrolysis. nickel. Used extensively on aluminium and its alloys. most of which are applied by the manufacturer/overhaul facility only. and zinc are used as spraying metals. The process is applied to ferrous metals a n c may be known by various names eg. lead. For anti-corrosive treatments. Aluminium. Phosphating The part is immersed in a bath of boiling acid phosphate solution. A surface conversion process.Anti-Corrosive Treatments The following is a list of anti-corrosive treatments. eg tin (tinning) and zinc (galvanising). chromium. The part is placed on the anode bar of an anodising bath and immersed in the electrolyte. With current flowing the surface of the part is chemically converted to a n oxide layer. zinc. nickel. The part is placed in an electrolyte bath and a current is passed through. Cadmium platin: is used extensively for steel parts on aircraft. continued . brass. The particles impinge upon the work to form a n adherent coating. Anodic Oxidation Usually called anodising but may be known by other names. A surface conversion process. repairs and anti-corrosive measures applied/taken by the maintenance engineer you are referred to the appropriate book on the subject in EASA module 7. This layer prevents corrosive attack in service. cadmium. walterising. Hot Dipping The part is immersed in a bath of molten metal thereby acquiring a covering of that metal. Plating metals for this process have relatively low melting points. tin. etc. Copper. Metal Spraying Heated particles of the plating metal are sprayed onto the part (like paint spraying).

This turns the surface a greenish colour. enamels. Used a t user unit level. A surface conversion process. Organic Oils. NON METALLIC MATERIALS In this book we deal with the following materials: * Cloth * Wood * Plastics * Rubber * Fibre reinforced composites Fibre reinforced composites are covered to a greater depth than the other materials. Used a t user unit level. and rubber are mentioned briefly because they have their uses in the aircraft industry.Alodising An anti-corrosive treatment for A1 alloys which also increases the paint bonding qualities. dipping or rolling and are often used as additional protection to those listed above. a thin layer of aluminium is rolled onto both sides of duralumin sheet to produce alclad. Applied by brushing. jellies etc are often used a s treatments temporary. Cladding A mechanical process of rolling one metal onto another eg. . wood. Chromate The part is placed in a bath of chromating solution which treatment produces a protective chromate film on its surface. lanolin. greases. The metal is again washed in clean water and then given a rinse in a Deoxylyte bath (also a propriety chemical solution). Applied to magnesium alloys and zinc exposed to humid atmospheric conditions. Paints. washed in clean water and then given a coating of Alodine (a propriety chemical similar to Alochrome). spraying. Cloth. Used a t user unit level. May consist of protective compounds held in suspension etc in a suitable liquid (eg chromates in primers) which dries out after application. The metal is cleaned with a n acid. plastics. or semi permanent processes and sometimes as a n additional process to those listed above.

the Vampire. . For more details on wood and wooden structures (for the mechanical person) see the book in this series entitled "Wood and Fabric Structures". TABLE 8 . Wood is stronger in tension along the grain than across it. Still used in some composite constructions. WOOD Used extensively in older aircraft for all parts of the structure and in the manufacture of propellers. Used on some comparatively modern aircraft eg. It is easily worked and repaired. * Polyester cloth. Fabric used for aircraft covering may be: * IJnbleached Irish linen * Madapollam. the fuselage of the de Havilland jet fighter .05 A1 Alloy 2700 70 Its strength and density can vary considerably depending on the type of woud selected and.WOOD COMPARED TO AL ALLOY MATERIAL DENSITY (kg/rn3) LONGITUDINAL TENSILE STRENGTH (GPa) Wood (Spruce) 600 0. Polymers can be man made or natural. Madapollan. Unbleached Irish linen and Madapollam/ Madapollan are tautened by doping whilst polyester is tautened by the application of heat.CLOTH Used in aircraft construction for the covering of some light aircraft and for furnishings. of course. it can rot and be attacked by insects. PLASTICS Strictly speaking plastics should be called polymers. Natural polymers include rubber (from trees) and shellac (the excrement from a South American ant). Cloth used for the covering of aircraft seats and berths is usually made from man made fibres and must conform to current fire and smoke blocking regulations. fungus etc.

PEEK etc. and the process is capable of repetition. They can not be softened again by further heating. epoxides. It can be made electrically conductive by adding carbon. Rubber A naturally occurring thermosetting plastic obtained from the sap of trees.improves conductivity. * Carbon . The term thermosetting also includes those polymers which set by the addition of a curing agent and do not necessarily need heating eg. FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES These are increasingly being used in the aircraft industry for structures and components because they exhibit a high Specific Strength (SS) (strength/density). Used in anti vibration mountings. drive belts.Man made polymers can be divided into two main groups . Thermosetting Plastics. Colour Various pigments and dyes can be added to plastics in the production stage to give a n "all through" colour. Various fillers can be added during manufacture. Natural rubber is normally vulcanised with sulphur to produce a tough elastic material.resistant to high temperatures. vinlyesters. Formica. These soften on heating and harden on cooling. for example: * Asbestos . shock absorbers (simple bungee cord types) and of course tyres. Fibre reinforced thermosetting plastics include polyesters. Thermoplastics and Thermosetting Plastics. Examples include Perspex (polymethyl methacrylate) and Nylon. Fibre reinforced thermoplastics include PPS. These become plastic on initial heating but become permanently set on cooling. Thermoplastics. epoxy 2tc. Example: the tensile SS of carbon fibre is 4 to 6 times the tensile SS of A1 alloy or steel. Ebonite and Epoxy resins. A good example is Bakelite (phenol formaldehyde). (Airbus have already tested a complete airliner size wing in carbon fibre). .

In this section we will deal with the materials and all general aspects of composites and should more information be required.Additional advantages include: Does not corrode. titanium etc. Good thermal properties and a fire retardant. frames etc. * Fibre metal laminates such as ARALL (Kevlar fibres) and GLARE (Airbus A 3 8 0 ) . a conductor and a dielectric.polyesters. .double curves etc. carbon etc. High impact resistance. 57 v- 7. CFRP \ CFRP = Carbon fibre reinforced plastic. Can be made radar transparent. the reader is directed to the book in this series entitled "Aircraft Structures". formers. High fatigue limits with load cycles much higher than with metals. High resistance to chemical attack and weathering. particularly on structures. k Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) using aluminium. eg skin to stiffeners. 21 USE OF COMPOSITES ON THE A 3 1 0 Types of Composites k Fibre reinforced plastics . Easy to shape . High level of integration possible with other structures. * Sandwich structures with the outer layers of metal or fibre. Can be made a s a insulator. and the core using honeycomb made of nomex. GFRP = Glass fibre reinforced plastic. PPS etc. A1 alloy. CFRP /A & a SPOILERIAIRBRAKES CFRP GFRPRADOME 1 k TRACK FAIRINGS Fig. GFRP k AFRP = Aramid fibre reinforced FAIRING plastic (Kevlar).

qDT ultrasonic technique for the detection of internal defects. Carbon Fibre (HT and NM). They include: Glass. GLARE is made u p of alternating layers of aluminium foil and glass fibre polymer prepreg layers and.000.000 filaments in each tow. A note on GLARE This is a new material and is used in the construction of large parts of the Airbus A380 fuselage. There are some 12 manufacturers world-wide making over 40 different carbon fibres. * Glass Matrix Composites. These are continuous glass filaments 6 to 15pm in diameter (0. This is a n organic fibre. * Ceramic Ceramic Composites.O 15m) [This is called a micrometre or sometimes.000. The fibres are supplied in different forms: A glass. is 25% stronger than A1 alloy and 20% lighter. k Ceramic Matrix Composites. Carbon fibres are strong in tension and are often coated to improve handling and bond strength. size for size. S glass etc. The fibres are usually coated with a lubricant to improve handling and may have other coatings to improve bonding etc.006 to 0. Supplied a s Kevlar (Du Pont). It is inspected in the normal way for external defects and requires a specialist . Kevlar 49 is supplied for plastics reinforcement. Fibres Various fibres are used as reinforcing elements within a resin for fibre reinforced plastics. Aramid Fibre. . Mu is the Greek letter p]. frames bulkheads etc) in a n autoclave. mu-- metres. It can be made a s sheets or complete structures (with stringers. E glass is currently the most popular. The fibre is manufactured as a tow and the finer tows have up to 12. C glass. incorrectly. Kevlar 29 used for cordage and ropes. * Carbon Carbon Composites.

aramid reinforced composites don't. STRENGTH & DENSITY MATERIAL DENSITY LONGlTUDINAL TENSILE (kg/m3) STRENGTH (GPa) Wood (example) 800 A1 Alloy 2700 Aramid Fibre 1380 Glass Fibre E 2000 VHM Carbon Fibre* 1690 * VVHM = Very High Modlllus TABLE 10 . Hybrid fibres can be made u p in many different forms and can include: (a) Two or more different types of fibres layered together within a resin matrix. TABLE 9 . (b) A mixture of two or more different types of fibre weave within a resin mix.COMPARISON TABLE. This is because of bond fracture between the resin and the fibre and is causing trouble in service because of the moisture absorption by the microcracks. .54 260 1 Carbon 1 .83 980 20 Although aramid fibres have good fatigue strength.Hybrid Fibres.O 860 40 Aramid 0. The following table shows the comparisons of density and strength of different materials used on aircraft with properties of some fibres given in the next table.PROPERTIES OF FIBRES MATERIAL SPECIFIC FATIGUE RELATIVE CHARPY TENSlLE FAILURE COST IMPACT STRENGTH STRESS @ (£1 TEST (GPa) 106 CYCLES (kg/ m2 (MPa) E Glass 0.

. Fabric with a weft and warp weave is likely to tear 'one yarn at a time' so the tear will propagate usually in the form of a n L shape. With a weftless weave the fabric is stronger along the yarns than across them. May be called Unidirectional weave. Most cloths are made u p of yarns going u p and down (warp yarns) and weaved between them yarns going from left to right (weft yarns) (weft to right). Zarbon fibre is made u p into sheets of varying thicknesses either unidirectional or plain. Continuous yarns only going one way. With continuous yarns going u p and down and. weaved in between. Glass cloth may be supplied in one of three basic forms: * Chopped strand mat. The yarns are in a random direction and of comparatively short length.Make u p of Fibre Cloth Layers of fibre cloth are layered u p within a resin so that when cured the resultant structure is solid with good strength properties. Not common. Fibre cloth may be supplied untreated or pre-preg in a variety of grades and weaves to BS 3369 or MIL-C-9084 standards. pre-preg or untreated. 22 WEAVES Now try the following questions to see if you have understood the information in the tables. * Plain weave or weft and warp weave. so if a composite is made u p using this type of fabric weave and if it was to fail it would be more likely to fail along the fibres (ie cracks along the fibres) that across them. WARP YARNS SUPPORT YARNS WEF / YAR PLAIN WEAVE UNIDIRECTIONAL WEAVE Fig. * Weftless weave. yarns going from left to right. with a n occasional yarn going at right angles to keep all the others together.

To make them more rigid and able to withstand bending and compressive loads they are bonded together using resin. Polyamide Resins. For most materials if the stress level is raised then failure occurs sooner. RESINS The fibres (like string) are very good in tension but poor (very poor) in compression. Epow Resins. These are suitable for use up to 300°C and are available in films. metal to wood. Used with glass reinforced plastics (GRP). powders. varnishes. laminates etc.Tb-y have good strength and chemical resistance. or in other words 1.If the applied stress is low enough failure does not occur. If the stress level is raised so that the test specimen fails at exaptly 1 million cycles then we have a comparison of the materials resistance to fatigue failure..000). They are used widely in engineering and are usually supplied as a two part mix. These are similar to the unsaturated polyester resins above. QUESTION What do you understand by the term "Fatigue failure stress @ 106 cycles"? (15 mins) ANSWER Fatigue is the cyclic stressing of a part and if the stress level is low enough (for some materials) the part will never fail. You can see from the table that while aramid fibre is not as strong a s carbon fibre it is significantly better when it comes to fatigue resistance (as a fibre only). G means giga ie.QUESTION What does GPa mean? (5 mins) ANSWER Pa means Pascal and is the unit of stress and pressure. It is small (nearly 7000 to lpsi). Unsaturated Polyester Resins.000. GPa is spoken a s Giga Pascal. lo9. In the table above the part is put through 106 cycles (1. have a low shrinkage rate with high strength and good chemical resistance. Phenolic Resins. Various resins are available for bonding laminates and as an adhesive for the adhesive bonding of metal to metal. Used for aircraft interiors because of their low smoke emission properties. They tend to shrink on curing and do not like temperatures above 150°C. They are versatile.000. These are a thermosetting resin.000. Vinyl Ester Resins. metal to polymer etc. .000. A few are described below.

dust etc will seriously adversely affect the joint strength. CORES With all structures subject to bending it is the outer layers (actually called fibres) of the structure that take most of the stress (compressive and tensile). . Some resins are cold cured and do not require the application of heat whilst others must be heated to allow the bonding process to reach its full strength. catalysts or activators and some epoxylhardener combinations will cure a t ambient temperatures . When dealing with the mixing of resins for composites or adhesives the catalyst/accelerator is added and mixed into the resin to start the cherrlical reaction process. Pot life is stated in the manufacturer's literature. When using resins it is important to maintain strict cleanliness during the mixing and bonding process as any dirt.while others will require heat to cure (refer to the manufacturers literature). skin panels etc.General Hardening occurs through the reaction of curing agents. WATER SOLVENT STRENGTH LIMIT RESISTANCE RESISTANCE (MPa) ("C) Unsaturated Up to 9 0 180 GOOD FAIR Polyester EPOXY 105 220 GOOD GOOD Vinyl Ester 85 180 GOOD FAIR Polyarnide 120 400 LOW ------ The choice of resin is important as a n incorrect resin can have a n adverse effect on the material it is being used with. TABLE 11 . Always follow the resin manufacturer's instructions.PROPERTIES OF SOME RESINS RESIN TENSILE TEMP. hardeners. Once mixed it will have a "pot life" which will be shortened if the ambient temperature is high. Once the composite is "laid up" a curing time is required which will be shorter if heat is applied. It may not be strong enough or fail due to heat or age. Figure 2 3 shows a cantilever beam (cantilever = supported at one end only) but the same principle applies to non-cantilever structures such a s floor panels.

The core may be made of honeycomb. . glass fibre or composite. Foam (Polyvinyl chloride) PVC is used as the core of some composite structures. helicopter blades etc. I FORCE LOW DENSITY CORE OUTER FIBRES Fig. fibre composites etc. The drawing shows a beam and the principle applies to all structures whether it is a main spar of an aircraft. Can l-- made of aluminium. 23 BENDING In each case the outer fibres of the material take all the tensile and compressive stress with the centre fibres taking very little. or some other low density material while the outer fibres are made of metal. structures. designed mainly to resist shear and compressive loads and include the following: Balsa Wood Not used much these days but was used as a core on several aircraft including the de Havilland Mosquito (plywood/ balsa wood/plywood sandwich fuselage skin). a helicopter rotor blade etc. control surfaces.The centre portion of the beam takes very little stress (except for shear) and in a uniform monolithic structure this centre is almost so much "dead weight". The core then is of low density. low density core to reduce the weight of the overall structure. Honeycorrlb Used extensively a s core material in aircraft floors. Micro balloons Within a resin mix. with most of the stress being taken by the outer fibres. the skin of the airframe. Many compositt structures are therefore designed having a low strength. foam.

Trimming and finishing is then carried out. The top half is then closed and secured and heat applied. Compression Moulding Usually uses pre-preg fibres (fibres impregnated with resin) in sheet. There is no need to commit this to memory.9 1.6 5.COKE MATERIALS MATERIAL DENSITY COMPRESSIVE SHEAR k/m3 STRENGTH (MPa) STRENGTH (MPa) Balsa Wood 96 5.1 Note.with a suitable valve attached - which is sealed with special adhesive tape around the edges of the repair area.7 Aluminium Honeycomb 118 7. This "preform" is then laid in the bottom half of a mould. although some of the general principles are used when repairing composite aircraft structures. Once the lay-up is completed a vacuum bag is placed over the complete assembly and evacuated of air.4 1. . Thus atmospheric pressure produces the necessary force to push the plies together.2 1.3 Nomex Honeycomb 64 2.2 Foam (PVC) 100 1. Individual plies of pre-preg are laid one on top of the other to produce the required thickness. tape or woven form. For components/structure repairs where a bag cannot be placed over the complete assembly a plastic sheet is used . The heat and pressure allows the resin in the pre-preg to flow and bonds the ?lies into a single structure to the shape of the mould. Nomex is made from aramid fibres bonded with phenolic resins. Vacuum Bag/Autoclave Moulding The most common method is to use a pre-preg lay-up similar to that used for compression moulding. On cooling the mould is opened and the item removed. MANUFACTURE OF COMPOSITES COMPONENTS Several methods are used to manufacture composite components and this section is included for interest only.TABLE 12 .

Filament Winding Separate filaments are accurately wound onto a mandrel of the appropriate shape after first being impregnated with resin (or pre-preg is used). Used in the manufacture of pressure vessels. THEN through a curing die (heated). .Heat may be obtained by: (a) Placing the assembly in a n oven (autoclave)at 30Q°C and 1. Kevlar or carbon) is drawn from a spool through: FIRST a resin impregnation tank. To manufacture a cored composite structure the two "skins" are manufactured either by compression moulding or auto-clave moulding. The complete assembly is heated to cure the resin then the mandrel is collapsed/dismantled and removed. Pultrusion This is a continuous process for the production of rod. THEN through a pre forming die. composite to composite joining and honeycomb joining. Used for tubes and hollow sections. tubes and long sections.4MPa pressure (about 200psi). To allow the resin to flow an absorbent membrane is placed between the vacuum bag and the lay-up material. In some cases the mandrel may be left in place and form an integral part of the component. Adhesive Bonding Used in the process of metal to metal joining. metal to composite joining. The fibre (glass. Temperature sensing bulbs are usually placed inside the vacuum bag close to the laid-up material to automatically control the temperature of the heater elements. (b) Using a heater blanket. (c) Using heaters within the mould. TO emerge as a continuous section to be cut to length as required. Mandrel Wrapping Involves wrapping a mandrel with layers of pre-preg material. After heating ~d curing the mandrel is removed.

the formed rivets can be inspected for shear. The disadvantages include: * Long curing times. This process. These include: * Complete cleanliness and scrupulous attention to detail when preparing the materials and carrying out the process. Text books differ on the subject.The two "skins"are then bonded either side of the core by using resin adhesives. The advantages of adhesive bonding include: T! .. Ideal for external aircraft skins. . A The destructive testing of test pieces manufactured at the same time using the same materials and techniques a s employed with the original work.0--clave. correct forming etc. * Difficult to inspect the finished joint. * The adherends are sealed. * Smooth surfaces. No holes to weaken the material. unlike welding.GENERAL Many theories exist as to why adhesives work. produces a strong structure. J. * Some materials are dangerous to handle. looks the same after the bonding process as before. With a n adhesive bonded joint there is no sign that the joint is satisfactory . ADHESIVES . The resins may be a two part mix resin (epoxy)or it may be supplied in film form. The structure is heated in a pressurised However. * A thorough inspection of the joined parts to see if there has been any relative movement and to check any visible bond lines for signs of the bonding agent. bolts etc) with a good strength/weight ratio. Why does the adhesive "stick" to the surface (the adherent)? Several theories have been suggested including chemical reactions. for example. intermolecular forces (absorption)and intermolecular electrical forces. i t is difficult to know if the bond joint is satisfactory. This means that special checks must be carried out. * Careful joint preparation required. With a riveted joint. without any stress risers (such a s rivets. in general. No high temperatures involved during the manufacturing process. * Joints not suitable for high working temperatures.

. Used for things like paper and wood. Natural. Not used for metal bonding. Rased on synthetic rubber they produce and instant stick when the two adherends are brought together. Such a s sodium silicate based. shellac (from an ant).*bd into thermoplastic. . 25 ADHESIVE CLASSIFICATION Adhesives Inorganic. s ADHESIVES c INORGANIC SYNTHETIC ORGANIC NATURAL L 'THERMQPLASTIC ELASTOMERIC THERMOSETTING Fig. 24 ADHERENDS Classification of Adhesives Adhesives can be classified as either organic or inorganic. Made from thermoplastic resins. with the organic range split into two . [ ADHEREND I ADHESIVE < ADHEREND Fig.synthetic and natural. For structural work thermoplastic and thermosetting resins are added. Used were great strength is not required though hot melt thermoplastics can have a strength up to 18MPa. cellulose etc. Thermoplastic. Are softened by heating which can be repeated. They set by the evaporation of the solvents. Rubber (from trees). Elastomeric. Synthetic adhesives can be div. elastomeric and thermosetting.

Includes epoxide and urea resins. with destructive testing of metals the results are only meaningful if the test piece is destroyed during the test. Remember. Many of the tests are similar to those used on metals. When the resin and agent are brought together curing takes place which involves a chemical reaction. Provides a strong joint and used in the manufact. a Shear Test.ure of structural components. Depending on the materials and the type of joint made these tests can include a Tensile Test.U r m o s e t t i n g . . Special testing machines are provided that provide a calibrated load and this can be plotted on a graph against extension/deformation/breaking of the test piece. 26 JOINT TESTING DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF COMPOSITES This section deals with testing of composites. The process of making the joint usually involves a curing agent. For non destructive testing (NDT)refer to the book Non Destructive Testing in module 7 in this series. i'he cleavage test would only be suitable for thicker non-flexible test pieces. a Peel Test and a Cleavage Test (for thicker materials). whilst the peel test would only be suitable for thinner flexible material. FORCE TENSILE TEST SHEAR TEST ' CLEAVAGE TEST PEEL TEST Fig. Testing The Joint After a joint is bonded and after the appropriate curing time the test specimen should be tested. but many composites can prove difficult to test and get valid results.

Destructive methods . but the laboratory destructive testing of composites has produced its own problems because their properties do not lend themselves readily to the "standard" methods of testing used on metals. This energy can be released in explosive form and can be very dangerous. All testing must be carried out behind safety screenslshatter proof guards. Destructive methods . This variation can be caused by: * Minor variations in the batch being tested. Conventional NDT methods. 4. the test piece is "stretched" in a tensile testing machine and its extensionlbreaking point is measured against the load applied. Tensile Test This is carried out in a similar way to tensile testing of metals ie. * Fine variations in the preparation of the test specimen. When evaluating the results of tests of composites it is important that care taken because the results can vary. Where the tests are similar reference will be made to the section on The Testing of Metals. and 3 will be dealt with later and item 4 (for metals) has already been covered.Testing of any material/joining process can be divided into: 1. A graph is then plotted of load against deflection. Safety Considerable energy can be stored u p in a test piece during the test.laboratory or manufacturer Items 1. though the results may not be as good or a s definitive as one would like.workshop. Visual examination (a form of NDT). Tests may involve a three point test or a four point test with the load increased in increments and at each stage the amount of deflection measured. 3. and by qualified staff. * Small variations in the actual test method. 2. Flexural Test This measures centre point deflection as a function of load. Some of the tests are similar. 2. . Testing is carried out to British Standards (BSI) and to standards set by the American Society of Testing of Materials.

the test piece deforms and slips out of the chuck 01-jaws. 27 THREE POINT FLEXURAL TEST C FORCE SPAN Fig. Like all compressive test pieces it has to be of a reasonable diameter to prevent buckling. 28 FOUR POINT FLEXUFWL TEST The load is progressively increased and at intervals the value of the load is recorded and the extension of the test piece measured. If it buckles the test is invalid. FORCE O-. 'Test pieces have to be thin because of their high tensile strengths and it is often very difficult to satisfactorily attach the test specimen to the machine due to its plasticity . this test has its problems as failure often occurs due to "transverse delamination" .not what is being testing for. At the end of the test a graph is drawn of load against extension. As with the tensile test measurements are taken regularly of load and size of deformation and will all the readings obtained and a graph is plotted of load against reduction in size. . TEST SPAN 1 -----cFORCE Pig. Compressive Test 'The test piece is placed in a similar machine to the tensile test machine but the machine is selected to "squash" the test piece under a compressive force. Again.

composites do not corrode but they do have their problems. Galvanic Corrosion Galvanic corrosion can occur to A1 alloys a n d cadmiurn plated steel if attached r o CFC (Carbon Fibre Caxnposite).about I complete revolution in 12 minutes) and note the torque (Nm) a t the fixed end at regular time intervals. (d) Ballistic impact test. (e) Slow bend test. (b) Charpy pendulum test. r\ FIXED END ROTATING END 1 TEST PIECE Fig. i Rotate the free end slowly (about half a radian per minute . The other tests have been listed for reference only.Shear 'T'est (figure 29) [Jsually applled to tubes and round sections and difficult to test for. DEGRADATION OF COMPOSI'I'ES LJnlike metals. For details of (a)a n d (b) refer to the section in book 1 on The Testing of Metals. (c) Drop weight test. . In general the test is as follows: X Clamp the test piece at one end to a torque measuring device. 29 SHEAR OR TORSION TEST Impact Testing The following tests are used but none have proved totally satisfactory (a) Izod pendulum test. % The relationship between the indicated torque a t the fixed end and the rotated amount at the free end is a n indication of the amount of s h e w stress in the test piece.

engine intakes.The pd (potential difference) can be as high as 1 volt. Erosion This can come from many sources but with aircraft it is usually airstream driven rain and debris (insects.this causes delamination and de -bonding. engine compressor blades. When water gets into a composite and then freezes it expands . Aramid fibres are seriously affected and must be protected.uv absorbing additives should be used on the outer surfaces of all composites. Various processes have been tried to reduce the problems including metal meshing within the composite. Fire Inorganic resins will not withstand high temperatures and soon give off inflammable gases and thick black smoke. . To reduce this problern the o u t e r lays of the composite should be glass fibre and the surface should be treated with a fire retardant coating . Surface 0xidat. etc. Glass fibres are more resistant to this sort of damage than carbon and boron. UV Radiation This will degrade glass more than carbon .particularly cabin furnishings.this leads to very high field levels on the surface of the material. Special jointing cornpounds are used a s is the use of epoxy paint treatment. dust etc). It affects wing leading edges.ion This is not an important factor with cornposjtes though surface changes can occur when combined with uv light and rain. Lightening Strikes/ Static Electricity Carbon epoxy resins are 3 times more insulative than A1 alloys .but at any rate . Aluminium surface foiling is used on carbon composites. rotor blades. Frost Will damage any composites where water h a s ingressed into the material.

Below. etc) if applicable. For large aircraft the tables in chapter 20-3 I list literally hundreds of non- metallic materials. bonding adhesives. In some cases the ratios are stated a s "ppm" (parts per million)..metallic materials is used for the maintenance. 'They include: compounds. fillers. The information under the SPEC column includes those countries that have local specifications to meet that required by the equipment manufacturer. to greases and speed tapes. paints. * Extinguishants. Some may be listed under a trade narr.. disinfectants. It is important that you consult this chapter before using any compounds from oils to paints. * Hydraulic fluids. fuels. anti corrosive agents. * Fuel additives. lacquers. fuel additives. British. This is published in chapter 20-3 1-00. jo~ntingcompounds. powders. Some compounds may be listed as "local purchase" whilst others may be supplied by specific manufacturers. SEAIAN'I'S. The AMM for each aircraft type will have a comprehensive list of these "consumables". US. anti-ice fluids. and/or a brand name product. 'The AMM will list all the compounds that can be used on the aircraft. These will be dealt with in the appropriate book in the LBP series covering that particular topic. adhesive tapes. paint strippers. cleaning agents. greases. BONDING AGENTS & COMPOUNDS A wide range of non. detergents. They are for reference only and not included are: * Fuels. pre-treatments. with their specifications (eg. hydraulic fluids. * Paints and paint strippers. blank . 62 - . repair and overhaul of aircraft. NATO code. Where fuel additives are listed the actual percentages may be quoted. There should be no need to corrirnit the details to memory but you should have a some knowledge of the more c:ornmon sealants and bonding agents used. are tables of some of the materials that are available. et c. storage preservatives. German. eg Loctite. oils. * De-icing fluids.

54"C to 12 1' . . ---. roller & ball bearings Graphited. -- Corrosion preventative USA Used a s a corrosion prevention layer -.GREASES / DESIGNATION I SPEC 1 USES 1 Mineral based USA High temp Bushes. Temp range . sealing UK Metal to metal sealing USA against moisture ingress 1---- . --. . . - Silicon. -. . -.TABLE 13 . -.-. ---.-. -. . mineral based IJK General purpose 5% USA graphite France Graphited. insulating &. --- Vaseline or petroleum jelly UK Synthetic rubber seals USA Electrical bonding faying France surfaces Anti fretting UK Used as a n anti fretting USA compound / Mineral UK General use at normal USA temperatures France ----.. -. thread compound UK Anti seize grease for USA threads.--. -- Fuel & oil resistant Used in engine fuel and oil USA systems France Silicon USA Lubrication for metal and rubber in pneumatic systems -. high pressure For certain applications. 50% mineral jelly - France 50% graphite Synthetic.- Lubricant O2 systems USA Thread lubricant for oxygen systems ..

BONDING AND AUF-IESIVES SPEC USES General purpose adhesive Araldite 106 Composite repairs I honeycomb filler USA Germany -. . Anti seize USA Prevents locking of screwthreads TABLE 15 -. . - Electrical lacquer Transparent lacquer Sikkens For covering metal labels such as landing gear labels Corrosion preventative Rustban395 Corrosion preventative USA lacquer TABLE I.TABLE 14 . LACQUERS DESIGNATION SPEC USES . ..-. -- High temperature sealant Thread locking compound (occasional removal) . 1 --- Astral 1 . 6 ..LUBRICANTS DESIGNATION SPEC USES Rust inhibitor Dinatrol USA Germany Solid film Molycote Air drying solid film USA lubricant General Various Used as a n assembly aid Grades during component overhaul and a t lubrication points of aircraft systems. .. .- General purpose Loctite270 Permanent thread dimethacrylate compound USA compound . ..- Clear epoxy varnish with catalyst .. . --.

Polysulfide brush PR1422A2 Brush on. . - Polysulfide sealants . .-. & I ( c )applying to faying surfaces prior to assembly .BONDING AND ADHESIVES cont IJSES . . Sound damping tape Permacel Aluminium backed cotton Germany tape for sound & thermal USA insulation Polytetrafluoroethylene anti. -. -. -.TABLE 16 .-..- Polysulfide fillet consistency PR1422B2 Fuel tank and pressure UK fuselage fillet sealer USA -. .-..-.---. . -. --.-. general Various Various different sealants UK supplied for sealing (a) USA along edges of joined Germany structures (b) individual I I nut and bolt assemblies. --. -.. ..SEALANTS ---. ---. . -. -. - High temperature adhesive AF 143 Metal to metal . . . -. --.. -. 121 For use on liquid & gaseous seize tape USA oxygen systems -.--.- Glass fibre tape Scotch36 1 Temporary repair of cargo hold fire proof panels -.. . -. -. . . - I---- -. .. fuel tank and consistency UK pressure cabin fuselage USA sealant -.-. --- Two-part epoxy adhesive Araldjte Adhesive for PTFE cloth 1 Adhesive film I FM73-M-06 I Structural adhesive I I- bonding -.-..--. .--. -. . .-. .--- Self adhesive aluminium Scotch425 Temporary protective cover tape Germany USA . .honeycomb to metal bonding TABLE 17 . Sealant 1 ~ ~ ~ + 7 3 For 2 toilets and galleys / Solvent based nitril rubber 1Primer USA Con tact adhesive / adhesive .

.. -. . - 1 DESIGNATION SPEC I-.. . -. .CLEANING AGENTS -.- USA --- Altupol USA .. ----.-.-. - Varsol/white spirit UK Cleaning solvent for USA mechanical parts Trichloroethane Genklene Cleaning solvent (Methyl chloroform) USA Trich lorotrifluoroethane Cleaning oxygen system pipe lines Isopropyl alcohol Air3660 / General cleaning France Safety solvent --..-. Rain repellent cleaner -. . ----.- !Cleaning rain repellent off windscreens Odour free solvent cleaning agent Carpet & fabric cleaner - A USA --- Cabin window cleaner . . - Removal of Skydrol fluid spillage -- Microballoons Used as a filler when carrying out composite repairs Aluminium metal polish Abrasjve polish for polishing out scratches in aluminium .--. . . .-.-. - ---. .- 1 -.... -- I USA .MISCELLANEOIJS Hydraulic fluid removal powder -- 1 ~ 7 0 -.- . . Aircraft exterior General purpose aircraft exterior cleaner Liquid detergent concentrate Ardrox6025 Cleaner and stain remover USA ----. ---. . ..--.TABLE 18 -. -.. ---.. --. --. Plastic polishing compound PP-560 Paste for polishing Plexiglas (fine grade) USA -- VDU cleaner Alglas V Anti static flight-deck Visual Display Unit (CRT) screen cleaner TABLE 19 .--..

The materials should not be in direct sunlight. -.. disinfectant disinfectant for the potable I i 1 water system I ~tis not possible (within the confines of this publication) to specify the storage conditions for all the materials listed above. 1 WD4Q USA . etc. date of receipt.- --. . Store inflammable materials in non-combustible lockers/buildings away from workshops.. IEi1-2 I MISCELLANEOUS cont.- --- . . Open slatted shelving is recommended.. -- r g---e... Specific temperatures may be specified for certain materials by the manufacturer. 7. The area should be well ventilated and the temperature should be kept a s even a s possible.. Keep records of materials in store ... secure. Calcium hypochlorite -..first out. and frost free. Follow the storage instructions on the container and/or in the material manufact urers5literature. Specific (m.. . 8 .--- .. dry. --.--. .-.--.. 5.. File all manufacturers' documentation. manufacturer etc. Release Certificates1 EASA form 1s. 2. But in general the following points should be noted. .TABLE 19 -. . paints etc) refer to the appropriate book in the LBP series. In general storage areas should be clean. Drinking water system - . ..first in . . .--. 1. - inhibitor Toilet deodorant -.--.. 3 . . Note any storage life/use-by-date.. 6. 9..batch numbers. . 4. Keep all containerised materials in their original sealed containers. -~ . -- a -..wimum) relative humidity levels may also be spec~liedfor certain materials. .-. . -. 7 to 23°C for paints and dopes.. Discard any out-of-date material in accordance with manufactures' jnstructions/local regulations. Corrosion preventative Moisture repellent - - -. Non formaldel~ydebased toilet deodorant . hangars and aircraft. Rotate stock . For storage details of specific materials (eg batteries. -. eg -20°C for pre-preg carbon fibres.n leak detector . -- . AMS 1476 . . 10.


CONTENTS Page Glass fibre repairs 1 Carbon fibre repairs 5 'rspection of composite structures 1'7 .


a s a licensed engineer you are required to know how this is done as the composites person will report to you on completion of the repair. . However. Of course. cornposlte and metal. (c) Mix the chemicals in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. including goggles. the original contour and shape of the rigirlal component. The catalyst should be thoroughly mixed into the resin before adding the accelerator and any additional material such a s fillers etc. This usually specifies that the same type of core is fitted to that which has been removed during the repair process. COMPOSITE REPAIRS Repairs to composite structures is generally considered to be more difficult than repairs to metal structures. (e) Irrigate the eyes immediately with water if the chemicals come into contact with the eyes . These proportions may be specified a s percentages by weight. Preparation and Mixing of Resins In general always: (a) Wear protective clothing. as far as possible. (b) Work in a well ventilated area. tools and utensils must be kept thoroughly clean and dry. 'The repair should also follow. Remember on radomes/dielectric covers the repair should be 'radar transparent'. is given in the repair manual (SRM) a n d most operators will use a "composites" qualified person to carry out repairs. The resin and additives should be carefully measured into a glass container in the correct proportions a s specified in the manufacture's instructions. (d) Wash the area thoroughly if chemicals come in contact with the skin. all repair information. GLASS FIBRE It is most important when carrying out a repair to follow the repair manual instructions. working areas.and seek medical advice. Mixing The ingredients should be stored (normal maximum time 12 months) at temperatures less than 10°C and be allowed to come to room temperature before mixing and all materials.

Always ensure the resin is used well within it's pot lifetjme. Fig. 2 TYPICAL REPAIR TO DELAMINATED SKIN Pot Life Once mixed the resin begins to cure and may have a pot life of between a few minutes and several hours before it begins to gel. . 1 TYPICAL REPAIR TO CRACKED SKIN Repatrs to be at feast 10" \ GLASS CLOTH (25mm) apart with dimensions PATCHES A and Bat a maximum of 2. GLASS CLOTH PATCHES CORE Fig. Djscard (in accordance with local regulations) all time expired materials.5 to 7" (63.5mm to 117.8mm) depending on type of repair GLASS CLOTH (round or square).

7" GLASS CLOTH larger than the next one PATCHES OUTER SKIN PATCH PLATE thickness as inner Dimensions A 8 B skin) are a max of 1 to 5" (25. sa check the Repair Manual (SRM) for details. Glass cloth patches (3)are cut as per SRM and using the mixed resin bonding agent are cemented into position.8mm) twist drill. Each patch is 0. Heating may be carrled by the use of lamps.4 to 127mm) whether the repair is round or sguare INNER SKIN t--"--i SKIN SECTION I11 11 11 11 11 1 I Fig. The ends of crack are stop drilled using a 31 1 6 t h (4. A parting layer is used between the patches and the vacuum sheet and vacuum is applied from a vacuum pump via a valve in the vacuum sheet.Curing Most mixed resins will cure a t room temperature within a few hours. . Pressure is applied and this can be done using a vacuum sheet stuck with double sided sticky tape to the skin. 3 TYPICAL REPAIR WHERE BOTH SKINS & CORE ARE DAMAGED Figure 1 shows an exarnple of a patch repair to a crack on the outer skin. Temperature control may be by a thermostat or by marking the part with a special pencil that changes colour at a specific temperature. electric heaters. but may take several days to cure completely It may be necessary to use heat to cure the resin. They are generally easier to apply than liquid or powder adhesives. but once the protective backing is removed it is most important that the adhesive film is not touched a s this will severely affect its adhesive properties. Film Adhesives Some adhesives are supplied in film form and the amount required is simply cut from a large sheet. electric blankets or ovens.

The skin is cut away without damaging the core using a router (not easy a s the skin arld core are bonded together). a s per the S R M dimensions. if applicable. Remove paint from the area by sanding. and sometimes wood chisels and the like are used to remove old resin -. Limits are specified in the SRM a s to the maximum length of crack/size of damage. 7. 3. Mix and use the resins in a warm dry atmosphere (min 20°C).. 4.c).which is difficult to do.repairable . stepped or otherwise. Cut out the damage to a regular shape. Remove resins from store and allow to attain room temperature for at least 24 hours. A s with the other repairs a router is used for material removal. Check the effect of the repair on radar transparency . . 5. 4 EXAMPLE OF CORE REPAIR 3" DIA MAX General Repair Considerations 1.replacement . 4 and 5 shows repairs where the core has been damaged and requires replacement. then clean with acetone or MEK and allow to dry. OUTER SKIN MIN LAND 0. 6.Figure 2 shows a typical repair where the outer skin is damaged and has to be repaired by insertion.. Again.5" (13mrn) Fig. Figures 3 . Support or jury rig the structure if necessary. Ascertain the exact extent of the damage and classify the repai using the repair manual (negligible. pressure is applied a s before. the minimum distance between repairs and the minimum distance from the repair to the edge of the panel. The glass cloth patches are placed in the same way. Two glass cloth inserts are cut'and (using the rnixed resin) placed into position. 2.

All materials & dimensions similar to the previous drawing Fig. for more complex shapes. made fi-om wood or other similar material. Use a parting agent on the mould to prevent the resins from adhering to the mould. 15. Remove all traces of parting agent from the repair. The advantages of this material over conventional metals are many and include: k Good strength/weight ratio. 16. Lay u p the repair using cloth and resins in accordance with the repair manual.often difficult to detect if it has sustained damage. clamps ox vacu ~rxn bags. 10. . 14. Inspect the repair. If a control surface check weight a n d mass balance and carry out control system check plus an independent check. 11. 8. 5 EXAMPLE OF SMALL CORE REPAIR (1. . 12. A Easily moulded to complex shapes. Apply pressure to the repair using weights. repaint and carry out functional check to check for radar transparency.5"BIA MAX) CARBON FIBRE COMPOSITES (CFCs) There is an increasing use of CFCs in the construction of aircraft. Use a mould.k Resistance to impact damage . 9. k Non-corrodible. Record all work done and clear Log Book. Sand area if specified in the SRM. 13. Cloth plies normally in the same direction as the original lay.

Structural components such as sheet skin.ed by hydraulic and other fluids. frames. angles.usually using heat and pressure (vacuum bags). Stored at -18°C usually has a shelf life of 12 months . 9. reasonably weak centre with strong outer fibres. Like GRP it is made u p of layers of fibre but carbon and not glass. This usually means keeping at room temperature for a period of 24 hours.18°C and again may have a shelf life nf 1 2 months. The sandwich is usually made u p of a honeycomb centre with multiple plies of composite pre-preg cloths laid at different angles to each other and cured under pressure in an autoclave. Many combinations of composite (metal and non metal) can be used. Materials (a) Resins and other chemicals. (b) CFC and Kevlar material stored in a dark room in their original plastic containers.refer to manufacturers literature. It may be pre-preg (already pre-impregnated with resin) or may be carbon fibre material requiring a bonding agent between the layers. Kevlar is affected by uv light. The outer fibres being in tension or compression with the centre being in shear. 6 TYPICAL SANDWICH STRUCTURE jVJonolithic Structux. * Does not suffer from cracking and has vexy good fatigue strength. top hat sections etc are made from monolithic material in a similar way to the build up of the outer layers of the sandwich structure. It is designed to have a light. All materials should be allowed to reach room temperature before being worked on. Once the layers are made u p the resin is allowed to cure . (c) CFC pre-preg is stored at . Not unlike the sandwich construction of GRP. Types of Structure Sandw&Construction. Figure 6 is a typical example. HONEYCOMB CORE Fig. . ribs. May have a life of one month out of cold store. 1s not aff'ect.

7 MONOLITHIC STRUCTURE SANDWICH STRUCTURE MONOLITHIC PANELS Fig. Figure 17 shows the construct~onof a n A320 flap. It 1s a mixed structure with some monolithic and some sandwich components Fig. . With the fittings being made from metal. The cfarrlage is usually associated with impact and the inspection procedure is similar to that used with GRP. It is therefi~re important that if damage is suspected then a thorough investigation is c arried out aver the whole area.Figure 7 shows an A310 spoiler made from glass fibre reinforced plastlc (GFRP) skln panels and ribs. Mixed Structure. damage that does occur may be difficult to detect. 8 EXAMPLE OF MIXED STRUCTURE Like GRP.

k Cold storage equipment..electrical heater mats thermostatically controlled. Repair The repair process is similar to that which is employed with GKP structures. Modern TPT systems will involve the use of computers for storage and analysis of data. * Temperature probes . * Repair heaters . An image of the thermal pattern is then displayed on a screen and a change in the pattern will indicate a defect. Thermal Pulse Thermography (TPT) may be used. A Various tools including diamond coated saw blades and diamond tipped drill monitor the temperature of the repair when curing. * Breathing equipment and a dust extraction plant. . but the following is a typical list of the equipment required: * A CFC bay with everything kept scrupulously clean. Equipment The equipment will vary depending on the type and level of the repair bein- carried out. When using ultra-sonics a couplant must be used between the probe and the part being tested (oil or grease on metals). For CFCs a rubber tyred wheel or wat js used. CFC particles and dust are dangerous if breathed in and fumes from the chemicals are put the repair under pressure when curing. * Vacuum pressure bags . IMPACT AREA OF I I SPREAD OF DELAMINATION -\ /----- BROKEN INNER LAYERS Fig. This process involves the use of a high intensity thermal pulse and the rate of diffusion is measured. 9 IMPACT 'SPREAD' O N CFC SKIN X--raysmay be used to check for internal darnage/delamination on sandwich structures and ultra-sonics may be used on monolithic structures.

. The core is removed by the use of a router. When assessing the damage always inspect an area much larger than the 'obvious' damage a s the impact shock can travel through the material and . This may be laid up at 0°. GRP lay-up. blind rivets. Scarf the edges a s specified in the manual. Check that all the damage h a s been removed. an insert.if it is damage to a panel. Remove the damage. Has to be repaired to maintain the integrity of the structure. * Structural damage. The scarfed edge may have a taper of 20: 1. General Repair Procedure Clean and dry the repair area. Remove all traces of dust. Allow to 'cold cure7. metal patches etc. Severe damage that requires the replacement of the component. Of course. CFC lay-up. Depending on what has been repaired check the system and sign for all the work done. May be repa~red/modifiedfor cosmetic reasons or to stop the damage getting worse. u p some distance away. a s are the repair schemes. or may require the approval of the aircraft manufacturer. 45"and 90" Use might be made of 'in-fill'. core replacement etc. check for security and damage a t the panel attachments and check for transmitted shock into the surrounding structure. Damage (and the repair) can be divided into three main groups: * Negligible damage. all these types are damage are laid down in the SRM. May be a standard repair in the manual. metal patching. Check the repair limitations in the repair manual.Repair Methods These will be laid down in Chapter 51 of the SRM and may involve the use of infill. For example . In general the repair materials should be the same a s the original component unless specified otherwise. Remove the paint (by sanding) in the area taking care not to damage the fibres. The fibre layers are laid u p by hand and usually involve the use of pre-preg material. Inspect the repair and repaint if necessary.use a vacuum bag or heat in a n autoclave. k Replacement damage.

depending on materials. . Using room temperature (20°C min) or heater blankets.. This process uses an autoclave with temperatures u p to 180°C and curing times as short as 45 minutes.BLIND RIVETS. (b) 'Hot Cure'. COMPOSITE DOUBLER Fig. Curing can take up to 7 days but with heater blankets using temperatures of about 80°C the time can be reduced to less than an hour . again depending on materials and type of repair. type of repair etc. 10 SKIN REPAIR USING RIVETS ADHESIVE & DOUBLER COVER PLY PLY 6 PLY 5 PLY 4 PLY 3 PLY 2 PLY 1 ADHESIVE FILM Q 0 -C-)- STEPPED CUT-BUTS Completed lay-up before hot bonded cure Fig. 11 SKIN REPAIR HOT CURE USING PRE-PREG Two basic methods of repair: (a) 'Cold Cure'. .

COVER PLY PLY 6 PLY 5 - PLY 4 FLY 2 PLY 1 - PLY 3 Completed wet lay-up before cure Fig. The skin is then repaired in the same manner as already described. They may be repaired by layering or by injecting adhesive through the rivet holes (drilled iaw the repair drawing) and riveted u p using blind rivets. 12 SKIN REPAIR USING COLD CURE WET LAY-UP COMPOSITE DOUBLER ADHESIVE / Fig. .often due to impact. or a core plug of honeycomb is bonded into position. 13 COLD CURE REPAIR USING DOUBLER AND VOID FILLER Delamination and Debonding Delamination occurs when two or more plies become separated frorn each other .Repairs to Sandwich Structure The damaged core is usually removed and the void filled with a mixture (of adhesive and thickening agent).

.'. b.-------.... .. . ADHESIVE.-*\ HYPODERMIC \ . DELAMINATION BLIND RIVETS ADHESIVE INJECTED THROUGH RIVET HOLES Fig. 15 DELAMINATION REPAIR Metal Patching The metal patch may be bolted or bonded into position.\ Fig...\. . *'...-2'i ''. f 4 HOT BONDING USING A HONEYCOMB INSERT Debonding occurs when the honeycomb core separates from the outer skin. \ \ DEB0N Dl \ ADHESIVE '5 '. *.' <. Pressure should be applied to the skin to ensure a good bond between the skin and the core material. COMPOSITE DOUBLER --PLUG HONEYCOMB Fig. ' *. \ \.. \ \'. . -. 16 BEBONDING REPAIR . a. .*' -*' AREA OF . .-. Repair can be carried out by injecting adhesive into the honeycomb through holes drilled in the skin. .*-'~.''. \ .. *.':. Metal patching does not attempt to restore the structure to its original strength or contour but is a quick method af repairing small cracks or limited damage to non-primary structures.

17 TYPICAL REPAIR TAKEN OF A HONEYCOMB STRUCTURE USING 'COLD CURE' WITH A HEATER BLANKET. insert core and adhesive. Study the drawing and note the following: * The repair plies. J. The type of filler will depend on the size of the allow all air to be evenly drawn away from the repair. In general small diameter voids are filled using: A A n adhesive and thickener. POROUS PARTING FILM FIBRE GLASS SANDING PLY BLEEDER CLOTH PLIES \ FIBREGLASS / GRAPHITE REPAIR PLIES BREATHER PLIES ArER BLANKET SILICON RUBBER SHEET ELECTRICAL VACUUM BAG VAClJUM HOSE TEMPEWTURE / GRAPHITE FILLER FIBRE GLASS CORE REPAIR \\ ~ ~ 9 5 6 1 ~ 3 ADHESIVE PLIES CAP HONEYCOMB PLUG Fig. VACUUM BAG & TEMPERATURE PROBES Figure 17 shows an example taken from an SRM.Honeycomb Section W h e n repairing honeycomb section where the honeycomb is removed the void must be filled with a core plug or filler compound. * Silicon rubber sheet to allow a n even pressure over the whole area of repair. * The vacuum bag . * Bleeder cloth layers . * The temperature probes (thermostats). .to stop the bleeder cloth plieslrubber sheets from adhering to the repair. * The thermostatically controlled heater blanket with its electrical supply. Void Filler -. Parting films .stuck down around the edges with bag seal (double sided sticky tape).

.... 18 EXAMPLE OF A REPAIR TO DAMAGE NOT MORE THAN 2" DIAMETER ON THE A 3 2 0 blank ............... Ararnid (Kevlar)h a s a n aluminium foil ply............. EXTERNAL DOUBLER Same thickness as skin / ADHESIVE PLUS THICKENER Fig.. * A resin mixed with micro balloons. above 0............ * Foam etc...... above 2" in diameter Electrical Bonding Some composite structures are electrically bonded to allow for an electrica: path.... The minimum size of hole where a manufactured plug must be fitted is stated in the repair manual eg: * A32013 10 .above 2" in diameter * Boeing 737 ..... The micro balloons are small phei~olicresin hollow spheres that help to produce a low-density (light-weight) filler..........5" in diameter * DC9 ........ Aluminium foil may be used and external metal discharge strips.............. For larger holes a core plug is manufactured from the same material a s the original honeycomb and cemented into position with a resin mix/resin micro balloons mix...

20 TYPICAL PLUG FIWING USED ON SOME A I R C M P T FOR DAMAGE GREATER THAN 1" DIAMETER . 19 REPAIR TO DAMAGE ON A 737 GREATER THAN 0. EXTRA REPAIR PLY OR After fitment and when dry sand taper edges that are in "-.4. CORE PLUG Same material as original \ Apply resin mix 3 t o lower face & around core plug just prior to fitrnent Taper sand or step Fig.5" DIAMETER TO ONE SKIN & THE HONEYCOMB CORE Apply XEA9390 & phenolic microballoons mixture to bottom & sides o f both core plug 8 hole TEFLON TAPE \ Fig. orientation. the a ~ r f l o w Determine number of pl~es. and original material Apply resin mlx 3 to upper face from component structure of core plug just prior to fitment of repair plies 2 plies of BMS 9-3 type H-2 or H-3 (or 4 plies of BMS type 9-3 type D) saturated with resin mix 2 .

Cover plies are glass fibre if original en use carbon \ 118" (3. REPAIR TO DAMAGE 0.5" OR LESS TO ONE SKIN & HONEYCOMB CORE . GRADE 1 OR 2 ALUMINIUM FOIL PLY ADHESIVE FILM EXTRA REPAIR PLY' O R PLIES REPAIR PLIES ADHESIVE FILM Fig.737 SPLICE STRIP CLASS 350. 22 DETAILS OF A REPAIR TO MAINTAIN AN ELECTRICAL PATH ACROSS A FOIL COVERED SURFACE .B739 . 21.2mrn) After damage cleaned out UNDERCUT core hole filled flush with resin mix 4 or 5 Fig.

Lightning strike damage. When subject to impact damage they can 'spring-back' and show little or no sign of impact. Certain NDT techniques will not work with conlposites. Moisture ingress can result from impact damage or from a poorly made joint. magnetic particle etc. . May be the result of impact damage or more likely. and whilst X-ray interpretation of negatives on metals can be difficult the results of csrnposite X-rays can be more so. Can show u p a s stains on the surface. the water can increase the damage area particularly if subject to freezing conditions. Splitting is usually a sign of impact damage. Where cracks occur they are likely to run jnline with the weft or warp plies of the material. Moisture/water ingress. UV radiation will degrade some composite fibres more than others.INSPECTION OF COMPOSITE STRUCTIIRES To some extent composites can be more difficult to inspect for flaws than metal structures. Debonding. but al any rate UV absorbing additives should be used on all outer surfaces of composite build-ups. Defects in composites include: Cracks. Delamination is similar to debonding but occurs between the layers of a built- u p material .particularly inside the panel. Delamination. Signs of bowing and signs of damage to systems/eq~zipmentinside the panel. The likelihood of a crack occurring is considerably reduced by constructing composites of a weftlwarp material or laying consecutive weftless plies at right angles to each other. Bulges. Fire damage. Once in. UV (ultra violet) degradation. poor quality of the initial bonding process. Splitting . Erosion. eddy current. Bulges may be a sign of delamination or debonding and may be accompanied by water ingress. Debonding is the failure of the bond joint between 2 composite parts or between a composite part and a metal part.

Lightning strikes show up as surface damage to the material. A tool called a Woodpecker can be used. The transmitted shock may show u p as damage to a n adjacent panel/area or to damage and looseness of attaching bolts. Resins will not usually withstand high temperatures and when burning will give off inflammable gases and thick smoke. A coin about 1" (25mm) in diameter is ideal. Any delamination will be indicated by a change in the sound. The tool can be connected to a CRT screen where the feedback signal can be displayed. rotor-blades etc) irrespective of the material they are made of. This electronic tapping device has a small tapping head than can be moved over the area and the sounds observed as before. Electrical discharge damage to radomes may be difficult to detect. Coin Tapping Where delamination is suspected a small metal object can be used to tap the area and check for a change in the sound when tapping good structure to when tapping un-sound structure. not too unIike impact damage. screws etc. so check these a s well. propellers. insects. usually with signs of burning. dust. It is important to note that if the panellarea has suffered impact damage it could have moved in sufficient to damage systems/services within the aircraft.which will bubble if there is a leak. . It is caused by small particles in the air such as rain. Two small feet allow the tool to be rested against the surface to be tested giving the tapping head the correct distance from the surface for best results. The structure should be inspected both sides a s splitting may occur on the inside of a panel where the only evidence of damage on the outside is a scuffmark. When burned-off will leave the fibre yarns behind. Visual Inspection The area should be inspected in a good light for those defects listed above. Additionally if damage is suspected the edges of the panel/area should be inspected for signs of transmitted shock. Tap lightly at the side of the area where delamination is suspected and continue tapping while moving across the area.Erosion will occur on all leading edge surfaces (mainplanes. fins. etc. Check a n y lightning conductor strips for security and damage. One method is to pressurise the radome (off the aircraft and in a safety cage) to about 3psi (20kPa) and check for leaks using uncured resin on the outside . tail-planes. Carry out an electrical bonding check.

The pencil size probe is held against the suspected surface and moisture is indicated either on a dial or an LED display. One engineer operates the scanning camera while another views the output on a video monitor. (The specific heat of water is 5 times higher than composite materials). Heat the area using a special electric blanket. The temperature is held at this value for a further 5 minutes. The infra-red camera converts the thermal radiation into an electronic signal. water contaminated areas cool more slowly than 'dry' areas and these area can be detected using an infra-red camera. As it cools the slower cooling 'wet areas' show u p on an infra-red scanning camera. The electric blanket is temperature and time controlled so that it heats u p slowly. Clean and dry the area to be inspected (both sides). which is displayed in colour on a video screen. When a structure is heated and allowed to cool.Moisture Meter A moisture meter ma. The blanket is removed and the airframe allowed to cool. WATER INGRESS AREAS FASTENERS Fig. 4. 2. . Wet/damp areas are indicated in colour as shown in figure 23. the intensity of which is related to its temperature. Infra-Red Thermography This has been developed by Airbus Industries for detecting water ingress in composite-sandwich structures. Infra-red thermography is based on the principle that an object emits electromagnetic radiation.y be used for checking for slgxas of moisture ingress.INFRARED THEWOGRAPHY Method 1. taking at least 15 minutes to reach 60°C. 23 CRT SCREEN DISPLAY . 3.

Each probe comprises a quartz crystal and sound damping material. These vibrations are passed into the material in a direction related the shape of the probe. 20 - . STRAIGHT TIR ANGLED TIR PLASTIC WEDGE SOUND COMPONENT WAVES FLAW Fig. High frequency sound waves.and located on the opposite side of the skin.l°C at 30°C to an area down to about lOmm x 1Omm contaminated with 10% water . Ultra-Sonic Testing lJsed mainly for detecting below-surface voids but also for surface flaws at a point some distance from the place of accessibility. perpendicular to the motion of the sound.5. c) Surface . b) Transverse . This reflection is converted into a signal on a cathode ray tube (CRT). Note. it vibrates at the frequency of the received input. when transmitted through solid material. A typical system is the Agema Infra-red Systems Thermovision 2 LO which will detect a difference of O. transverse waves along the surface of the material. The pitch of the sound is controlled by its frequency and its speed through the material by the characteristics of the material. These sound waves are above the audible frequency of the human ear and can be transmitted in three different forms: a) Longitudinal . The camera is held still and the area on the panel is marked for further investigatlor~/repair. When the crystal is fed with an ac supply. are reflected by any discontinuity such a s a void or a flaw. When a wet area is shown the viewing operator tells the camera operator.which can be interpre by a trained operator. in the same direction a s the motion of the sound. 24 ULTRA SQNIC PROBES .

the distance between them related to thickness of material (distance travelled by the sound waves). Also expertise is needed to operate the probe a s defect orientation may require several passes using different sides of the material.The receiver crystal is vibrated by the received sound waves a n d generates an ac supply. "oid within the material will reflect the sound waves earlier and erect a . blank .xnaller vertical on the CRT between the first and second verticals at a position related to its distance from the surface. 25 ULTRA SONIC TESTING On material without any flaws there will be a vertical to represent the top surface and another the bottom surface. which is fed into the vertical axis of the CRT. QUALIFIED NDT INSPECTOR CRT DISPLAY SHOWING NO FLAW B O ~DARIES J FLAW CRT DISPLAY SHOWING INTERNAL DEFECT Fig. In reality the indications may be difficult to see and interpret. To prevent any signal coming from the air gap between the probe and the surface a couplant such a s oil is used. The result is a line on the CRT with a number of vertical 'blips'. Note that the screen displays shown in figure 2 5 show a clear indication of a defect.

Fig. 2'7 X-RAYEQUIPMENT . Using either X or Garrlma rays which can pass through almost all materials and which are extremely dangerous to humans (as well as animals). This system is similar to photography. 26 USING AN X-RAYMACHINE Radiography A user-unfriendly system that produces X-ray pictures to be analysed. X-RAY TUBE Fig.

Access into small spaces is easier . The process requires a high level of expertise both in setting u p the equiprnent. Has a poorer picture quality than X-rays. Allow maintenance personnel back on aircraft. what action would you take? (10 mins) ANSWER If the crack or a void is in a component then it will normally require replacement. (f) After the correct exposure time switch off tube and remove equipment/ signs. The equiprnent is also dangerous to use.These are generated in an electron tube needing 250. . If the defect is outside the negligible limits then the area must be repaired in accordance with the S R M .some cracks might just be allowed if they run in a certain direction and/or are in a certain area and/or are below a certain length. If a crack or void is in a structural member it may be classed as negligible (check the repair manual-- the same parameters may apply as above) and stop drill the ends of the crack. Always stay out of roped off weas. etc. (g) Develop negative and analyse results. Id) Clear hangar of personnel and place warning signs around aircraft. but check the manual first .into shafts. QIJESTION If a defect was found using any of the above methods. each isotope being about the size of a overcoat button.000 Volts to gve a better picture quality than gamma rays. The electron tube is relatively large gnving lirriitetl access. Operators require a regula. (b) Place test piece in front of negative (this provides a density comparator on the negative so that comparisons can be made between it and the rest of the image). calculating the exposure times and interpreting the X-ray results. but will normally need stop drilling.medical check-up and wear a personal radiation dosimeter. Ganima Hays Self-generated by radioactive isotopes. or the part replaced. (e) From remote control panel switch on tube and monitor the area. (c) Check exposure times and distance of tube from part (distance measuring rod supplied). In general the process is a s follows: (a) Set u p equipment with X-ray tube on one side of the part to be checked and the (light sealed) negative on the other side.

They would hand over their recorded findings and you would clear the defect in the log-book (if no defect was found or after rectification carried out) making reference to the NDT report. Airworthiness Directives/Service Bulletins will be sent from the CAA/manufacturer to all operators of your aircraft to carry out a particular check. QUESTION What does 'stop drill' the end of the crack rnean and why is it carried out? (5 mins) ANSWER The exact.NDT Testing - Qualifications . QUESTION What parts of the aircraft would you carry out a n NDT test. on and when? (5 mins) ANSWER Those parts/components that the ChA/aircraft manufacturer or your company tells you to or a part that you are highly suspicious of. but in general the component is replaced. In some cases a report has to be sent back to the CAA/rnanufacturer of the findings. QUESTION If an NDT team was to carry out an inspection on your aircraft. end of the crack is located (often very difficult) and a drill is used to drill a hole right through the cracked material. Always inspect the crack a t a later date to see that it has not developed further. Note. The student is advised to read Airworthiness Notice 94 . If porosity is found then check the repair manual. what would be their relationship to you as a licensed engineer? (5 mins) ANSWER They would be requested by you or the senior engineer of the company to carry out the NDT test. Their findings would be recorded and signed for using their own documentation and they would report back to you (or the senior engineer). The instructions will normally indicate a tim limit and if it says 'before next flight' it effectively grounds the aircraft. This has the effect of reducing the stress concentration at the crack end to a lower concentration on the wall of the drilled hole. or the area is repaired. so (hopefully) stopping the crack from propagating.

CONTENTS Page Wood 1 Timber 2 Seasoning 4 Diseases a n d defects 5 Aircraft woods 8 Adhesives 9 Aircraft wooden structures 16 Inspection of wooden structures 20 Repairs to wooden structures 29 Fabric covering 39 Mat erlals 40 Preparation prior to fabric covering 43 Covering methods 44 Joining fabric to fabric 45 Hand sewing 47 Repairs to fabric 54 Doping 61 .


planed. say sitka spruce. * Wood can shrink and warp. . adhesives. a n d steel c a n be over 6 0 times stronger. Ever1 taking a specific type of wood. drilled. n u t s and bolts. * Good thermal insulation. defects etc. * Nearly as strong a s alumirhiurn . staples etc. In other words the strength and elastic properties are different whether they are measured along the grain or across the grain. hence when aircraft were invented (about 100 years ago). Wood is m u c h stronger in tension and compression along the grain than across it and stronger across the grain in shear. grain inclination. * The mechanical properties of wood are said to be anisotropic.some car] be so dense that they are over 1000kg/m"rid will not float on water. screwed. i t was used for a ~ r f r a m econstruction Compared with metal it h a s many advantages including: * Light (density of spruce between 300 and 600kg/rrl" ((aumirlium 2800kg/m3). Depending on where the tree was grown and the rate of growth in any one year the wood quality can vary. is liable to rot. nails/panel pins. Ilisadvantages include: * Quality not consistent. k Easily machined. But wood densities vary . filed. * Quality within a single plank of wood c a n vary d u e to knots. * Readily available. sanded Easily joined using wood-screws.but some aluminium alloys c a n be over 10 times stronger than wood. inexpensive and a renewable resource. can deteriorate with age and is subject to insect attack.Wood h a s beer1 the main constructioll material for man for thousands of years a n d .

The s a p ascends the tree causing the gro~utklof t h e 'springwood' and causing the tree to bud. sugaraxy and invites decay and insects. ANNUAL GROWTH RINGS HEARTWOOD MEDULLARY RAYS Fig. These are thin sheets of cellular tissue that radiate from the pith and extend lengthwise through the timber. The Bark . The sap returns down the tree during summer and wlnter and t h ~ cs a u s e s the growth of the 'autumn-wood'. The difference between the a u t u m n a n d springwood is clearly visible in trees such as firs and pines but is hardly noticeable in tre such a s teak a n d mahogany. The s a p undergoes chenlical changes in the leaves due to the action of the sunlight and the carbon dioxide In t h e air. h a s little strength. by the addition of layers or rings) Timber is divided into softwoods (coniferous or vvergreen trees) and hardwoods (deciduous). Felling 'I'rees sllould be felled at the beginning of wir~terin temperate climates and during the t l r j season in tropical climates. Between the phloem and the wood is a skin-like layer termed the c a m b i u n ~The .the outer layer being the protective cork-like covering and the inner layer termed the inner bark or phloem which is soft. TIMBER Timbers for commerce a r e obtained from exogenous trees (grow outwards in plan view. Medullary rays convey the moisture from the sapwood to the heartwood while the tree is growing. . tissue of the cambiurn combines with the rising and falling s a p to form new growth rings each year.the unripe part of the woody layers. Medullary rays are more pronounced in such woods a s oak and beech.which consists of two layers . It is most active during the spring. porous and full of sap. The rays that extend right across (from pith to the bark) are termed primary rays a n d those that extend partially across are termed secondary rays. Trees are dormant In winter and cornmenee their growth in sprlng. During the auturrin the cambium is less active a n d the wood formed is darker and denser. the wood forming during that time i s light in colour and of open texture. 1 CROSS SECTION OF A TREE TRUNK The tree trunk is rnade u p from Sapwood .

MAXIMUM G RAl N indicated at . 2 SHRINKAGE YI RIFT SAWN SLASH SAWN QUARTER SAWN Fig. Maxinlum shrinkage occurs along the lines of the annual rings. Some logs are squared for ease of transportation.During these t i ~ n e sthe s a p is a t rest.100 years. deals. Timber used in aircraft is rift sawn to lesson the possibility of shrinkage.200 years Firs and pines mature a t 70 .ic l Fig. A tree 1s felled a n d stripped of its branches. battens etc is termed conversion. The timber is square sawn. 3 TYPES OF CUT . which can be found by the state of its foliage Oak matures a t 120 . These are termed 'baulks'. When a tree is felled is governed by its state of maturity. Trees that are felled too young or too old have timber of inferior quality. At other times the wood contains too much sap which is difficult to dry out wlthout damaging ihe propertics o f the wood. Sawing logs a n d baulks into planks.

To prevent the ends of the planks splitting a s the timber dries. s u n a n d rain. This takes about 10 days. After removing the log the internal water evaporates.Slow b u t gives the best results. '' : timber is then c u t u p a n d seasoned the natural way for half the normal per-qd. Softwood boards can be seasoned in 10 to 14 days.220°F (27 . The degree of seasoning is measured by thc rnolsture content of the timber and is expressed as % moisture content of the dry weight of the timber. = O/o moisture content dry weight 'There are several ways of seasoning timber including the 3 listed below Natural Seasoning . 'This seasoning takes from 1 to 9 years depending on the size of the planks and whether it is softwood or hardwood. I t is a n expensive process. the first planks laid on wooden skids (keeps planks away from d a m p grass etc). 'The steam h e a t (from pipes). strips of hoop iron or wooden slats are nailed on. The timber is put in a strearn of fresh sunning water with one end of the log towards the flow.105°C) according to the type of timber. Planks are stacked undercover in such a manner as to allow maximunl ventilation and shielded from wind. a n d successive layers are interspaced by slats placed above one another to prevent warping of the planks. The wood is stacked in a Dutch barn (a roofed barn without sides). A small sarrlple of the timber is removed. Artificial Seasoning . blank . and to reduce shrinkage to acceptable levels. Water Seasoning -. stiffness and resistance to decay. Thc (YO moisture is then calculated as: loss of weight x 100 < . warm air currents and the humidity is controlled to prevent the timber from drying too quickly and developing shakes (a type of split). weighted arid dried in a n oven a t 1 OO°C (212°F) until two successive weightings are the same. Thus some of the s a p is washed o u t by the force of the water going through. The moisture content may be measured using the Marconi Moisture Meter (or other commercially ava~lablemeters) or by the following method: 1. The stacked planks are placed in a kiln in which the temperature is raised to 80 .This is applied to logs or baulks and although quick is liable to diminish the strength a n d durability of the wood.SEASONING On felling a tree may contain u p to 50% molsture Most of this must be rerrioved to obtain erio~lghhardness.Kiln dried (hot air).

but d ~ s c a s e smay be present in the tree a n d remain active after the timber h a s beer] converted anti seasoned. seasoning. Defects which occur in sawn timer can rnostly be elirnlrlated by usirig correct methods of conversion. . the affected part most be rerrloved a n d burnt. Wet rot transforms the timber into a soft spongy mass. by the reduction of the wood to a powder or by the wood turning into a soft spongy mass. a n d absorb the substance of the wood as food.DISEASES AND 1)EFECTS Trees. It is contagious and spreads through thc timber rapidly. A similar disease to wet rot is Druxiness. by mildew. Sapwood and unseasoned timber are most susceptible to this disease. Dry Rot This does not attack a living tree but attacks timber subjected to humid conditions combined with poor ventilation. b u t in this instance the water does not enter into circulation with the s a p b u t becomes stagnant. Wet Rot This may occur in a living tree or sawn timber and is a decomposition of the fibres. These thread llke cells penetrate the wood. setting u p decomposition of the surrounding wood. boring minute holes invisible to the eye. storage and preservation. May be present in unseasoned timber and remains active after seasoning. It appears a s a stain or a group of speckled patches a n d reduces the wood to a very soft state. subject a s they a r e to the hazards of nature. These diseases are caused by the action of fungi. the wood either side of the infection must be removed for a distance of a t least 8 inchcs (203mm) in a longitudinal direction either side of the dote area This 1s thc decay of over-rnature trees. If found in spruce planks intended for aircraft construction. which turns wood to a powder. A fungus is a kind of plant which can only live by feeding on organic material. Causcd by a fungus growth. develop imperfect~ons during growth. When detected. This disease spreads rapidly a n d may be identified by a fungoid growth on the surface of the wood. In a living tree this may occur by water finding its way through the bark a n d in sawn timber by subjecting it to alternate wet and dry conditions. C)n converted t~rnberit appears .is a reddish brown stain. Attack by fungi may be identified by discoloration of the timber. wkieh disintegrates the wood to a state called decay.

25" in diameter and if clustered too close together the wood should not be used. timber should be sawn so that the grain r u n s a s nearly a s possible parallel to the edge of the material. a knot or incarrcct conversion. Spiral grain is caused by high winds twisting the trunk. The most usual method of determining the inclination of the grain is by examining the flower- face of the timber to find the resin ducts. pin knots arid spike knots.Kind Galls These are swellirlgs on the trunk and branches of a tree caused by the growth of new layers over a wound made by the attack of lrlsects or by a branch having been br-oketl off. All knots should be no more than 0. S u c h wood is difficult to work and unsuitable fro structural members. Grade A is used for aircraft structural work a n d the inclination s h * \ u l d be checked to ensure that the above limit is not exceeded. wood containing live knots can he accepted provided judgement is used to determine whether it is suitable for the work in h a n d . Rind galls reduce strength because they cause divergence of the grain. . Live knots arp the roots of braches which were growing when the tree was felled ancl although all knots are a source of weakness. Incorrect Grain Inclination The limit of grain inclination for spruce is 1 in 15 for grade A and 1 in 12 fr grade B. To prevent this through the latter reason. It will readily be seen whether they are straight or inclined. (Timber is stronger along the grain than in any other direction). In sawn timber a dead knot can be identified by a dark ring of wood around its outer edge. If dead knots cannot be eliminated the timber should not be used. If the inclination exceeds the limits specified. Karnmy Grain This is the narne given to wood w ~ t ha curly grain. Knots These are the roots of the branches of the main tree trunk. the timber should be classified to a lower grade. Cross and Spiral Grain Cross grain is caused by a bcnd in the tree. Other types of knots include bud knots.

Such woods rrlust not be used on aircraft. and the other the vertical type which is sometimes referred to as a gum pocket.Heart-Shake Shakes are small splits In the tirriber a n d should not be present in sectlons of timber intended for structural use on atrcraft A heart shake usually follows the course of a sap duct long~tudinallyanti is usually visible on the tangential surface 'The use of a small size feeler gauge will assist in finding the depth of the shake The defect sho~lldhe cut out of the timber. Ring-shakes are usually caused by frost. Blue Stain This defect only occurs in sapwood which should not be used in aircraft parts. The defect should also be cut out of the timber. Insect Attack Shows u p as the timber having small holes in the surface. particularly after a heavy rainfall. . 'rests on 'live' gum pockets have shown that the timber in the region of the gum pocket usually gives a better result than the remainder of the timber. one being the horizontal type which usually appears a t the base of a knot. Compression-shakes are most dangerous a s they are a partial fracture of the timber a n d any future loads may cause the fracture line to spread. the timber should be rejected. Pitch Holes There are two kinds of pitch holes. Ring-Shake This defect is indicated by a parting of the annular rings. Compression-Sha ke This defect appears on a cross-section and usually takes the form of a thin wavy line. Gum pockets may either be 'alive' (the gum-seam h a s not dried out) or 'dead'. and in the case of the latter.

hard a n d mostly straight grained. Straight grained. American Black Walnut A hardwood from Canada a n d USA. stiffness a n d corripressive strength along the grain.AIK(:KAFVT WOODS Sitka Spruce A soft~roodfrorn Canada a n d U S A . Reddish-brown to dull red in colour. Has prominent growth rings and mostly straight grained. strong and elastic with good bending strength. Also resistant to shrinking. Colour from pale reddish-yellow to deep orange-brown. bending strength. Because of this it is used on aircraft (spares. swelling a n d lvarplng arid good glue retaining properties. The heartwood is a rich chocolate brown colour a n d the sapwood is nearly white. It is strong and tough and is used in aircraft coristruction that is highly stressed in bending and compression. It is seasoned to a rnoisture coritent of 15 to 17%. It is a medium dense wood. trestle beams. ribs etc). . rigging boards etc. Used for longerons. bearing blocks etc. close and fairly straight grained.17%. Moisture content 10 . is somewhat resinous and h a s a distinctive odour when worked. bearing blocks. Bright-brownlsh yellow with little or no odour. Its stiffness. Moisture content rr -st not exceed 13%. Moisture content 14%. Straight grained and easy to work. struts. longerons. Mahogany A hardwood from Central America. Grown in the UK. Ash Hardwood. Used for propellers and bearing blocks etc. Douglas Fir A softwood from Canada and USA.16%. Used for propellers. Whitish-yellow. Good weather resistant properties a n d retains its shape well. Moisture content 15 . hardness a n d its resistance tc) splitting are hlgh in relation to its weight. Tough a n d strong and h a s good shock resistance qualities but is not a s light a s Sitka Spruce.

formaldehyde types. Also the wood is not damaged locally. Glues fall into two main groups: h Casein glues * Resin glues Any glue t h a t meets the requirements of the approved specification a s laid down by the C M a n d other authorities s u c h as the FAA is satisfactory for u s e in civil aircraft. Synthetic resins are better in that they retain their strength and durability under molst conditions and after exposilre to water. resorcinol-formaldehyde and urea. In all cases. Note The weight of the timber (density) is governed by rate of development. glues are to be used strictly in accordance with the glue manufacturer's recommendations. Modern casein glues for u s e in aircraft should contain suitable preservatives. Synthetic resin adhesives should comply with British Standard 1204 in the UK for Weather and Boil Proof (WBP) a n d Moisture Resistance (MR). to increase their resistance to organic deterioration under high-humidity conditions. Must be stored carefully as moist conditions cause rapid deteriorat~on. The most comalonly used synthetic resin glues :ire the phenol -formaldehyde. Used sometimes for the core of sandwiched ply.a resin a n d a hardener. say. moist~xrecontent and part of the tree from which it was cut ADHESIVES Adhesives a r e better for joining wood than.sorcino1-formaldehyde type glue is recommended for wood aircraft applic a t lons. wood screws because its u s e avoids the stress concentration that the screws would produce. but some are supplied in liquid form. Synthetic resin glues a r e more widely used now a n d usually consist of a two part nlix . About a quarter of the weight of other woods. Most casein glues are sold in powder form ready to be mixed with water a t ordinary room temperatures. The disadvantages of using adhesives are that subsequent dismantling of the joint is not possible a n d stricter process control is required to produce a satisfactory joint. Casein glues are water-based and made from milk. they were used widely in wooden aircraft repair work. ' .A hartJwood from Tropical America Soft mrit11 no strength I t js the lightest tirnber in general u s e a n d is pinkish-white to pale brown in colour. Once rriixed there is a chemical reaction that callses the adhesive to commence to harden. such as chlorinated phenols a n d their sodium ialts. 'The rc.

Inert fillers are often added by the glue manufacturer to the resin. Glue Line. Temperatures below 15°C (60°F) are not recommended a n d electric blankets (80°C . Expressrd a s g / m l or lb/ lOOft? Can be asccrtained by weighing a piece of scrap plywootl t~eforcapplication and n-cigh~ngafter application .25mm) in thickness. It may be supplied separately in either liquid or powder form. The most suitable curing temperatures for both urea-formaldehyde a n d resorcinol glues are from 21°C (90°F) to 24°C (75°F) (room temperature).176°F) can be used to provide rnore rapid setting times. owing either to the impossibility of applying adequate pressure or to slight inaccuracies in machining. gap- filling adhesives are not suitable for glue lines exceeding 0. Hardener. Single Spread. Double Spread. An adhesive which sets and hardens a t room temperature. Thc amount of adhesive applied per unit area.125mm) can be avoided.005in (0. An adhesive suitable for use in those joints where the surfaces to be joined may or may not be in close or continuous contact. Close Contact Adhesive. A material used to promote the setting of the glue. Gap-filling Adhesive. or it may have been incorporated with the resin by the manufacturer. Closed Assembly Time. ic 10°C to 32°C (50°F to 86°F) within a reasorlable period. The period of time between the application of the adhesive and the assembly of the joint. Unless otherwise stated by the manufacturer. The spread of adhesive equally divided between the two s ~ ~ r f a c to e s be joined.050in (1. the properties of which depend on using the resin and hardener as directed. such a s walnut shell flour. Gluing times can take u p to 2 to 3 weeks Some terms used are as follows: Cold Setting Adhesive. The resultant layer of adhesive joining any two adjacent wood layers in the assembly. to give better working characteristics a n d joint-forxning properties (increased viscosity and gap filling properties). The time between the assembly of the joints and the application of pressure. A non gap-filling adhesive suitable for u s e only with those joints where the surfaces to be joined can be fabricated accurately and brought into close contact by means of adequate pressure a n d where glue 1 :s exceeding 0. Open Assembly Time. It is a n essential part of the adhesive. The spread o f adhesive to one surfa:ace only Spread of Adhesive.

thiourea. the adhesive should be covered to prevent contamination.a liquid resin and a liquid hardener. it is essential that they be properly mixed. Liquid resin must not be diluted unless this is permitted by the manufacturer's instructions. Any utensils used in the hardener should not subsequently be used in the resin and vice versa. A composition substantially consisting of a synthetic resin. powder resins have the longest storage life. the surfaces are clamped togethcr and setting time depends on temperature. the adhesive must not be diluted unless this is permitted by the manufacturer's instructions. The joint is made a s for Araldite but curing times can be long. the proportions must be in accortlance with the manufacturer's instructions. In general. . The resin is applied to one surface. Supplied in two parts . When mixed in the correct proportions is applied to both surfaces. Aerolzte. melamine or allied compounds with formaldehyde. a liquid resin and a liquid or powder hardener. Hardeners should riot be permitted to come into contact with the resin except when the adhesive is mixed prior to use. General glue and used for bonding timber to metal or fibreglass. When mixing the hardener with the resin. Medium strcngth (coloured green) is usually used. When resins are supplied in liquid form. Synthetic Resin Adhesive. the hardener to the other and the surfaces are brought together and clamped. Powder resins must be mixed with water in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions before they can be used in conjunction with a hardener. In many instances. but including any hardening agent or modifier which may have been added by the manufacturer or which must be added before use. The hardener is an acid and comes in three strengths. Synthetic resins can be obtained either in liquid or powder form.Synthetic Resin. according to the manufacturer's instructions. The resin is supplied in powder form to be mixed with water or already in liql~idform. Also supplied in two parts. Once mixed. To obtain satisfactory results. manufacturers specify 3 definite period of time which must elapse between the mixing and the application of the adhesive. since they are less susceptible to de terloi-ation from high ambient temperatures. After use utensils should be washed in water containing 5% sodium carbonate (washing powder). they are ready for immediate use in conjunction with the hardener. During this period. A synthetic resm (phenolic) is derlved from the reaction of a phenol with a n aldehyde A synthetic resin (amino plastlc) is derived from the reaction of urea. C ~ ~ r i rtjme i g can be as short a s one hour when heating is applied. either the phenolic or amino type. Aerodux. Typical synthetic resin adhesives include: 4raldite.

~or diagonally across it. The amount of adhesive required depends largely on the type of wood a n d the accuracy of machining. etc. It is important that the parts to be joined have approximately the same r n o i s t ~ ~ content. The usable (pot) life of the adhesive. oil. The wood to be glued should be at room temperature. Timber surfaces should be sanded using a medium grade glass paper or a wood scraper.GLUING The surface to be p i n e d rnrlst be clean. The surfaces to be joined should not be overheated since this affects the surface of the wood and reduces the efficiency of most synthetic resin adhesives. Synthetic resin adhesives are sensitive to variations in temperature. dry with a layer of chalk on one surface. Dense wood requires less adhesive than soft or porous types. side-grained surfaces may be satisfactorily glued with a thinner spread. This applies particularly where the glue line is likely to be variable or when it is not possible to apply uniform pressure. Adhesive should be applied generously to any end grain. rxnless otherwise specified by the manufacturer of the adhesive pre-coating and partial drying of the softer surface. I n such instances. Difficult gluing conditioiis may occur when a soft wood is to be glued to a much denser wood because the adhesive tends to flow into the more porous wood. dry and free from grease. . paint. glue spreaders or rubber rollers that b . Adhesive can be applied by a brush.e slightly grooved. The general rule is that the adhesive should completely cover the surfaces to be glued and remain tacky until pressure is applied to the joint. A safe range for moisture content js between 8 and 16%. The Wood Surface Plywood surfaces should be lightly sanded either in the direction of the gral. before normal spreading. wax. Glue Application It is generally desirable to apply adhesive to both surfaces of the material. To ensure a good fit the parts can be assembled first. is recomrnenclec-l. proportion of hardener to u s e and clamping time all depend largely on the temperature of the room a t the time of gluing. It the joint is a good fit the chalk will transfer over the whole area to the other surfzce. re since variations will cause stresses to be set u p because of swelling or shrinkage which rnay lead to the failure of the joint. The chalk must be completely removed before the glue is applied. Smooth.

bubbles may be created and result in a weak joint. The pressure is used to squeeze the glue out into a thin continuous film between the wood layers. brads (a sort of nail). the manufacturer will specify a time interval which should elapse before the joint is closed. Because of their llnlited pressure area. At least four nails (cement-coated or galvanised and barbed) per square inch are "o be used and in no event must nails be more than 3hin (19mm) apart. For adhesives of this type. nails and screws. to bring the wood surfaces into intimate contact with the glue and to hold them in this posation during the setting of the glue. High clamping pressures are neither essential nor desirable.then disxnantled and assem bled correctly using glue. Since small nails must be used to avoid splitting. which are weak and should be avoided. C l a m p tightness should be re-checked 10 minutes after the joint is assernblecl. hydraulic clamps. The interval between the applicat~onof the adheslve to thc surfaces and the assembly of the joint should be kept a s short as possible. ' T h ~ s should be wiped off before it dries. to force air from the joint. Small orass screws may also be used. This is important since the adhesive will not reunite if disturbed before it is fully set. screw presses. On small joints such a s those found in wood ribs. Sorne adhesives contain solvents which should be allowed to evaporate before the joint is assembled If this is not done. The amount of pressure required to produce slrong joints may vary from 125 to 150psi for softwoods and 150 to 200psi for hardwoods. electric power presses. clamp positions etc . Pressure should be applied to the joint before the glue becomes too thick to flow and is accomplished by means of mechanical clamps. Insufficient pressure and/or poorly machined contact surfaces results in thick glue lines. Use handspring clamps only when gluing softwood. To ensure that the two surfaces bind properly. . provided good contact between the surfaces being joined is obtained. is applied. the gussets should be comparatively large in area to compensate for the relative lack of pressure. pressure must be applied to the joint. they should be applied with a block of wood a t least twice a s thick as the member to be clamped. When pressurt. Non--uniformgluing pressure commonly results in weak and strong areas within the same joint.It is advised that the joint is first assembled dry t o check for correct assembly. a small quantity of glue should be squeezed from the joint. glue line clearances. the pressure is usually applied only by nailing the joint gussets in place after spreading the glue. The pressure mrlst be mainta~neddur-ang the full setting time. This pressure should be applled evenly over the complete joint using clamps and blocks of wood to provide an even pressure and prevent local compression damage to the joint itself.

to be tested to destruction to ascertain the strength of the joint. the joint will be of reasonable strength after 1 day. The glued test sample should be placed in a vice a n d the joint broken by exerting pressure on the overlapping member. Testing Glued Joints Glued j o ~ n t sare impossible to examine properly. Full jolnl strength a n d resistar. An increase in temperature results in a decrease in tlic setting period. this depends on the a m b ~ e n temperature t and tlre type of hardener used. FORCE A WOOD FRACTURE DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. Again. The only access to the joirlL. just like the adhesive bonding of metal structures. Remember. Ideally. Local warmth may be applied using electric blankets. So.lce to moisture will develop only after conditioning for at least 2' days In some cases a period m u s t elapse of u p to 3 weeks for the chemical reaction ta be fully completed. DO NOT EVER HEAT the joint . the test piece should be cut from the actual cornponent being assembled (make the part that much longer to allow for the removal of the test piece). once assembled.a n d only then if it is visible.this can scorch the wood a n d / o r bubble the glue . The test pieces should be joined with a n overlap of Y2 to 3/4 inch (13 to 19mm). When gluing large areas (areas of ply for example) the drawing may specify drillings at intervals in one ply rriernber to allow any trapped air to escape. kilns etc. electric fires. Usually when repairs are made. electric either case a weakened joint results.The s e t t ~ n gtime depends on the temperature a t which the operation is carried out. strict control of the gluing process is required a t all times with test pieces produced . 4 TYPICAL SATISFACTORY BROKEN TEST PIECE . The test sample should be 1 inch (25mm) wide and a t least 2 inches (50mm) long. is along the glue line .

Such tests should only be carried out on joints which have been conditioned for 2 to 3 weeks.Ideally the wood should break and not the glue line. wet tests should be rnade for testing the efficiency of the adhesive after immersing the test samples in water a t different temperatures and for different times. will give a good indication of whether they are satisfactory. If examination of the glue under magnification does not reveal any wood fibres but shows a n imprint of the wood grain. Where repairs are to be made on old aircraft in which the wooden structure is joined with a casein cement. the glue should be examined with a magnifying glass. testing joints. Such tests are prescribed in British Standard 1204. This latter condition is particularly common with plywood and with other timbers which have been worked by high-speed machinery and have not been the surface correctly prepared. all traces of the casein cement must be removed from the joint. If a glued joint is known to have failed in tension it is difficult to assess the quality of the joint. which should reveal a fine layer of wood fibres on the glued surface. or the use of surface-hardened timber. since this material is alkaline and is liable to affect the setting of a synthetic resin adhesive. Tension failures often appear to strip the glue from one surface leaving the bare wood. but a t any rate the fractured glue face should show a t least '75% of the wood fibres broken evenly disl ributed over the glue surfaces (figure 4). Failure of Glued Joints Glued joints are designed to provide their maximum strength under shear loading. as these joints may often show a n apparent lack of adhesion. Wet Tests When specified. after immersion in cold water (15" to 25°C [GO0 to 77"FI) for 24 hours. In all such instances other jo~rltsin the aircraft knowri to have been made at the sarne time should be considered a s suspect. . the presence of which will indicate that the joint itself was not a t fault. However. be disregarded. however. in a manner similar to that already outlined. in such cases. If the glue exhibits an irregular appearance with star-shaped patterns. but the results are only valid if BS 1204 test pieces are used. Local staining of the wood by the casein cement c a n . this could be the result of either pre- a r e of the glue prior to the application of pressure during the manufacture of the joint. this m a y be an indication that the pot-life of the glue had expired before thc joint was made or that pressure had been incorrectly applied or maintained.

Old Aircraft Repajrs

Where repairs are to be carried out on old aircraft in which the structure is
joined with a casein glue, all traces of the casein should be removed from the
joint since this material is alkaline and is liable to affcct the setting of a
synthetic resin adhesive. Local staining of the wood by the casein can,
however, be disregarded Where urea formaldehyde (UF)glues are to be used,
the surface should be wlped wath a solution of 10940w / w acetic acid in water,
and allowed to dry before the glue 1s applied.

Note. This process must. only be used with urea formaldehyde (UF) glues. If
used prior to the application of, for example, resorcinol formaldehyde (RF)
glues, the joint strength could be seriously impaired.


Mixed adhesives have a very limited pot-life and any spare mixture left over
after the completion of a task should be discarded straight away.

Unmixed resins a n d hardeners have a shelf life and this should not be
exceeded. Resins in powder form which show signs of caking or corrosion of the
container and liquid resins which show signs of 'gelling' or have become
excessively viscous, should be rejected even if shelf life h a s not been exceeded.

Glues and resins should be stored in their original containers in clean dry
conditions out of direct sunlight. The temperature should not exceed 2 1"C
('70°F).Glues and resins should be used on a "first in first out7'basis.


The basic structure of a n aircraft made of wood is not too unlike a n aircraf
made from metal or composite - in principle.

The structure can either be:
* Non-monocoque
-k Monocoque
A Semi-monocoque

Non monococpe structures are those built on the beam principle. The
fuselage, for example, is made u p of longerons and struts made of wood. These
are compression members. Any tensile loads in the strrrct ure are normally
accommodated by tension wires. The whole structure is covered with fabric
(natural or synthetic) to provide a n aerodynamic shape. Secondary structure
may be added to improve the stxeamlining.

Figury 5 shows a typical wood structure rear fuselagt. whcre all the strength is
taken by the longerons and vertical and horizontal cross nlembers. Figure 6
shows a typical wing structure with a frorit and rear spare (with somctirnes a n
intermediate spar) to take the rnain bending loads and ribs to give strength and
shape to the aerofoil. The whole wmg is covered with f a b r ~ ca n d it is quite
common to cover the leading edge with plywood.

Figure 7 shows two examples of main spars. A s with all spar construction the
main principle is to get as much structure a t the top and bottorn of the spar,
To this end spars may be constructed using a web to support to support cap
strips or flanges a t the top and bottom - or the spar constructed as a box with
the main strength (spruce) members separated by ply webs.

Some spars may be made as a sirnple rectangular cross section - less
expensive but with a poorer strengthlweight ratio. Tailplanes and fins will
normally be constructed similar to the mainplanes.







Figure H shows two examples of the construction of ribs. These are both truss
type ribs made u p of square cross section spruce cap strips glued and p ~ n n e d
to each other using ply gussets. Some ribs may not be of open construction
(top rib ln figure 8) b u t m a y have a complete ply covering - in some cases with
lightening holes to reduce the overall weight.



pizmzq (IBEAiSPARl





Monocoque structures are rare but do exist - a t least for fuselages. Normally
made of plywood which is formed into a hoop to provide all the structural
reqrrire~nentsof the fuselage as well a s all the aerodynamic requirements. With
rnonococlue structure there is no internal bracing.

The de-Havilland Mosquito's rear fuselage is made of a plywood-balsawood -
plywood sandwich construct ion that forms a monocoque structure with no
internal support (the same principle a s a chicken's egg). The inside of the
fuselage is quite smooth except where brackets and 0thr.r fittings are attached
to take supports for flying control cables, electrical and radio cables,




Semj monocoque structure (where the skin takes some of the load) is common
with metal aircraft. For wooden aircraft i t would involve the aircraft's skin
k i n g strong enough to take some of the load and this could only happen if the
skin was made of plywood with some internal support such a s frames a n d



Figurc 10 shows the rear fuselage of the de-Havilland Rapide. It has four
longerons with vertical and horizontal spacers/strnts. I t is basically syllnre in
cross- section with a complete covering of plywood.


'I'kte joining of wooden parts of the structure has already been dealt with but
little h a s been said of h o w the fabric is attached. It rnay be fitted to the
skeleton of the airframe by:

Tying o n WI th string.
* Fitting thr fabric covering a s a 'sock' over the wing/fuselage.
Clamplrlg on with special metal clamps.

Once the fabric is fitted on the airframe it is tautened by doping or the
application of heat a n d weatherproofed - using paints.

Fabric covering - and repairs -- will be dealt with in more detail later.

What follows is a general guide a s to the checks and inspections to be carried
out on wooden structures.


When inspecting wooden structures it is most important that the relevant
aircraft maintenance manual be consulted.

'This part of the book gives guidance on the inspection of wooden aircraft
structures for evidence of deterioration of the timber a n d glued joints. I t should
be read in conjunction with the relevant aircraft manuals, approved
Maintenance Schedules and manufacturer's instructions.

Glued Structures

Provided that protective varnish was applied to all exposed wood surfaces after
gluing a n d the aircraft satisfactorily maintained, deterioration of the timber
and glued joints is unlikely. However, deterioration is possibly for many
reasons a n d the structure should be inspected regularly. Factors which m:Ad
cause deterioration include:

a) Chemical reactions of the glue itself due to ageing or moisture, or
to extremes of temperature or to a combination of these.
b) Stresses set u p due mainly to timber shrinkage.
c) Development of mycological growths (ie fungus).
(1) Oil corltamination from the engines, hydraulic systems etc.
c) Fuel coritamination due to fuel system leaks or spillage in the tank
f) Rain water jrigress and blockage of drainage holes.

Alr-craft which are exposed to large cyclic changes of temperature and humidity
arc. especially prone t o timber sl-~rinkagewhich in turn rnay lead to glue

The amount of movement of timbers due to these changes varies with the
volume of each structure member, the rate of growth of the tree from wh1c.h the
timber was cut and the way in which the timber was converted. Thus, turo
large members secured to each other by glue, are unlikely to have identical
characteristics and differential loads will, therefore, be transmitted across the
glue joint due to humidity changes. This will impose stresses on the glued joint
which, in temperate zones, can normally be accommodated when the aircraft is
new and for some years afterwards. However, with age the glue tends to
deteriorate, even when the aircraft is maintained under ideal conditions a n d
these stresses may cause joint failure.

In most wooden aircraft of monoplane construction the main spars are of box
formation consisting of long top and bottom transverse members (ie spar
booms) joined by plywood webs. The spar booms may be built u p from
laminations glued together and a t intervals vertical wooden blocks are
positioned between the two booms to add support to the plywood sides.

The main spars carry most of the loads in flight and are, a t times, subject to
flexing. The glued joints should, therefore, be free from deterioration but,
unless the spar is dismantled or holes cut in the webs, internal inspection may
be virtually impossible.

Long exposure to inclement weather or strong sunlight will tend to deteriorate
the weatherproofing qualities of fabric coverings and of surface finishes. If
fabric covered ply structures are neglected under these conditions the surface
finish will crack, allowing moisture to get to the wooden structure resulting in
deterioration through water soakage.

Aircraft General Structural Survey

Before commencing a detailed exarnination of the aircraft structure, the
structure should be inspected externally for signs of deformation, such a s
warped wing structures, tail surfaces out of alignment or evidence of obvious
structural failure. It may be prudent to carry out an airframe rigging check (see
the appropriate book in module 7).

The aircraft should be housed in a dry, well-ventilated hangar and all
inspect.ion panels, covers and hatches removed. It may be necessary to rernove
sections of fabric. (There is a CAA requirement [AN501 that all older wooden
aircraft are dismantled/opened-up from time to time to inspect a
representative sample of the wooden structure and any unserviceable wood
replaced.) The aircraft should be thoroughly dried out before examining glued
joints or carrying out repairs.

Should any defects be found in the opened-up section of the airframe t h Y n
further parts will have to be inspected by removing fabric covering fron~niore
parts of the airframe. It is possible that, if significant deterioration is fourrtl, the
aircraft will have to be completely uncovered and, after suitable rectificat Ion,
completely recovered.

Immediately on opening a n inspection panel, or any enclosed area a check
should be made for smell. Each component should be sniffed. A musty smell
indicates fungoid growth or dampness and, if present, necessitates a further
examination to establish which areas are affected.


Where the wings, fuselage or tail unit are designed a s integral stressed
structures, such as inner and outer ply skins glued and screwed to s t r u c t ~ .1
members (figure 11) no appreciable departure from the original contour or
shape is acceptable.

Where single skin plywood structures are concerned, some slight sectional
undulation or panting between panels may be permissible (check SRM)
provided the timber and glue Joints are sound. However, where such
conditions exist, a careful check must be made of the attachment of the ply to
its supporting structure. To check this, apply a moderate force by hand to
push the ply from the structure. A typical example of a single skin structure is
illustrated in figure 1 2.




The contours and alignment of leading and trailing edges are susceptible to
deformation and should be checked carefully. Any distortion of these light ply
and spruce structures could indicate deterioration and a careful internal
inspection should be made. lf a general, check for security and any
deterioration - if found check the main wing structure also.

after the inspection has been completed. Where access is required and no approved scheme exists. It is common for a split in the ply skin to be the cause of a s~rnilar defect in the fabric covering.Where there are access panels or inspection covers on the top surfaces o I fuselages. All known or suspected trouble spots must be closely inspected regardless of log book records indicating that the aircraft has been well maintained ancl properly housed throughout its life. or suspected trouble spots and. heck ( for internal deterioration and when refitting the inspection panels ensure that they are waterproof. Fabric having age cracks and thick with repeated dopings. The inspection of a complete aircraft for glue or wood deterioration will necessitate checks on remote parts of the structure which may be known. where it could stagnate and promote rapid deterjoration. may indicate that the structure underneath h a s not been critically examined for some time. approval should be obtained from the aircraft manufacturer or a n organisation approved by the C M for such work. considerable dismantling is required and it may be necessary to remove all the fabric and to cut access holes in ply structures to facilitate the inspection. In such instances. Where moisture enters a structure. Inspection of Timber and Glued Joints Assessment of the integrity of glued joints in aircraft structures presents difficulties since there is no positive NDT method of examination which will give a clear indication of the condition of the glue and timber inside a joint. it will cend to find the lowest point. Insertion patches in the fabric could also indicate that structural repairs liave been made a t that point. are boxed in or otherwise inaccessible. If it has. . This must be done only in accordance with approved drawings or the Structure Repair Manual (SRM) for the aircraft concerned and. Note. Whilst a preliminary external survey may be useful in obtaining a general assessment of the condition of the aircraft. wings or tailplane. The position is made more difficult by the lack of accessibility for visual inspection. check that water has not entered. in many instances. Splits in the proofed fabric covering on plywood surfaces should be invest gated by removing the defective fabric in order to ascertain whether the ply is serviceable. the structure must be made good and re-protected. it should be remembered that timber and glued joint deterioration often takes place inside a structure without any external indications.

when cutting an access hole it is most important that damage is not done to structure (or components) the other side of the hole. struts. Remember. especially towards the end of the cut. rudder. tailplane. prefc . rear fuselage.front fuselage. slats. otherwise damage may be caused to the inner face of the panel by stripping off the edge fibres or the ply laminations. access holes are circular in shape and should be cut with a sharp trepanning tool to avoid jagged inspected in detail before any decision is reached regarding its general condition.Ply Access Holes In general. . ailerons. elevators. fin. flaps. etc . since contact with the rough edges may damage fingers (cuts and splinters) and cause wood fibres to be pulled away. It is essential to avoid applying undue pressure to the cutting tool.bly before inspection is commenced. 13 GLUE LINE CHECKS The edges of all access holes must be smoothed with fine glasspaper. NUT & BOLT PLYWOOD SKIN DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. Where rectangular access holes are prescribed care is necessary to ensure that they are correctly located and that corner radii are in accordance with drawing requirements. It is important that the whole of the aircraft structure .

Dry rot is indicated by small patches of crumbling wood. Where such discolouration cannot be removed by light scraping +he part should be rejected or repaired a s per the AMM. whilst a dark discolouration of the wood surface or grey streaks of stain running along the grain are indicative of water penetration.Glue Line When checking a glue line (at the edge of the glued joint). removed from another part of the structure known to be 11-ee frorn water ingress. Where pressure is exerted on the joint. so the condition of the screw should be compared with that of a similar screw. Timber Condition Dry rot and decay are usually easy to detect. Figure 13 indicates the points where checks with a feeler gauge should be made. Notes 1. or where the presence of an actual glue line cannot be detected or it is suspect. otherwise a false impression of the glue line would be obtained due to closure of the joint by the wood swelling. Water Penetration of Structure If this js suspect in an area where there are some wood screws remove one or two and check if they are corroded (figure 14). all protective paint coating should be removed by careful scraping. feeler gauges and remote viewing mirrors. Staining of the wood ~y the dye from a synthetic adhesive hardener can be disregarded. Where the glue line appears to tend to part. providing the wood is d r y . Excess corrosion will warrant further investigation a s to the cause. the joint should be regarded a s defective. Slight corrosion of the screw due to the adhesive may occur during original construction. The choice of feeler gauge thickness will vary with the type of structure. intra-scopes etc. . It is important not to damage the wood in any way nor to mark or damage the glue line. Gut a rough guide is that the thinnest possible gauge should be used. It is important to ensure that the surrounding wood is dry. the glue line should be probed with a thin feeler gauge and. then. either by the surrounding structure or by bolts or screws. 2. this pressure should be relieved so a better assessment of the glue line may be made. if any penetration is possible. A good source of light is needed together with a magnifying glass.

BULKHEAD FRAME SKIN SPACER WOODSCREW CORROSION caused by moisture ingress and possibly indicating glued joint failure DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. Experience of a particular aircraft will indicate those parts of the structure most prone to water penetration and entrapment (eg a t window rails or the bottom lower structure of entry doors). Plain brass screws are normally used for reinforcing glued wooden members. Main/rear spar bolts/ bushes may be removed (again ensuring adequate support of fuselage/wing. Where hard woods such a s mahogany or a s h are concerned. metal fittings etc can also provide a means whereby water ingress can be checked. bush etc is removed. dope etc. it is usual to replace screws with new screws of identical length but one size larger. All drain holes should be kept clear of debris. Be careful to ensure that any items attached to the airframe by these bolts etc are properly supported before the bolt. 14 CHECKING FOR WATER INGRESS Note. bushes. tailplane etc).f any water penetration. Unless otherwise specified by the aircraft manufacturer. Primary joints may have bushed holes and the bushes should also be withdrawn. support brackets. Note. steel screws are sometimes used. will provide a useful indicatiol . although zinc coated brass is sometimes used. . Bolts and bushes should be smeared with an appr zd protective treatment before being refitted through wooden members. but it must be remembered that this is not necessarily indicative of the condition of the whole aircraft. paint. Corrosion on the surface of these bolts and bushes and timber discolouration. The removal of bolts. When refitting bolts it is important to ensure that the same number of shrinkage washers are fitted as were fitted originally.

can result in damage to the wood fibres a t the edges of the fittings or around the bolt holes. cracks or other damage. in some cases.Water Penetration of Top Surfaces The condition of the weather-proofed fabric covering must be checked (set. the bolt itself may be found to be strained. Bruising or crushing of structural members can be caused by over-tightening of bolts. where there are small surface cracks or separation of the ply laminations. The fabric can be replaced/repaired after the ply repair. then the ply should be replacedlrepaired iaw the are any signs of poor adhesion. Below are listed others that should be examined for. Remember. Qther Defects Of course. or in the case of advanced deterioration. '-he usual method being to open out the holes and fit steel bushes. Repair schemes for such damage arc governed by the extent and depth of the defect and given in the SRM. Elongated Bolt Holes. All bolt holes should be examined for elongation or local surface crushing of the wood fibres. Shrinkage. . this will be shown by dark grey streaks along the grain and a dark discolouration at ply joints or screw countersunk holes. If in any doubt about its weather-proofing or if t. water/moisture penetration is not the only defect that can occur to wooden structures. Sometimes referred to as compression shakes. art: due to rupture across the wood fibres. if fluctuating loads are present. together with patches of discolouratior~.If these marks cannot be removed by light scraping. Shrinkage can be detected by removing any paint or varnish as described above and attempting to insert a thin feeler gauge between the timber and the fitting or bolt head. Rectification of elongated bolt holes is carried out in accordance with the SRM. excessive loads being placed on the structure during maintenance etc. Where the fabric covers a plywood layer the condition of the exposed ply surface should be examined and if water penetration has occurred. This can induce stresses in glued joints and cause looseness of metal fittings or bolts and. it should be peeled back to allow a more thorough inspection. The bolts should be removed to facilitate the examination and. when removing bolts to support the structure that the bolt is holding. Compression Failures. Bruising and Crushing. This is a serious defect which at times is difficult to detect and special care is necessary when inspecting any wood(:n member which has been subjected to abnormal bending or compressive loads which may occur during a heavy landing. later text).

it will be secured by a number of bolts or screws (or both) fairly closely pitched in the area of the loading. will assist in revealing the disruption of the grain lines. should be considered suspect. If the aircraft is stored outside or in hot dry conditions then special checks will be required for deterioration of wood. whatever the direction of loading. due to the break-up of the timber occurring close to the bolts. Damage caused by a heavy landing may be found some distance away from the landing gear attachment points. the failure will usually show on all surfaces. or the pot life of th. but it should be borne in mind that g l ~ c d joints are generally designed to take shear loads. whether or not the glue has come away completely from one section of the wood member.. glue has been exceeded.In the case of a member having been subjected to an excessive bending load. joints. For a member taking an excessive direct compressive load. If the glue exhibits a certain amount of crazing or sta- shaped patterns. causing damage well away from the point of impact. whether damage has actually occurred. If there is no evidence of fibre adhesion. the failure will appear on the surface which has been compressed. . If a failure occurs in this area. In these cases. poor workmanshi-. If a joint is designed to take a tension load. but if the imprint of wood gain is visible in the glue this is generally due to 'case hardening' of the glue during construction of the joint and the joint has always been below strength. by cracks or flaking. this indicates a too rapid setting time. Previous Repairs. a strong light source shone along the member. or due to excessive loads being imposed. the other glued joints in the aircrh. in line with the grain. Not really a defect.Joint Failure A glued joint may fail in service a s a result of a n accident. The surface subject to tension will normally not show any defect. it is usually difficult to form an opinion of the actual reasons for it. In all cases of glued joint failure. Where a compression failure is suspected. usually at a position of concentrated stress such a s a t the end of a hardwood packing block. A thorough inspection of the existing paint or varnish a t suspected primary or secondary impact points may reveal. Note. there should be a fine layer of wood fibres adhering to the glue. but when carrying out a structural examination always inspect repairs carefully for integrity. fabric and painting and doping finishes. It is often difficult to decide the n? ire of the load which caused the failure. . Secondary damage can be introduced by transmitted shock from one end of a strut or bracing to the other. this may indicate glue deterioration.

A plywood patch or length of timber applied over the damaged area (after the damage has been cut to a regular shape). Tools Standard wood working tools are required to include hammers. glue mixing equipment. . glue pots. * Damage repairable by insertion. wood chisels. spoke shaves (a sort of small hand plane) drill bits. a detailed inspection must be carried out . * Damage repairable by patching. clamps etc. bowing and splitting sometimes occurs a distance away from the primary damage area caused by shock transmission along members. planes. mallets. Materials These include various sizes of nails. Severe damage may require replacement of the entire damaged assembly. The damage is c u t to a regular shape and a n insertion is spliced in. Fitted using glue. screwdrivers. woodscrews and glue resins and hardeners. Repairs are carried out to damaged areas and to areas where deterioration has occurred strictly iaw the repair manual (SRM). The purpose of a repair is to obtain a structure a t least a s strong a s the original.If a repair scheme is not specified by the manufacture for a particular part of the structure/particular type of damage then the manufacturer should be contacted for detail of how to proceed. nails and/or screws.firstly around the primary damage area (where the initial impact occurred) and then the surrounding area to check for secondary damage Secondary damage in the form of cracks. REPAIRS TO WOODEN STRUCTURES Whenever wooden parts sustain damage. This replacement is accomplished by glue. but minor damage can be repaired by cutting away the damaged members and replacing them with new sections. scrapers. rasps. Damage may be classed as: * Negligible . sanding equipment. or glue and nails. or glued and screw splicing.small areas of wood damage that might just need blending out and a varnish treatment. * Damage repairable by replacement. saws (hand and powered). The whole section is removed and a new section fitted. panel pins.

Northern White Pine Cannot be used a s substitute for spruce without increase in sizes to compensate for reduced strength. Several types of wood are commonly used. Maximum grain inclination shollld not exceed 1: 15 . Ideally the wood used to repair a part should be the same as that of the original whenever possible. Douglas Fir May be used a s substitute for spruce in same sizes or in slightly reduced sizes. For interior trim. breathing equipment and goggles. High-density material includes compreg. gloves. Plywood is usually made of a n odd number of veneers with the grain of each layer a t an angle of 90" with the adjacent ply or plies. heat stabilised wood or any of the hardwood plywoods commonly used a s bearing or reinforcement plates. Noble Fir May be used as substitute for spruce. All wood and plywood used in the repair of aircraft structures must be of aircraft quality. Yellow Poplar Should only be used a s a substitute for spruce after accounting for reduced strength properties. If it is necessary to substitute a different wood. always follow the recommendations a s laid down in the SRM. White Cedar May be used a s substitute for spruce in same sizes or in slightly reduced sizes. The woods listed below are used for structural purposes. impreg or similar commercial products. which have been glued together with the grain of all layers approximately parallel. Solid wood such a s beams or planks will be needed and also various thicknesses of plywood (sometimes just ply or laminated wood) will be required. Laminated wood is an assembly of two or more thin layers (veneers) of wood. WOOD USES (Only where specified in the SRM) Spruce All structural members. any of the decorative woods such a s maple or walnut can be used. Western Hemlock May be used a s substitute for spruce.Safety equipment includes overalls.

Splits are longitudinal cracks induced by induced stress.Permitted Defects Ideally the wood should be defect free but often this is not possible and some defects will be present. Acceptable in the centre portion of a beam providing they are a t least 14" (356mm) apart where they are in the same growth ring and do not exceed 1%'' (38mm) in length by %" (3mm)width by 1/8" depth and providirig they are not along the projecting portions of I-beams. along the edges of rectangular or bevelled unrouted beams. or along the edges of the flanges of box beams. They should not be in the centre third of the beam and should not be closer than 20" (508mm) to another knot or other defect (applies to lOmm knots - smaller knots may be proportionately closer). Checks are longitudinal cracks extending. Acceptable if irregularities do not exceed limitations specified a s above. Checks. Hard knots. Sound hard knots u p to 3/8" (10mm) diameter are acceptable providing: (1) they are not in projecting portions of the I-beams. Pitch pockets. Some defects are allowed . across the annular rings. Mineral streaks. Small clusters are acceptable providing they produce only a small effect on grain direction.other are not. diagonal grain or a combination of the two is acceptable providing the grain does not diverge from the longitudinal axis of the material more than 1:15. generally. The direction of free-flowing ink will assist in determining grain direction Wavy. along the edges of rectangular or bevelled unrouted beams. Pin knot clusters. curly and interlocked grain. Cross grain. or along the edges of flanges of box beams (except in lowly stressed portions) and (2) they do not cause grain divergence a t the edges of the board or in the flanges of a beam more than 1 : 15. Shakes are longitudinal cracks usually between two annular rings. Acceptable providing there is no decay. These are knots running completely through the depth of the beam perpendicular to the annual rings and appear most frequently in quartersawed lumber. . shakes and splits. Spiral grain. A check of all four faces of the board is necessary. Defects Not Permitted Spike knots.

If in doubt reject the wood. 15 SCARF JOINT When making the scarf it is important to ensure that the two mating edges are in close contact.Compression wood. The scarf joint is generally used in splicing structural members. In most woods it shows little contrast in colour between the spring wood and the summer wood. It is characterised by its high specific gravity (heavy) and it has the appearance of a n excessive growth of summer wood. This is caused by the wood being overstressed in compression by natural forces during the growth of the tree. Compression failures are characterised by a buckling of the fibres that appear as streaks on the surface substantially a t right angles to the grain and can show as pronounced failures to very fine hairlines. All wood must be free from decay. Then a fine toothed saw is run down the joint to act similar to a router. In doubtful cases carry out a toughness test. Compression failures. The two pieces to be joined are cut a t a n angle (bevelled) and glued. or subject samples to a toughness test. The scarf is cut in the general direction of the grain. Decay. PRESSURE I I PART BEING / PART BEING SCARF CUT JOINED Fig. The scarf may not be exactly 1 in 10 (though it should be close) but a t least the two mating surfaces will be exactly parallel to provide a sound glued joint.2in x 4in). This defect reduces the strength of the wood and is difficult to recognise. or rough handling of logs. . Examine all stains and discolorations to determine whether or not they decay. The best method for doing this is to cut the two scarf mating edges separately then clamp them together using G clamps and 2 strong timbers (two by four . The slope of the bevel should be not less than 10 to 1 in solid wood and 12 to 1 in plywood. felling trees on rough or irregular ground. The edges are then given a light plane. The process may need repeating after tapping the timbers closer together. Spliced Joints This a process of inserting a piece of solid wood or ply into a n existing w o o ~ c n member.

a rectangular.similar to the splayed patch but uses a scarf of 1 in 12 and used for bigger repairs.If softwood. triangular. 3. oral c. 5. These are reinforcements placed under thc edge of the hole inside the skin. Consult the SRM for repair details and the AMM for details of systems and equipment that may need removing to gain access.for use with smaller damaged areas. Plywood Skin Repairs Most skin repairs can be made using: * The surface or overlay patch . Trim the damage rectangular or triangular shape depending on the location of the damage relative to other structure such a s frarnes and formers. similar to an insertion repair for metal airframes.this is always carried out after cleaning out the damage to a regular shape. wood that has been compressed through exposure to high pressure and temperatures. Classify the damage . Bring aircraft and materials into hangar for 24 hours to allow to get to correct temperature for gluing (if in cold climate). Manufact~x-ethe backing plates (doublers) from ply a t least a s thick a s the skin. The Surface Patch Should not be used on plywood over l/s inch (3mm) thick and the general procedure is: 1. 4. 2. for very small holes. * A plug patch . * A fabric patch . The corners of the cutout should be rounded with a radius of a t least five times the thickness of the skin. x The scarf patch . subsequent sanding should not be carried out but is recomnlr. . resin-impregnated wood (irr~pr-eg and compreg).nded for some hard plyu~oodsurfaces.)r round patch fitted over the cleaned out damaged area. or laminated paper plastic (papreg) It is recommended that no more than 8 hours elapse between final surhc:e finishing and gluing. * The splayed or flush fitting patch .

i Fig. Cut the patch to extend a t least 12 times the skin thickness beyond the edges of the opening from material of the same kind and thickness a s the original skin. 7. 8. . The doubler should extended from one framing member to another and are strengthened at the ends by saddle gussets attached to the frames. Clamp together if possible --if not apply weights to ensure surfaces are held tightly together. 10. The fabric should be doped and any paint schemes reapplied. Any disturbed systems refitted and function tested. Apply glue to a. The edges of the patch are bevelled (scarfed). 16 TYPICAL PLYWOOD PATCH BEVELED EDGES \ T PATCH PLYWOOD SKIN \ 3T 114" MIN -. After the glue has dried the area should be covered with fabric if on the outside of the aircraft. 9. 11. The appropriate documentation cleared eg the CRS completed. 6. PLY PATCH PLY SKlN SKlN DAMA DOUBLER / BEHIND HOLE CUT TO SIZE SKIN Fig.11 surfaces (refer to the adhesives section in this book) and nail to prevent any movement. 1'7 SECTION A-A TYPICAL PLYWOOD PATCH The leading edge of a surface patch should be bevelled with an angle of at least four times the skin thickness. The fabric should overlap the original ply skin by a t least 2 inches (51mm). The face-grain direction of the ply patch must be in the same direction a s the original skin.

Do not use excessive pressure. The scarf patch also uses reinforcements under the patch where the glue joints occur. knife or rasp.5mm). Splayed patches are used for small holes where the largest dimension of the hole to be repaired is not greater than 15 times the skin thickness and t. -.1" OR OR CLAMP PRESSURE PLATE LESS / WAXPAPEROR I 4 I. with waxed paper between the two and pressed firmly against the patch with a weight or clamp to provide pressure. sand and finish the patch to match the original surface. The term 'splayed' denotes that the edges of the patch are tapered. 18 SPLAYED PATCH Scarf Patch Scarf patches are preferred for most skin repairs as they provide a smooth outer finish. fill. Draw two concentric circles around the damaged area on the aircraft skin. The patch is of the same type and thickness as the plywood being repaired. The inner circle marks the limit of the actual hole and the outer one marks the limit of the taper. but thy slope is steeper than is allowed in scarfing joints.hy skin thickness is not more than 0. Cut out the inner circle and taper the hole evenly to the outer mark with a. . Apply glue to the bevelled surfaces and place the patch into place with the face-grain direction matching that of the original surface. The scarf patch differs from the splayed patch in that it car1 be larger (limits laid down in SRM) and the edges are scarfed to a 10 to 1 slope instead of the 5 to 1 used with the splayed patch. cut and tapered to match the nole. The slope of the edges is cut at an angle of five times the thickness of the skin.The Splayed or Flush Patch A splayed patch is a patch fitted into the plywood to provide a flush surface. After the patch is in place. \ \ 5T PATCH PLYWOOD SKIN Fig. WEIGHTS 114" PLY T = 0.hisel.1" (2. After trimming the damage to a regular shape. After the glue has set. a pressure plate cut to the same size of the patch is centred over the patch. The difference between the radii is five times the skin thickness. tack a small piece of plywood under the hole to provide a centre point for a compass. Prepare a circular patch.

3T 114 MIN SCARF / / 1 Fig. The plug patch is made u p of a plug or insert with edges cut square and a backing piece or doubler. it should be repaired a s follows: After removing the damaged sections. the scarf edge of the patch should be supported internally. When the back of a damaged plywood skin is not accessible. . A backing block is shaped from solid wood and fitted to the inside surface of the skin and is temporarily held in place with nails. To prevent warping of the skin. U s . they may be oval or round and are used on plywood skins. 3 bucking bar if necessary to provide support when nailing. A hole.Scarfed patches are used on flat surfaces or curved surfaces provided they are not too curved (greater than 100 times the skin thickness). Backing blocks or other reinforcements must be shaped to fit any skin curvature. nail and glue the new gusset plate to the rib or frame. install backing strips along all edges that are not fully backed by a rib or spar. After the glue SF. Attach nailing strips to hold backing strips in place while the glue sets. or it may be necessary to nail a saddle gusset over the original. All junctions between backing strips and ribs or spars should have the end of the backing strip supported by a saddle plywood gusset. i. It may be necessary to replace the old gusset plate with a new saddle gusset. They are used only for damage that does not involve the supporting structure under the skin. backing strips should be made of a soft textured plywood. the same size as the inside circle of the scarf patch. If needed. Plug Patches Similar to an insertion patch. 19 SCARF PATCH Whenever possible. such a s yellow poplar or spruce rather than solid wood. leaving a flush surface to the repaired skin. is made in the block and is centered ove- the trimmed area of damage. The block is removed after the glue on the pa' -1 has set. fill and finish to match the original skin.

The general procedure is not too unlike that described for a si-lrface repair with the following main points of difference: 1. . BUTT JOINT PLUG PATCH PLY S K I N / / \\ / / PLYWOOD DOUBLER Fig. Centre doubler a t back of skin hole. A round patch can be used where the cutout is no larger than 6" (152mrn) in diameter. 20 PLUG PATCH The skin is cut out to a clean round or oval hole with square edges. Cut insert and hole in skin the same size. After the glue has set. remove pressure plate. sand and finish to match the original surface. 2. Apply pressure to patch by means of a pressure plate. Place waxed paper or cellophane between plate and patch to prevent glue from sealing plate to the patch. Nail in place using a bxlcking bar or similar support for backing and clamp. nails and screws. Apply a coat of glue to the outer half of the doubler surface where it will bear against the inner surface of the skin. Cut the doubler or backing piece of %" (6mm) plywood. 4. 3. The steps for making an oval plug patch are similar to those for making the round patch. 5. apply glue to the centre surface of the doubler and insert. 9. the edge of the patch forms a butt joint with the edge of the hole. Fill nail and screw holes. 7. A plug patch is cut of same material and thickness a s the original skin with square edges. The maximum dimensions for oval patches are 7" by 5" (178mrn x 127mm). waxed paper. 6. After the glue has set. Place the insert in hole and screw with No 4 wood screws a t 1" (25mm) pitch. The patch is cut to the same size and when installed.

or in the wing leading edge or frontal area of the fuselage. Extend the planks well beyond the termination of any damage . provided the damaged area is small. splice in a new section of spar or replace the spar entirely. can be repaired by doping a fabric patch on the outside of the plywood skin. engine mountings. The patch should have a serrated edge. Looseness allows the bolt or fitting to work back and forth which will enlarge the hole.a s laid down in the SRM. deformation of the wood may cause splitting or unequal load distribution. webs and reinforcement plates must be in the same direction a s that of the. after being trimmed to a smooth outline. the web should be cut back to structural members and repaired with a scarf patch or joint.gear fittings. For other fittings any measurements a s to proximity/overlapping of reinforcing backing pieces etc are not exceeded. . The face-grain of plywood replaceme. Holes drilled to receive bolts should be of such a size that the bolt can be inserted by light tapping with a mallet. landing. Always splice and reinforce plywood webs with the same type of plywood as the original. . should not be repaired with fabric patches. original member to ensure that the new web will have the required strength. Not more than two splices should be made in any one spar. Spar And Rib Repairs (Solid Wood Repairs) For minor damage the web members of a spar or rib can be repaired by applying a n external or flush patch. A spar may be spliced at any point except near highly stressed areas such as wing attachment fittings. If more extensive damage has occurred. Planks of spruce or plywood of sufficient thickness to develop the longitudinal shear strength can be glued to both sides of the spar. Plywood is stronger in shear than solid wood of the same thickness because of the variation in grain direction of the individual plies. Holes closer than 1 inch to any frame. or lift and inter-plane strut fittings. anti-drag wires or compression strut fittings is acceptable provided that the reinforcement plates of the splice should not interfere with the proper attachment or alignment of the fittings. In cases of elongated bolt holes in a spar or cracks in the vicinity of boltholes. Bolt and Bushing Holes All bolts and bushings used in aircraft structures must fit tightly into the holes. Splicing under minor fittings such a s drag wires. Do not use solid wood to replace plywood. The edges of the trimmed hole should first be sealed and the fabric patch should overlap the plywood skin by at least 1".Fabric Patch Small holes that do not exceed more than 1" (25mm) in diameter. If the hole is so tight that heavy blows are necessary to insert the bolt.

c-ot i trol runs etc. compression members. The twist drill should be sharpened to approximately a 60" c u t t ~ n g angle. The entire repair is then reinforced with plywood gussets and nailed and glued. is rei~lforced on each side by a plywood plate. cables. If a large area of the aircraft is to be covered (or the whole aircraft) an opportunity presents itself for the inspection of the complete skeleton of t /le airframe and a visually inspection of all the systems. When it is necessary to repair a cap strip a t a spar. Rib Repairs A cap strip of a rib can be repaired using a scarf splice. FABRIC COVERING The fabric covering of a n airframe is to provide a n aerodynamic airtight and weatherproof covering (achieved after doping and painting). When the cap strip is to be repaired a t a point where there is a joint between it and cross members of the rib. cracks. The entire splice. or other local damage to a spar can be repaired by removing the damaged portion and gluing in a properly fitted block.Well-sharpened twist drills produce smooth holes in both solid wood and plywood. the joint should be reinforced by a continuous gusset extending over the spar. which extends beyond the scarf joint not less than three times the thickness of the strips being repaired. including the reinforcing block. The trailing edge of a rib can be replaced and repaired by removing the damaged portion of the cap strip and inserting a softwood block of white pine or spruce. reinforcing the joint by means of plywood or spruce blocks glued into place. the repair is made by reinforcing the scarf joint with plywood gussets. pipelines. The fabric has some strength in tension but non in compression. Sometimes steel bushings are used to prevent crushing the wood when bolts are tightened. Bushings made of plastic or light alloy provide additional bearing surfacv area without any significant increase in weight. Ideally smaller items structural members such a s glue blocks. Edge damage. Compression ribs (the members fitted between the top and bottom of a rib) come in many different forms and their repair will be specified in the S R M . braces and rib diagonals should be replaced. . filler blocks. The repair is reinforced on the side opposite the wing covering by a spruce block.

unbleached linen to British Standards (BS) F1 is normally used. MATERIALS This part of the book describes the materials used in the covering of UK manufactured aircraft. rather like large toilet rolls. BS F57. These are marked by sewing a small piece of red cotton on the selvedge of the fabric. It may be necessary to install flying control cables. Natural Fabrics Supplied in bolts. The number of yarns per centimetre (or per inch) varies with different weights of fabric and is not necessarily the same in both the warp and the weft directions. When in use the bolt is hung from a steel bar suspended from the ceiling and the fabric is pulled down in a similar way to how toilet paper is pulled from a toilet roll. electric cables. Where a defect is noted (by the red cotton on the self-edge) that 2--a is c u t away and is not used for aircraft work. weather proofing and improved surface finish. A light cotton fabric complying with BS F 114 (referred to a s Madapolam) is generally used for covering plywood surfaces. The fabric is then wound on a spindle to form the bolt.All foreign matter is removed and protective treatments (as prescribed in the relevant drawings/AMM) must be applied. Non UK fabric-covered aircraft use these or similar materials manufactured in accordance with equivalent specifications. After manufacture the fabric is inspected by being passed over a light-box and any defects noted. When an unsupported fabric covering is required to carry air loads. The selvedge is the non-fraying edge of the fabric where the weft yarns are 'turned around' during the weaving process. fuel tanks and other syst~ems/components before covering large areas and these should be inspected as necessary and checked for security. These fabrics are woven frorr spun threads or 'yarns'.a play on words 'Left to Right'). This acts as a key to the doping scheme. those running lengthwise are termed the Warp YalLis and those running crosswise are termed Weft Yarns (they run from weft to white . . but some aircraft have coverings of cotton fabric complying with BS F8. giving added strength. BS F116 or DTD 575A. The most suitable conditions for fabric covering are - room temperature [16"C to 2 1O C (61O F to 70°F)]and a relative humidity of not more than 70%.

If serrated edge scissors are not available the edges of the fabric must have their wrap yarns removed (teased away) to leave only the weft yarns for a %" (6mm) on each side.the dope acting as an adhesive. BOLT OF FABRIC DEFECT --- INDICATOR WEFT YARNS SELVEDGE I FRAYING EDGE ' \ SELVEDGE Fig.and this provides a longer edge to give better adhesion. The reason why the edges of the tape are serrated is that the zigzag edge effectively lengthens the edge (compared to if it was straight) . Both edges are selvedges and therefore it cannot be made u p by cutting from the bolt but must be ordered in from stores. Cotton tape complying with BS F47 (referred to as 'Egyptian Tape') is generally used on those members where chafing may occur between the structure and the fabric and is also used externally to protect the fabric against damage by the stringing cord (stringing = tying the fabric onto ribs etc). .with the bias thread being woven a t 45'. If linen tape is not available then I t may be cut from a bolt of fabric using a soft pencil and rule for marking out and cutting using pinking shears (serrated edge scissors). Egyptian tape (which is quite expensive) has three thread inclinations . trailing edges.weft. ribs. stitching and for repair work. warp and bias . The tapes are supplied with serrated edges sometimes called pinked edges. 21 A BOLT OF FABRIC Tapes Linen tapes complying with B8 F1 and cotton tapes complying with BS F8 are available in various widths. They are used to cover leading edges. They are usually doped into position .

25 kg [ l 6 Ib]) is used single. Linen thread complying with BS F34 is normally used. mildew or atmospheric pollution and may require replacement several times during the life of the aircraft. you should always cor. polyester fibre covers are tautened by the application of heat. Care is necessary to prevent the application of excessive heat as this may melt the fibre. For hand sewing. ~ l t the AMM/SRM for the aircraft concerned -. Sewing machines are not too unlike domestic sewing machines . For machine sewing. Man-made fabrics are rlow approved and used extensively on many aircraft which makes fabric recovering less frequent.and follow the fabric manufacturer's recommendations. Stringing Flax cordage complying with BS F35 or braided nylon cord (coreless) complying with DTD 5620 is normally used. Eyeleted Fuselage Webbing On a number of older aircraft. or overtauten the fabric: and distort the airframe structure. or No 18 thread (minimum breaking strength 7. deteriorate in use a s a result of the effects of sunlight. No 40 thread (minimum breaking strength 3 kg [7 lb]) is used double.Thread. Used for hand or machine sewing. or lacing eyelets and kite cord. cotton-webbing braid with hooks. such as cotton or linen.5 kg [ l o lb]) or No 40 thread is used. The two main types of materials are polyester-fibre and glass-fibre. Before stringing. which are marketed under various trade names (Dacron etc). These may be attached to the structure by the methods described later under the heading "Covering Methods" or by use of pre-sewn envelopes ("sock" method) or by use of an approved adhesive a t the points of contact with the structure.but often have a longer arm to allow for sewing greater amounts of material. No 30 thread (minimum breaking strength 4. Man-Made Fabrics Natural fabrics. The most common method of applying heat is a household iron set a t about 120°C ('wool' setting) and used in an ironing motion. The materials used for attachment and stringing must be compatible with the main fabric. . Used to tie the fabric to the structure. They are used to sew together pieces or fabric prior to putting on the aircraft. The general procedure for the use of these fabric is given below but. of course. are used for securing the fabric to the fuselage. Polyester-Fibre Materials. the degree of shrinkage being proportional to the heat applied.

the materials should be inspected for possible flaws (eg iron mould discolouration. Fuselages may conveniently be covered using four pieces of material a t the top. Glass-Fibre should be tight . since tautenir~gwill continue over. Glass-fi'bre material is only slightly tautened by doping and must be a good initial fit. (If in doubt as to how much tautening is needed .a period of months after the dope has bee11 applied.and all carried out in accordance with (iaw) the SRM.make u p a wooden frame about a metre square . Storage All materials used for fabric covering should be stored at a temperature of' about 20°C (68°F)in dry.and use it a s a test piece. a n d / or patches may be stuck on.) Repairs within the specified limits may be carried out (as described later). PREPARATION OF STRUCTURE PRIOR TO COVERING The structure should be prepared by removing all sharp edges from any parts which will be in contact with the fabric.cover it with fabric . but where tauteri~rrg dope is used the initial shrinkage should leave the cover fairly slack. Wood should be lightly sanded a11d metal edges taped with Egyptian tape to prevent chafing. Repairs within the specified limits may be made by cutting out the damaged area of fabric and doping on a cover patch which overlaps 50mm (2 in) a11 round.similar to a drum. Glass-fibre fabric is normally fitted to mainplanes and tailplanes in a spanwise direction. signs of insect. One can always do this some days before the planned time for the actual doping so as to be ready when the time comes. using a suitable adhesive. after which glass-fibre stringing should be fitted in the appropr-ia. doped seams again being employed. bottom and sides. the fabric may be fully tautened prior to doping (check by tapping the fabric with the fingers . Some glass-fibre material is pre-treated to make it compatible with cellulose acetate butyrate dope and is not suitable for use with cellulose nitrate dope. When required for use. .te manner. clean conditions and away from direct sunlight. Large patches should be tautened in the same way as the main covering fabric. but not too tight).edges with a 50mm (2 in) doped seam.Where non-tautening dope is used after fabric fitting. rodent or other damage) and any affected parts rejected. Where any covering tape is wound on structure it is important to ensure that the covered parts are suitable protected from corrosion (metal parts) or deterioration generally (wooden parts) . being attached a t the leading and trailing .

fuselage. Flying/other controls and cables should be tensioned to assume their normal positions and secured by cont. COVERING METHODS An aircraft fabric may be fitted with the warp or weft running a t 45" to the slipstream. tailplane. Before the tape is applied the structure should be treated with varnish to protect it fr~. The envelopes are made loose enough (but not too loose) to facilitate slipping them over the structure and to achieve the proper tautness after doping. flying control surfaces etc. In order to prevent dope from reacting with any protective treatment and to prevent fabric from adhering to wooden structure (where it should not adhere). or in line with the slipstream. Some fixtures may be fitted and the material doped.n corrosion should the tape become wet. Corners. An envelope is made u p for the for the mainplanes. The former (bias) method is generally considered to be stronger and more resistant to tearing. .The structure to be covered should be inspected as outlined above. painted etc. This secondary structure must be inspected for security and any sharp edges removed with fine glass paper. which have a tubular metal fuselage frame (primary structure). Exceptions to this requirement are described later. The Prefabricated Envelope Sometimes called the "sock method" where a fabric envelope is made u p on the bench using machine sewing etc. a canvas or leather patch may be sewn to a fabric patch. edges. Where serious chafing may occur and a strong reinforcement is required. but the actual method used will depend on the SRM. . - bolt or screw heads etc should be suitable protected. They are attached to the structure by stringing or other approved methods. pencil etc). projections. . protection should be provided by wrapping such parts with Egyptian tape. generally keeping the spanwise seam in line with the trailing edge. On some aircraft. Each envelope is made u p from a pattern using accurate measurements (rule. then doped into position. all aerofoil members whlch will be in contact with the fabric are normally covered with adhesive cellulose or aluminium tape. the fuselage shape is made u p with wooden formers attached to the main framework and to these wooden formers are secured stringers onto which the fabric covering is doped.ro1 locks.. but the latter method is used on most light aircraft. Where stringing is likely to be chafed by parts of the structure. Two covering methods are described below. fin. or painted with dope- resistance white paint. On mainplanes the envelope is drawn over the wing tip and gradually pulled down towards the root.

The cover is usually cemented or doped to the fuselage formers. The fabric is then attached to the ribs by stringing. it is not usual to employ stringing. and machined together to forrn larger areas and then attached to the structure. Joins or seams are covered with doped-on tape. For the fuselage the envelope may be open. cementing. for hand stitching. which are doped separately onto the frame or sewn together a t their edges. The fabric is normally folded round the hinge line and sewn cogether round the remaining contour of the surface a t the trailing edge. the hinge line. A number of different methods are used to attach fabric to the fuselage. Control surface envelopes are usually left open at. a t the bottom. hand stitching is dispensed with and the edges are doped into position. Obviously machine sewing is significantly faster arltl more accurate. although it may be specified in some instances. doping or stitching. This is wrapped around the mainplane from front to rear starting and finishing a t the trailing edge and joined by hand stitching using the Trailing Edge stitch. or retaining strip) to the inboard end of the mainplane. Since the air loads on the fuselage are not as great a s on the mainplanes. where tliey are secured by cementing. and necessary openings for cables. . $or the mainplanes a n d tailplanes the cover is normally made-up from lengths of fabric machine stitched together. the pitch of eac:h individual stitch is marked (not too unlike the marking out used when riveting). The Blanket Method With this method the fabric is cut to shape. to simplify fitting. On some aircraft with light alloy structure. A line is drawn on the fabric along which the line of stitches is to run and. The fabric is not normally attached in one piece.When the cover is located it is secured (by stitching. Control surfaces are covered in a similar way to the mainplanes and usually require stringing. but usually consists of several pieces (eg sides. The fin envelope is usually fitted first. tank caps. top a n d bottom). but when it comes to accuracy all sewing is carried out by first marking out with a rule and soft pencil. then the fuselage envelope is stretched forwards over the fuselage and secured in the same way a s the original fabric. etc are cut and stringing is applied a s necessary. struts. or partially open. JOINING FABRIC TO FABRIC This may be carried out by a sewing machine (off the aircraft) or hand sewing (off or on the aircraft).

The edges should overlap each other by 31mm (1-25") and should be machine sewn with four stitches per centimetre (nine stitches per inch).5")apart and 9mm (0.A5 in) and are then fitted into each other as shown.375")from the edges. Note the conversion discrepancies. the balloon seam and the lap seam. the seam should be examined over a strong electric light (preferably a light-box) to ensure that the inside edges of the fabric have not been missed during sewing. With the exception of trailing edge or leading edge joints (where such action cannot be avoided) seams should never be made at right angles to the direction of airflow. is normally specified for all fabr'- joints. DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. 22 THE BALLOON SEAM After completion. tacked together and then machine sewn with four stitches per centimetre (nine per inch) in two parallel lines 9mm (0. the edges of the fabric should be serrated with 'pinking' shears.375in) apart and 3mm (0. As the normal stitching progresses so the tack stitches are removed. The lap seam (figure 23) should only be used when specified in the SRM. the edges of the fabric are folded back 16mm (0 . Hand stitching (and stringing) requires a lot of patience.125in) from either edge. Seams The seams in the fabric covering should be either parallel to the fore-and-aft line of the aircraft or on the bias. Two types of machine seams are employed. This entails the temporary stitching of the fabric at fairly widely spaced intervals just to hold the fabric pieces in place. The balloon seam or French Fell (figure 22). . the stitch lines being 12mm (0. After stitching. Unless the selvedges are present. depending on the covering method used.Before commencing the actual stitching the two pieces of fabric are 'tack stitched' together. To make the seam. a 75mm (3")wide serrated-edge fabric strip should be doped in position.

EDGE 75mm COVERING TAPE POSIT'ION DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. The thread is waxed by holding the beeswax in one hand (it is not unlike a bar of soap) and pulling the thread or cord over the bar. 12mm (0. should be given a liberal coating of beeswax. It will wear a small grove in the bar a n d the process is repeated 2 or 3 times to ensure complete waxing. Beeswax All threads used for hand sewing and all cord used for stringing (when not pre- waxed). facilitates sewing and reduces the likelihood of damaging the fabric or :nlarging the stitch holes when it is pulled through. * Darning. This protects the thread. * Stringing.25in) (usually) should be allowed for pulling up the two edges to obtain the correct fabric tension. . A The Herringbone stitch. wing tips and wherever a sudden change in cross section occurs. The first two will be dealt with in this section with the remainder being dealt with in the section headed Fabric Repairs. but this figure can only be determined finally by experience. Overhand Stitch Sometimes called the Trailing Edge stitch (figure 24) and is used a t trailing edges. for turning under before the fabric is cut. 23 THE LAP SEAM HAND SEWING Hand sewing includes: * The Trailing Edge stitch. An even gap of about 6mm (0. Sufficient fabric should be allowed for. k The Boot stitch.5in)turn-under is usually sufficient.

25 TYPICAL STRINGING . with a lock stitch being included about every 50mm (2in).. As a n alternative.. . FABRIC TRAILING EDGE OVERHANDOR TRAILING EDGE STITCH DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. PLY GUSSETS BOOM DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. . Stringing Flax cord complying with BS F35 is normally used for stringing purposes and is generally applied in single strands a s shown in figure 25. The number of stitches should be three per centimetre (eight per inch). 24 OVERHAND OR TRAILING EDGE STITCH The sewing should follow the contour of the component evenly to ensure a good finish after doping. SINGLE KNOT ANTI CHAFING SINGLE KNOT STRINGING C ORD BOTTOM RIB. . . but only when approved by the manufacturer. doubled No 18 thread may be used during repair work. .. : ' lock is shown a s the last stitch in figure 24.

5"). Alternate rill and boom stringing is sometimes used on aerofoils of medium depth. Using a stringing needle (if access cannot be obtained to the rib inside thy aerofoil the needle must be long enough to pass through the thickness of the aerofoil) and commencing a t the top surface. The knots shown in figure 25 are typical but different knots may be specified in the SRM.5")wide. except that the cord is passed round the rib boom a t the top and bottom of round the entire rib. The stringing pitch is normally 75mm (3")but in the slipstream area. cotton ariti- chafing tape to BS F47 is stretched centrally over the fabric along each rill. Variations from these may be stipulated in the relevant SRM and it may be necessary to vary the pitch in order to avoid internal structure or system components. . 37mm (1. ie between 150 and 300mm (6 to 12"). Care must be taken to ensure that all stringing is maintained a t a satisfactory tension and that it is not so tight a s to cause distortion of the ribs. After completion a strip of serrated tape. Top and bottom fabric are therefore attached separately and the inside of each boom must be taped to prevent chafing of the stringing cord. A double knot is used to secure the first and last stringing loops and after each 450mm (18") section. In between. The procedure is similar to that described for ordinary stringing. single knots are used. Note. the pitch is often reduced to 38mm (1. the stringing cord should be passed through the tape and fabric as close to the rib a s possible. or on aircraft of more than 9 10kg (20001b) weight. round the lower rib boom and back u p through both surfaces again. top and bottom and stitched into position a t the trailing edge. should be doped over the stringing line on both surfaces. Boom Stringing This type of stringing is used on deep aerofoil sections where it might be difficult to thread the cord the long distance from the top of the wing to the bottom. care being taken to ensure that no air is trapped under the tape and that the tape is securely attached to the main fabric.When the fabric covering of the component has been completed. out through the bottom fabric and tape.

the slipstream area is considered to be the diameter of the propeller plus one rib on either side. which is then secured in a channel or groove is sometimes used with metal structures (figure 26).The Slip Stream For stringing purposes. regardless of its width. Strip Attachment. Some methods are described below. In the case of multi-engined aircraft. Miscellaneous Methods of Fabric Attachment In addition t. is also considered to be slipstream area. Attachment of the fabric by wrapping it around a light alloy strip or rod. The process shown in figure 27 involves pressing the fabric into special rib booms using aluminium alloy channel pieces with the covering fabric protected top and bottom by protective tape. FABRIC COVERING THIS JOINT SHOWN PRIOR METAL RIB TO TIGHTENING UP \ ATTACHMENT LIGHTENING HOLES / DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. the entire gap between the slipstreams. other methods maybe employed.o the standard methods of fabric attachment. The metal strip is attached to the boom by screws and the "channel" produced by the fixing is covered over by a doped on length of tape. 26 METAL STRIP ATTACHMENT OF FABRIC Special Boom Attachment or Special Stringing. . These methods can vary depending on the aircraft.

filled and allowed to set. Attachment of Fabric to Plywood Dope is generally used for the attachment of fabric to plywood. stringing is not used on the wing and tail surfaces and the fabric is fixed to the structure by means of a proprietary adhesive. Alternatively. 27 SPECIAL STRINGING 4dhesives. A coat of tautening dope should then be brushed into the fabric making sure that it penetrates through the fabric. After the second coat of dope has Iried. Then the required paint finishing scheme is applied (see later notes on doping). but before the fabric is applied. On some small aircraft. where air loads are light. After the dope has dried it should be lightly rubbed down to remove small spikes that might have formed using 'wet and dry' rubbing paper (grade 0 or 00). . Attachment of Fabric to Metal Surfaces Where aluminium alloy is used a s part of the structure (such a s the leatf~ng edge profile) the fabric is generally doped into position. The wood surface should be treated with one coat of tautening dope. The filled area should be kept to the absolute minimum because of the reduced adhesion of the doped fabric onto filler. For this purpose a fabric pad is useful for rubbing in the dope. such as those caused by the countersinking for screwheads. This method produces a much smoother surface on the fabric and saves time during construction and repair. the wood surface should be smoothed with fine glass paper and any cavities. the fabric should be spread over the wood and stretched evenly to avoid wrinkling.itt.rial may be obtained from the SRM. a thermoplastic adhesive may be used and guidance on the use of this xn. CHANNEL ATTACHMENT SCREW SERRATED OR FRAYED Screws into caged (anchor) nut fixed EDGE STRIP DOPED ON to underside of rib \ / PROTECTIVE TAPE FABRIC COVERING ALUMINIUM ALLOY CHANNEL PROTECTIVE TAPE DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. followed by a further coat after the first one has dried.

the holes may be located in sheltered positions regardless of drainage qualities. Drainage eyelets are usually oval or circular in shape and are doped onto t. etc. Shielded or shrouded eyelets may be used to improve either the drainage or the ventilation. It is common practice to clear the eyelet using a n ice pick once the final finish has dried. made from celluloid sheet. These are light circular or square frames. When holes are used for ventilating purposes. After fabric covering the aircraft. These eyelets must only be used in positions laid down in the S R M / A M M and must not be used a s an alternative to standard eyelets. rotting of wood. control surfaces etc and the AMM will show their location. In some cases they may be secured by stitching through pre-pierced holes in the eyelets before the finishing scheme is applied.. 28 PLANE & SHROUDED EYELETS Inspection Panels Inspection panels are usually cut into the fabric after the completion of fabric covering. It is also important that the shroud is facing in the correct direction .To ensure satisfactory adhesion of the fabric. Drainage and Verl tilation Drainage and ventilation holes are necessary on all aircraft particularly fabric covered ones to minimise corrosion of metal parts. which are doped onto the fabric covering at the required positions. mainplanes. nacelles.but not necessarily so. DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. these must be replaced by punching the correct diameter hole in the fabric and doping on a drainage eyelet. fabric.usually rearwards for draining and forwards for ventilation . The actual panels employed will vary on the aircraft. surface of the fabric. Drainage holes are usually positioned on the lower surfaces of fuselages.. . or to prevent the ingress of driving rain or the entry of sea spray (on marine aircraft). Three methods commonly used are described below. the metal surfaces should be thoroughly cleaned and primed with an etch primer. The fabric covering is then cut away from inside the frame and a serrated edged fabric patch doped over the whole area a s shown in figure 29. Woods Frame. tailplanes.

FABRIC PATCH DOPED OVER REPAIR 12mm RADII DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. These consist of two zips machine sewn into the fabric in the form of a vee. . Zip panels. The complete cover with the clip is rotated to align the clip under the ring and the pressure is released from the cover. 30 CROSS-SECTION OF SPRING PANEL The dish shape is reversed away from the clip allowing the clip to be inserted diagonally in the hole. Spring Panels. paints etc and can be very difficult to open so care should be taken to keep the sips clean a t all times. the open ends of each zip being a t the apex of the vee. 29 WOODS FRAME INSPECTION PANEL To use the inspection panel the patch is removed and after the inspection is carried out a new patch is doped on and the finishing scheme re-applied. It consists of a circular plastic ring and a dished light alloy cover. PLASTIC RING DISHED COVER RIVETED TO CLIP FABRIC COVERING METAL CLIP ACCESS HOLE DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. This type of access is suitable for positions where frequent inspection or servicing is necessary. The cover is fitted by pressing the centre of the cover with the thumbs whilst holding it in both hands. Sips tend to get clogged u p by dopes. The dishr:d cover reverts to its normal shape and closes onto the plastic ring a s shown in figure 30. This is particularly suitable for use on light aircraft. The ring is doped into position in the same way a s the Woods Frame and the fabric cut away from the inside.

All dope should be removed by using thinners from the fabric surrounding +%e damaged area before any stitching is carried out. which have sound edges and for insertion repairs. remains of birds. If the damage is larger it may be repaired by darning. The thread used should be that a s stated earlier in the book and needles should be just big enough to allow the thread to be threaded through the eye. The internal structure should be inspected for direct.REPAIRS TO FABRIC If the fabric has been damaged extensively. However. with a lock k . damage and secondary damage (damage caused by transmitted shock)._ ~ t every 150 mm (6"). The extent and location of damage to the fabric that may be repaired will be detailed in the SRM. Outside these limits (all laid down in the SRM) the area will have to be recovered. if larger still it may be repaired by a n insertion repair. . may lead to distortion of the structure and it may be advisable to completely re-cover the component. but extensive damage is often made good by replacing the complete fabrlr: panel. There should be a minimum of two stitches to the centimetre (four stitches to the inch) and the stitches should be 6mm (0. The stitches should be made as shown in figure 3 1. the replacement of a large fabric panel. Some needles are curved to allow for stitching back u p through the material.25") from the edge of the cut or tear. Before commencing any repair.if possible. etc. insects. Herringbone Stitch The herringbone stitch (also known a s the Ladder Stitch) should be used fc-- repairing straight cuts or tears. particularly on one side of a component. Repair to Cuts and Tears If a straight or L shaped tear it may be repaired using the herringbone stitch doping a length of tape over it afterwards. it is usually impractical and uneconomical to make repairs by sewing and patching. The inspection should also include a check for loose objects such a s stones (thrown u p by tyres). These should be removes and any structural damage made good. since doped fabric will t e ~if any tension is applied to the repair stitches. the cause of the damage should be ascertained and rectified .

.8mrn (0. Damage greater than simple cuts and tears which cannot be repaired using the herringbone stitch can be repaired by using the Woods Frame method.Then through cut & under etc DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. The process is similar to that described for fitting a Woods Frame as a n inspection panel.5in).030in)thick with a minimum frame width of 25mm (lin). ensuring that the edges of the patch are parallel to the warp and weft of the fabric covering and that they overlap the repair by 37mm (1. 1. cases. in which case it is import-dn t to chamfcr the outer edges o f the frame to blend with the aerofoil contour. if the frame is of the square type. When the dope has dried. If a Woods Frame is not available one can be made from cellulose sheet 0. In the case of the square type the minimum corner radii should be 12 mm (0. / / \ / 3' Then over 4. the edges should be parallel to the weft and warp of the covering. aircraft manufacturers use 2mm plywood complying with British Standard V3 for the manufacture of the frames. Repairs of u p to 50mm (2in) . After a patch repair using the herringbone stitch a square or rectangular fabric serrated edge patch should be doped over the whole repair. a 25mm (1")wide serrated edge tape should be doped over the length of the stitching. Pass thread CUT OR TEAR Finish with a a thumb under fabric IN FABRIC thumb knot FABRIC knot . In both cases the original doping scheme (and paint scheme) should be restored.quare may be made. 3 1 THE HERRINGBONE STITCH After the stitching has been completed on a straight tear.5"). Repairs using Woods Frames This is a recognised method of repair.The affected area should be cleaned with thinners or acetone and repaired a s follows: The Woods Frame should be doped into position surrounding the damaged area and. the damaged portion of the fabric is cut out and the aperture covered by a fabric patch as previously described.In somt. provided they are clear of seams or attachments by a distance of not less than 50mm (2in). Start with 2.

25" (6mm) away from the edge of the damage. to allow a 12mm (0. .5")wide edge of the covering fabric to be folded back under the fabric. All square and rectangular patches are cut parallel to the weft and warp yarns.OVER . The second line should pass UNDER .UNDER etc the weft yarns with each successive line alternating the OVER . 32 REPAIR BY DARNING The whole repair should be covered with a serrated fabric patch in the usual way. except for round holes the edges of any cuts are in line with the weft and warp yarns of the covering material.5")from the start of the edge of the darn. The stitches should follow the lines of the warp and weft and should be closely spaced as shown in figure 32. The second darn (warp) should follow the warp yarns of the fabric and the first line should pass OVER . I NO methods are described.UNDER .UNDER .Repair by Darning Irregular holes or jagged tears in fabric may be repaired by darning provided the hole is not more than 50mm (2")wide a t any point. Repair by Insertion For damage over lOOmm (4") square. with a n overlap of 37mm (1. Note that when cutting the fabric for repair the corners are not radiised (as in metal repairs) and. This should be held in position with tacking or hemming stitches.OVER etc the weft darns. insertion repairs are generally used. Each corner of the hole should then be cut diagonally (at 45O). FABRIC /COVERING FABRIC PATCH DOPEDOVER \ REPAIR DARN YARNS IN-LINE WITH WEFT & WARP DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig.OVER sequence. Normal Insertion Repair The damaged area of the fabric is cut out to form a square or rectangular hole with the edges parallel to the weft and warp. The first darn (weft) should follow the fabric weft yarns a s near a s possible picking up on sound fabric about 0.

The patch should be made 25mm (I")larger (in both length and width) than
the cut-out area and each edge should be folded under for 12mm (0.5") and
tacked in position in a manner similar to that described above. In this
condition the size of the insertion patch should be similar to, or slightly smaller
than, that of the cut-out area. Note that none of these edges have pinked
edges .

The insertion patch should be held in position inside the cut-out area with a
few tacking stitches and then sewn in position using a herringbone stitch of
not less than two stitches to the centimetre (four stitches to the inch), as
shown in figures 31 and 33. A 25mm (1")wide tape should then be doped over
the seams.

Important. Before commencing the cutting away of the damage you shoc~l(l
work out the exact size of the repair on a piece of paper noting the pitch of the
stitches being %" (very similar to how a metal repair is carried out). Once
worked out the SRM should be consulted to see if the resulting cut away is
within the repairable (repair by insertion) limits. If it is outside the limits then
there is no need to proceed with the insertion and recovering the whole area
should be considered.

For small repairs a square or rectangular cover patch, with frayed or serrated
edges, is doped in position to overlap the edge of the tape by 3 l m m (1.25").
Where the size of the insertion is more than 225mm (9") square, a 75mm
(3")wide fabric serrated edge tape is used. The tape should be mitred
(a 45"cut) a t the corners and doped in position.

The original finish is then restored.

Pitch of 114" is modified at
the corners 8 the diagonal
stitch forms a figure of 8 &
the inside hole is used



An Alternative Insertion Repair

Consists of cutting away the damaged fabric a s described above, but the edges
of the covering fabric as well as the edges of the insertion patch are turned
upwards (12mm for the covering fabric and 37mm for the insertion).

The insertion is tack stitched in position and a boot stitch is used to stitch it
in correctly. The boot stitch (figure 35) is hand sewn taken along the folded
edges a t Y4" (6mm) pitch (stage 1 in figure 34).



, .' :ITCH , , , , " ,

pizq /,
r I

lf -
r '..-'!--,


Stage 2 entails laying the edges down outwards from the centre of the repair
(folding down) a n d doping in position. A fabric patch is then cut with a 2 5
overlap on all edges a n d doped into position.

Edges of insertion repair a n d patch should be frayed or pinked.

No 18 waxed thread to BS F34 is used for boot stitching. Two threads with two
needles are used crossing past each other through the same hole (or very close
to). The threads are tied together a t the ends a n d with a lock knot every
150mm (6").

Checking Fabric Condition

The fabric covering of a n aircraft will deteriorate with time. The rate of
deterioration depends on the type of operation, climate, storage conditions and
the maintenance of a satisfactory surface finish. Because of water penetration,
oil contamination, chafing and local wear, the covering will deteriorate quicker
in some areas than others.



Fabric & stitches shown before
the stitches are pulled tight


In some cases a n arbitrary life may be placed on the fabric, but fabric coverings
should be checked a t the periods specified in the maintenance schedule and
prior to renewal of the Certificate of Airworthiness.

4 visual examination is carried out on the fabric, inside and out, as far as
possible checking areas where deterioration is likely to occur, or is known to
occur on that particular aircraft. Unless defects are found this is usually
sufficient to warrant acceptance of the condition of the fabric as a whole. If the
strength of the fabric is in doubt then further tests will be necessary.

Fabric Strength Testing

A "rule of thumb" test for checking the strength of the fabric is to push the
fabric hard with the thumb (on an open area of unsupported fabric). If the
thumb pushes through, then the fabric is definitely too weak.

If the thumb moves the fabric in, causing the paint covering to crack, then
further tests are required. If there is little movement of the fabric then it is
likely to be satisfactory. Warning - this method is not reliable and not
satisfactory a s a definitive test.

Note. Any locally cracked paintldope finish can be locally repaired by removing
with an approved solvent and the re-application of the doping/painting
scheme. Make sure the fabric is serviceable first.

A more reliable method is to use a portable tester such as the one shown In
figure 36. These testers are, generally, only suitable for checking the condition
of fabric where the dope finish has penetrated the fabric. Finishes such a s
cellulose acetate butyrate dope do no normally penetrate the fabric and
experience h a s shown that the absorption of moisture in humid c o n d i t i o ~ ~
produce unreliable test results.

In addition, butyrate dope, even when some penetration of the fabric has
occurred, produces a finish which hardens with age, a s a result the conical
point on the tester will not readily penetrate the covering and the test will tend
to indicate that the fabric is stronger than it actually is. Thus where butyrate
dope is used, or where the dope has not penetrated the fabric, laboratory tests
should be tests should be carried out.

For a laboratory test (see later text in this book) a piece of fabric is cut from the
aircraft and the dope is rerrloved using a suitable solvent where necessary. The
test piece is given a tensile test and if it has a strength of a t least 70% of the
strength of new piece of fabric to the appropriate specification then it is
considered airworthy.

Portable Tester. The tester shown consists of a spring loaded penetrating cone
and plunger housed within a sleeve. When pressed against a surface the cone
is forced u p through the sleeve against the spring and the plunger projects
through the top. The tester should be used on single layer unsupported fabric
only and should be held a t 90" to the surface with pressure applied toward?
the fabric in a rotary motion, until the sleeve flange touches the surface (fip. ~ . e

The amount of penetration is indicated by the length of plunger showing above
the sleeve and is marked by coloured bands or a graduated scale.

A table is provided with the tester giving the colour or scale reading required
for a particular type of fabric.

Note. This tester is of American manufacturer and the table supplied refers to
fabric complying with American specifications (AMS, TSO and MIL). It can be
adapted for use on fabrics complying with DTD and BS specifications by
comparing the strength requirement specifications of US and UK fabrics.

The test should be repeated a t various positions locally on the aircraft and the
lowest reading obtained should be taken a s representative of the fabric a s s

All punctures produced by the tester should be repaired with a 50 or 75mm
(2 or 3") diameter doped fabric patch.

Laborato y Tests. These are normally associated with testing for tensile
strength and uses tensile tests and bursting strength tests.

Tensile tests are used on new fabric and require the use of six warp and six
weft samples, each 62mm x 300 to 400mm (2.5in x 12 to 16in) in area. These
test are not generally used for fabric coverings on aircraft, a s they would
necessitate significant areas of fabric removal (and partial re-covering of the
aircraft) - and the fabric might turn out to be serviceable.




On aircraft, therefore, it is recommended that the portable tester be used first.
and if the results are not satisfactory, or in-conclusive, samples of fabric
should be sent to a laboratory for bursting strength tests in accordance with
the specification for that particular type of fabric. These tests require small
samples approximately 87mm (3.5") in diameter.

Bursting strength tests can be carried out on a machine operating on the
principle of applying force to a polished steel ball of 25.40mm ( I ") diameter, the
ball being in contact with the test sample, which is clamped between two
circular brass plates having coaxial apertures of 44.45mm (1.75") diameter.
The load is applied a t a constant rate and the load a t the breaking point of the
fabric is the bursting strength of the fabric.

An Instron machine, which operates on this principle, is suitable for
conducting tests on used aircraft fabric. A s an alternative, a machine operating
on hydraulic principles can be used. In this machine, hydraulic pressure is
applied a t a constant rate to a rubber diaphragm, which is positioned to
expand through a clamp aperture of 30.99mm (1.22") diameter, exerting a force
gain st the fabric sample held between the clamps.

Note. The test methods referred to above are in accordance with the American
Federal Test Method Standard No 191, Methods 5120 and 5122 respectively.
All tests must be carried out by an approved test establishment.


This particular subject, doping, is not actually specified in the syllabus but the
CAA has informed u s that it is considered a s an integral part of structural
fabric covering (which it is of course) so questions will be included in the C:AA
examination paper.

Natural fabrics, such as cotton or linen, deteriorate in use a s a result of the
effects of sunlight, mildew and atmospheric pollution. Ma-n-made fibres resist
some of these agents better than natural fabrics but still require protection.

The dope film provides following functions:

a) Tautening of natural fabrics.
b) Waterproofing.
c) Air-proofing.
d) Light-proofing.


Dopes. Dope consists of a number of resins dissolved in a solvent to permit
application by brush or spray. This is modified with plasticisers and pigments
to add flexibility and the required colour (see figure 37). There are two types of
dope in use, namely, cellulose nitrate and cellulose acetate butyrate. The
former is usually known simply as nitrate dope and the latter a s butyrate 0.:
CAB dope. The main difference between the two is the film base.

In nitrate dope a special cotton is dissolved in nitric acid, whilst in butyrate
dope cellulose fibres are dissolved in acetic acid and mixed with butyl alcohols.
The plasticisers in the two dopes are also different, a s are the resin and solvent
balances. Dope must be stored under suitable conditions and has a tendency
to become acid with age. If old dope is used it will quickly rot the fabric. Only
fresh dope should be used, preferably buying it in for the job in hand.

Dope-Proof Paints. Due to the nature of the solvents used in dope, many paints
will be attacked and softened by dopes. Dope-proof paint must be used to coat
structure, which will be in contact with the doped fabric. Spar varnish is used
for wooden structure and a n epoxy primer is suitable for metal structures.

Aluminium Dope. To make the fabric lightproof, preventing damage from ult--7-
violet radiation, a n aluminium dope is used. This is usually supplied readv
mixed but can be prepared by mixing aluminium paste or powder in clear , - ~ p e
but it is essential that the materials are obtained from a n approved supplier
and mixed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Thinners. Dopes are formulated so that the solid constituents are suspended in
the appropriate solvents. For spraying purposes it will normally be necessary to
thin (reduce the viscosity) of the dope.

It is important that only the thinners a s recommended by the manufacturer of
the dope be used. The amount of thinners required is specified by the
manufacturer and modified by experience t.o take account of the equipment
used, atmospheric conditions etc.

The viscosity can be measured by using a Viscosity Cup, which a cup with a
small hole in the bottom. In use, the cup is dipped into the dope to fill it with
dope. It is then lifted in the air to let. the dope flow out. The flow is timed from
when the c u p is lifted from the container to the first break in the flow.

In this way subsequent batches of dope can be mixed to exactly the same
viscosity as the first batch. It is important that nitrate and butyrate dopes are
mixed only with their own specialised thinners. A retarder, or anti-blush
thinners, is a special type of thinners with slow-drying solvents. By drying
more slowly they prevent the temperature drop and consequent moisture
condensation that cause blushing in a dope finish. In use, the retarder
replaces some of the standard thinners and can be used in a ratio of u p to one
part retarder to four parts of thinners.



Cleaning Agent. Methyl-ethyl-ketone (MEK)is a solvent similar to acetone. I t is
used as a cleaning agent to remove wax and dirt and to prepare surfaces for
2ainting or re-doping. It is also used for cleaning spray guns and other

Fungicides. Since natural fabrics can be attacked by various forms of mildew
and fungus, it may be necessary to provide protection for cottons and linens
when doping. This is achieved a fungicide being added to the first coat of dope.
The dope is usually supplied ready mixed but can be prepared by using a
fungicidal paste obtained from an approved supplier (mixed with the clear dope
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions).

The first coat of dope should completely penetrate the fabric.

Caution. All fungicides are poisonous. Avoid contact and do not inhale t h e
fumes -- this applies to all solvents, paints etc anyway.

paints and sanding down and cleaning. When spraying (particularly nitrate dope) ensure that the spray gun. Clothing that is made of synthetic fibres will build u p a static charge more readily than clothing made from cotton. A common cause of ignition is the shorting discharge of static electricity Static electricity can be generated by brushing. Proprietary cloths are also available. Leather soled shoes will allow the static charge to earth to 280. Sandpaper. Safety Precautions The storage and use of dopes in the UK is covered by various Government regulations made under the Factories Act. which can spread rapidly is produced. sanding and wiping large areas of fabric (and many other materials) a s when applying dopes. For example: if an operator is sanding a large area and wearing rubber soled shoes and not earthed in any way he/she will be a t the same electrical potential a s the surface.Tack Rags. floors should be kept clean by being doused with water and swept whilst still wet. A tack rag is a rag dampened with thinners and is used to wipe a surface clean after it h a s been sanded to prepare it for the application of the next coat. spontaneous combustion can occur if dope and zinc chromate oversprays are mixed. This is a waterproof sandpaper supplied in various grades . Solvents are highly flammability. Should the charge on the operator be lost through bodily contact with some earthed metal part in the hangarlspray shop and he/she touches the aircraft structure being worked on the static charge will jump to earth creating a spark and igniting the fumes. the operator and the structure being doped are all grounded together. Ordinarily this may not be a problem but when doping etc there are usually large amounts of inflammable fumes in the atmosphere ready to ignite with the smallest spark. Once ignited a serious fire. . 360 and 600 (the finest grade). They have a low flash point and the vapour produced is heavier than air. In the spray shop. Remember. Sanding is carried out using wet-or-dry (sometimes called "wet-and -dry7') paper. The best way to prevent happening is to eliminate the static charge by grounding the structure being doped. An earth wire connected between the structure to a clean metal part of the spray shoplhangar will do the job.

Ideally the air and humidity of the incoming air can be controlled in the adjoining room before it enters the spray shop (cooling with a n air conditioning unit to remove the moisture then reheating to obtain the correct temperature). Lead lamps must be of the explosion proof type. The air temperature should be between 2 1" and 26°C (70" to 79°F). the wet bulb thermometer will be the lower. . Ideally the relative humidity should be between 45 and 50% but satisfactory results can be obtained with relative humidity a s high as 70% or a s low a s 20% depending on temperature and airflow. It is also necessary to maintain sufficient airflow through the shop to remove the fumes. the bulb of one being kept wet by water evaporating through a well as being a fire risk. In this instrument two thermometers are mounted side by side. or behind a baffle to reduce draughts to a minimum. the wet and dry bulb type is still the most common. but doping is more difficult a t these values. If the temperature is too low the rapid evaporation of the solvents will lower the temperature of the surface to the point where moisture will condense and be trapped in the finish. The air inlet to the spray shop should preferably be via a n adjoining room. The discharge of the vapours may also be the subject of further requirements and the advice of the Factory Inspectorate should be sought. All electrical equipment used in the shop must be designed so that it canriot ignite any fumes. At the first sign of any irritation of the skin or eyes. Many problems associated with doping can be traced to incorrect temperature or humidity of the air and/or the dope. difficulty in breathing or a dry cough. which can result in pinholes and blisters. the operator should stop work and seek medical advice. The rate of airflow is dictated by the size of the spray shop and is the subject of various Government regulations. Working Conditions It is important to control both the temperature and humidity of the air in the spray shop. both thermometers should be reat1 and the difference between them noted. Dope (and any other materials) brought into the shop from the outside store-room must be allowed to stand overrlight in the temperature controlled shop.The fumes created during the spraying process are hazardous to health . Correct operator protection must be provided a s recommended by the dope manufacturer's. Electric driven explosion proof extractor fans are installed a t floor level in the shop to extract all the fumes. Relative humidity can be measured with a hygrometer and although direct reading instruments are available. To take a reading of relative humidity. Too high a temperature causes too rapid drying of the dope.

Whilst the dope is in storage the solid materials tend to settle and the purpose of mixing is to make sure these are brought back into suspension. An inspection should be made of the fabric-covered component to verify the following points: a) The structure has been painted with dope-proof paint where required. until it is thoroughly mixed. are adequately protected against solvent attack. e) The fabric has reached the correct temperature. The Wet Bulb reading and the Depression Value reading are read off against each other on a table . The correct temperatur and humidity should be achieved with the atmosphere and all materials. The remaining dope is stirred until all the solid material is in suspension. . Then the dope from one tin is poured into the other and back again. half the contents of the tin are poured into a clean tin of the same size. To mix the dope. b) Correct and secure attachment of the fabric to the structure. containers etc should be kept clean using thinners before the dope has had time to dry. Preparation Prior To Doping The area to be doped should be thoroughly cleaned. such a s windows and windscreens. If the cover is too slack. All brushes. if it is too tight. it should be dismantled and the parts soaked in methyl-ethyl-ketone or a similar solvent. c) Correct allowance for tautening of the cover where this is a natural fabric such a s cotton or linen. spray equipment. Oil and water traps in the airlines should be cleaned regularly and air bottles drained of accumulated moisture. f) Plastics components. Packings and seals should never be soaked in solvents or they will harden and become useless. the structure could easily be distorted. no amount of doping will rectify this. With the dope a t the correct temperature. If equipment has any dried dope. The contents of the first tin are then poured into the contents of the second and a check made that all pigment has been loosened from the bottom. Use solvent proof masking and masking covers. d) All dust h a s been removed from the fabric. cups. it should be mixed and thinned to the correct consistency for brush or spray application as appropriate.Wet Bulb reaaing away Irom Lne ury DUID reaulrlg g i v ~ r ~Lrlc g ucprcaslurl V ~ ~ U G of the Wet Bulb.where the two columns meet will indicate the % relative humidity.

Application to Natural Fabric The best-looking and most durable film is produced by using multiple (. In this way the fabric will tauten evenly and adjust itself over the leading edge cap without forming wrinkles.0 Aluminium tautening finish 34 1. MEDIUM TAUTNESS SCHEME (BSX26/752) Dope Weight Normally obtained in the g/m2 oz/yd2 following number of coats *ied oxide tautening dope 68 2. a s a n example. Given below. A large number of thin coats. 751 (lrght tautening . but thicker: coats than the earlier schemes.0 Where an aluminium finish is required the scheme should be: Red oxide tautening dope 102 3. is shown the medium tautness scheme.0 Where a glossy finish is required follow with: Transparent non-tautening finish 34 1. a medium tautness scheme and a high tautness scheme.used on light structures that would be distorted by over tautening) and 753 (heavy tautening . The standard aircraft doping schemes are 752 (medium tautening).0 Pigmented non-tautening finishes 34 1. The dope should be allowed to shrink the fabric before doping the 1eadir:g edge. a low tautness scheme.0 Aluminium non-tautening finish 34 1. Priming Coats. requires a great deal of time and modern dope schemes tend to use fewer. 4 fungicide should be added this first coat.0 1 or 2 Note: A tolerance of + 20% is permissible on any of the weights given above.used where a n extra taut cover is required). the entire wing should first be doped on both sides aft of the front spar. There are three tautness levels available. . however.its of a dope that is low in solids. It forms a mechanical attachment by the dope encaps~rlating the fibres.o. The main difference being the number of coats of dope. When applying the first coat to the wings. but it should not drip through the other side. The dope scheme is a schedule listing the number and order of coats of each type of dope. This first coat of dope provides the foundation for all the subsequent coats. The dope should be thinned by 25 to 50% and applied by brush. The dope is worked into the fabric to ensure adequate penetration.

Application to Polyester-Fibre Fa.After a 1 hour rninimum drying time. Two full wet cross-coats of butyrate dope should now be applied one sprayel I on in one direction and the other a t right angles to it . For this reason it is important that the dope film is of the highest quality so that its life will match that of the fabric. This nap can be sharp and should be lightly sanded off. A high gloss finish is obtained by lightly sanding each coat when dry and spraying multiple thin coats rather than several thick coats. The number of coats should not be less than three. Drainage eyelets or grommets and inspection rings are attached in a similar manner. grommets and rings may be soaked in dope thinners for no more than two minutes to allow them to soften. Filling Coats. The aluminium coat is in its turn wet sanded lightly to produce a smooth surface and the residue rinsed off with water. The surface should then be rinsed clean with water and dried. The finishing coats of pigmented butyrate dope may now be sprayed on. Taping is followed by a further coat of clear dope. using dry sandpaper. . Polyester-fibre fabrics are heat shrunk to provide a good smooth finish and tautening of the fabric is not a function of doping. working it down onto the surface and rubbing out any air pockets a s the tape is laid. although all dopes will tauten to some extent. it should be checked for continuity by shining a light inside the structure. which may be butyrate and may be applied by a spray gun. Priming Coats. When the first butyrate coat has dried. The surface should be waxed a t least once a year with a hard wax to reduce th.bric Polyester-fibre fabrics are being increasingly widely used for covering aircraft because of their long life and resistance to deterioration. The final coat should be allowed to dry for a t least a month before it is polished with rubbing compound and then waxed. A heavy coat of nitrate dope should be brushed on where required and the tape laid on. drainage eyelets. possibility of oxidation of the finish. Once the aluminium coat h a s dried. inspection panel rings etc. Finishing Coats. apply tapes. A further coat of clear dope is brushed over the top of the tapes. The film should be completely lightproof.before the first coat dries. The use of a retarder in the colour coats will allow the dope to flow out and form a smoother film. grommets. Holes in eyelets and rings are opened with a sharp. the fabric will feel rough due to the short fibre ends (the nap) standing u p and being hardened by the dope. pointed knife after doping is complete. These in turn should be followed with one good cross-coat of aluminium dope after light sanding of the clear dope to improve adhesion. To ensure good adhesion eyelets.

The first coat of clear butyrate dope is sprayed on with the dope being thinned only enough to permit spraying. Nitrate dope must not be used under any circumstances with this type of fabric. The dope should form a wet film through the fabric but it should not drip through to the opposite side. To overcome this problem it is pre-treated with butyrate dope and the covering and doping must be carried out in accordance wit. The finishing coats should now be applied in the same manner a s for natural fabrics. the residue being rinsed off with water. Taping and attaching of drainage eyelets or grommets and inspection rings follow the same procedure as for natural fabrics. Filling Coats. . After these have dried they should be lightly sanded (400 grit) and cleaned with a tack rag. Application to Glass-fibre Fabric Glass-fibre fabric has a loose weave. which tends to make it difficult to apply to aircraft structures. Finishing Coats. there is no need for a fungicide to be added to the first coat. Since polyester is not organic. Unlike natural fibres the polyester filaments are riot wetted by the dope and the security of attachment depends on them being totally encapsulated by the first coat. but must not be so heavy that it causes the dope to run on the reverse side of the fabric. This coat should be tested to verify that it is lightproof. One full cross-coat of aluminium dope should then be sprayed on and lightly wet sanded when dry. It should be noted that with a properly finished polyester cover the weave of the fabric will still show through the dope film. The atomising pressure must be set to the lowest possible that will permit atomisation without the dope being blown through the fabric. Priming Coats. The coat should be heavy enough to thoroughly wet the fabric and soften the dope in the fabric. If the dope is allowed to run in this way an orange peel finish will develop and the fabric will not tauten properly. when compared with natural fabrics.The most notable difference in doping a synthetic cover is the difficulty. Any attempt to completely hide them with additional coats will result in a finish that does not have sufficient flexibility to resist cracking. Priming coats should be followed by spraying two full-bodied cross-coats of clear butyrate dope. This must be nitrate dope thinned In the ratio of two or three parts dope to one part thinners. The initial coat should be followed by two rnore brush coats thinned to a brushing consistency.h the manufacturer's instructions. of obtaining a good mechanical bond betmreen the dope and the fibres. This is then brushed into the fabric to completely encapsulate the fibres.

After the aluminium dope has been sanded.ion and lightly wet-sanded smooth. further coats of butyrate dope should be sprayed on. the residue should be removed '-v washing with water and then the surface dried. Finishing Coats. the solvents attack the surface and cause it to flow out. The use of a tack rag to finally clean a surface before applying the next coat is always recommended. each a little heavier than the one before. Doping Problems If not carefully controlled some doping faults can occur (some of these faults can also occur with painting). Whilst the fabric is not damaged by ultra-violet radiation. making sure that it is not sanded through to the fabric. Moisture in the spray system or on the surface can also cause blushing. Poor Adhesion. Several thin. This water causes the nitrocellulose to precipitate out. a coat of aluminium dope should be sprayed on for protect. particularly polyester fabric. is largely dependent on the technique used to ensure the encapsulation of the fibres.o dry. A blushed area can be salvaged by spraying another coat over the area using a retarder instead of some of the thinners.After the first coat has dried. The film should then be carefully sanded. two full- bodied brush coats of clear butyrate dope should be applied and allowed t. These are applied in the same manner a s for natural fabrics. Blushing is a white or greyish colouration that forms on a doped surface. Once the fabric is taut and the weave has been filled. the clear dope can deteriorate as a result of exposure and therefore. Adhesion to the fabric. Blushing. the temperature of the surface drops below the dew-point of the air and moisture condenses on the surface. . Adhesion may be poor between the fabric and the first coat of dope and between the aluminium coat and subsequent coats. Blushing can be controlled by reducing the humidity in the air (raising the temperature by several degrees may help) or by using a retarder in the place of some of the thinners. These are listed below. If the humidity of the air is too high. this may take a s many a s five coats. Adhesion to the aluminium coat r q y be impaired if too much aluminium powder was used or if the surface was r?dt thoroughly cleaned after sanding. Tapes. drainage eyelets/ grommets and inspection rings are applied with a coat of butyrate dope. wet coats of coloured butyrate dope will allow the surface to flow out to a glossy finish. or if the solvents evaporate too quickly. until the weave fills and the fabric tautens. Filling Coats.

Common when the dope is cold. wax or a silicone product. Excessive dullness may be caused by I-xolding the spray gun too far from the surface so that the dope settles a s a semi-dry mist. Roping. When applying with a brush. Dirt and dust on the surface.11i: solvents have had time to evaporate. Seneral Considerations The weight of the dope applied to the fabric is a n indication that the scheme has been correctly applied. Rough Finish.Bubbles or Blisters. it is also import. This type of defect is caused by too thick a coat. Orange Peel. These are isolated areas which have not dried due to contamir~ation of the surface with oil. This may happen if a heavy coat of tiope is applied over a previous coat that has not dried.75 oz/yd2) with a tolerance of + 20%. Caused by the surface of the dope drying before all i. When an aircraft is re-covered and re-doped it is essential that it is re-weighed and a new Weight and Centre of Gravity Schedule raised. they can be caused by water or oil in the spray system. An air temperature that is too high can also be a cause. use of thinners that dries too fast or by cold damp draughts. Fisheyes. The gloss of butyrate dope may be improved by the addition (. This is a condition in which the surface dries a s the dope is being brushed on causing a n uneven surface. Small dull spots may be due to a porous surface. The pressure applied to the brush should be sufficient to ensure the penetration of the dope through the fabric. Pinholes.)i'up to 20% retarder in the last coat. . especially on vertical surfaces. In the BS X26 doping schemes the weight per unit area is given and should be checked by doping a test panel a t the same time a s the structure. Apart from the causes listed above. Cleanliness is important with all wax removed using a suitable solvent before re-doping the area. Dull Finish. insufficient sanding and too low a working temperature can all cause a rough finish. Caused by insufficient thinning of the dope or holding the spray gun too far from the surface. It can also be caused by too high a n atomising pressure. Runs and Sags.ant that control surfaces are balanced and checked against the AMM. This causes the dope to run and sag. Smaller versions of a blister. The fabric is weighed before doping and then again after doping. dope should not be over-brushed. Mil Specs call for a minimum dope weight of 161g/m2 (4. the difference being the weight of the dope film.


CONTENTS Page Springs Bearings Internal clearance Lubrication Sealing and protection Gears Zontrol chains Drive belts .


The distance between the centre of one coil of the spring and its adjacent coil . * Force springs .spring shock absorbers on some tail-skids.spring balance etc.without any load applied. u p to the elastic limit. . Hooke's law of elasticity states that. Pitch .This is the distance between two ad-jacent coils . a lkg bag of sugar on the balance and it will extend a certain amount and if the mass is doubled to 2kg the balance extension will double. over-centre geometric instrument force/ torque balance systems. * Shock absorber springs . This means that if 1 unit of force is applied to a spring it will deform 1 unit of length and if the unit of force is doubled the change in length will produce a pressure within a hydraulic/ pneumatic valve for operation/ control purposes.without a n y load absorb energy eg. Springs are used in the aviation industry for: * Control springs . Coil springs can be used as compression springs or tension springs. Terms Used For Coil Springs Free Length . When checking this length is should be within the limits a s laid down in the appropriate maintenance manual. -f. SPRINGS A spring is a device that will deflect under load (storing that energy as a strain) and return to its original length once the load or force is removed. Sheet form is used to manufacture leaf springs and wire is used for the manufacture of coil (helical) springs. kinetic energy to strain energy . A Force pressure springs . J. By their very nature springs are designed to work within this hydraulic/pneumatic valves to return the valve to its original setting.The length of the spring without any load applied. Hooke's Law Robert Hooke English physicist 1635 . Coil Distance . say. Return springs -.1703. the strain (change in length) of a material is proportional to the stress (force per unit area). The spring balance shows this. Lock springs . Springs are normally made of spring steel (high carbon steel hardened and tempered and chrome vanadium steels) supplied in sheet or wire form (typical specification SAE 6 150).

Tension Springs Again.The average between the OCD and the ICD. Mean Coil Diameter . Coil wires are usually of round cross-section with the coil diameter being small compared to the free length.. by the ends being bent to provide a fixing to the component. Very common.. usually.The outside diameter of the unloaded spring (OCD).he ground section of the end of the spring (Compression coils only). Inside Coil Diameter . Compression Springs May be wound left or right handed and are usually finished off top and bottom by grinding the coils flat to provide a surface on which the spring can act. Springs may be designed in several forms: * Helical (coil springs).The inside diameter of the unloaded spring (ICD). . The thickness of t.. 1 COIL SPRING TERMS Wire Diameter -.13 COILS . OUTSIDE INSIDE COIL COIL PITCH WIRE DISTANCE (AT BOTH ENDS) DIAMETER DIAMETER DIAMETER BETWEEN COILS Fig. MEAN COIL FREE LENGTH DIAMETER \ 1 2 3.The diameter of the wire from which the coils are made..-. Tip Thickness -. . Absorbs a large amount of energy but has a limited amount of movement. * Ream spring. these may be left or right handed and the coils are terminated. Outside Coil Diameter . The coils are usually made of round section wire but they may also be made of square section bar and the coil diameter is usually large compared to its free length.

Leaf spring. The rotating parts are kept apart by a thin film of air pumped under pressure between the journal and the rotating shaft. Further details or maintenance checks are in module 7. * Special springs. Journal Bearings. BEARINGS Bearings are designed to reduce the friction between moving parts . In some systems the air pressure is applied before the shaft starts to rotate and friction (and hence wear) rates can be very low. (High Friction Bearings). Sometimes called Low Friction bearings. Use is made of balls or rollers running between inner and outer races. The shaft rotates within a bush usually supplied with oil under pressure. RADIAL BEARINGS THRUST BEARING ANGULAR CONTAC BEARINGS Fig. Similar to a beam spring but is thinner and may be built u p with several layers. Maintenance There is little maintenance requirement for springs and almost all rectifjcation is by replacernent. 2 BALL RACES . Lubricated with oil or grease.usually rotational movement of a shaft within a housing. Most are radial bearings. Roller/Ball Bearings. To include cup spring discs built up into a slc]ck providing a n effect similar to a compression spring. They may be classified as: J. Air Bearings.

Ball bearings are usually used for light to medium loads. Both types run contir~uously. Precision accuracy. Axial displacement requirements.Ball bearings employ balls. Noise requirements (silent running?). Rigidity. Rotational speed. Inner and outer races. Available space. Roller bearings use cylindrical. 3 RADIAL LOADS RADIAL LOAD RADIAL LOAD FLANGED OUTER RACES -___ UNFLANGED INNER RACES Fig. Taking each point in turn: Load magnitude is usually the most important factor in determining the size and type of bearing. and balls and rollers are made from high-grade carbon chromium steels. Selection of Bearing Type In the selection of the correct type of bearing for any particular part of a transmission system the following factors must be taken into consideration: Magnitude of the load to be carried. which is resistant to wear (the most important factor) and allow rotary motion while absorbing axial and thrust loads. + RADIAL LOAD Fig. Bearing life. The metal is also corrosion resistant. tapered or spherical rollers running in suitably shaped tracks. Metal with a high chrome vanadium content is used such as S A E 6195. 4 ROLLER & NEEDLE BEARINGS . which rotate within grooved tracks. Alignment requirements. whilst roller bearings are better able to cope with heavier loads. Direction of the load or loads. sometimes caged.

Loud direction is important as cylindrical roller bearings having only onc. A combined load comprises both radial and axial forces acting simultaneously. CONTACT ANGLE OUTER CAGE THRUST RACEWAY CE GROVE \ FLANG Fig. 7 RADIAL & AXIAL LOADING TAPERED ROLLERS . The most important factor affecting the ability of a bearing to carry an ax131 load is its angle of contact (A). 5 EXAMPLES O F BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS RADIAL LOAD RANGE RADIAL LOAD RANGE t AXIAL LOAD F i g . race without flanges a n d needle roller bearings can carry only radial loads. 6 RADIAL & AXIAL LOADING BALL & SPHERICAL ROLLERS RADIAL LOAD AXIAL LOAD INNER RACE ONLY AGAINST THE TAPER Fig.

The greater the angle (A) the more suitable the bearing is for axial loading. RADIAL / OUTER RACE Fig. 9 SPHERICAL DOUBLE ROLLER BEARING Spherical control rod bearings are not revolving bearings and are used where movement back and forth is required. Available space is determined by the component design.he direction of axial loads vary. Spherical bearings also allow for slight misalignment of control rods and components during normal operation. and are designed to be either single or double acting. 8 SINGLE & DOUBLE BALL THRUST BEARINGS THRUST I RADIAL. separate thrust bearings (eg deep groove ball) and support bearings (roller) are used. Single and double row angular ball bearings and taper roller bearings are mainly used for combined loads. Deep groove balls are normally used on small diameter shafts while cylindrical or spherical rollers can be considered on larger shafts. They are used on flying control rod systems for example. al . LOAD II). Spherical roller thrust bearings can carry heavy axial loads but smaller radial forces. In the case of high axial loads. Single row angular ball and taper bearings carry axial loads in a single direction only. They may be used a s rod end bearings and may be located in threaded fixtures to enable control rigging to be carried out. Thrust ball bearings are suitable for moderate axial loads. Where t. two back-to-back (or face-to-face) bearings can be used. whereas single row cylindrical or deep groove ball thrust bearings are used in areas of limited i ~ ~ ispace. Needle bearings can be used where radial space is limited (such as Hardy Spicer constant velocity joints). Deep groove and spherical rollers may also be used. LOAD Fig.

(A Hardy Spicer coupling is used in shaft power transmission systems to allow limited angular movement about the shaft/s centre line. 11 SELF ALIGNING BEARING SINGLE ROW DOUBLE ROW RADIAL DUPLEX THRUST SNAP SHIELDED SEALED SELF MAGNETO WHEEL AXIAL RING ONE SIDE ALIGNING THRUST Fig. 12 BALL BEARINGS . 10 HARDY SPICER CONSTANT VELOCITY JOINT BEARING/ HANGAR SELF ALIGNING OUTER RACE ROLLING ELEMENTS 'FIXED' INNER I I RACE SHAFT Fig.) BOLTED JOINT BETWEEN THE TWO SHAFTS OUTPUT SHAFT GREASE NIPPLE IP RETAINERS Fig.universal joint to allow limited angular movement between the two rotating shafts. I t uses four needle bearings a s part of a centre cross piece 01.

Speed limitations are determined by the maximum permissible operating
temperature of the bearing, the type of lubrication and cooling available. Low
friction bearings (ball or roller) which generate low internal heat are ideal for
high rotational speeds.

Precision bearings are used on shafts where stringent demands are made on
accuracy ie high-speed shafts; these will include double row angular ball
thrust bearings.

Angular misalignment can, for example, be caused by a shaft deflecting under
heavy loads or fuselage flexing in flight for a long shaft. Bearings capable of
accommodating s u c h movement are self-aligning ball bearings, and spherical
roller bearings.




Axial displacement of a shaft by a force (for torque measurement) or expansion
or contraction (due to temperature change) is permitted by the use of a 'non-
locating' bearing of the single flangeless race roller or needle type. Note that
normal bearing configuration consists of a locating (fixed) bearing and a non-
locating (free) bearing.

Silent running is sometimes a n important factor in bearing selection (bearings
in the vicinity of the flight deck or near passenger compartments). Deep groove
ball bearings are normally chosen for this type of application.











Rigidity of a bearing under load can sometimes be important. Although the
elastic deformation of a loaded rolling bearing is very small, roller type bearings
deflect less than ball bearings due to the greater contact area between the
rolling elements a n d the raceways.

Bearing llfe is defined a s the number of revolutions (or operating hours at a
given constant speed) which the unit is capable of enduring before flaking or
breakdown occurs on the races or rolling elements. As no two bearings of the
same type have identical lives the 'basic life rating' is based on the life achieved
by 90% of a test population of identical bearings in laboratory test conditions.

Bearing Elernents

Bearing Rings (Inner and Outer Races) and Rolling Elernents (Rollers and Balls)
are made from high-grade carbon chromium steels, allow rotary motion while
absorbing axial and thrust loads. The metal is hard, resistant to wear and has
good anti-corrosion properties.

Cages. The primary function of these is to keep the rolling elements apart and
in separate bearings retain the rolling elements. Made from pressed brass, steel
or phenolic materials. May be called a separator.

Seals. May be made of elastomeric material with the seal snapped into position
with a ring.

Radial Bearings

Used in all forms of transmission, eg shafts, gears, control rods, pulleys, etc.
Manufactured with the balls in single or double rows, normally they are rigid
but may be self aligning when accurate alignment may not be maintained
during operation. May be sealed to prevent debris from entering the bearing
and to retain the lubricant. Balls are normally retained in a cage, but in sc e
cases there is a filling slot which enables more balls to be used giving a grt er
load capacity.

Angular Bearings

Suitable for radial and axial loads in one direction. The outer race is recessed
on one side to allow assembly/dismantling. Where axial Ioads in both
directions occur two bearings are used back-to-back. The load capacity
depends on the contact area.

Thrust Bearings

Designed for axial loads only, so are used with either a roller or ball radial
bearing. Balls are usually retained in a cage between two grooved races. hlost
suitable for heavy axial loads at low speeds.

Instrument Precision Bearings

Manufactured to close tolerances and used in instruments and commurlication

Cylindrical Rollers

Capable of carrying greater radial loads than ball bearings because of tile
greater contact area. Bearings with ribs on both races will also be capable of
carrying light axial loads. Most common are rollers where the length is equal to
he diameter. Needle roller bearings have lengths several times greater than the

Taper Rollers

Designed so that the axes of the rollers form an angle with the shaft axis.
Capable of accepting radial and axial forces simultaneously. May be installed
back-to-back. The axial loads cause rubbing on the cone lip or flange so
adequate lubrication is necessary. Used in helicopter rotor heads, gear boxes

Spherical Rollers

May have one or two rows of rollers running in a common spherical track in
he outer race - this gives good self-aligning properties. Can withstand high
radial and axial loads.


Standard ball and roller bearings are manufactured in four classes of
diametrical clearance and are marked to indicate the class of fit. It is important
that any bearings replaced are of the same part number and nomenclat~~l-r:
(check J A A form 1 and IPC/AMM) and have the same classification of f i t . The
marking is generally a series of dots or circles.

One Dot Bearing - Group 2

This group has the minimum arnount of clearance. Used where minimum axial
and radial movement is required - usually precision work. Must not be used
where heat is likely to be transmjtted to the bearing and are not suitable for
thrust bearings or for high speed.




Two Dot Bearing - Normal Group

Intermediate range and used for most general applications. Used where only
one race is an interference fit within its housing (requires force to be
fittedlremoved) and there is little transfer of heat to the bearing.

Three Dot Bearing - Group 3

This group has a larger clearance range and is used where both inner and
outer races are interference fits in their housings. Heat transfer is moderate
and the bearing is suitable for high speed operation.

Four Dot Bearing - Group 4

These have the greatest clearances. Both races are interference fits and heat
transfer is considerable.


Provided to reduce friction, dissipate heat and prevent corrosion. For low
speeds the bearing is usually packed with grease - which might be anti--freeze
grease. For high speeds the bearing may be lubricated by an oil spray from a
metered supply - as in some jet engines. It is important that only oils and
greases as specified in the AMM are used and lubrication frequencies a s stated
in the maintenance schedule are adhered to.


Bearings must be protected against the entry of moisture and dirt, and t c ~
prevent the loss of lubricant. Considerations affecting the type of seal would be
(a) type of lubricant, (b) space available, (c) misalignment of shaft and (d) seal

There are two basic forms of seal:

a) Non rubbing seals.
b) Rubbing seals.

Non Rubbing Seuls rely on narrow gaps or radial labyrinths to form the seal.
This type has negligible friction and wear and is particularly suited for high
speeds and temperatures. Straight or spiral grooved labyrinth seals used in
areas of extreme temperature (in conjunction with sealing air pressure) are
used on jet engines.

7ubbing Seals rely on the elasticity of the sealing material and maintaining a
minimum pressure at the sealing surface. Can be a simple felt or
rubber/polymer washer for grease or grit seals. 'V' seals comprise a rubber
ring with a 'hinged' rubber lip that is pressed radially against the sealing
rotating surface. Used on wheel bearings.

Y' seals are used externally with grease lubrication and internally with oil.
Carbon rubbing seals are sometimes used with high-speed shafts.

Shielding and sealed bearings are pre-packed with the correct lubricant and do
not normally require lubrication in service eg deep groove or self-aligning ball
bearings - but check the AMM.


A gear is a machine element used to transmit motion between rotating
shaftslwheels when the centre distance between the shafts is not too large.
They provide a positive drive, maintaining exact velocity ratios between driving
and driven shafts.

Power transmission gears are usually made from chromium molybdenum steel
(eg E4 130) which provides good toughness and resistance to wear. Some (low
power) gears are made from sintered metal (powered metal). Non-power gears
can be rnade of almost any material including composites for quieter running
non lubricated arrangements.

Most gears are run lubricated either by regular maintenance lubrication or by
being run semi submersed in oil or spray lubricated.




There are two basic gear tooth profile forms the origins from which all gear
types are derived. They are the involute gear, by far the most common in
general use, and the conformal gear, but because of problems that were lar, 'y
insurmountable until now, has not been used much in the past. Modern
manufacturing techniques have brought about its resurrection and a t least one
helicopter (the Lynx) now utilises conformal gearing.

An involute tooth is laid out along a curved line which is generated by taut wire
as it is unwound from a cylinder. The generating circle is called the base circle
of the involute. The involute curve establishes the tooth profile outward from
the base circle. From the base circle inward, the tooth flank simply follows a
radial line and is faired into the bottom land with a small fillet.

Terms used:

Addendum The radial distance between the Pitch Circle of a gear wheel
and the top of the tooth.

the faces of the wheel teeth binding with the flanks of the pinion teeth. Line of Action Contact between the teeth of meshing gears takes place along a line tangential to the two base circles. FACE Fig. Clearance The difference between the Addendum and the Dedendurn. 19 INVOLUTE GEAR TOOTH DETAIL . This is often the case when a pinion with a small number of teeth is in mesh with a gearwheel with a large number of teeth . Dedendum The radial distance between the Pitch Circle and the Root Circle (depth of wheel tooth below pitch circle). Circular Pitch Length of the arc of the Pitch Circle between the centres of other corresponding points of adjacent teeth. This line passes through the Pitch Point and is called the Line of Action. Interference If contact does not occur on the line of action then interference may occur. Flank That surface which is between the Pitch Circle and the bottom land parallel to the axis of the gear (the flank also includes the fillet).Addendum Circle The circle that passes through the tips of the teeth. Dedendum or The circle that contains the roots of the teeth. If this happens the pinion teeth will be undercut at the roots. Generally referred to simply as the 'pitch'. Root Circle Face That surface of the tooth which is between the pitch circle and the top of the tooth parallel to the axis of the gear. This will cause debris causing further wear and weakening of the teeth with eventual failure.

Root Fillet That bottom portion of the tooth profile where it joins the bottom land. .FLANK ADDENDUM DEDENDUM \ BOTTOM ROOT \ PITCH ROOT LAND CIRCLE CIRCLE Fig. 20 SPUR GEAR TERMS . Circular Pitch is the distance between two corresponding points on two adjacent teeth around the Pitch Circle. the radius of which is equal to the distance from the gear axis to the Pitch Point. FACE WIDTH / \ TOOTH TOP LAND SPPCE / .F TOO THlC ADDEND1 CIRCLE .the point of contact which transmits the motion tooth to tooth. Diameter Pitch Point The point a t which two pitch circles meet . Top Land Is the top surface of a tooth at the tip or crest. It is usually concave.1 Pinion The term applied to the smaller of two mating gears. Pitch Circle A circle. Pitch Circle The diameter of the Pitch Circle. . Pressure Angle The angle between the line of action a n d the common tangent to the Pitch Circles at the Pitch Point. Pitch Gear teeth pitch may be measured as follows: Daimetral Pitch is the number of teeth per inch of Pitch Circle Diameter. It is a ratio. The Bottom Land is the surface between the fillets of each adjacent tooth a t the root.a .

Working Depth Is the maximum depth that the tooth extends into the tooth space of the mating gear. tapered tooth. It subscribes the smallest diameter.2 Toe That part of a bevel gear that is the shortest part of tht. The type selected for use in a specific application will depend on: How much power to be transmitted k Is a change of rpm required? t Is a change of torque recyuired? . 21 SPUR GEAR TERMS . Tooth Space Distance between two adjacent teeth measured along the pitch circle. Whole Depth Is the sum of the Addendum and the Dedendum. DEDENDUM C D CICULAR PITCH CLEARANCE ADDENDUMOR TIP CIRCLE INTERNAL SPUR EXTERNAL SPUR Fig. The heel is the other end of the tooth that subscribes the largest diameter. Types of Gears Various types of gears transmit power through gearboxes. rooth Thickness The thickness of a tooth measured along the pitch circle.

no feedback). If a larger driver than driven is used the reverse is true. A gear system. k Driven . 23 SPUR GEARS . is made up of gears that are: * Driver . * Is a change of angle or direction of drive required? " Is the gear system to be free from feedback (non-reversible)? Using a smaller driver gear (with less teeth) than the driven gear. Often used to change the direction of rotation (eg anti-- clockwise to clockwise) or change the speed.a gear wheel that drives another gear wheel. * Idler . Fig. or gear train.this is a driven and a driver wheel a s it is a wheel between two others. Figure 24 shows a Worm Gear where the worm is the driver but the driven gear (Pinion Gear) could not be the driver as any movement of it would not turn the worm (non reversible. Figure 2 3 shows an internal and external Spur Gear where either the larger the smaller gear could be the driver so loads in the system would be 'fed-b% i' from the driven to the driver. 22 GEAR TRAIN INTERNAL Fig. will reduce the speed of the driven gear but its torque will be increased.the other gear wheel that is being driven.

External spur gears have teeth which point outward from the cent re of the gear. Internal or annular gears have teeth pointing inward towards the gear axis. 24 WORM GEAR Gears are named according to the angle of intersection of the axis and thc shape of their teeth: A Spur L. WORM U Fig. Helical * Worm * Hypoid * Bevel etc Spur Gear These are classified as external (the most common). 25 FWCK TOOTH DETAILS . and Rack a r ~ d Pinion. Can Se noisy due to impact of engaging teeth. PITCH LINE OF RACK Fig. together with a pinion gear. Spur gears are normally straight toothed (but can be spiral cut . Used on shafts that r u n parallel to one another but not on the same axis. internal. convert straight-line motion into rotary motion and vice versa.helical gear). A rack (a gear with teeth spaced along a straight line).

The disadvantage of helical gears is that they produce a heavy axial load on the shaft. This axial load can be eliminated by the use of double helical gearing (herringbone) but can also be absorbed by thrust bearings that support the gear shaft. The main advantage of helical gears over straight cut gears is that more teeth area are in contact at any one time. Fig. Meshing takes place along a diagonal line across the faces and flanks of the teeth. 26 RACK & PINION SPUR GEAR Helical Gears These are a development of the spur gear. 2'7 HELICAL SPUR GEARS blank . DOUBLE SINGLE Fig. This provides a smoother and quieter drive as well as enabling more pourer to be transmitted. Thus one pair of meshing teeth remain in contact until the following pair engage so the load on the teeth is distributed over a larger area. lnstead of the teeth being parallel to the axis of the gear they lie at an angle (a helix angle).

\J tr~~lns . AXIAL THRUST WHEN TORQUE APPL-IED HELICAL GEAR OUTPUT SHAFT Fig. iiitcrnal gear makes it suited to closer centre distances t1iat-I could IJ(> used ivith :ti1 external gear of the same size When it is necessary to r r ~ c t i ~ ~ t tatie in s a m e s e n s e of rotation for two parallel s l ~ a fst . For internal s p u r gears. The oil pressure is transduced into a n electrical signal for fllght deck indicators r e a d l ~ i gtorque in Nm. the positions of t h e adderldum a n d dcclendum are rcvcrsc.ith a left hand helix.orlditio[ls rnnltc. in epicyclic reduction gear trains.A d o ~ t b l chelical gear h a s two sets o f teeth. the.gcar 'I'1ic:sc.lix a l ~ dthe other n. In sorne drive systems from engines to propellers and rotor heatls. This I-csults i11 a different tooth :\ction a n d less s l ~ p p a g ethari with a n equivalent external s p u r .for engine oil systems and some older hyclra~~lic systems (giving low pressure/ high flow rates). t h e shaft moves axially (as it rotates). 'I'hc. 28 GEAR BOX SHOWING HELICAL GEAR A S TORQUETRANSDUCER S p u r gears a r e found in gearboxes. a n d in gear-type oil p u m p s . orit: w ~ t ha rig11t 11:ir1~1 l-ir. 1nte1-nttlgc1:11 i s t. t h e axial thrust loat3 o n a shaft fitted with helical spul.spec-~:~ily desi~ :t t ~ l ebecatisc it eljmi~i.t~ y ~c.t~l(:t. c. a s torclue is applied. SPUR GEAR PRE CYL DRIVING GEAR) .the internal gear highly adaptable tto ey~icyrlicand pl. This axial movement pushvs on a small piston t h u s producing pressure in a n o ~ l e dfilled d a s h from those of t h e external gear but are still relatetl to I l ~ roote a n d tip. accessory drive trains.~tes thy nced for an idler.gears is utilised fox torque measurement purposes The shaft is allowed a sniall a r n o ~ ~ofl ~( > l n dfloat a n d .

A right hand gear being one on whlch the teeth twist clocktvise a s they rerede from the ol~server-looking alo~lg t h c gear-axis Usecl t o coriiiect shafts in the sarne plane where the centre lines inter-sect and a change of direction is required.'l'lle~run on parallel axes with teeth oblique t o the tooth s ~ ~ r f n csta1-ting e.29 BEVEL GEAR TERMS . The teeth can be either straight cut or spiral cut and its basic form is that of a cone. I-ierl-ingbonc-gears are equivalent to two hel~calgears of opposite hand placed side by slde They are suited to high-spced operation and eliminate the axial thrusi produced hy single helical grars Helical gears are referred to as right or left hand in the same manner a s screw threads. C I I C . Used to change the shaft 'axis clirectiorl a n d l o r change the speed. I I gears <ire e s s e n l ~ a l ls~p u l gears. t rt xl ~~\ l~t ~l~. :it one edge ~_roc~edi!lg across the face of thc tooth.11s r r i e ~ ~ t ~ o. They are also used in many gearbox accessory drives a t the input stage of the turbine shaft and the accessory drive. particularly at high speed. This actlon results in reduced irnpact stress a n d quieter operation. GEAR 1 AXIS I PITCH CIRCLE DIAMETER * l-3 P lg. They are commonly found on intermediate and tail rotor gearboxes on helicopters where a change in the direct~onof drive is required.

'J'11ey have greater load carrying ability than with straight teeth gears of t l ~ esarrie size. 'The diametrical p ~ t c . spiral anti skewed gear-s.low the p ~ t c hrircle ~ ~ a r a l lto e l the back cone clriver. its pitch surface is a plane and the crown gear corresponds in this respeci to a rack and s p u r gcaring.. there is no sliding along as the tooth engages. including straight tooth.'The :1ng1~between tlic shafts is u s u a l l ~a right angle h u t it rnay Iinve : i l l \ :~ngle u p to 180" The vvlocity ratio is the inverse ratio of the diameters of t h e i ~t. 30 BEVEL GEARS Bcvcl Gear Terrris If the rurved surface of the back cone is viewed normally the tevth hcivc: t i l t .a. Fig. s a m e profile a s the tceth on a spur gear The atlderldum a ~ l dc l e d c * n d ~ i hi~vc.from the pitch cone apex. . ko~f a bevel gcar is constant across the full widtl~of the teeth. A crow11 gear 1s one havlng a pitch angle of 90'.es or teeth ratios.thcrefot t. 'Their teeth are curved and oblique. have pitch angles greater than 90". TWObevel gears with equal numbers of teetll a n d running togethvr s v l t l ~t i l t ~ i r s h a f t axes intersecting a t 90"are called M l t ~ ancl bt. n~ thc slinie proportions a s s p u r gear leetli but are mc. Spiral bevel gears provide a gradual engagement compared to the full line engagement of straight bevel gears. In n crown geai.alght teeth. Because each point on a stralght tooth bevel gear rerr~ainsa fixed distance. Internal bi-~velge:lr:. Several forrns of l ~ c ~ v c l gears a r e in use. The s ~ n l p l e s forrri t of bevel gear h a s stl.. Exter-rial bevel gears have pitch arlgles lcss than 90'.

l J ~ . This may be carried out using shims (as per the manual)and will put more or less area of tooth in rrlesking contact. t.~11. t i L~ i l l j ~o r 20L a s fo:.1 5 gt~'iij .s p u r be adjusted forwards or backwards along its axis (by a fraction of a mm).~ :ii~gIcs i ~ 1. 31 HYPOID GEAR .tween the gear wheel and the bottom surfacc of the teeth. Angle I)erlerid~ir~l The angle Gc. 1l:clgt. one of the bevel gears m. R~lcienclu~n Angle The angle between the gear wlleel and the top surfaces of the teeth.t .A~lgle Angle t)etivethnthe ljne at rlght angles to the axis arid the top surfaces of the teeth. ~ . ~ s u ~14'. btltween the axis of t h e gear and the p1tc:h cone teeth (-elI trf. h ht . The teeth are helical and the axes of the shafts c-lo not intersect. but the basic surfaces on which they are cut are hyperboloids instead of cones. On some gyar boxes.When the pitch c-one angle is 45" the gear is a mltre gear Fac c. to establish correct wear patterns. 'These are used where thc centre lines of the two shafts neither intersect or r u r ~ parallel. Angle The angle between a line at rlght arigles to the axis and the top edge of the teeth. TOE /HEEL Fig. They are similar to bevel gears in application and form.:~' A t l t f l t lonal t o those terms ~ ~ s for are used ~ l gears the f'ollowi~~g t spur t)l:i-h ('oiie Angle The anglt.

SKEW GEAR Fig. a n d have the same proportions a s standard involute track teeth. W ~ t hparr~llel worms the teeth are straight sidecl on a section througli the axis. These connect shafts a t right angles which lie on different planes. The change in speed of two gears in mesh is calculated a s the Velocity Ratio.Used \?. . If a 20 tooth piriiorl (the smaller of a palr of gears) tir~vc~s a 4 0 tooth gear-. Worms may be known as Encircling or H~ndleyWorms. These engage with teeth on the pjnion gear. VR is expressed as the following equation: Exarn1)lc. The worm is t h e driver a n d the pinion is the driven gear. double or triply start thread. respectively. Velocity Ratio (VR) is t h e number of revolutions N1 of the driving gear dividecl by the n t ~ r n b e rof revolutions Ny of the driven gear in the s a m e time interval.. Besides changing speeds the torque can be reduced or increased. The worm I S esserlt~allya screw which may have a singlt. Older teeth or1 pinions were straigl~tbut now are usually wasted to give a greater contact area with tht- a large reduction in speed and ari increase i n torcluc. I . is r e q ~ ~ ~ r e d Gives a 910 back-feed' provisiori and used on systems where it is required that any load taken by the system is not felt on the input to the worm Used or1 lifting equipment using either a. manual or powered worm input. thc: piriiori must rotate ~ L V I C ~for ' e a c l ~one revolut~onof t11e gear. For gears with teeth Tl a n d 7'2. 32 WORM GEARS G e a r Trains A PI-inciple function of gears is to change the speed of rotation a n d / o r their jirectjon. Movement cannot be transmi ttvd t h e other way.

~ X ~ L I - . in a two gear (external spur) gear-train is to rotate in t h e same direction a s the driver then a n Idler gear i s required between the two. Stepping up the speed reduces the torclue by the same ratio and st eppir~gdown the speed increases the torque by the same ratio. Stepping u p or stepping down the speed of the driven gear will also affect i torque. 'I'he most important d~stirlctionon classifying gear trains is that between ordinary and epicyclic gear trains In ordinary trains. all axes remain stationary relative to the frame but in epicyclic trains. in the sprvtl o f the final d s ~ v emay be ach~evedin several stages . 'I'he first stage is normally corriprisctf of . ~ T .in 11711)ut geal ctrivu~ga n i r l y ~ r l tdriven gear.66 times faster) 30 - . ~t ~l l ~. 33 SPUR EPICYCLIC GEAR 'l'hc. 200 =.~s a Larger number of t ( . . 6. 20 . I S In some helicopter nlain rotor drives. L l i t i i . whic11 11. a t least one axis moves relative to the frame. 400rprri x 6. - .66 (6. SUN WHEEL PLANET FIXED PINION 1 ANNULUS CARRIER PLANET P~NIONS Fig. If tile distance between the driver gear the final gear is large then several idler p a r s may be required The idler gear does not affect the speed ratio. If the final.5 (half a s fast) 40 Example 2 Driver spur with 200 teeth (2u 40Orprn What is the speed of the d r i v e n gear with 30 teeth? - .66 = 2666rpm approx. '/J or 0. or driven gear.

a n essential part of the assembly. a r. which is stationary. Thc second reduction stage is usually i n the form of a spur ep~c:y<-lic. or Surr gear. The reduction achieved in an epicyclic gear assernbly is also expressed as a ratio.. 'This consists of a central. in fact. providing the means of transmitting the output drive power. are sets of Planetary Pinloris. . In sorrle assemblies. and meshing with both. varjilng in number from three to eight (figure 33 shows 3). The actual reduction car1 be found using the following formr-]la: Number of teeth of S l J N + Number of teeth of RING Number of teeth of S U N Thus tln assembly consisting of a s u n with 40 teeth a11d a ring with 120 teeth \voul(l have the following reduction: This c a n be expressed a s a ratio of 4 : 1 From the above it can be seen that the planetary p i n ~ o n sare. they "walk" rouiid the gear. They are. but a t a reduced speed. the planetary pinions are made to rotate about their cutis. taking with them the planetary pinion carrier.~ ~ a s i n a ngd is internally toothed) Interposed between the s u n gear . The planetary pinions a r e housed in a carrier to which is secured the output shaft. because they are in mesh with the ring gear. T h u s a gear train consisting of a driver with 30 teetll and drix-en with 90 teeth would have a reduction ratio of 90 : 30 or 3 : I .:iind. ~ d l e r gears a n d their n u m b e r of teeth is of no consequence to the actual reductjon ratio. ~ n d the rlng gear. reduction gear. of course. a fixed annulus.The I-vtiuction achieved across this type o f gearing is expressed a. In a single stage assembly the planetary pinion carrier transmits the drive directly to t h c ~ n a i n rotor drive As the s u n gear rotates. norrnally forms part of the g e a ~box outer.wit17 the lower stage output shaft driving the upper stage s u n gear. which rotates in the same direction as the s u n gear. but t h e numbers of teeth o f t h e sun gear and the ring gear only are considered. the epicyclic gearing is in two stages (figure 35). wher-c. ~vhrchrevolves insidc a sr:~tionary Ring gear (the ring gear. the number of teeth on the drive11 are compared with thc n u r n b c r of teeth o n the driver. This transmits a drive to the output shaft.

Pressure is created in a n oil filled cylinder which is converted to a n electric.but studying the clrawing will give 311 insight into how gears are used. down to about 20001-pm. are mounted or1 equally spactld arms whirl-i are part of the output shaft (eg a propeller shaft). both the driving and fixed bevel gears Rotation of the driving gear causes the planet gears to rotate which drives their respectlrie rnounting arrns and the shaft. Both (jet) engines drive into the system at about 22. . The assembly allows for high torclue transmission and acts as a r-eduction gear. 34 BEVEL EPICYCLIC GEAR Figure 28 shows a two stage speed reduction gear box for a helicopter. 'I'his common drivr drives ( h e rnain bevel gear to redlice the r p m again .000rpm. They are situaletli belwevn.T!!j s gear trair! ronsists rjf two cpposed bevel gears of different diameters. 'Tht. This goes via a ciouble helical rccluctiori gear to bring the rprri down to about 8000rpm These two drives feed into a common drive via a single helic:~l reduction gear to bring t h e rpm down to about 5000rprn. signal for transmission to cockpit instruments. free to rotate. Stage one is a s p u r gear and stage two is a helical gear. There is no need to commit the details to me1mor. FIXED GEAR 3 PROPELL Fig. arld are in engagement with.y and the figures are approximate . large gear 111 figirrr 34 1s the driving gear and the smaller gear is a fixed stationary gcal l'hree planet gears or pinions. Fjgure 35 shows the gear train or transmission system of a twin engined helicopter (based on the Aerospatial Super Puma). This gear also acts a s a torque transducer utilising the fidct that when power is transmitted through the gear the helical teeth produce a n axial movement of the shaft.

arid the comnlon drive is used to drive the tail rotor. Used where high loads a r e c. C h a i ~ l sancl sprockets provide a strong flex~blepositive connectior~in cor~trol systerns and a r e generally used where it is necessary to change tlirectiori or to conrlcct to a p u s h / p u l l rod system.ncountc. This brings the final speeci d o ~ v nto 265rpm. MAlN ROTOR 265rpm .lch i n n e r link consists of two: . 35 HELICOPTER TRANSMISSION SYSTEM The final reduction stages to the main rotor are achieved uslng a doublt. The individual engine drives take s p u r gears to drive accessories s u c h as oil p u m p s .rt. eg engine controls. serially m o u n t e d epicyclic reduction gear. CHAINS These comply with t h e requirements of British S t a n d a r d s 2 2 8 or I S 0 6 0 h . flying controls etc 'The chain i s m a d e u p of a series of a pair of liril<s (an inncr llrllc and an o ~ ~ t e r link). hydraulic p u m p s . CONTROL. n 265rprn EPICYCLIC REDUCTION REDUCTION GEAR REAR TRANSMISSION 772rpm FORWARD ACCESSORY DRIVE 30UBLE L H ENGINE HELICAL 22840rpm REDUCTION GEARS OIL PUMP MAlN BEVEL GEAR Fig. generators etc (about 2 0 0 0 to 3000rprn). E.d.

?. locking a nut and boll asserriblv 1s to peen the bolt end for chams of 8mrn pitch or under a t i c i LISP a split pinned lock nut for larger chains (the out cr ~ ) l . Only the bolted o r screwed attachments can be disconnected. pulleys etc. 'I'he chair) is supplied boxed.It is identified by part rlurnber and name arid shoulcl be accompanied by the appropriate stores release docurnentatiurl (. lightly oiled and coiled in oil--paper. <r \ I 1 I OUTER LINK ROLLER INNER I I PLATES I I OUTER PLATE +"- +-t Secured by peening the end of the bearing pin. Roller diameter. If a disconnect point ROLLER would be secured by locked nuts DIAMETER o n the bearing pin or other approved method. The SBAC standard for. A t3enrir1g pins. These dirr~ei~sions ar-e important for the serviceability of'the chain and for its correct fitrr~rntaround sprocltet wheels. Any peerled n u t s and bolts and split pins must be used O I ~ C Conly. \ tof e the cl1a113 is tlorrnally tapped) . 'I'he ckialri llas three principal dirrtprisions: * Pitch The distance between the centre of two adjacent rollers/pins. A O i ~ t r rplates. INNER 1 WIDTH . . locked n u t arid bolt asscmblics etc. 36 ROLLER CHAIN CONSTRUCTION Chain assemblies are supplied from the manufacturer (approved supplier) .-INK BETWE E N OUTER BEARING PIN ------.A 'I'hc ivldth betwerr~the lnner plates. complete proof load tested units a n d no attempt should be made to dismantle riveted links or attachments.JAA/ EASA form 1 ) LVheri fittings ~ l r econnected to the end of t h e chain they m u s t be fitted in a positivc way using lockecl pins. Fig.

END CONNECTOR Allows for attachment to pushlpull rod. Nor is it permitted to use spring clips for the attachment of linlts to join the ends of a looped chain. A n d the axls of the ch:tin m a y be changed by 90" hy llie use of a hi-planer block. chai~i~. arc: ~isecl. 7'0 1)rcxventthe chain from being fitted the wrong way round non 1-evers11. bellcrank lever etc \ SPROCKET WHEEL CHAIN Allows for chain direction change & Taking tensile far component drive loads only t Rotates chain about its axls by 90 degrees DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. cable turnbuckle. Charlgc of direction is achieved by the use of sprocket wheels. Positive methods must be used such a s bolted joirlts (with the bolts loclted). 38 NON-REVERSIBLE CHAIN The use of cranked links for the attachment of end fittings to chains is riot permitted. 37 CHAIN & SPROCKET ASSEMBLY EXTENSION PIECES I\ I \ / / Will not allow chain to be fitted to the sprocket the wrong NON-INTERCHANGEABLE END FITTINGS §POCKET WHEEL DRAWING FROM CAP 562 . cable connector.

39 NON-REVERSIBLE CHAIN FITTED TO T H E A 3 2 0 TAILPLANE MANUAL TRIM CONTROL SYSTEM Chains rnay have handed or rion-intercharrgeable erld fittings. this means that. When fitted to the sprocket wheel the extension pieces pass around t he wheel either sidr of the wheel. Fig. . If 11 is attempted to fit the cham to r i ~ c\vheel the wrong way round the extension pieces will be on the outsidr circunifrrrrrt-t of the wheel and will not pass u n d r r the guard. together with the chain extension pieces and guard it is impossible to fit t h e chain incorrectly into t h e system.These are the samr a s the standard chain except that they have extension pieces every othrr lirik and they are fitted to sprocket whecls where there is a guard close tu tile whrel. Maintenance This is detailed in module 7.

To maintain tension a sprurig loaded or acljustable idler pulley may be fitted (normally in the longcst s t r :light rtln of the belt) between the driver a n d driver1 pulleys. It is sornetinles callvtf 13. The flat belt system is cheaper t h a n other belt systems :tnd used where very little load transmission is required. complete belt is enclosed by a fabric covering a n d a layer of rul-~ber . and tirriing rnec%har~isnls C:)rrectly installed a n d tensioned they provide an illexpensive lightweight dl-ive SJ stem which is easy to maintain. DRIVE RE1. Many belt drives are of t h e "V"type.. They are of thinner cross section and the specification dirnensions a s for. Tlie c1:issical cross section is shown In figur-r~4 I . The V design ensurf-s it sits within the V shaped pulley with no tendency to come off a n d increases its grip as more tension (power) is applied.y (cam belts on pjston engines for example.'I'S A N D PIJL1. For the actual design a n d maintenance practices of a particular belt drive system you s h o ~ ~ refer l d to the belt drive rr1anufac. The belts a r e made of rubber or synthetic materials a n d are strengthened by fabric material. The fabric reinforced rubber belt forms a c-oi~tinuous loop around two (or more) pulleys Note Pulleys are called sheaves in qome publications. The main tension fabric yarns r u n longltudil~allyand I ht.11 . though there are examples of flat belt drives in u s e a n d synchronous belts for applications where it is important that components operate synchronousl. V Drive Belts These are divided into 2 groups . This chapter deals with the different types of belts ant1 pulleys that may be fo~lnclin service. belng the driver a n d the others being driven.EYS These are used to drive conlparativelv lightly loaded componerit s suc.V belts are less important.turer7s manual a n d / o r the AMM. 'The rubber provides grip a n d a wearing surface. These are used with flat pulleys with flanges a n d / o r with guides The flanges or guides are to ensure the belt does not come off the ptllley.on some piston engine aircraft. thls provides strength in tension and reduces the belts ability to stretch. I S generators .lnded Cons tl-uction.heavy duty and light duty. On some systems the belt may go ax-ound more than one pulley with uric. It also proterts the fabric from moisture a n d contamination.

~t does provitle a nonlirlal length w h ~ c hI S c.lsjr to meastlrt. 40 FLAT BELT CONSTRUCTION RUBBER OH SIMILAR MATERIAL. For snialler pulleys where a reasonably load is required a notched belt should be used. its Effective Length (EI./ II SUPPORTING FABRIC Helps keep shape of belt Fig. Size 'Thcre are three measurements t h a t are used to designate the size of a V belt: its Outside Circumference (OC). .) and its Pitch Length (PL).\l working conditions. for example. . so a 3 V notched belt. Notched V belts are usually designated with an X'. 4 1 VEE BELT CONSTRUCTION Its loading is higher than the flat belt but the radius of the p~llleysm u s t not be too small. 'The Molded Notched V belt is shown in figure 42 with the tension fabric plies in the outcr section .wliere the tension loads are highest. MATERIAL Fig. which it would be under nornl. would be designated a 3VX.r load). MAIN TENSION MATERIAL --- --. Flowcver. Out side Circumference (OC) This is measured uslng n tape mvasure wrapped around the outside of the belt I t is not very accurate a n d does not provide n measurement of the belt when rlncier tcnsiorl (it will stretch slightly unc1c. Tlie belt is designed to take sirnilar loads to the Banded V Belt b u t will accornrnodate pulleys of smaller radii.

Tlie belt is placed around the pulleys and the second pulley loaded to a specified load. 'To rneasure the EL of a belt it is placed around two pulleys with specifieti groove sizes. 43 EFFECTIVE LENGTH (EL) MEASURING RIG . There is a scale on the loaded pulley to indicate the length b e t w e ~ nthe two pulley centres. It is the Effective Length that most manufacturers quote in their specific'at .ions. the belt is moved through three complete revolutions whilst being subjected to the load. MAIN TENS FABRIC Fig. The EL of the complete belt is calculated by taking the indicated measurement of the loaded pulley times 2 a n d a d d ~ n gt h ~ to s the circumference of one pulley (this equals the two halve c~rcumferencesof each pulley). BELT UNDER TEST FIXED PULLEY Fig. 42 MOULDED NOTCHED V BELT Effc-ctive Length (EL) This requires a special measuring rig consisting of two pulleys. One pulley is fixed and the other is designed so it c a n be lo:~dedto stretrh the belt. one fixcd and m e loadable with a n attached measuring scale.

Pcllleys (Sheaves) These are usually made of steel and supplied in various diameters and groove angles.Wherl the belt helids around a p u l l ~ vthy outside of the belt is l r l tension and the insldt I S 11-1 cornprt. The PL is the length of the tens~lt. CHAIN TO rAlLPLANE Fig.A 3 2 0 . It is calculated using equations but a qualitative approach will serve to indicate its relatioxlship to OC a n d EL. For the two belts the OC and E L would be the same 1.ut the PL of belt 2 tvould be smaller than the PL of belt 1. BELT DRIVES FROM HANDWHEELS TO SPROCKET HANDWHEEL TOOTHED DRIVE WHEELS OCKET WHEEL . 44 SYNCHRONOUS BEET SYSTEM .ssion Whe~c.chord around the complete belt.the centre of the tension occurs is called the neutral axis or tensile chord l ~ n eThe tensile chord 1s within the belt (towards tile outcr edge) and therefore cannot bt. Diameters specified include outside diameter and pitch diameter and include groove angies ranging from 32" to 38'. Assume we have two identical belts with the same extt:rnal dirncnsions but one belt (belt 2) h a s a lower tensile chord (it is designed with its fal~i-ic yarns further away horn the outer edge). measuretl.

'These use a chain and cable systern back to thc tailplar~e.ept that t h r v are toothed 'I'lie teeth are mo~rldecla s part of the inner surface and prcwidr a posltlve d r ~ v e~v1t11no slip (the other belts are used wher-e a n y slip.S\7nc-llronousBelts Thest.ntssuch a s the JAA/EASA forrri 1 clearly specifies the correct part by name.xc. Marly pulleys/belts. 'lgure 44 shows a n exarnple of t h y use of a synchronous belt system. if present.Thc system is dup1icate:d. . is not a problerl~).ts the tailplane trim wheel 111the flight deck of tlie A 3 2 0 to sproc-ket drives under tlie floor. Synchronous belts are used with toc~thrdpulleys and used with t~xnirlgd r ~ v e s such as ignition systems and valve 11ftixig mechanisrns of some pistor] engines. and it is important that t h e IPC/AMM is followed closely ancl docu~nc. are slmllar to flat belts in d c s ~ g nt. part number. General t is important that when replac~ngeither a pulley or a belt of any systcrri that ~t is checked for serviceability and also that it is the correct part (chvclc belt markings). I t c. serlal nuniber etc. partjcularly of the V type construction look very sjmilar.onnec. batch nuniber. They :ire niore expensive than the other iirlts.


Avdel Cherry Rigid pipes Fuel delivery pipes Flexible hose assemblies Pipe-line identification .CONTENTS Page Screw threads Terminology Standard screw threads Identification of nuts and bolts British nuts and bolts TJnified bolts and screws A S bolts BSF and BA nuts Unified nuts AS nuts American nuts and bolts Locking and retaining devices Special fasteners Screw thread inserts Studs Keys and keyways Rivets and riveting British solid rivets American solid rivets Selection of rivets Blind rivets Tucker pop Chobert.


the majority of which are V form with different angles of V depending on the standard. SCREW THREADS A screw-thread is a continuous helical groove cut externally into a piece of round section material or internally into a previously drilled hole. 1 SCREW THREAD TERMINOLOGY Terms Single Start Thread . Screw-threads are used extensively with nuts.The tip of the thread whether internal or external. With a single start thread the lead is equal to the pitch. Crest . studs and other fastening devises. CREST --I1 MINOR DIAMETER MAJOR DIAMETER ---. ------- EFFECTIVE DIAMETER k-- TWO START THREAD w LEAD = PITCH x NO.A single continuous helical groove cut either internally or externally. OF STARTS Fig. bolts. Threads are manufactured in many different forms . See figure 2. Thread Form --The profile of the thread form. precision measuring equipment and many other applications. . Most screw thread fastening devices (eg nuts and bolts) use this type of thread. They are also used in power transmission systems.

Thread Depth .The angle between two flanks. Multi Start Thread . will move towards the operator. tighter grip. A fine thread has a stronger root portion.The side which connects the root and the crest. On a double start thread lead is twice the pitch Coarse and Fine Pitch .Two threads may have similar thread forms and major diameters yet have different thread depths.Root .The distance from one crest to the next or from one part of the crest to the same part of the next crest. WILA such a thread the lead is twice the pitch.The axial distance moved by the moving part (usually a nut) of a threaaed pair when it is turned through one revolution. Multiple start threads increase the linear movement of the moving member without changing the pitch of the thread. finer adjustment and is more resistance to slackening under conditions of vibration than is a coarse pitch screw of similar major diameter. the helical groove is cut in a clockwise direction so that the moving member of a threaded pair. Most threads are right-handed but some are left-handed such as the threads on oxygen charging equipment and one thread of a turnbuckle.Diameter taken across the roots of an external thread or crests of an internal thread. Left Hand Thread .These are threads with more than one start (more than one helical grove). when turned in a clockwise direction. Pitch . however.In the majority of screw threads. A double start thread has two threads of the same size running helically around the shaftlhole together but starting opposite one another. Flank . Threud Angle . Major Diameter . .The diameter taken across the crests of an external thread or the roots of an internal thread. Therefore. A coarse pitch single start thread has a greater lead than a finer pitch thread of the same major diameter. The threads with the deeper thread will have less threads per inch and is said to be coarser. On a single start thread. In this case the moving member of a threaded pair. the coarse thread has a smaller minor diameter and the male member is consequently weaker.The bottom of the thread groove whether internal or external. will move away from the operator. it is necessary to have a left hand thread. May be known as the outside or nominal diameter.The radial distance between the crest and the root. Lead . En some situations. Minor Diameter . when turned in a clockwise direction. lead equals pitch.

The thread is rounded equally at crest and root. BSF & BSW THREADS BA THREADS UNF. UNC. 2 THREAD FORMS . The following pages give a brief description of most of the standards that you are likely to encounter. although most 'nut and bolt' systems will use standard screw thl-eads. STANDARD SCREW THREAD SYSTEMS These standards should not be confused with standardised 'nut and bolt' systems. Not used on aircraft but used in general engineering. British Standard Whitworth (BSW) An older UK standard using a symmetrical V-shaped thread form with a 55" thread angle. Threads per inch vary from 24tpi for 3 / 16" BSW to 4tpi for 2 %" BSW. IS0 & AN THREAD FORM ACME POWER THREAD +--t PITCH SQUARE POWER THREAD BUlTRESS POWER THREAD Fig.

American National Coarse (ANC). eg %" BSW has 20tpi.1.This uses the same thread form as the ANC but has a pitch which is finer than BSF. American National Fine [ANF). Beyond this range the sizes are indicated by stating the major diameter in fractions of an inch (eg 5/16" ANC).216" major diameter). .This thread has a pitch to diameter ratio approximately equal to the BSW thread. The thread is rounded equally at crest and root. They are similar to BSF and BSW in application respectively.British Standard Fine (BSF) This has the same thread form as BSW but has a finer pitch. It is found largely on older type British aircraft. Unified In order to bring about some standardisation in screw-threads. It is a metric thread and sizes range from 0 BA . %" BSF has 26tpi. negotiations between the United Kingdom. American National The two standard American threads are the American National Fine and American National Coarse.and has a thread angle of 60". The thread form is different from the British ones with truncated roots and crests . The size range is the same as for ANC.6mm major diameter to 10 BA . These threads are of two basic series which are Unified Coarse Thread (UNC)and Unified Fine Thread (UNF). Basic sizes are: 3/ 16" to 5/16" major diameter by steps of 1/32" 813" to 1" major diameter by steps of 1/ 16" 1%))to 13/4" major diameter by steps of %" 2" major diameter upwards by steps of %" British Association (BA) This is a fine pitch thread of symmetrical V-shaped form with a thread angle of 47%".073" majoi diameter) to No 12 (0. This type of thread may be found on older British aircraft mainly on smaller electrical and instrument equipment. Sizes range from No 1 (0. Canada and the United States in 1948 resulted in the adoption of unified standard screw threads with metric equivalents.7mm major diameter.

They may be suitable for power transmission in one or both directions.diameter of thread (coarse series).M . The thread comes in a coarse and fine series. Unzfied Fine (UNF) . International Standards Organisation (ISO) Metric This thread replaces BA. Knuckle Threads for cloth and soft fixings. OTHER THREAD FORMS There are many other thread forms such a s BSP (British Standard Pipe) for pipes. The fine series is for components needing very fine threads.MI2 as above. * Locking devices on aircraft lifting jacks etc.75 indicates the pitch of the thread and this is not a standard coarse series. * Vices. They are used to convert rotary movement into linear motion and also designed to take significantly higher loads than the V form threads. MI2 x 0. 12 . does require a mention and these are the Power Transmission Threads. The Acme Thread This is an American power transmission thread which is suitable for transmitting power in either direction. The coarse series approximates to BSF and is the one for general aircraft use. The included angle is 29".Unijied Coarse (UNC) . 0. and special-to-type threads. BSW and BSF thread forms. One group of threads. Sizes range from 1mm to 100mm. * Lathe lead screws.75. . Sizes range from 1/4" to 1%" major diameter. This type of thread works well with half nuts used for quick release mechanisms.metric.The pitch of these threads corresponds with BSF and ANF.the pitch of these threads is similar to BSW and ANC Sizes range from %" to 4" major diameter. however. The coarse and fine threads are designated as follows: MI 2 . Power threads are used on: * Some aircraft flap systems.

There are several ways of checking: * Look in the Illustrated Parts Catalogue (IPC). Once you have ascertained the correct type and size required then the verification that you have the correct item can be carried out in several ways: . One flank is a t 90" to the axis while the other is a t 45" . So it is very important that the correct n u t s and bolts are fitted and it is very easy to fit the incorrect ones. * Check the spares lists displayed at the stores. Buttress Thread A buttress thread is designed primarily to transmit loads in one direction only - as in a vice. but it is of vital importance to the safety of t. to be fitted. to be fitted to an aircraft? (10 mins) ANSWER The first thing to do is to ascertain what is the correct n u t a n d brl. A Check the Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM). Remember the incident where an airliner windscreen was fitted using under size bolts? The windscreen blew out when the cabin pressurised and the pilot was sucked out of the aircraft by the rush of air. The engineer concerned had not checked on the correct size of bolts to befitted and finally fitted the wrong ones.Square Thread This thread is also used for power transmission in both directions. QUESTION Describe how you would check a n u t and bolt for correct size. IDENTIFICATION OF NUTS AND BOLTS This section may be a bit tedious. It was only the quick action of the rest of the flight crew that saued him . This thread also works well with quick release half nuts.b y grabbing hold of him . aircraft that the correct nuts and bolts are fitted.this gives an included angle of 45". It is not sufficient just to say 'Check it with the one t h a Lllas been removed'. JC Check the modification/repair leaflet if being used. material etc.even though he was half way out of the aircraft. . It h a s an angle from flank to root of 90". It might have been fitted a s an incorrect item in the first place.

j : The part may be in a sealed packet with the part number and identification marked on the packet (small nuts. 3 TYPICAL FOFWS OF BA AND B S F BOLT AND SCREW HEADS . anti-corrosive treatnlt:nt etc. The EASA (JAA) form 1 may be available for inspection. * Larger nuts. bolts a r ~ t l screws). HEXAGON HEAD u COLD HEADED HlGH TENSILE HEXAGON HEAD HlGH TENSILE STEEL SET BOLT STEEL BOLT SCREW CLOSE TOLERANCE SHEAR BOLT CHEESE HEAD (HIGH TENSILE STEEL) (HIGH TENSILE STEEL) 7 8 9 ?i% ROUND HEAD %? @ COUNTERSUNK HEAD RAISED COUNTERSUNKHEAD Fig. bolts and screws can be identified by symbols and codes stamped on the head. colour. BRITISH NUTS AND BOLTS BSF and BA Bolts a n d Screws The following drawing shows some typical forms of BSF and BA n u t s and bolts.

Cheese head screw. 90" countersunk screw. blank . Cadmium plated. 7. It indicates the nominal length in tenths of a n inch. * Corrosion resistant steel .tinned. 8. Cadmium plated. * Brass . bolts and screws are identified by the packet label and the larger ones may be identified by symbol. 6. Again supplied in the same materials as 6 above. 4.anodic finish. Supplied in various materials. 3. It is preceded by a letter indicating the diameter of the shank. HTS shear bolt (has a thin head). 5. Hexagon headed bolt. Aluminium alloy bolts can be identified by a n = sign or an L sign stamped on the head. Close tolerance HTS bolt. shape of head.natural finish. Remember the smaller nuts. Size Markings For the smaller bolts and screws the size is indicated by a number following the part number. HTS screw (all the shank threaded = screw). eg * A1 Alloy . Round head screw. Cadmium plated.Legend for figure 3 . Raised countersunk (90") screw. Cadmium plated. 1. code markinf and colour. Natural Colour. Supplied in the same materials as 6 above. * Low tensile steel . Cold headed HTS (High Tensile Steel) bolt. 9. Corrosion resistance steel. Again supplied in the same materials a s 6 above. 2.cadmium plated.

if the bolt/screw is big enough is three (or part of) to~lching circles stamped on the head or on one side. 6 BA B .3 inches would have as a part number: The A25 indicates the British Standard Specification for the bolt a n d would specify material. The usual identification. UNIFIED BOLTS AND SCREWS The following drawing shows some typical forms of Unified bolts a n d screws. colour and shape of head. 5 / 1 6 BSF J 318 BSF L . % BSF etc EXAMPLE A 318 inch A 2 5 bolt of nominal length 3. 4 BA C . 2 BA E . 7 / 16 BSF N . . % BSF G . 4 NOMINAL LENGTH OF BSFIBA BOLTS/SCREWS Diameter Code Letter A . 'X' = NOMINAL LENGTH Fig. anti-corrosive treatment.

2. This is the identification on the shank end of some of the smaller bolts. 1. Fig. Dogpoint. HTS cadmium plated. Cadmium plated. Hexagon headed bolt which may be supplied in high tensile steel cadmium plated or corrosion resistant steel natural colour. 3. Hexagon headed close tolerance bolt. 5 TYPICAL FORMS OF UNIFIED SCREWS AND BOLTS Legend for figure 5. High tensile steel shear bolt. . 4.

10-32 UNF E . A1 alloy . 7.natural colour. 8. * A1 alloy. 8-32 UNC D . eg: Corrosion resistant steel . Brass . 0-80 UNF z .tinned.or if countersunk to include the countersunk portion. 3/8 in UNF etc . Anodised green. 6-32 UNC C . The finish d l depend on the material. Mushroom headed bolt. 6. 4-40 UNC B .cadmium plated. Supplied in materials the same a s 7 90" countersunk head. Supplied in high tensile steel . 92 in UNF G . Diameter Code Markings Y . Steel . 100" countersunk head. 5. 2-64 UNF A . Supplied in: * High tensile steel. Other types of screws/bolts are also supplied including close tolerance countersunk heads and double hexagon headed close tolerance bolts. ie it is the plain shank from under the head .cadmium plated and corrosion resistant steel . Pan head bolt. * Corrosion resistant steel. All [Jnified screws can be identified by markings/codes on the packaging label. Cadmium plated. Size Marking The nominal length of the bolt/screw is the same as for BSF/BA bolts and screws.natural finish. 5/16 in UNF J . Supplied in materials the same as 5 above plus Al alloy (green) and LTS (Low Tensile Steel). Larger bolts can be identified with the code (standard and size code) though countersunk screws are not usually marked at all. Natural colour.

* Thin . * Countersunk 90" and 120" * Round flat head. For double hexagon headed bolts the nominal length includes the complete shank including the threaded portion.for shear bolts. * Thin . Head shapes include: * Hexagon. The size marking and identification is similar to that described for BSF/BA bolts. They are supplied in the following forms: * Slotted. * Castellated. * Standard. * Slotted. * Round. * Mushroom. BSF AND BA NUTS The shape and materials of the nuts is similar to the bolts already described. * Castellated.BRITISH AEROSPACE COMPANlES 'AS' BOLTS These cover a range of sizes and shapes of head that are not covered by British Standard Specifications. UNIFIED NUTS These are of hexagon form and may be: * Standard thickness.for use with shear bolts. * Double hexagon. . The nominal length is measured in the same way as BSF and BA bolts and screws and length identification and diameter coding is also the same as BSF bolts. Size Coding Many of these bolts are not marked in any way and therefore identification would have to rely on packeted-labelled items. The size coding is preceded by the A S number.

Anchor nuts are not normally identified so great care must be exercised when selecting/ using anchor riuts. thin.with larger nuts kiaving the Unified symbol stamped on them and the Rntish Standard number followed by a letter indicating the diameter. ordinary nut. Fig.RB211 . S . T .They are identified in a similar way to the bolts ---. 6 EXAMPLE OF A PARTS CATALOGUE . Left hand threads are indicated by the letter I. C . castellated. slotted. printed on the specification and stamped on one of the flats of the nut. Drawings and label identifications will also include the following letter w1-lele applicable: P .

4 Brass/ bronze . Diameter size coding is similar to HSF/BA bolts and material codes are: i MS (Mild Steel) . 3 A1 alloy . Figure 6 shows an example taken from the IPC (Illustrated Parts Catalogue) of the Rolls Royce RB2 1 1 . * Whitworth threads. * Wing nuts. It shows the itemising of all the parts of the bracket detail to include rivets. The 8 (as in 8-36) indicates the diameter .in this case 8 BA.18 UNJF. a label in the packet in which they are supplied. * Strip etc:. NOTE. washers and 3 A S bolts and nuts.Note. The identification will incluc' .cadiniilrn plated.anodised blue. * BSP n u t s (British Standard Pipe). Ordinary n u t s and anchor n u t s are supplied made of HTS or corrosion resistarit steel all with UNJ thread.-he AS part number and the size code. Anchor n u t s can be supplied in a variety of fonns. eg * Stiffnuts. 2 CRS Corrosion Resistant Steel) or rnonel metal -. "ingle lug. BRITISH AEROSPACE COMPANIES 'AS' NUTS The double hexagon stiff n u t s are supplied in a size range from 8-36 UN. eg * Double lug.tinned. They are not marked individually but are identified L. . cadmium plated. * UNC a n d UNF threads. These are made of heat resistant steel and may be identified from the AS number marked on the side of the washer face. AGS (Aircraft General Standards) Nuts These may be supplied in various forms.JF (Unified Fatigue Resistant Fine Thread) to 9/ 16 .

Society of Automotive Engineers Specifications. * AN .National Aerospace Standards . If used on military aircraft they will carry the AN or MS prefix. the National Coarse threads are used in the smaller sizes through to No 8 and the National Fine threads are used in sizes N o 10 and larger. There are various standards in the U S incltlding. The Class 3 or medium fit is used most extensively for aircraft bolts and machine screws. 2 National Fine and 3 National Extra Fine.accepted by the majority of aircraft manufacturers. This standard h a s two common classes of fit: class 2 . For example. k SAE . The main difference between the old 'National' threads and the 'Unified' threads is that the former provides a slightly looser fit. These threads are designated by the prefixing of the letter 'U' and the suffixing of either the letters 'A' or 'R' depending on whether the thread is external (bolt) or internal (nut) .Military Standards. British and Canadian production.AMERICAN NIJ'TS AND BOLTS Many of the world's civil aircraft are of American rnaxlufacture. Federal Specifications. so rt is only natural that we should know something of the nuts a n d bolts prtsduced xri America.fret.Air Force/Navy Specifications. -A NAS . t MIL and M S . k AMS .medium fit. where a National Fine thread of medium fit was defined as 'iVF3' the Unified thread is 'UNF3A' or 'UNF3B'. The National Coarse (NC) and National Fine (NF) are used on aircraft bolts and machine screws. Screw Threads Threads on both aircraft: bolts and machine screws are of the American riativnal Standard type. The NAS standard corltairis the: following three groups of threads: 1 National Coarse. A. Threads are noted by the number per inch. Jnified Threads are used a n d these threads make interchangeability poss~ble between American. fit and class 3 .Aeronautical Matenals Division of SAE. In general.

C - .OOand upwards). \ 'X' INDICATES STEEL Fig. 4 Diameter = inch. * 6 figure series (lQ0. AN Air Force -. The coding symbols shown follow the basic dash number and identify the material required.generally low strength cadmium plated steel or A1 alloy. 10 Dash No indicates bolt length . DOUBLE DASH INDICATES ALUMINIUM ALLOY BOLT DASH INUlCAlES CORROSION RESISTING STEEL. These are n ~ a d efrom higher strength materials and are of' more recent design.anodised. . £3 Bolt with drilled head and shank.AN Bolts 'These are supplied i n two series: * 3 to 1000 . A The adding of letter A indicates no cotter pin (split pin) hole. 7 AN3 to AN20 HEXAGON HEADED BOLTS AN bolts may be obtained in the following materials. Identification of the nut/bolt can be by reference to the packetlparts list but bolts in particular can be identified by symbols marked on the head. DD = Aluminium alloy . Ofterl called the Early Series. Thereafter code increments by 1/ 16 inch.related to diameter.Navy Standard. Corrosion resisting steel.

In very general terms the code -elates to the diameter in 1 / 16ehinch. eg "lain hexagon. * Slotted plain hexagon. A Wing. eg fine or coarse. T o u n d head. unplated. .plated.Early Series A N Screws 'Fhese differ frorri the bolts in that they are made of lower strength rnaterlal.unplated. " Brass . The length code represents the shank length . * M~lshroomhead (Truss head). " Washer head (has a small washer machined a s part of a roirnd hea<l). * 'Thin hexagon. " Bronze . Size coding can vary depending on type of head and type of thread. " A1 alloy.ira I / 1 6 t h inch increrrients. Early Series AIV Nuts Used with AN bolts and screws and are supplied in various forms. " Bronze . have slotted or cruciform heads that are either: * Countersunk (100' or 82"). including the head if countersunk . Supplied in: Steel.plated (cadmium). ' Corrosion resistant steel. " Castellated hexagon. * Slotted thin hexagon. " Raised cheese head (Fillister head). Cod irig The AN number indicates the type of head. * Brass .

" Hexagon .slotted. Corrosion resistance steel. The heads may be supr d drilled depending on the AN number.plain. Letters in t?le code represent: C - .6 hole.16. L/R = Left/ Right hand thread. * Hexagon . Other a1 alloy. B - .exiended washer face. with a single screwdriver slot. W o u b l e hexagon -.3/13 UNC and UNF. * Hexagon -. Those intended for use with screws have the same code a s the screws. thin or castellated f o m with the material specification code stamped on one flat. drilled or undrilled. * Internal wrenching (Allen key). .drilled -.machine screw nut. MS Bolts Are supplied in a wide variety of head types.alloy steel cadmium plated. 40 to 10 . D - . slotted.drilled . A Countersunk (100"). eg E l l .Coding Those intended for use with AN bolts have the same coding as the bolt. DD = A1 alloy -. * Double hexagon (called a 12 point). Late Series A N screws Supplied in cheese head or raised cheese head form. Late Series A N Nuts Supplied in plain. Late Series A N Bolts These are supplied as plain hexagon headed bolts with the material marked ox them as a code. eg * Hexagon . Size codings range from 10-32 to 3/4 -. Size ranges from 4 . Brass.

07 Indicates grip length in 1 / 16tll inch increments. Because the length code may change with the diameter it is rnost zrnportcant that the complete part number of a particular item be checked by reference to 111e packet identification and the IPC. .Cadmium plated.05 . Grip length = plain shank portion including the head where it is countersunk.Phosphated Corrosion resistant steel. * Steel .Phosphated. . . Materials include: * Steel . THIS BOLT IS MADE OF NICKEL STEEL. " Alloy steel . Fig.Cadmium plated. THESE BOLTS MAY BE EITHER NF(73) THREAD OR NC (74) THREAD AS PER CODING. MS Screws These are supplied in size ranging from N o 4 t. 8 M S 2 0 0 7 3 & M S 2 0 0 7 4 DRILLED MEXAGONHEABEDBOLT EXAMPLE: MS2 1250 .Zinc plated.07 21250 Identifies a double hexagon (12 point) drilled or plain U N F alloy steel cadmium plated bolt.In general codings represent the diameter in 1/ 16th inch and the grip length in 1/ 16th inch. CADMIUM PLATED TO PREVENT CORROSION. 05 Indicates diameter in 1/ 16th inch increments. * Steel . " Alloy steel .o 1% inch.

'I'hreads may be UNC.Head Shapes include: * Hexagon .tri-wing recess (3winged Phillips style screwdriver slot). * Pan head.drilled . length (total length of screws . UNJF or American National .single drilled. * Internal wrenching (Allen key).crown head. UNJC. * Countersunk 100" . material and type of plating. " Hexagon . For the remainder they are coded in numerical order. Head markings use symbols and code letters and numbers. * Countersunk '8 00". NAS Bolts and Screws These are supplied in a wide range of specifications. * 12 point (double hexagon). Head shapes include: I-{exagon . * Hexagon . diameter.grip length for bolts). IJNF. " Hexagon . The diameter coding is similar to AN and MS parts for most bolts and screws. * Cheese head (fillister). * Hexagon . * Hexagon . * Pan head with various drive recesses. 'Threads can be UNC or UNF. tri-wing torque-set. and hi torque.slotted. * Hexagon.drilled .Phillips. Coding 'The coding includes type of head.plain.corner to corner.6 holes. MS Nuts These are supplied in vanous forms in plated or unplated condition. * Cylinder head. Sizes range from No 4 to 1 inch diameter.

25 Fig. Drilled head. H - -. P or R . .ode includes letters to indicate: * Plating type. DH . C or E = Corrosion resistant steel. 251 1 6 t h ~ inch long (1. A . Phillips A Material type: CR. v - .drilled shank etc. % inch diameter bolt. * Type of recess: - T . Drilled shank. Hi 'Torclue. 25 . "ype of locking . 9 NAS 144 t o NAS 158 INTERNAL WRENCHING BOLT EXAMPLE: NAS 144ADH . Add 'DH' to part number to designate drilled head. Titanium. NAS 144 A BH . Torque set. Add 'AA'to part number to designate drilled shank.The c.6" long).25 NAS""4 .

The single washer has a sharp edge on the top and botlonl ends.particularly on joints that are dismantled infrequently. Provided the spring washer retains its springiness and the edges of the single spring washer remain sharp then it may be re-used. Some locking devices may be used once only (locking wire) others may be used many times (locking plates). I. Snip off legs if they are too long Drilling of bolt shanks is not permitted. CASTLE NUT SLOTTED NUT Fig. LOCKING AND RETAINING DEVICES British Civil Airworthiness Requirements (BCAH) prescribes that an approved means of lockirlg must be provided on all connecting elements in the primary structure. Below are listed details of most of the locking methods. but some manufacturers recommend they be changed every time anyway . 10 SPLIT PIN USE Spring Washers This washer has either a single or double coil spring and is fitted beneath the nut. 'The pin is secured by bending the legs as shown in figure 10. The steel pin is fitted in a slot in the n u t and passes through a hole drilled in the bolt. . Used the pin once only. When the n u t is tightened and the spring compressed. If in doubt about which one to use and whether it can be used a second (or third time) consult the AMM. Either method is acceptable in locking slotted or castellated nuts. This further enhances the locking effect. fluid systems. controls or other mechanical systems essential to the safe operation of the aircraft. Split Pix-Is Manufactured from mild corrosion resistant steel or nickel alloy steel and u s in conjunction with drilled bolts and slotted or castellated nuts. friction is set u p between the faces (flanks)of the screw thread which is sufficient to prevent the n u t or bolt turning.ocking devices may be incorporated in the conlponent itself (self-locking nut) or may be a separate item (spring washer). One edge protrudes into the base of the nut slightly and the other protrudes into the component slightly.

pring washers. 12 SINGLE TAB WASHER Shake Proof Washers These washers are manufactured from spring steel and can be used in place of . EDGES DIG INTO COMPONENT DOUBLE SPRING WASHER /--- SINGLE SPRING WASHER Fig. \@ LEG BENT INTO HOLE IN COMPONENT AND OTHERS BENT ONTO OFTHENUT THE FLAT OR FLATS Fig. Unless the tab washer is of the multiple type. Multiple types have more than one tab so a new tab can be used each time the washer is used. Used once only. it should be used once only. LEGS SET AT A EXTERNAL SMALL ANGLE WITH HARP EDGES INTERNAL / Fig. either the internal or external diameters are serrated and the resulting legs are set a t a n angle so as to 'bite' into the pressure faces of nut and component when the n u t is tightened. one tab is bent against one of the flats of the nut and the other over a r ~edge or into a small hole in the component. 11 SINGLE & DOUBLE SPRING WASHER Tab Washer This is a metal washer with two or more tabs and is suitable for use with r i plain nut. 13 SHAKE PROOF WASHERS .

Fig. 15 LOCKING PLATE Wire Locking The wire used for wire locking is normally 22 SWG (Standard Wire Gauge) corrosion resistance wire -. . No untwisted length should be greater than 7 8 " (10mm).or that specified in the manual. When tightening the lock-nut the first nut should he held firmly by the use of a spanner. When wire locking the following points must be considered: a. Used marly times. The twisted wire should extend through the locking point by %" (13mrn). Carl be used repeatedly provided it r e n l s n s a good fit around the nut or bolt.Locknuts Locknuts are plain nuts which are tightened against ordinary plain n u t s or against coxnponents into which male threaded items are fitted. Fig. b. After torque loading/correctly tightening the nut the plate is placed over the nut and locked with a g n l b screw. The first nut 1s tightened down in the normal way and the lock-nut is tightened down onto the first nut. No unsuppcrted length should exceed 3" (76mm). The gnlb screw is locked by the use of a spring washer. c. 14 LOCKNUT Locking Plate A locking plate is usually manufactured from steel.

etc. Right hand thxeads tighten clockwise. d. Examples of the use of locking wire are shown in figures 16 a n d 17 (single wire techniques). a left-hand thread is tightened by turnjrig ant1- clockwise. Be careful to ascertain whether the thread is a left-hand or a right-hand thread. f. After removal of surplus wire. 18 WIRE LOCKING PIPE UNIONS . the twisted e n d s should be bent over to prevent injury and catching on clothing. e. Angles of approach to be not less than 45" to the rotational =IS. Fig. The lay of the wire must always be such a s to resist any tendency of the locked part to become loose. 17 WIRE LOCKING A TENSION ROD TYPE TURNBUCKLE TWISTED PAIR LOCKING ONE UNION NUT AGAINST THE OTHER Fig. 16 SINGLE WIRE LOCKING TWISTED LOCKNUTS ENDS STOWED /\ / READ SAFETY \ INSPECTION HOLE RH THREAD Fig. Figure 18 shows the twisted pair technique being used on pipeline unions.

Aerotight). or are not often disturbed. An example is shown below where the circlip retains the centre part of the universal or Hardy Spicer joint. . An internal circlip is fitted into a bore and springs outwards to fit in a groove. When assembled. May be internal or external. The friction is produced a t one end of the n u t by a built-in locking device which can either be a nylon insert. the friction between the screw threads is so great that the n u t is held securely in position. an elliptical collar (Kaylock) or de-pitching the last few threads (Philidas. Depending on application may be used more than once provided the n u t cannot be txrned down by hand. or difficult to get at.particularly if joints are critical.Cjrclips and Locking Kings Manufactured from spring steel hardened and tempered. 19 PLATE & WIRE TYPE CIRCLIPS Stiff Nuts A stiff n u t is self-locking. Note. HARDY SPICER TYPE UNIVERSAL JOINT Fig. Some rnanufact~~rers recoxnmend they are replaced every time when used . An external circlip fits over a shaft and springs inwards into a groove. I t is designed so that when assembled to a stud or LA. the end of the bolt must protrude from the end of the stiff nut by a t least one complete thread. After fitting the circlip or locking ring an inspection must be made to ensure that the circlip is correctly bedded in its slot or groove.

For some operations the bolt might need to be supported from the other side using a large mass such a heavy hammer. The surrounding metal is forced into the screwdriver slot of the screw. 20 STIFF NUTS & ANCHOR NUTS . A new bolt and n u t is fitted each time. The peening is carried out using a hammer and a centre punch deforming the end of the bolt into the sides of the n u t . PEENING SCREW-DRIVER SLOT \ @ CENTRE POPPING Fig. 2 1 PEENING & 6CEIVTRE-POPPING' . or by 'centre- popping' the interface between the n u t and the bolt. THREADS OBDlE PHILIDAS AEROTlGMT KEYLOCK SINGLE ANCHOR ODDlE DOUBLE STRIPNUTS NYLOC CAPPED NYLOC ANCHOR NYLOC FLOATING ANCHOR Fig. The bolt end is deformed to provide the locking which makes dismantling more difficult. The bolt must extend 1'/z threads through the n u t before peening. Some countersunk screws are peened by using a chisel sharpened to a screwdriver point.GENERAL Peerling and 'Centre-Popping9 This method of locking should not be used unless specified in the manual.

Loctite. Locking Il sing Adhesives Compoiients such as instruments.HOW OFTEN USED DEVICE NIJMBER OF TIMES LJSED/APPLTCATION Locking Wire Once Split Pin Once Tab Washers Once (unless multi-tab type) Circlips Once (wire type) More than once (plate type) Locking Plate More than once Spring Washers More than once Sh akeproof Washers Once SPECIAL FASTENERS There is a wide range of these types of fasteners. Jo-Bolts may be classified as blind rivets. a solid steel rivet in the hole.Taper and Parallel Pins Taper pins with a taper of 1 In 48 are used 0x3 tubular and solid circular sections. The complete item consists of a threaded bolt with a roundhead.h a screw thread so locking is carried out using a nut and peening. length. Some are bifurcated. clarriping the materials to be joined and a t a predetermined load the bolt shears just inside the n u t head. Araldite or similar materials. The advantage of using adhesive as a fastening method is the ability of a n adhesive to fill the joint area keeping ou air and rnoisture and it i s also convenient. switches etc may be locked with Shellac. a rivet shaped n u t and a sleeve. for securing control levers to torque shafts and fork ends to control rods etc. valves. Made from steel or light alloy. . A few have been selected for this book to demonstrate the range available. Others may be fitted wit. LOCKING DEVICES . The manufacturer's recommendat . they are classified by the small end diameter and. virtually.s must be followed as regards the use of these methods. and others are solid a n d peened to lock. assembled as illustrated in figure 23. leaving. Rotation of the bolt forces the sleeve u p the tapered n u t shank. the legs are spread far locking.

since this would alter the gripping strength at which t l ~ ebolt shank breaks. Different adapters are be fitted to the tool to accommodate the different size hexagon heads.Jo-Bolts are manufactured with hexagon or. . The tools used for placing Jo-Bolts are in two concentric parts. These are similar in operatiori to Jo- Bolts but with a higher specification. or cruciform slots of c:ountersunk bolts. Rivnuts are installed with a special tool fitted with a thrradetl mandrel. Marks on the head indicate length in accordance with a manufacturer's code. the outer part holding the n u t and the inner part gripping the bolt shank. locking ~t i n the hole. BOLT / BOLT LOCATED IN HOLE. the mandrel is screwed into the rivnut and when the gun is operated the mandrel is pullecl in a n d the Rivnut expands a s shown. OVER NUT END BOLT STEM BREAKS DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. 22 FORMING A JO-BOLT Jo-Bolts have now been replaced by Jo-Locs. 100" countersunk heads. Rivnuts have either flat or countersunk heads. The countersunk head types are open ended a n d may or may not have a locating key. the internal bore being threaded to receive a bolt or screw. TOOL GRIPS AND ROTATES HEXAGON HEADED NUT BOLT PULLING SLEEVE WHEN FORMING COMPLETE HELD IN TOOL. Rivnuts Rivnuts are a form of blind rivet which is used as an anchor n u t . but the flat head types all have a locating key a n d are supplied with either a closed or open end. in either stainless or alloy steel and have a shear strength aln~ostequal to a bolt of equivalent size and material The bolts are pre-lubricated a n d must not be washed in solvent.



. In schemes to repair a damaged thread. To increase the effective thread diameter and allow higher torques to be used. Installation Since the internal and external threads on a thread insert have the same number of threads per inch and the internal thread is designed to be of standard size. BSW. Prior to installation the insert is shorter in length and larger. SCREW THREAD INSERTS Screw thread inserts (or wire inserts) are used: a. Good motor skills are required to fitjremove inserts successively. b. Unified thread forms have no colour identification. then a special tap is required to cut the threads into which the insert is fitted. c. 27 WIRE THREAD INSERT Identification British thread form inserts (BA. In most cases the tools and inserts come in kit form with full instructions supplied. These taps and checking gauges are provided by the insert manufacturer. NOTCH PARTLY SECTION INSTALLED INSERT TANG DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. More precise designation is achieved by code number systems issued by SBAC and other standards printed on the packet. In soft rrlaterials to allow frequei~tassembly and dis-assembly of components with minimum thread wear to the component itself. BSF & BSP) can be identified by yellow paint on the diameter than when in stalled.

The hole for the insert should be drilled to the diameter and depth specified in tables supplied by the insert manufa-cturer. Inspection and checking of work. 5. when tapping to turn the tap nalf turn forward and a quarter turn back so as the break u p the swarf ancl provide a smoother thread. (Remember. . Refer to manufacturers information supplied with the Insert ktt 2.In general the installation procedure is as follows: 1. 4. Care should be taken to ensure that the hole is drilled in the correct location and square to the surface and that all swal-f is removed before tapping. Lubricant should be used according to the type of metal being cut. with special emphasis on cutting the thread coaxidly with the hole. by use of a new tap. The thread should then be checked with a special CO/NO GO plug gauge provided to ensure that the thread is satisfactory. 3. Removal of the insert tang. if this is ineffective. insertion of the insert (tools and inserts supplied in the h t ) 6. Gauge the tapped hole (gauges supplied in the kit). Any thread imperfections indicated by tightness of the GO gauge should be removed by furl her use of the original tap or. 7. Thread Tapping 'The thread should be tapped with the special tap. Normal workshop practices should be used for tapping. Drill correct size hole. Tap the hole (taps supplied in the kit). eg a light mineral oil is generally recommended for tapping light alloys.) Thread Gauging After the insert thread has been cut it should be cleaned of all swarf and foreign matter. a straight-fluted tap being used for hand tapping and a spiral-fluted tap for machine tapping where this is possible.

The mandrel should be rotated clockwise and pushed gently forward to engage the insert coil in the nozzle threads. MANDREL HANDLE DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. rotation being continued until the insert is about to emerge from the outer end of the nozzle. and forefinger of one hand whjle turning the key with the other hand. compressing the insert downwards with the thurr. A different sized key or tool is provided for each size of insert. . The insert will wind into the thread and should be installed so that the outer end of the insert is at least half a pitch below the surface of the corriponent. No forward pressure should be used. The tool should then be placed squarely over the tapped hole and the handle rotated to transfer the insert from the tool into the tapped hole. no downward pressure should be applied on the key.Fitting the Insert The insert should be screwed into the tapped hole by use of either an inserting key or an inserting tool of the pre-wind type. 29 PRE-WINDINSERTING TOOL The inserting key is used by sliding the insert onto it so that the tang is engaged in the driving slot at its forward end. 28 INSERTING KEY NOZZLE HANDLE MANDREL DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. depending 01-1 which is recommended for the particular insert. When a pre-wind tool is used the insert should be placed in the chamber with the tang towards the nozzle and the mandrel pushed fonvard through the insert to engage the tang in the slot. the assembly should then be applied to the tapped hale.

both in blind holes and in through holes A tang in a through hole is removed b y use of the inserting key used a s a punch. or by use of a special punch. the removal of inserts should be unnecessary. TANG DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. particularly when fitting instructions have been carefully carried out. However. this can be done by bending the top coil inwards to form a rough tang and unscrewing the insert with the insertion tool or a pair of pliers. A sharp blow with a hammer on the key or punch will fracture the wire at the notch were the tang joins the coil. which are fitted with hardened and tempered blades. After removal of a n insert. which grips the top coils internally a n d unwinds the insert when rotated. Some manufacturers recommend the use of a tapered left-hand tap of appropriate size. The blade will bite into the inner surface of the insert. which can then be unscrewed. . the tang should be bent backwards a n d forwards through the insert bore until it fractures at the notch and can be removed. if a n insert h a s to be removed because of bad fitting. with the tang outside the engaglng slot. darnage or wear. Other manufactures provjcle a range of extractor tools.Removal of t h e Tang It is not always necessary to remove the tang of a wire thread insert. but rernoval may be specified in some cases for screw clearance or product appearance. To remove the tang from an insert fitted in a blind hole. long round-nosed pliers are required. 30 TANG BREAK-OFF TOOL Removal of Inserts Under rlorrnal circumstances. the threads in the hole should be carefully examined for damage before fitting a new insert.

In general they can be grouped into four main categories. This type of thread is called a minus thread . 31 AN EXTRACTOR TOOL STUDS These are supplied it? various thread forms and sizes to meet particular requirements. (Take note .the following drawings on studs use British Standard BS8888 symbols f ~ r the screw thread).common to almost all bolts and screws. 32 STANDARD STUD . SCREWTHREAD Fig. HANDLE PRESS DOWN & INSERT INSERT DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. Standard or Plain Stud By far the most widely used type of stud. The diameter of the unthreaded portion is the same as the major diameter of the screw thread a t both ends.

These can also be used as replacements for plain studs when the tapped stud hole becomes damaged and h a s to be re--drilled and re-tapped with a larger thread (iaw the SRM).Waisted Stud Used where reduction of weight without loss of strength is ~xnportant. One thread is larger than the other. 33 WAISTED STUD Xepped Stud 'I'his type provides a stronger anchorage than the plain stud if the stud is used in soft or weak material. 34 STEPPED STUD Shouldered Stud This type is used where maximum rigidity of assembly is of prime impol-tance. 35 SHOULDERED STUD . Fig. This shoulder seats firmly on the surface of the component and gives additional resistance to lateral stresses. The stud is machined to form a projecting shoulder between the two threaded portions. Fig.The d ~ a m eer t of t h e plain (un-threaded) portion is reduced to I h e minor diameter of the threaded (or less) t h u s reducing the weight of the stud without ampairing its effective strength. Fig.

if provided with flats. A spanner. l/z the diameter of the stud. * For larger studs. . Re-tap the hole. the stud box hexagon is then turned with a spanner until the stud is fully screwed home. Drill the stud using a drill (the size is specified on the Easyout).Studs may be fitted by the use of: A. ~r A stud removal and inserticrn tool. Insert the Easyout (which has a knuckle type tapered left hand thread). A spanner . * Use a n 'Easyout'. Stud Box A stud box is a tool used for inserting studs and corlsists of a deep hexagonal nut with a n ordinary bolt fitted a t one end. Remove the stud using a spanner on the tang of the Easyout. the bolt is then tightened down onto i t . * Drill the stud out using a drill to the crest diameter of the tappec hole. * Two n u t s (as above) but using the bottom nut to turn the stud out. (None of the above processes are easy a n d this one is even more difficult). J. Stud Removal If complete. spanner. If broken above the surface: * File two flats on the stud and remove with a. Easyouts are supplied in boxed sets. Screw in a left hand threaded bolt and continue to turn (in an anti-clockwise direction) to remove the stud. A stud box. -k rrwo nuts. Drill and tap with a left hand thread. The two nuts are locked together on the protruding thread and the top n u t is used to tighten the stud into the hole. If broken below the surface you can (with difficulty): ~r Drill the stud centrally using a drill aboul. Drive a square steel tang (locally manufactured) firmly into the hole and remove the stud by turning on the tang. The stud is entered into the stud box. the stud can be removed by: i. k A stud removal and insertion tool. Some studs are supplied with flats on the plain shank.

part is positioned within the hole in the cage. the cam followers are pressed tightly on to the stud p l a h shank and the stud can then be screwed lri (or out). adjusted so that the stud can not enter further into the hole. 37 STUB REMOVAL & INSERTION TOOL . On rotating the tool body. The stttd is passed through the hole in the end plate until i t s plair. 36 STUD BOX Stud Removal and Insertion Tool This can be used to fit and remove a stud. the locating screw is then. C A M FOLLOWERS IN CAGE END PLATE A @ Fig. COPPER DISC w Fig.

Several different types are available. When turned anti-clockwise into a drilled hole in the end of a broken stud the tapered thread %ites' into the hole and provides a positive drive. its taper provides a friction grip between h u b and shaft that is capable of taking a moderate load only.One side of this key is curved to suit the radius of the shaft when driven into position. but still cannot t.the tapering face of the key matching the taper of the recess or keyway farmed in the bore -f the wheel. Careful fitting is essential. This would cause the Easyout to swell the stud ill the hole as it is inserted and the stud would be impossible to screw out. fitted into a rriatched recess which is formed between the shaft and the drive-wheel. There is no keyway on the shaft. They ax-e made of steel with a tapered left hand knuckle thread at one end and a square drive at the other. When drilling into the end of a broken stud it is important not to drill the hole too large..the shaft depends on the fit of the key in the keyway.&e very high loads. Tapered Keys These are made with a standard taper of 1 in 100 on the thickness .This form of taper key is rectangular or square in cross-section and it bears on a flat formed on the shaft. . 'he following types of taper keys are in common use: Hollow Saddle Key . Flat Saddle Key . 38 'EASYOUT' KEYS AND KEYWAYS These are used where rotary power is to be trarlsrnitted from (or to) a shaft (or hub) and a drive-wheel. The ability of the key to resist axial movement between the h u b an. The key is a solid piece of metal of rectangular or square cross-section. LEFT HAND SQUARE END FOR 'KNUCKLE' WRENCHING THREAD \ Fig. It provides a more positive grip between shaft and h u b than js achieved by the hollow saddle key.These are supplied in sets providing a range of sizes.

39 HOLLOW SADDLE KEY Fig. a feather key rnight be useti if it is necessary for a pulley or gearwheel to move along a shaft while still Ijejrrg driven. 40 FLAT SADDLE KEY Plain Taper and Gib-Headed K e y s . They are capable of transmitting greater power than either of the saddle types. so permitting a sliding fit to the key in the keyway. The gib-headed key provides for easier removal. WHEEL KEY I KEYWAY Fig. Fig.for example. 4 1 GIB-HEADED KEY Feather Keys Keys of this type are used in circumstances where it is required to allow axial movement between shaft and wheel -. . The h u b keyway is cut to allow for side and top clearance round thcl key.These forms of taper key fit into keyways which are formed partly in the shaft a n d partly in the hub.

. 3. which is formed partly in the shaft and partly in the wheel. is cut in the whet o a depth which permits a push fit between h u b and key. 42 FEATHER KEY W oodruff Key 'This key is made in the form of a segment of a parallel--sided disc. 43 WOODRUFF KEY RIVETS AND RIVETING Riveting is a semi-permanent form of joining material (metal. Fig. The cavity in the shaft conforms closely to the rounded portion of the kGi. Fig. Special rivets/fasteners/blind bolting. Blind rivets. Solid rivets. 2. while an axial groove. of uniform rectangular cross-section. It fits into a ke-yway of similar shape. Woodruff keys may be fitted to parallel or tapered shafts. composites etc) together and may be divided into three categories: 1.

Rivets a r e identified by a Standard Number and a Part Number. They require less skill to form.Solid Rivets These rivets need access to both s ~ d e of s the material being joined during the forming process. Special Rivets/Fasteners/ Blind Bolting There is a wide range of special fasteners and many are a cross between a rive1 and a n u t and bolt assembly. Usually more expensive than blind rivets.BRITISH Standards for these are set by the Society of British Aerospace Companies (AS series) and the British Standards Institute (SP series). colour green. colour violet. thirty-seconds of a n inch or millimetres x 4 0 . AS 162 indicates A1 alloy L58 90" countersunk head. LENGTH . Most can be used in the 'blind mode'. material and finish. The Standard Number identifies the head shape. They are more expensive md require special equipment to form. 40-1 6 indicates 4mm diameter and I Grnrn long . Certain British rivets are coloured all over for ease of identification. SP142 indicates A1 alloy L86 100" countersunk head. Generally stronger in tension and shear and all require special tools to form. sixteenths of an inch or millimetres. SOLID RIVETS . while the Part Number indicates the length ant1 diameter of the shank. anodic finish. They are strong in shear b u t not so strong in tension. All solid rivets are supplied from the manufacturer with the head pre-formed. They have a good strengthlweight ratio but require skill to form. They are water and airtight and are less expensive than other types of rivet. DIAMETER . Some are not water or airtight and some are weaker than solid rivets. eg: AS 162 408. Both British and American rivets are identified by head or s h a n k end markings except where a material is easily identified by its weigh! or natural c:olour. Blind Rivets These require access to one side of the material only. anodic finish. 408 indicates %" diameter and %" long SP142-40-16.

This standard has superseded the old AN (Army-Navy) standard. SOLID RIVETS . SNAP MUSHROOM COUNTERSUNK COUNTERSUNK UNIVERSAL HEAD HEAD HEAD TRUNCATED HEAD RADIUSED HEAD . - INCH SIZES METRIC SIZES L = LENGTH D = DIAMETER Fig. -. 44 S P INCH & METRIC RIVETS AS countersunk heads include 90" and 120" with SP countersunk heads IOQu. The raised countersunk head denotes close tolerance. 204'90 is a code for the head shape and basic material (aluminium universal head in this instance). 12 is the length in sixteenths of an inch. AD is a code for the rivet material (21 17 aluminium alloy in this instance). which has the following meaning: a.. 5 is the diameter in thirty-seconds of an inch. 'Table 1 shows some of the rivets available in the SP range. d. - 1O o O 100" -. b. British rivets can be used in place of American rivets if the correct material is used and the rivet is at least of equal strength.. The SP series has superseded the AS series.AMERICAN The code used for American rivets is similar to that used for British rivets and illustrated as an example is MS20470 AD 5-12. Flat countersunk and raised countersunk heads are available. MS signifies Military Standard. Table 2 shows some of the SP metric range and table 3 shows some of the MS American range. e.SP inch size rivets are made in a range from 1/ 16" to 3 / 8 " diameter and from 1/8" to 3" long. -. .. .. . c..

34 1 100" csk Nil aluminium alloy 5056 universal Raised cross aluminium alloy 2024" universal Raised double dash aluminium alloy 20 17" universal Raised dot carbon steel QQ-S-633 universal Recessed trial ~ g l e Not(.. For MS 20613 rivets P indicates cadmium plated and Z indicates zinc plated TABLE 3 SOME AMERICAN RIVETS IN GENERAL USE . British Material Material Head Finish Iderlt~fication Standard Specification Type Mark aluminium L 36 100" csk black anodic aluminium alloy L 37* 100" csk natural alumiriium alloy L 86 100" csk violet anodic steel BS 1109 snap cadn~iurn aluminium L 36 snap black ariodic aluminium d l o y L 37" snap natural aluminium alloy L 58 snap green anodic aluminium alloy L 86 snap violet anodic monel metal DTD 204 snap natural monel metal DTD 204 100" csk natural TABLE 1 SOME S P SERIES RIVETS British Material Material Head F'ini sh Identification Standard Specification Type Mark SP 142 aluminium alloy L 86 100" csk violet anodic indented dot SP 157 aluminium alloy L 86 universal violet m o d i c indented dot SP 158 monel metal DTD 204 universal natural two indented dots SP 160 aluminium alloy L 58 universal green anodic raised cross SP 162 aluminium alloy L 37* universal natural raised broken line a n d centre point TABLE 2 SOME S P METRIC SIZE RIVETS Rivet and Material Material Head Identification Material Code Specification Type mark on head aluminium 100" c:sk Nil aluminium alloy 100" csk Dimple aluminium alloy 100" csk Raised double dash aluminium alloy 100" csk Raised dot corrosion 100" csk Recessed dash resistant steel monel metal QQ--N-281 100" csk Nil copper QQ-W.

North East (NE).South East (SE) and South West (SW). The symbol standard j 1 NAS (National Aerospace Standard) and h a s four quadrants called: North Wec' (NW).particularly American drawings .eg T4 = solution heat treated. Some rivets can be heat treated then stored in a refrigerator to retard age hardening.Notes 1. * Require heat treatmerit before use (all tables).in other words there is no requirement for f ~ r t h e heat r treatment before use. 45 AMERICAN MS RIVETS Temper Codes Some rivets are supplied and used "as received" .will have the rivet specification laid out in a format similar to that shown in figure 47. In table 3 the MS number (eg 20426) indicates the head type and the letters jeg DD) are the materid code. F = as fabricated etc. American rivets usually have a temper designation -. Some rivets require solution treatment (normally using a n electrically heated oven) before forming so as to allcw the rivet to achieve its maximum strength due to age hardening. COUNTERSINK LENGTH NOT SHOWN SOUTH WEST SOUTH EAST QUADRANT I QUADRANT Fig. 3. NAS Rivet Codes Some drawings . 46 NAS RIVET CODE STANDARD .eg material specifications 2024 and 20 17. 2. NORTH WEST NORTH EASl QUADRANT QUADRANT RIVET MATERIAL 8 TYPE OF HEAD /sloe ~. These are sometimes called "ice box" rivets . UNIVERSAL ROUND BRAZIER COUNTERSUNK FLAT HEAD HEAD HEAD HEAD 100" HEAD L = LENGTH D = DIAMETER Fig.

1/23 inch rivets for 20 and 18 swg and 5 / 3 2 for 16 swg. the munznfoch~rerof the uirc. In the absence of specific instructions 3 / 3 2 inch rivets should be used for 24 and 22 swg (standard wire gauge . and the SW code is blarrk for protruding head rivets and C for countersunk rivets. rivets of the material with the nearest equivalent shear strength to the material of the original American rivets should be used. When ordering the rivets from stores it is important to check the correct rivet specification by reference to the stores specification label on the packet of rivets. an increase in the size of the rivets does not necessarily increase the strength of a join. if' the thickness of the sheets is less than half the diameter of the rivets used. The SE (:ode is for length which is not shown. The shear strength of rivets used is not the only factor which determines the strength of a riveted joint. When British rivets have to be used in American-built aircraft. ~f the rivet sizes are increased beyond a certain limit. a reduction in strength will result.The NW code specifies the rivet material and type of head. In all circumstances where the SRM cannot be adhered to. shape of head and rnaterial. the substitution of mushroom head rivets for snap head rivets could be considered. permisszon will be required -from the chief engineer of the company. However. NOTE. Check the specific repair drawing in the SRM (Structure Repair Manual) or check the repair specification for the type of rivet to use. failure of the joint will depend on the bearing stress rather than on the shear stress of the rivets. or failing that. If rivets of reduced diameter have to be substituted during repair work. The NAS rivet code is printed on the drawing at the end of each row of r~vets. Generally. If the available British rivets have lower shear strengths than the American rivets either the total number of rivets should be increased or rivets of larger diameter should be used to make the strength of the joint in bearing and shear not less than it was originally. the total number of rlvets must be increased to provide equivalent cross-sectional area. SE1. The N E code specifies the shank diameter and whether the head is near side or far slde.rc@ to carry out any "on-stnndurd' work. Where 22 swg and thinner material is used and there are no specific instructions regarding repair after a rivet failure.UK) material.F:CTION OF RIVETS When carrying out a repair it is most important to select the correct rivet It must be the correct size. .

The rivet head should always be slightly proud of the work t 3re riveting and ideally flush with t. This can be set by trial countersinking and riveting on scrap material prior to carrying out the task ol.Countersinking When counters1. but the method of dimpling must be related to the ductility of the material to prevent overstressing and cracking. ihe aircraft. the thin outer sheet being dimpled into a courltersurlk thick inner sheet. Where sheets of different thicknesses are joined together it may be found that both methods are used. but for thinner sheets dimpling is necessary. Cut-Countersinking Table 4 shows the minimum sheet thickness which may be countersuslk for particular rivet diameters and is applicable where 100° or 120" countersunk head rivets are used. Cut-countersinking is employed where sheet thickness is greater than the depth of the rivet head. The rivet head should not be below the skin surface.he metal after. . dimpling has a beneficial effect on the strength of the joint.005 inch above the skin surface. Rivet diameter (inch) 118 5/32 3/16 114 Minimum sheet thickness (swg) 18 16 14 12 TABLE 4 MINIMUM SHEET THICKNESS FOR CUT COUNTERSINKING Special countersinking tools should be used for cut-countersinking.lnk rivets are to be used. Where special rivets are used the aircraft manufacturer may specify a differel minimum sheet thickness and when oversize rivets are being fitted it may be recommended that the rivet heads are milled in preference to further countersinking. The tools should have a centralising spigot and an adjustable depth stop which will limit the depth of cut. If correctly performed. Dimpling This is a process for indentlrlg thin sheet material (not normally thicker than 16 swg) around a drilled hole to accommodate a countersunk rivet. Aircraft manufacturers usually specify a tolerance on head protrusion after riveting and this is usually of the order of 0. there are two methods of accommodating the rivet head f o ensure a flush fit.

countersunk headed rivets slaould always be installed in dimples or countersunk holes of the same angle as the rivet head. Heat the rivet (in a wire basket if there are several) to a temperature of 4952SiCfor a period (soaking time) of 1 5 minutes. Wash thoroughly if heated in a sult bath. Far a specific case you must consult the rivet specification. Some rivets must be used within 20 minutes (consult the speczjication). .To ensure correct seating.s are not used within the prese:ribed time they can be re-treated to a mcucimurn o f . Here it will say exactly what heat treatments (if any) can be carried out. When 1hese rivets require replacement care is necessary to ensure that rivets with the correct angle heads are selected.what form it is supplied in (wire for rivets) etc. If used they must be used within 2 hours of removal from cold storage.ent. The rivet specification will be printed on the packet.with rivets placed in a wire cage. The rivets will commence to 'age-harden' (get stronger and harder) but. It will also give a great deal of other technical data about the rivet . the actual specification can be found in the technical library. such as in integral fuel tanks. If the riz1et.or re-heat treated. The best way of heating rivets is in a thermostatically controlled electrically heated oven (sometimes a salt bath is used) . Remove the rivets and quench in cool water. Age hardening may be delayed by refrigeration eg. Temperatures and methods of cooling are specified in the rivet specification. ifthe rivets are placed in a fridge at -20T immediately after treatment they can be kept up to 150 hours hefore they must be used . R~vel-swith countersunk heads of 70" or 82" i ~ ~ c l u d eangle d are after1 used in pos~tionswhere sealing is of primary importance.the metal composition . a n d armed with this knowledge. The following is an example of the solution treatment of a rivet.3 times. can be used within 2 hours of treatm. QUESTlON Where would you find the published rivet specification? (2mins) ANSWER Any good technical (or sometimes non technical library). Heat Treatment of Rivets Rivets can only be heat treated when specified in the rivet specification and should only be SOLUTION-TREATED.

5. Drill the correct size hole (clearance hole). The head of the break-head type breaks off and falls out. or may be formed using power tools. They can be used in place of solid rivets only when stated in the AMM. break-head or break-stem. They all require special tools (supplied by the rivet manufacturer) and procedures to fit but the general. To fit solid rivets (described above) two people are required -. The break-stem type has a waisted shank and breaks below the head. There is a wide range of blind riveting systems used and each has its own special advantages and disadvantages. BLIND RIVETING SYSTEMS These are riveting systems that require access to one side of the material only. They are identified on the packet by the manufacturer's name and stores part numbers. 3. (c) Insert the mandrel into the jaws of the chuck. procedure is as follows: 1. (d) Insert the rivet into the hole. Remove tool and inspect rivet for correct forrrling. thus the broken head portion is trapped within the rivet. With blind riveting only one person is needed. The rivet can be formed using hand operated lazy tongs or cranked pliers. Form Pivet in hole. 6. Hold the chuck containing the rivet firmly against the material and square to the surface being riveted and operate the tool. The head of the mandrel will pull inta the rivet tail forming the rivet and then break to operate the riveting hammer and the other to hold the reaction block. (b) Ensure forming tool has correct size jaws and head fitted. 2. Select correct forming tool and load rivetlrivet mandrel. The length is related to the grip range of the rivet as stated in the manufacturer's literature. This type is used where it is impossible to retrieve the broken off head of the mandrel. The mandrel can be of two types. A sealed type rivet is supplied for use in pressure cabin construction. . Check total thickness of materials to be joined (Grip range). The operation of closing a Tucker Pop rivet is as follows: (a) Select the correct diameter and length (grip range) of rivet. Tucker Pop Rivets Each rivet is supplied complete with mandrel (which does not look too unlike an ordinary wood nail). 4. Select correct size of rivet.

. but have a tapered internal hole and are not supplied with a rnandrt. rivet heads and shanks. BREAK STEM WlTH BREAK HEAD TYPE HEAD BREAKS AND FALLS AWAY. ln Chobert riveting the head of the steel mandrel js pulled through the rivet a ~ l dis not broken off. Broken mandrel sterns. Sealants may be used to weather--proofthe rivet . 48 SEALED TUCKER POP RIVET Chobert Rivets Supplied in s n a p or countersunk forni.Note. swarf. 47 FORMING A TUCKER POP RIVET SHORT BREAK RlVET INSERTED IN HOLE TOOL PULLS MANDREL a LONG BREAK OR FORMS RIVET HEAD BREAK STEM TYPE LEAVING HEAD IN RIVET SHEARS OUTSIDE RlVET DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. etc which we discarded during the repair operation. DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. These rivets are similar to 'I'ucker Pop rivets. The rivet will not be as strong as a solid rivet or the more sophisticated bhnd rivets.1. but it is cheap and easy to use. must be cleaned u p using a vacuum cleaner after all work h a s been completed. RIVET INSERTED WITH BREAX STEM INTO HOLE TOOL PULLS MANDREL TYPE STEM BREAKS THROUGH RlVET AND HEAD STAYS IN FORMING RIVET HEAD THE RIVET.

but stainless steel and titanium rivet stems break flush with the rivet head a t the maximum grip range limit and milling is not necessary. 6. t h u s avoiding time in threading rivets individrlally after each closing. Check the steel mandrel that it has not worn beyond limits (GO NOT- GO gauge). breaks proud of the manufactured head. .s can have the same strength a s solid rivets a n d the general forming process is a s follows: 1. (See the book in this series on hand power tools). This tool can close many rivets with just the one loading. DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. Check grip range and size of rivet. FORMING HEAD & PARALLEL INTERNAL HOLE. 49 FORMING A CHOBERT RIVET Chobert rivet. Place rivet in hole and operate tool. eg on external surfaces. Excess stem material may be nipped off a n d milled (in American books called Shaving) flush with the rivet head when required. The mandrel will be pulled through forming the rivet as shown. Thread rivet/s on the mandrel . 2. 5. STEEL SEALING PIN DRIVEN IN MANDREL \ RIVET FROM MANUFACTURERS' HEAD SIDE MANUFACTURERS' HEAD / RIVETING TOQL MANDREL PULLS THROUGH RIVET EXPANDING SHANK. Insert mandrel into the jaws of the forming tool. Avdel Rivets These rivets are similar to Chobert rivets. 4. The action of closing an Avdel rivet is shown. tap sealing pin ir'? hole using a hammer.tail first. but each is fitted with its own stem (mandrel).The rivets are closed by a special riveting tool. To seal the rivet and/or to increase the strength. 3. a magazine type of riveting tool is available which carries a number of rivets on the mandrel. The stem is pulled into the body to close the rivet and a t a predetermined load. leaving part of the stem inside the body in the form of a plug.

The shear strength of Avdel rivets is similar to that of solid rivets. 5 1 MBC AVDEL RIVET . The MHC Avdel rivet is a later version which locks itself into the hole. the rivet must be drilled out and a new one fitted. and breaks flush with the surface s o no milling is required. or re-lubricated 'The lubricants used are specially prepared for each type to obtain consistent results. MANDREL TOOL PULLS MANDREL THROUGH RIVET WHICH WHICH FORMS HEAD RIVET PLACED IN HOLE EXCESS MANDREL. MILLED FLUSH B PIN TESTED TOOL DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. To check that the mandrel is a firrn fit in the rivet after milling a spring-loaded pin tester is used -. 50 FORMING AN AVDEL RIVET ?vdel rivets a r e lubricated by the mariufact~rerto facilitate forming and on no account should the rivets be cleaned in solverlt before use.if the mandrel pushes out. Fig. SNIPPED OFF.

52 FORMING AN MBC AVDEL RIVET Cherry Rivets These are rivets of American manufacturer a n d are very similar to Avdel rivets. may be milled off to provide a flush finish. PULLED THROUGH THE BREAKS. 53 THE CHERRYMAX RIVET . The action of closing a cherry rivet is shown. located in a recess in the rivet head. SERRATED STEM WITH BREAK NOTCH 8 LOCKING COLLAR INTEGRAL DRIVING ANVIL TO FORM LOCKING LOCKING COLLAR 8 ENSURES COLLAR RECESS / FLUSH STEM BREAK FASTENERSLEEVEOR RlVET DEFORMING LOCKING COLLAR -DEFORMS INTO LOCKING RINGS IN STEM 8 LOCKING RECESS IN RlVET Fig. RIVETING TOOL LOCKING RlNG - . PULLING CONTINUES LOCKING RING HOLDS MANDREL IN THE NOSE OF THE THE JAWS ENGAGE THE UNTIL THE RIVET IS FULLY IN PLACE WITHIN THE RIVET. THIS ACTION A DIFFERNENT NOSE IS RIVET FORMING THE ALSO FORMS THE REQUIRED FOR EACH HEAD. After forming the stem protrudes slightly beyond the rivet head and this excess. TOOL 8 THE RlVET IS MANDREL WHICH IS FORMED 8 THE MANDREL INSERTED INTO THE HOLE. is forced into a groove in the stem and prevents the stem from further movement. LOCKING RING ON THE RlVET SIZE. RIVET / - THE MANDREL IS PLACED THE TOOL IS OPERATED. C~. plus part of the locking collar.lrir:g the final stages of forming a locking collzr. MANDREL Fig.

Either the aircraft or tool manufacturer normally supplies details. FORMS THE STEM PULLED HEAD 8 PUSHES THROUGH SLEEVE COLLAR INTO GROOVE DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. with a countersunk head and standard stem. 55 FORMING A CHERRYLOCK RIVET Cherry rivets are installed using hand or power operated tools and it is important that the tools are fitted with the correct type of head for the particular size or type )f rivet. 3/32 inch diameter and a maximum grip of 3/13 inch. . Cherry rivets are identified by a four-figure number followed by a figure indicating the diameter in thirty-seconds of an inch and a further figure indicating the maximum grip in sixteenths of a n inch. 54 FORMING A CHERRYMAX RIVET STEM\m / SHEAR GROOVE LOCKING LOCKING COLLAR LOCKING COLLAR LOCKS STEM TO SLEEVE & STEM BREAKS OFF STEM EXPANDS THE SLEEVE. A s a n example. PRESSURE OF ANVIL COLD STEM IS PULLED THROUGH RIVET FORMS LOCKING COLLAR INTO STEM KEY SYSTEM SECURING STEM IN RIVET. CR 2 162-3-6 refers to a Cherry rivet in aluminium alloy. HEAD' 'OLE a CLAMP RIVET PLACED IN HOLE PLATES TOGETHER STEM BFWKES FLUSH 8 REMAINING RIVET COMES COMPLETE STEM & ANVIL ARE REMOVED WITH STEM AND ANVIL Fig.

When replacing a pipe it is important to replace it with a plpe made of the same material. shape and gauge. Steel. that the end fittings are identical with the old ones. j. of course. * Tungum . UNION ADAPTER NUT OR CONE ADAPTOR UNION NUT OR OUTERSLEEVE COLLAR FLARED E COMPONENT TO COMPONENT COUPLINGS I . k Oxygen systems. Pipelines may be made of: x Alunllrlium 01.for low pressure systems.aluminium alloy . k Brass. X Air conditioning systems. + Stainless steel. A Domestic water and waste systems.ARED PIPE / [IRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. * Copper. RIGID PIPES Used for the moverrlerit of gasses and fluids within the aircraft a n d used in systems such as: * Hydraulic systems * Pneumatic systems * Fuel systems.OUTER SLEEVE INNER SLEEVE FLARED PIPE FL. length. 56 TYPICAL HIGH PRESSURE FLAWED COUPLINGS . It is also important. * Anti-icing systems. diameter.a copper alloy.

or by having pipelirles (and unions) of d~ffercnt diameters so mis-connection is impossible. and it is important that all systems are put through a complete functional test after any pipeline replacement/disconnection/reconnection. Flareless Couplings . UNION \ . Nipples now in use have a parallel extension (called a skirt) to ensure that they are correctly aligned in the pipeline . howevex. A 'preset' of the correct size is placed over the unflared pipe end. either by having different length pipes 111 the same r u n so that unions.SLEEVE 'PIPE PIL ORRECT PRESET UNDERTIGHTENED PRESET .l~ned f r o n ~stores using the appropriate stores part number and reference numt)rr The aircraft manufacturer should design the pipes and their layout in sr4r. adapter nipple. collar. NUT . This causes the 'preset' to bend inwards and form a leak proof c o m p r e s s i o ~joint ~ with the pipe. It is important that the correct torque value is used. outer and inner sleeve. of one pipe do not occur at the snlrle place as a pipeline next to it. The pipe is pushed fully home into its union adapter and the union n u t is tightened to a specific torque v iir I ue. OVERTIGHTENED PRESET DRAWING FKOM CAP 562 Fig.Many high pressure couplings have this method of assembly using a flared pipe. Flared Couplings . Used for high pressure pipes. 'This is riot always done.Also used for high pressure couplings. Used for high pressure pipes.Somc pipes can be bade up' a t user unit level while others have to he ob!. or connections.and this should always be inserted into the flared pipe. 57 FLARELESS PIPE COUPLING .h a way that mis-connection is impossible. which h a s the collar and outer sleeve fitted.

it may be lubricated with the fluid used in the particular system. When connectors are to be removed from pipe ends. All sharp edges should be removed from the pipe ends.50in (6 to 13mm) should be allowed between the ends of the pipes so that the ends will not make contact should flexure of the pipe occur. Copper pipes should be tinned. UNION NUT UNION ELASTOMERIC SEAL DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. Used on high pressure systerns. hot water immersion in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions is recommended. If a new pipe connection proves difficult to fit.Compressed Rubber Couplirzgs -. A clearance of between 0.'-1.before any attempt is made to tighten the union nut.25in and 0. A union nut screws onto the union sleeve to hold both pipes firmly together. The pipe end must be hard against the shoulder of the recess i n the union adapter. Self-Sealing Couplings .lJses a compressed rubber gland and used for low pressure systems such as F'itot static systems. contraction.llsed for low pressure connections of hoses to metal pipeline attachments. but for some types of pipe. Couplings are affected by expansion. the pipe ends should be suitably protected against the corrosive action of the rubber.May-be of the screw or bayonet type and allows for quick release and assembly of the joint without fluid loss or air inlet. vibration and heat and sho. be inspected regularly for deterioration and freedom from oil a n d grease. Any hose clips used must be of a n approved type and must fit correctly in relation to the pipe ends or beading. Prior to fitting the pipe.A conical nipple is brazed or silver soldered to the end of one pipe and a union sleeve is brazed onto the other pipe. whilst stainless steel and aluminium alloy pipes should be protected with a varnish such a s RSX17. it is essential that levering with a screwdriver or similar tool be avoided. . since this could damage the pipe. Brazed Nipple Couplings . 58 LOW PRESSURE RUBBER COUPLING Hose Clips .

these consist of a n inlet union screw. This is usually bonded to the inside diameter of the washer and is designed to h r thicker than tlltt trlc'tal washer. otherwise the seating for t h e valve in the unlon half-coupling may damage the seal jn the fixed half -corlpling. This does not apply to Avimo type self-sealing couplings. The inlet union screw is drilled internally to allow for fluid passage as is the inlet union. which are connected by a bayonet pin a n d socket arrangement. . inlet union a n d two bonded seals or bonded washers.When making or b r e a l n g t h e joint of a self-sealing coupltng. 59 BRAZED NIPPLE COUPLING Note. HOSE CLIP OR VALVE 1 OPERATING Fig. Banjo llnions . care m u s t t ~ t xtaken to avoid turning between t h e two halves. It is therefore necessary to rotate this coupling to make or break t h e joint. blanks should be fitted to both halves. A leaking half-coupling should be replaced. They are designed to allow a pipe connectiorl to he made to a cornponent a t right angles to the component. UNION SLEEVE UNION NUT BRAZED ON PIPE NIPPLE B W E D ON PIPE \ UNFLARED PIPE YYU U N F L A ~ E DPIPE DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig. 60 TYPICAL SCREW-ONSELF SEALING COUPLING When a self-sealing coupling is disconnected. The bonded washers are madc u p of a metal plain washer to which is bonded a n elastorneric seal.

+ Join components such as valves to ducts. namely: (a) Even distribution of stress around the flanges. absolutely flat. The ends of the pipes to be joined have a Vee section brazed onto them. not strained and parallel. This method has three main advantages over the method whereby the flanges are held together by bolts (or studs) and nuts. undamaged.a rnethod of joining used or1 larger diameter pipes such as fuel pipes and low pressure pneumatic pipes. . . The pipes and the two Vee sections are butted together and retained by a Vee Flange Coupling. (b) Ease and speed of removal/installation. I t is important that the abutment faces of the two Vee flange sections are clean. INLET UNION SCREW Screwed into component INLET UNION BONDED SEALS OR BONDED WASHER S E ELASTOMERIC COMPONE down of the union screw Fig. 6 1 BANJO UNION Vee Flange Couplings -.A s the union screw is tightened down so the elastomeric seaJ will be squeezed a n d provide a seal. The union screw is usually torque loaded. (c) The assembly h a s a good strengthlweight ratio a n d is more compact. Join sections of ducting/pipework in air-conclitioning/fuel systems. Examples of usage of Vee flange couplings are to: k Attach the cases of driven comporlents to engine gearboxes.

therefor? t h e appropriate AMM m u s t be referred to prior to working on any Vee flange coupling. Note. The torque loading of the clamp bolt(s) on Vee flange couplings js crltical a n d t h v clamp halves need to be torque tightened slightly then tapped with soft faced mallet to distribute any tension. The effect of this will reduce the torclue l o a d ~ n gof t h e clamp bolt. . 62 DOUBLE BOLTED VEE CLAMP Fig. BOTTOM HALF CLAMP Fig. This procedure is continued until the final correct torque value is reached. which then requjres re torqueing. 63 SINGLE BOLTED VEE CLAMP Such diverse u s e s will demand a variety of designs a n d materials.

P) Not nornially required to handle pressures over 50psj (345kPa) and are usually made from alrlminiurn alloy with the dianletrr being large enough to cope with the high flow rates and typically are about 2%" (64ma1)in diameter.Fuel Delivery Pipes (1. 65 TYPICAL LP FLEXIBLE PIPE COUPLINGS . COUPLING BODY COUPLING NlJT FUEL PIPE O-RING SEAL O-RING SEAL COUPLING BODY COUPLING NUT Fig. 64 TYPICAL LP RIGID PIPE COUPLING RINGS FLEXIBLE FULL COUPLING FLEXIBLE HALF COUPLING Fig.

If damage to the pipe is suspected.Pipes are thin walled a n d need care when flandling. tail mounted fuel tanks (aircraft trimming and fuel transfer) or a n APU. * Torque load correctly. Any leakage from the llexible pipe is transferred into the shroud. Pipe Installation Before pipes are fitted into aircraft they should be inspected for damage. Pipes also run to the back of the aircraft for tail mounted engines. . Pipes sectlons are fitted with various connectors. There are many types in use and reference should always be made to the AMM for type and fitting instructions In general: * Ensure the correct seals are fitted and in the correct way. Any couplings near the engine would be enclosed and provided with a n overboard drain. The shroud is ported to a drain mast and any fuel accumulation is drained overboard. * Ensure correct bonding. Here flexible pipes are -1sed shrouded by a 'normal' aluminium alloy fuel pipe. * Some airlines require a duplicate inspection on fuel feed pipelines. These need l o be fuel tight u s ~ r l g seals capable of withstanding any flexing that may occur (wings tend to flex considerable during flight and the pipes themselves are not able to take much flexing). cleanliness and corrosion. * Ensure pipes are un-damaged particularly around the seal mating surfaces. Figure 64 shows a typical example of a rigid coupling and figure 65 shows examples of flexible couplings. " Carry out leak checks after assembly. (Engines have a fire-proof bulkhead by regulation). Also. If any is present the leak must be found and rectified. A standard 'ramp' check would include checking the mast for any fuel. the pipes shormld he pressllrc tested and the roundness of the bore checked. all pipe-work and coupljngs must be electrically bonded because of the fluid flow inducing static build-up. This may need a n engine run. Pipes in Pressurised a n d Fire Risk Areas Where pipes have to pass through pressurised areas (rare) or fire risk areas additional precautions are taken to ensure that any leakage does not get outside the immediate vicinity or to any engine hot sections. Checks should be made that the pipes are of the specified type and should have approved certificates identified to the pipe (EASA form 1). These features can include such things as scuppers and channels to direct the spilt fluid overboard.

its ends must be blanked using ~.Prior t o assembly. tape or paper for blanking off purposes is not allowed. all pipes must bc blown through with clean dry air and. . flushed out wlth clc. When installing pipes. it must be ensured that the blank is so made that it is impossible for it to be left in position when the pipe is connected. they should not be allowed to come into contact with materials which might cause galvanic corrosion.. pneumatic and oxygen systems. 'The rise of rag. Note. or i n any system where peeling varnish may cause malfi~nctloningof the system. In instances where standard blanks cannot be fitted. where applirable. Plugs and caps conforming to standards appropriate to the system pipeline should be used. Some small aluminium alloy pipes are treated internally and externally with varnish.Y LINE CONNECTION (LOOKING FORWARD) Fig. If the pipe is not to be installed immediately. Pipes so treated must not bt. oil. a final approved degreasing process m u s t be used to ensure cleanliness. 66 TYPICAL FUSELAGE PIPELINES For oxygen filtered fluid of the type to be used in the particular system in which t%-repjpe is to be installed.. used in fuel. APU SHROUD APU SHROUD CENTRE TANK SHROUD DRAIN LlNE CONNECTION DRAIN MAST OUTLET APU FUEL SUPPL. since oil or grease in contact with oxygen under pressure would cause a n explosion.e correct blanks.

Connecting Pipes Before connecting the pipe union nuts. al-ilurn~n~~~rr~.5nlr-n)arid adequate clearance should be provided between pipes and moving parts.Supporting Pipes Pipes must be supported in accordar~cewith the AMM. Where packing is required between the pipes and the clamps. lin (2. and DrJ'D 900/4286 which acts as a sealant a s well a s a lubricant and has a grease-like corlsistency. Some pipe clamps are self-bonding (electrical bonding). Where single pipes require support. Two spanners must always be used when tightening (or disconnecting) a pipe coupling. . whlch also serve to secure the clamp to the aircraft structure It is important to ensure that the clamps are of the correct sizr t o preverit damage to the pipe.1 the AMM. These are often made of fibre. eg landing gear bays [tyres may 'grow9when rotating by a s much a s %in(51mni) in diameter and lin (25mm) in width when rotating fast]. but wher-e this is riot possible. standard clips such as 'P' clips can be used. since this will cause corrosion. it is essential that only the correct lubricant is used and that it does not enter the bore of the pipe.The two halves of the clamps are ~ l s u a l l y joined together by bolts. Over- tightening of couplings must be avoided. tinned copper gauze and various types of tape. one to hold the sleeve or adapter and one to turn the union nut. can bc used.which provides a dry self-lubricating film of graphite and which should be applied to a thoroughly degreased surface and allowed to air dry before being put into scrvice. a n d YI'FE tape. the following lubricants are suitable: DTL) 900/404%. metal gauze or a cork-based material having copper strands intenvoven. a check should be made to ensure that the pipe end is of the correct type and size. that is clean and undamaged. moulded rubber and other ~rlaterials. the rnater~alused should be in accordance tvitl. For oxygen systems. If lubrication of the threads is specified. Special tightening techniques and torque's. when specified. must be used. Multiple pipe clamps may be used. but leather must never be used. Clearance between pipes and structure should be a t least 0 . Typical materials are cork sheet.

swivel unions may be fitted instead (eg on the torque links). further down the line. less torque will be required on subsequent reassembly to make a leak proof joint However. (c) That all loose parts such as adapter nipples. (It h a s been known for un-skirted nipples to rotate in the assembly prior to tightening thus causing a weak joint and one that is not pressure proof). the following points should be borne in mind when selecting a hose assembly for a particular purpose. since this may induce considerable stress into the pipe and the coupling. From a designer's point of view. particularly soak temperatures after system shut down when fluid temperatures could increase by a s m u c h a s 20°C. sincc this imposes a strain on the flaring which may cause deformation or other damage. where there is rnovement within the shock-absorber and where there is movement between the wheel bogie and the shock-absorber. the coupling must not be over tightened in an attempt to stop the leak. FLEXIBLE HOSE ASSEMBLIES Fitted in systems where there is some movement between components . * Maximum system fluid temperature. .Pipes with Standard Couplings When connecting pipes having standard types of threaded couplings. (b) That union nuts are free to be withdrawn over their entire length. Adapter nipples with skirts have replaced those without skirts but it is important to check that the nipple sits correctly before assembly of the union. etc are fitted to the coupling. should a leak occur. Once a standard coupling has been bedded in initially. rubber glands. (ej Thai the pipes are never drawn together by their union nuts. are of the correct type and are correctly located. that they are not impeded by bends or other obstructions and that they rot at e freely. (d) That the pipe end aligns correctly with its mating part. washers. Pipe ends must never be forced into position.for example: in brake pipelines where there is movement between the retractable landing gear and the airframe and. distortion or other damage. k Maximum system pressure. the following points should be checked: (a) That flared pipe ends are free from cracks. but must be disconnected and the cause of the leak ascertained. however. eg those corr~plyingwith the A G S series. In some cases.

brakes etc) rnay be protected by Gre protective coverings. more susceptible to damage from careless handling than rubber hose and care is required cluring handling. A material which is widely used is polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). usually metal. Has the strength to resist the forces set u p by the system pressure. secured to the flexible part of the )lose which allows the hose to be secured to components etc. The hose is strengthened by high tensile steel wire braiding or fabric reinforcement. . Hose assemblies fitted in high temperature areas (eg near engines. * A flexible support structure to the lining which usually contairls reinforcing. However. Elose assemblies often go through a great deal of flexing. ternperature and to be compatible with the fluid in the system. PTFE hose is. howcver. They may also have a natural ageing process. * Compatibility of hose materlal and ~ts end fittings with the syst ern fluid and external environnlerltal conditions. A End fittings.This material is chemically inert. Has little strength. It is therefore: import ant that lives a s stated in thc AMM are not exceeded. there are some types of hose assernblies on which t h e end fittings may be changed if necessary. The hose lining is made of a material to withstand the pressure. Hose assemblies are generally designed either for specific functions or for a limited range of functions and it is essential lo ensure that only the hose specified in the Illustrated Parts Catalogue (IPC) is fitted. Correct Methods of Fitting a Flexible Pipe Hose assemblies for use in high-pressure fluid systems are usually suppliecl by the manufacturers complete with end fittings which. When secured will provide a leak-proof joint and h a s provision for tightening (usually a hexagon uriiora nut) and loclting. This includes fl uxtf s to be used in other systems where they may come into c-ontact wrth a particular hose installatnor1 The general construction of a hose xncludes the following features: X A flexible ~mpermeableinrler linixig compatible with thc fluid llsed in the system. is unaffected by synthetic oils and fluids and operates at high temperatures a n d normally h a s a n unlimited shelf life. in most cases. cannot be dismantled or repaired in any way.

L BEND RADII AS LARGE A S POSSIBLE. . METAL END FITTINGS ARE NOT PART OF THE FLEXIBLE PORTION. twisting and vibration loads. ALWAYS FIT HOSES IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE AMM. ALLOW ENOUGH SLACK IN THE HOSE TO PROVIDE FOR CHANGES IN LENGTH DUE TO COMPONENT MOVEMENT AND PRESSURE CHANGES. 68 LENGTH OF HOSE ASSEMBLIES The end fittings on a hose assembly are rnade from steel or light alloy and are designed to exert a grip on both the tube and wire braids so a s to resist high-- pressure. KEEP AL. LENGTH CAN CHANGE FROM +2% TO -4% DUE TO PRESSURE CHANGE. THE USE OF ELBOWS B ADAPTERS CAN MAKE FOR EASIER FITTING 8 THE REMOVAL OF STRAIN FROM THE ASSEMBLY. LENGTH - I- LENGTH - Fig. Fig. They also provide a n electrical bond. AVOID INVERTED "U" BENDS IF POSSIBLE. CORRECT INCORRECT DO NOT BEND OR TWIST HOSE. t h e length is taken from the centre of the elbow bore. 67 FITTING HOSES . In the case of a n elbowed end fitting. 'The length of a hose assembly with straight end fittirlgs is taken a s the distance hetween the extremities of' the two nipples.

since this may result in kinking of the hose at the bend. The rubber or canvas spiral-corrugated hose having a spiral steel spring embedded in the corrugations. UNION NUT \ REINFORCEMENT / \ SLEEVE NIPPLE HOSE OUTER (SWAGED ON) COVER DRAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig.Construction of High.the synthetic rubber of the lining or woven on thy surface of the tube.he inner parts of the hose. When the nipple is screwed ~ n t o the hose (and socket). Pressure Hose Asseriiblies A typical high-pressure hose assembly colisists of an inner linlrlg cuverecl by one or two closely woven wire braids. Where sharp bends cannot be avoided an internal support coil may be fitted. nipple and union nut. either rnc. and.d firmly bctween nipple and socket . is often used for systems where there are negative pressures. With low-pressure hose it is important to ensure that bends are not too acute. RE--USABLE END FITTINGS Us~mllyconsist of a socket. or sandwicl-red be-tw~en. the purpose of which is to provide protectjon for t. l o provide a degree of fire resistance. Low Pressure Hose Assemblies These are thin-walled and textile-reinforced. They are used for Pjtot--static instrument lines especially where they pass between the structure and instrument panels mounted on anti-vibration mountings. 69 HIGH PRESSUlU3 HOSE ASSEMBLY The whole assembly may be enclosed by an outer cover. to resist abrasion and the effects of weather and external fluids and chemicals. the taper in the nipple causes the hose to be c1ampc. This is known as a cornpresslon seal b11t othvr methods of assembly may be used. . in some forming a seal.ulded in.

inspection stamp. The assembly should have a metal identification tag attached and be pressurc tested (see module 7). test stamp and name of manufacturer. PIPE LlNE IL3ENTIFICATIC)N (BS M 2 3 ) All pipes are marked with date of manufacture. drawing or part. torque loaded and locked (usually with locking wire). The nipple is then screwed into the socket (and hose). 70 TYPICAL RE-USABLE END PPILY'ING Actual assembly of the hose and socket is carried out by holding the socket finnly in a vice and screwing the hose into the socket until it bottoms. it is important to cut it to the correct length usxng a fine-toothed hacksaw blade (r-ernoveany debns) NIPPLE UNION SOCKET \ NUT DKAWING FROM CAP 562 Fig.) After assembly the hose should be marked with a grease pencil. The date can be a colour code woven into the cotton brand. a t the point where it enters the socket.Make sure that w h e n a hose is selected it conforms to the specification a s laid down in the AMM and that it is given a visual examination for any srgns of damage. These markings can be stencilled on the external surface of the hose or stamped on a rnetal tag or band (soldered/brazed in a loop to the pipe).length with one or rrlore continuous thin lines to indicate any twist on installation. in order to provide a means of checking that the hose is not forced out of the socket during the subsequent insertion of the nipple. . after screwing the hose fully into the socket. number. Flexible hose assemblies are marked along their. paint or tape. When cutting the host. it should be unscrewed a quarter turn to allow for expansion when the nipple is inserted. (Some manufacturers recommend that.


3rc' Part * . PlPE END IDENT A'TA CHAPTER COMPONENT PORT OR NUMBER :I 1 OR 2 NUYBER CONNECTION A . s s . ... " s e . c . 6th Part e s . . This uses words.. System symbol... 'I'he ATA 1 00 Code System The numbering system (figures 72 and 73) may take the following form (starting from the end of the pipe): 1s t Par1 . . = .SYSTEM IUEN'I'IFICATION Systems js)isten~papes may be identified by tape or identiiication labels attached to each section of pipe Systems irr use include: * Manufacturer's own system... . .. . . Sth Part c . = . .~. . Pipe function and subsystem code. Component key number. Pipe end identlficatioxl number. (b) The component to which the pipe is fitted. . .. . 7th Part . . (d) Whether it is suction -. . . e ~ .-. 211"Part o. . ~ Component. if applicable. ~ . . . 72 ATAIQO PIPE CODING . ". . . m .pressure.. etc.. . . . port or connection code.. . e o . *. G o " .. k The ATAlOO code system. Based on the ATAI OC) chapter numbering system of the A M M and will indicate: (a) The system -. . .by a symbol. . . . o . * The colour/syrnbol system. . = Flow direction -. . (c) The subsystem to which the pipe is fitted.. " .. . 4th Part e ..*.. e . colours and synlbols to indicate the contents/ system of the pipe... .~. ~ .FLOW DIRECTION INTERNA~IONAL \ PlPE FUNCTION 8 SYSTEM CODE COMPONENT KEY SUB SYSTEM CODE eg HYDRAULIC NUMBER Fig. ~ e . ~ ATA chapter number. . ~ e .~.



CONTENTS Page Aircraft electrical cablcs 1 Requiremerlts 1 lnstallation 4 Types of cable 6 Identification 7 Cable types 13 Crimping 17 Tools 18 Procedure 20 Plugs & sockets 25 Mechanical Flexible Remote Control Systerns 29 Control Cables 29 Terms used 32 Cable specificat ~ ' ons 32 End fittings 34 System cornponerits 35 Specialised remote control sys terns 44 Teleflex controls 45 Bowden controls 50 Flexbal! controls 53 .



In the early days thy cables used in aircraft were rrianufactured to a sirn~lar
standard to those used in the automobile ~ n d u s t r yIt
. was soon learrlt t h d t
these cables didn't stand up to the severe climatic and e~~vironrnental
cond~tionsencountered during aircraft operation a n d therefore had to tw
designed specifically for alrcraft use. A variety of' cable types have been
developed, the choice of cable for a particular functjon will be governec-l 1)y its
purpose a n d locatron.


These are laid down in HCAR's section D, K and G (old system), now EASA25
(large aeroplanes), EASA27 and 29 (helicopters) etc.

Reliability is of prime consideration for aircraft cables since the perforrrlarice
and safety of a n aircraft a n d its occupants is usually dependant on electrically
operated systems. Care, therefore, must be exercised during the manufacture
of cable looms and circuits a n d these must be thoroughly tested on conlpletion.
Listed below are a number of qualities which a n aircraft cable should possess.

- - Weight and Dimensions. A large aircraft may require many miles of
electrical wiring and even small reductions in the size and mass of a cable will
result in a considerable weight saving, therefore allowing a n increased payload.

Resistant to Fluids. The likelihood of a n aircraft cable encountering a variety of
aircraft fluids is high. It is therefore important that aircraft cables are able to
withstand the effects of: water, engine oils, hydraulic oils, fuels, solvents, etc.

Non-inflammability. Wiring is necessary in high fire risk areas such as engine
nacelles, a n d APU bays. Such wiring should not cause any fire to spread a n d
for this reason the protective covering should be of self extinguishing material.
There h a s been doubt about Capton wiring in this respect - although it is still
in use.

During flight many cables will experience a large temperature range arld must
remain flexible within this range with the insulation remaining in tact.

Resistance to Abrasion. An aircraft cable must possess a number of 'physical'
qualities a n d in particular must have high resistance to abrasion (iritl~lct.tlby
aircraft vibration). Cables should also be physically strong and easily

Electrical---Recluirerne~B. The conducting element must have a low resistivity
c - o efficient with a low volts drop per unit length and the irisulation r n u t /lave
a s11ff~cic.ntIyhigh resistar~c-evalur, to cope with t hc maxirnllm appl~rclv o l I ugc..

Current Rating

The normal current rating of a cable can be defined as: "The amount of current
~t will carry without sustaisring a temperature rise sufficient to cause the value
of the insulation resistance to deteriorate to an unacceptable level or without
exceeding a specified voltage drop per unit length". Earl~ercables either had
the current rating stamped on the outer sheath or had a colour identification
related to the current ratlnlg.

However, because a cable's current carrying capacity is influenced by a
number of factors other t h a n electrical load current, it is nowadays the practicct
of cable manufacturers to u s e a classification based on the American Wire
Gauge (AWG).

Modern aircraft cables have a wire gauge number stamped 011 the outside. The
electrical systems designer will take into account the factors listed below before
choosing a cable for a particular job:

* The electrical loading of the cable.
* The a m o u n t of heat generated by neighbouring cables (cables in a
bundle or loom for example).
* The number of cables in the loom.
* The ambient temperature of the surrounding air (its locat'ion on
the aircraft - near a n engine for example).
* Whether the cable is er~closedor in free air.
The t hermal conductivj ty of the cable.


Aircraft cables are designed to provide the best possible combination of
resistance to deterioration caused by extremes of temperature, mechanical
damage and contamination by fluids, and in general, are suitable for
installation without additional mechanical protection.

Working conditions a n d environment, however, may necessitate the provision
of extra protection (additional support, conduits etc) in those places where the
cables are exposed to the possibilities of local damage or conditions which
colild cause deterioration.

Iicceipt Storage and Handling of Cables

Prior to delivery, cable e r ~ d sare sealed to prevent ingress of moisture. The
cnt)lcs are supplied on d r i ~ r n s ~ ~ i t a blabelled
ly and protected to prevent
clamage during transit anci storage.

Smaller slzes of cable may sometimes by supplied in wrapped coils V ~ s u a I
exammation of cables on receipt, by nature of the packing, is often restr icdted to
the olrter t u r n s . Such a n examination is of little value in checking for taults In
the cable, therefore, if the condition of the packing, as received, gives rlse to
doubt regarding the soundness of the cable, ~t should be returned to thf.

Note. Check the cable part nurnber/batch number and confirm its
identification against its documentation/stores release certificate (EASA form

Cables should be stored in a clean, well-ventilated store They should not be
stort:cl near chemicals, solvents or oils and, if necessary, protection sho~tlcilbe
provided against accidental damage. Loose coils, whether wrapped or not, m u s t
not btr stored s o t h a t a heavy weight is irnposed on them, since thls rn:Ijr cause
unacceptable distortion of the insulation or damage to the protective coverings.

The ends of cables in store should be sealed against the ingress of moisture by
the u s e of waterproof tape or sealing compound.

It is important that cables are handled carefully a t all times.

When taking long lengths of cable from a drum or reel, the cable should not be
allowed to come in contact with rough or dirty surfaces. Preferably the drum or
reel should be mounted so that it c a n rotate freely.

Care should be taken to remove the twist out of each turn of cable drawri from
loose coils, otherwise kinking, with consequent damage to the cable, m a y

Before being made u p the cable length should be inspected for any signs of
damage or deterioration a n d given a continuity a n d insulation check.

Made-up Cabling

Cable looms a n d cable r u n s made-up on the bench should be inspected before
installation in the aircraft to check the following:

(a) That all cables, fittings, etc, arc of the correct type, have bi:t.r~
obtained from a n approved source, have been satisfactorily tc-sted
before making u p and have not deteriorated in storage or been
damaged in handling

(b) That all connectors and cable l o o n ~ sconform to the relevant A M M ,
Wiring Diagram Manual or Modification Drawing in respect o f
terminations, length, anglc- of o~ltlets and orientation of c.0111 :~c.t
assemblies, identificat~on,a n d protectioln of connections

(c) That all crimped joints and soldered joints have been made In
accordance with the relevant AMM,Wir~ngDiagram Mailual or
Modification Ilrawing, are clean and sound, and that insr~lating
materials have not been damaged in any way.

(dl That cable loorrl b i n d ~ n gand strapping is secure.

(e) Carry out continuity, resistance and insulation tests.

(fj Cables should be identified using the correct aircr-aft wiring code
iaw the wiring diagram. Identification marking may be carried out
by printing on sleeves and attaching sleeves a t the end of each
cable run or the cable may be printed on a t regular intervals along
its length. If direct cable marking uses a heat marking system then
the cable m u s t be inspected to check that the insulation h a s not
been damaged a n d a n insulation check carried out. Many looming
shops have special machines that will automatically mark the
cable along its length a t regular intervals with the identificatior.
a t the same time carrying out insulation tests etc.

Installation of Cabling in Aircraft

Guidance on the factors requiring special attention during the installation is
given in the following paragraphs - but always check the AMM.

Contamination. To prevent moisture from running along the cables and seeping
into the associated equipment, the cables should be so routed as to r u n
downwards away from the equipment. Where this is not possible, the cable
should incorporate a descending loop immediately before the connection to the

Where conduits, tubes or ducts are used, they should be installed in such
way t h a t any moisture accumulating in them will be able to drain safely away.
Cables which are routed through such fittings should be capable of
withstanding any such moisture.

- - Interfering magnetic fields may be set u p by electrical equipment,
electrical currents in the cabling, or the aircraft structure, and also by
magnetic materials. Cables are required, therefore, to be instalIed so a s to
reduce electrical interference to a minimum and to avoid interaction between
the different electrical services.

Note. Requirements for the avoidance of compass and radio interference are
g ~ v e nin Chapter J 4 - 1 of British Civil Airworthiness Requirements.
(Now EASA 23 - light aircraft, 2 5 -- large aeroplanes, 27 8r, 29 -- helicopters)

-- of cabling. The cables are required to be protected from abrasion,
mech,inical strain a n d excessive tieat and a g a i n t~the deleterious ef'fect:i of fuel,
oil and other aircraft fluids, water in either liquid or vapour form and thc.
weather. Where aircraft skin temperatures could be a problem (nn hot c-Irniates)
cables should be routed away from the skln of the aircraft. The cables should
not bt: r u n near the hot parts of engines, APUs, exhausts, heat exchar1gi.r~etc
unless a cooled-air space or heat barrier is provided.

Where, cables are routed through metal fittings or bulkheads etc, the edges of
the holes through which they pass must be radiised and smoothed a n d fitted
with a n insulated b u s h or sleeve. Cables which are drawn through holcs or
tubes must be a n easy fit requiring only a moderate, steady pull, care bcing
taken to keep the cables parallel to one another and to avoid the formation of
kinks (which may cause fracture).

C o n d ~ ~ i tdsu, c t s a n d trunking used for carrying cables should have srnooth
internal surfaces.

Cables being fitted through pressure bungs should be fitted into the correct
size holes for the size of cable, to ensure efficient sealing. Only the
recommended cable threading tool should be used for this purpose to avoid
damaging the bung.

Support of Cabling. The cabling m u s t be adequately supported througt-lout ~ t s
length, and a sufficient number of cable clamps must be provided for ear.h run
of cable to ensure t h a t the unsupported lengths will not vibrate unduly Bends
in cabie groups should not be less than eight times the outside diameter of the
cable group. However, a t terminal blocks, where the cable is suitably
supported a t each end of the bend, a minimum radius of three times the
outside diarneter of the cable, or cable bundle, is normally acceptable.

Cables m u s t be fitted a n d clamped so that no tension will be applied in any
circunlstances a n d so t h a t loops or slackness will not occur in any position
where the cables might be caught and strained by normal movement of persons
or controls in the aircraft.

Where it is necessary for cables to flex, eg connections to retractable landing
gear, the a m o u n t a n d disposition of slack must be strictly controlled so that
the c a l ~ l eis not stressed in the extended position, and that the slack will not be
fouletl, chafed, kinked or caught on any projection during movement in either
dire(: tic )n.

Cab1t.s should normally be supported independently of, and with m~axltrrurn
pract~cableseparation from, all fluid and gas carrying pipelines. To prevc.nt
contan~inationor saturation of the cables in the event of leakage, cables should
be rorlced above rather than below licpid carrying pipelines.

Cable Types

The pages a t the back of this section give information on various types of
cables to be found on aircraft. You would not be required to remember the
details b u t you sl-iould understand the inforrrlation that is given.
Cables a n d equipment should meet the requrrements laid down in BCARs and
,JARS to provide electric shock protection to personnel as well as heat
protection - if equipment gets hot during normal operation.

Airframe Cables. Used for r u n s throughout the airframe.

Interconnecting Cables. 'This is used for the interconnection of equipment
within racks, therefore their insulation is thinner than normal airframe
cabling. They are lighter a n d more flexible.

Equipment Wire. Sometimes known as 'wire' it is used within equipment and is
therefore flexible a n d suitable for soldering. It is not designed a s
interconnecting wiring though some aircraft manufacturers do u s e it for tlr,
in protected parts of the airframe.

Fire Resistant Cables. This type of cable is required to retain a defined level of
resistance in certain fire or overheat conditions. The cable is classed as Fire
Resistant if able to withstand 1100°C for 5 minutes, and Fire Proof if able to
withstand the same temperature for 15 minutes (EASA 2 5 &, 1 - if close to the
outside of a firewall should not suffer damage if firewall heated to 1 100°C for
15 minutes).

F i r e p r o ~ fCables. These a r e required to operate for 15 minutes in a designated
zone defined in BCARs a n d JAR 1 a n d are used in designated fire zones.

Conducting elements on electrical cables are sometimes plated to improve their
ant-corrosive properties. The plating on copper conductors will normally
determine the maximum continuous working temperature, eg
135°C Tin plating
200°C Silver plating
260°C Nickel plating/ cladding

Cable Maintenance

The requirements, laid down by the CAA for the installation of electrical cables,
are laid down in BCAKs section J a n d EASA 23, 25, 27, 29.

Only the cables a s specified in the AMM, or approved equivalents, should be
used. This will ensure that the cables will be capable of taking the
voltages (during operatior1 and testing) and the maximum ulrrent in the most
;idverse conditions, without da~xmgeto the cables. For more information on
maintenance see rnodule 'i in this series.


Cables have two identifications, one is carried out by the nlanufacture o f the
cable and the other is carried out by the aircraft manufacturer - to co~rlplvwith
the w~ringdiagrams.

Cable Manufacturer's Identification

Each rnanufacturer will stamp it's identification (:ode on the cable a t regular
intervals along its length. This is done automatically either by an ink printing
process or a heated die process. It rnay i n c l ~ ~ d e :

(a) The cable size.
(b) The manufacturers name.
(c) The manufacturers code, cable name etc

For example:

Minyvin GBx XX X 22
(1) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) (4) (5)

(1) Manufacturer's name of the cable.
(2) Country of origin.
(3) Manufacturer's cable code.
(4) Year of manufacture.
(5) Cable size.

These details should be checked against the stores release documents to
ensure they are the same.

Tnstallation Identification

Besides the identification of the cable by the cable manufacturer there is a
requirement to identify the cable in the aircraft installation. During aircraft
manufacture a cable is installed (suitably routed, supported and connected
crimped etc). Prior to assembly the cable is marked with a code that identifies
it and relates it to the aircraft wiring diagram.

The code - made u p of a series of letters and numbers may be printed on
sleeves which are placed on the cable ends prior to being nrade up - or more
likely printed along the cable length itself.

The printing may be carried out by a srnall heated hand operated macl-line. It is
ribbon fed and prior to cable marking is set up with the correct nurnheri and
letters (cable code). These are found by reference to the appropriate airrr-;ift
wiring diagram.

relays. allocated to differentiate between cables which not have a common terminal in the same circuit. etc. L 6. excluding the letter I a n d 0. An example of this is shown below. Cable number. . For example code NMS V indicates Nyvin Metsheath (a BICC cable) ungrounded cable in a single-phase system. 2. Cable 9'me. a n d differentiates between segments of the circuit when the same cable number is used throughout. Generally. I t will stop automatically a t the end of the cable run. used to indicate the type of cable and to identify its connection fullction.The cable may be marked by being put through a n automatic identification anti testing machine -. Beginning with the number one. so it is important to check carefully a n d reject the cable if found). It will test the cable for continuity and insulation and any cable faults found will cause the machine to stop and give a n aural warning. 3.once set u p this will pull the cable through and print the code on the cable at the required intervals. The code will identify s u c h things as: (a) Cable size. Always visually check the cable insulation for darnage after heat identing as the ident may have penetrated the insulation and exposed the conducting core. At any rate it is important that the cable is coded a t both ends and at any point where it passes through bulkheads. A different letter is used for each of the cable segments having a common terminal or connection. Cable segment letter. This is why the automatic identing machines carry out a n insulation test a t the same time as the identing procedure. Circuit function letter a n d circuit designation letter which indicate circuit function and the associated system. Segments are lettered in alphabetical sequence. which identifies the segment of cable between two terminals or connections. seals. Unit number.the letter L indicating a lighting circuit. a different number is given to each cable. I EF G B 22 NMSV (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 1. used where components have identical circuits. 5. 4. (b) Circuit. are not classified as common terminals. Suffix data. (d) Cable number. (c) Circuit function. In figure one there is only one letter . contacts of switches. (Fires have been caused by this. The code may be devised by the aircraft manufacturer or may be based on the ATA 100 specification system. etc.

Tho rec:ommendation is that the cable is cotletl at regular intervals along it's lengt b and it is most important that it corresponds to the appropriate 31r c. 1 AIRCRAFT WIRING DIAGRAM . (b) Correctly route a n d support the cable.EXAMPLE When replacing a cable it is important to: (a) Fit the correct replacement cable. The drawing shows the cable code (which should be printed om the cable) io urliquely identify t hii t cable on the aircraft. Figure 1 shows a n actual aircraft example of a wiring diagram. Some ex:irnples of what are generally termed 'special purpose cables' are described bc.10~~ . (d) Employ the correct terminations. For certain electrical systems.r aft wiring diagram. cables are required to perform a more spccialised function t h a n that of the cables alreatly referred to. I POWER SUPPLY CONTROL JUNCTON BOX CONTROL PANEL LEFT I Fig. Note the change of the third digit a s the cable run progresses towards the lamp. It is two ( dbles (in a bundle) associated with ice formation spot-lights. (c) Ensure its correct identification along its length. (e) After replacement carry out appropriate electrical tests followeci by a functional test.

and they are generally made u p into a complete ignition cable harness. which also forms part of the harness. 3 TYPICAL 'P' CLIP INSTA%%ATI[BN . a n d a threaded coupling assembly. The harness is supported in P clips or similar with rubber packing to help prevent vibration damage. or they may be routed without conduit. ' . and screened by metal braided sheathing to prevent interference. Cables are connected to the relevant system components by special end fittings comprising either small springs or contact caps secured to the cable conductor. The number of cables requlred for a system correspond to the number of spark plugs or igniter plugs as appropriate.They are usually of the single cor"i-stranded type with a high level of insulatlorl. insulation. Fig.Ignition Cables (Ignition f-Iarnesses) 'These are used for the t ransrn~ssionof high tension voltages (high voltages) in bolkr piston a n d turblnr engine ignition systerr~s. 2 TYPICAL WIRING HARNESS . the cables may be enclosed in a metal conduit.R R TRENT CABLE RUBBEWTEFLON LINER Fig. Depending on the type of engine installation.

The insulating material of extension cables is normally of the polyvinyl type. For egt measurement a number of thermocouples are required to be rad~ally disposed around the jet pipe in the gas stream. a n d chrornel (an alloy of chrom~urrlanti nickel) a n d alumel (an alloy of aluminium and nickel) for egt therxnocoti1)les.!ors and turbine engine exhaust gas temperature (egt) tndicators to their r~spective thermocouple sensing elements. . / CHROMEL Fig. The conducting materials are normally the same a s those in the tf-lerrnc. 4 EGT LEADS . The cables are usually arranged in the form of a harness tailored to suit a specific engine installation. since they are subject to lower ambient temperatures than the engine harness. iron and constantan or copper anti c-onsrantan for cylinder head thermocouples. SMALL I j' PROBE .c.G E 9 0 ENGINE In the case of cylinder head temperature indicating systems. only one thermocouple sensing element is used and the cables between it and a flrewall connec:tor are normally asbestos covered.'I'hermocouple Cables These cables are used for connection of cylinder head temperature ~ntl~c. - FWD ALUMEL /\\ . In solrre applications extension cables are encased in silicorle paste w i t h ~ na metal braided flexl ble conduit.ouple sensnrig element. The cables terminate a t an engine or firewall junction box from which cables extend to the flight deck indicator. The insulating material of the harness cables is either silicone rubber or PTFE impregnated fibreglass. for example.

then likewise they will not pick u p any energy. Also. INNER SEPARATOR CONDUCTOR SIGNAL CARRIER Fig. for the connection of antennae to receivers1 transmitters. The outer conductor is made in the form of a circle usually of fine wire braid inslllated from and surroundirig the inner core. tinned. and may be plain. Co-axial cables are used for the transmission of low power signals. The insulation (dielectric) between the two is usually polyethylene or Teflon. The irirler conductor may be solid or stranded copper wire. silver-plated or even gold-plated in some appllcatlons. and capacitance type fuel quantity i~ldicatingsystems for the interconnection of talnk units to amplifiers. with the signal line (the inner conductor) protected from unwanted signals (noise) by the outer wire braid. Any electrostatic field does not extend passed the outer braid a n d the field? due to current flow in the inner and outer conductors cancel each inner and one outer. mechanical and electrical damage. The construction of a typical co-axial cable and end fittings are shown. ('0-axial cables are used on radio equipment.Co-axial Cables (Figures 5 a n d 6) Co-axial (co-ax)cables contain two or more separate conducting eleme~its. but in general the outer wire braid is c u t back arid folded onto the inner adapter and the inner conductor is left protruding. The outer braid provides a shielded against electrostatic and magnetic fields. 5 CROSS SECTION OF CB-AXIALCABLE 011ter coverings or jackets serve to weatherproof the cables a n d protect them from fluids. For details of how end fittings are attached the reader is referred to the appropriate book in module 7. COPPER WIRE WEATHTER BRAID SCREEN PROOF OUTER INSULATION DIELECTRIC . The materials used for the coverings are manufactured to suit operations under varying environmental corid~Lions. since co-axial cables do not radiate any fields. or be influenced by other strong fields. depending on the degree of conductivity required. .

Soldering a contact on to the inner conductor a ~ l d screu~ingthe coupling ring on to the sub-assembly completes the assembly. COPPER BRAID INNER ADAPTER Turned back to Slides under wire braid.E TYPES The following pages give technical data on a selection of cables made by UlCC. You should note the current ratings and how they are affect-ed by being 'bunched' (bundled or fitted a s part of a loom). the properties and the identification. 6 CO-AX CABLE END FITTINGS The sub-assembly is screwed to the adapter thereby clamping the outer conductor firmly between the two components. and the reasons w11y.Y Fig.a s an exaniple. and adapter \ screws into plug assembly / / DIELECTRIC INNER SEPARATOR CONDUCTOR \ \ SOLDER HOLES COUPLING RING / INNER PLUG ASSEMB1. up fit over inner to screw thread. blank . You would not be required to remember the details but you should read and understand the information. Each cable will have its own data table. You should note the performance rating of the cables. CAE31. In some cases the outer conductor may also be soldered to the sub-assembly through solder holes. The performance data table is given for one type of cable only -.

PTFEIGLASSIPTFE NICKEL PLATED COPPER . hydraulic fluids. de-icing fluids. Resistant to flame and readily printable for ident purposes. Tinned copper conductor range 22 to 12. Identification.1lght we~ghtflexible arrframe wiring cable suppl~edin single or multrcored versions screened or sheathed to spec~ficat~onBS2G222 PVC GLASS BRAID NYLON TINNED COPPER OR SILVER PLATED COPPER Performance. cleaning solvents. Current Ratinqs. Silver plated copper conductor range 24 only. Colour white. fuels. Supplied in reels labelled and packaged ready for transportation. country of origin.-280). The current ratings given in table 1 are based on conductor temperature rise of 40°C iri an ambient temperature of 65°C. must be multiplied by a factor K where: Similar to Minyvin above but has a voltage range up to 600V. w. manufacturer. fungus and mildew. Cable is printed with cable code. Resistant to abrasion. Properties. AIR4524 (GROUP 250. Voltage rating 300V at 1600Hz rms (250V for size 24). PVC GLASS BRAID \ NYLONOR NYLON BRAID & LACQUER EFGLAS Similar to Nyvin except that its temperature range is -70°C t o +260°C. fire extinguishants. Meets specifications BSG222. Has nickel plated copper conductor arid is flexible throughout temperature range. size code and specification code. Temperature range -75°C to t 105°C (-30°C for flexible installations). ester based oils. a size range from 22 to 0000 and meets the requirements of specification RSG177. date code. If the ambient temperature (t°C) is continuously above 65°C the rat1 .

Cable No Rating Max rating in amperes (cables in bundle) Uninyviri Uninyvinal condition I 3 7 12 . * = May apply to a srnaller number of cables as specified. MAXIMUM RATINGS FOR MiNYVlN CABLES BUNCHED IN FREE AIR Rating conditions: A = Continuous B = 5 minute rating C. = 1 minute rating Uninyvirlal = aluminium cored.

Negative. 10.20 sheath colour green and 22 sheath colour green with white stripes. Positwe. NICKEL PLATED GLASS BRAID COPPER Similar to Fepsil with a service life of 50. nickel chromium. with white insulation.Slmllar to Nyvln except that ~ t snormal temperature range IS -55°C to +190"C with ar! ultlmate life of 5 rn~nutesat 1100'C for the operation of essenttal c ~ r c u ~ tColour s orange and speclflcatlons rneets BSG189 ~nterchangeablewlth MIL VJ-5777 SILICON RUBBER \ NlCKEL PLATED GLASS BRAID COPPER POLYURETHANE VARNISH FEPSIL. nickel aluminium with green insulation. Multi cores have different colours. SILICON RUBBER FEP .+150aC. Sizes . +ve NICKEL CHROMIUM POLYMIDUPTFE . FPA 150 POLYURETHANE / POLYMIDE lNSULATION TAPE ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ L A T E D \ CONDUCTOR KPA 150MS FEP SILVER PLATED SHEATH COPPER SCREEN THERMOCOUPLE CABLES Temperature range -65°C to + 260°C. Similar to Tersil. Single cable white.000 hours at 150°C and a temperature range of -65°C to . Colour green and produced to specif~cationBSG208 interchangeable with MIL-W-8777.000 hours life at the top temperature. No smoke emission at up to 300°C.

a p r e . therefore. depending on the termination a n d that the necessary calibration checks have been made to the tool. completed joint.d. Only aluminiuni or bimetal (AICu) terrninations should be uscd to terrriit l i l t e aluminium cables and the cable should be stripped irnmediatcly prior to rnakiny the joint. and the dimensions of the termination. together with. the materials. The barrel i s designed to fit closely around the cable conductor so that after pressure h a s been applied a large number of points of contact are made 'The pressure is applied with a hand or hydraulically operated crlmping tool fitted with a die or dies.~ n s u l a t e dcopper sleeve which mates with the crimping barrel a t one end arltl is formed.A crimped connection i s one in which a cable corlductor is secured by compression to a termination so that the metals of both a r e held togetht:r In close contact. . It is. in some types. A typical crimp termination h a s two principal sections. 7 TYPICAL CRIMP TERMINATION There is a considerable range of terminations (and crimping tools) available. "'"" (""m) \@ Conductor protrusion Number of dots 4 ' / \I/ I indicate correct tool ---P CORRECT used for the j o b DISTANCE INSULATION CRIMP ) / 11 1 cmw Fig. should be used. The precise form of the crimp is determined by such factors as the size and construction of the conductor. most important that only the correct type of die and crimping tool. therefore. c-r-lrnping barrel a n d tongue. shaped to give a particular cross-sectional form to thc. important that the appropriate manufacturer's instructions regarding the use of cables and termin a t'ions are fo1lowc. so as to grip the cable insulatior~at the other in ordcr to give a measure of support. during the crimplng process. many of which are colour coded and suitable for u s e only with specific types of aircraft cable/crimp ends. It is.

r\ L. They all come in a variety of shapes and sizes and what follows is a general description of the AMP crimping method. The crimp ratchet is common to most crimping tools. If a red terrnirial is crimped in a red handled tool. others not so filled require that inhibiting compound l ~ e applied before crimping takes place. The special tool used for crimping AMP terminals h a s several features to ensure a good crimped joint. a single dot impression will be left on the insulation a t the barrel end. The die head has three levels of adjustment: 1. Colour and Dot coding. in the correct position in the die jaws a n d allows the conductor strands to protrude 0. Most tools have some form of location device. 4. Loose. The compound will also minirriise later oxidation of the corripleted connection by excluding moisture and air. Medium. This rrieans that once the crimp h a s been started it must be ftllly corripleted (the handles closed to their fullest extent) before the tool will release a n d be removed frorn the cable/crimp. It ensures the bottoming of the die jaws before the jaws can be opened again. cable strippers and crimping pliers/crimping tools. TOOLS These inclttde: wise cutters. Colour a n d dot coding. Locator. This rrleans that a crimp cannot be half completed.'The barrel o f some aluminlurn tc-rminatlons may contain a qtiantit-y of inhibiting compound. 3. 3. . Sorne specifications also req~lireadditlorla1 sealing after crimping. The "dot" coding system is needed to identify the terminals which have been crimped in the correct AMP hand tool. These include: 1. 2. The locator holds the terminal. Tight. sidc cutters.8 rnm from the terminal barrel when the wire is fully inserted. Insulation adjusting pins. Crimp ratchet. The insulation adjusting pins allow for small variations in wire size a n d ensures o p t i m ~ ~mechanical m strength of the joint by crimping both the insulation a n d the conductor.

if required . This spare piece of cable (the same size a n d type as the actual cable to be worked on) can also be used for the practice crimp. adjusting the cutltechnique so as to make a clean c u t of the insulation without doing any damage to the conductor. (d) Correct tool being used. the insulation.justable for a particular size of cable. (c) Correct crimping tool and associated dies.rel to accommodate wires and if necessary. (t)) Correct size and type of terminal with suitable size crimp t)ar. (eJ Correct ant-oxidant . Fig. These may have separate locations on the same tool for differcnt sizes of cable or there may be one cutting part that is ad. selected to be compatible with type of terminal and wire size. Note that the ratchet and pawl harict type tools will only release on completion of crimping c. After the practice crimp is completed the joint is inspected to check for security of attachment with no damage or splitting. It is most important that the strippers are set-up first by using them on a spare piece of cable. 8 AMP CRIMPING TOOL Cable Strippers Used to c u t the insulation away from the conductor a n d come in a variety of sizes and designs.ycle. the following slrlould be verified: (4 Correct size and type of wire for the job (AMM). If all is well then the settings/technique can be employed on the actual cable to be crirnpcd. Before carrying out crimping of termination.

6. Crimping AMP Terminals . 4. When fully inserted the conductor should extend beyond the barrel by approximately 0.8 mm. 8. If the lay of the strands is disturbed they should be re-imposed with a light twisting action of the fingers. 4. 3. Insert prepared wire end into terminal barrel ensuring that all conductor strands enter. Insert conductor into barrel and insulation into the insulation grip portion of the terminal. 3. Remove compleled crimped joint and inspect fol. Preparation of Tool 1. Select a tool by reference to the colour of the terminal. 5. 2. Insert all conductor st-rands into barrel. Bend the wire back and forth once. 7 Hold wire in position and crimp by squeezing h. Check wire size range stamped on tool face. 4. If any fc)urid damaged or severed cut cable back anti start again.Preparation of Wire 1 U s ~ n gapproved stripp~ngtool. Repeat Items 3 to 5. Conductor strands must be laying together to allow for 100% insertion. . remove specific length of insulation 2 Inspect stripped end for severed or damaged conductor strands. Squeeze handles until terminal is lightly gripped by the jaws. Locate terminal in crimping jaws. Excessive twisting should be avoided a s this increases the conductor diameter. 3. Select the appropriate terminal for the size of wire being terminated and to suit the stud size of the terminal fitting. 5. terminal sleeve should retain grip on wire insulation. Ensure that no insulating materials enter. Insert the terminal into the jaws so that the barrel rests against the locator. Remove terminal and check insulation support a s follows. If wire pulls out set insulation adjustment pins in next tighter position (No 2).~ndlesuntil ratchet releases. Example 1. 6. Close handles until crimp ratchet releases. Inspect the tool for serviceability and adjust the insulation crimping adjustment pins. code impression. Insert insulation adjustment pins into the N o 3 position. 7.

Adjust the insulation crimping a d ~ u s t m e n pins t as detailed above. 8. Squeeze handles until butt splice is lightly gripped. Carry out a millivolt drop test. Insert butt splice into crimping jaws until properly located. 3. check correctness of Corrn and location of insular crimp.8mm COPPER SLEEVE CRIMPING BARREL & TONGUE B = Barrel length. Hold wire in position and complete crimping operation. 2. PRE-INSULATED B + 0. Inspect for correct formation of completed crimp.8mm Fig. Insert other end of butt splice into jaws until properly lo(-at(-ci. . Complete crimping operation by repeatirig Items 4 . 9 TYPICAL CRIMP TERMINATIONS Crimping In-line or Butt Splices 1 Select the required Butt Splice and a tool of the sarne colo~lr coding. rough or s h a r p edges a n d 'flash'. 10. 9.On completion of crimp check: (i) Correctness of form and locatiox~of crimp. Each l~arrelof a connector must carry only one cable uriless specifically perrnit ted by the air worthiness authority. When inserted the conductors should be visible in the inspection window. (IV) Check any codification by crimp dies is correct in detail ant1 position. 6 ancl ' I . 6. 4. Stripping length = barrel length + 0. 5. Insert prepared wire into terminal barrel. (vi) Carry out a millivolt drop test. b7) Check joint for freedom from fracture. C = Insulation grip. 5. 7. (ii) Adequate insertion of conductor strands in barrel (iii) If insulation support is provided.

Maximum allowable millivolt drop usually 5mV for 10 amps CALIBRATED TEST LEAD INSULATION INSULATED SUPPORT BLOCK Fig.3 joints. (5) Thermocouple cables. (b) Not more t h a n two joints are to be made in any 1Oft length of cable. which cannot readily be visually inspected. (c) Multiplicity of joints in cables must be avoided. totally enclosed in conduits or ducts. . ie above 2 5 0 V rms (eg igniter. Care must be exercised to ensure that in-line crimps are only used in positions where the operating temperatures do not exceed the specified limits. (6) High voltage cables. (4) Cables in excess of size 10 (35 amp). ( ~ i i ) Kunri over. (ii) Runs 11p to 200ft . (2) Coaxial cable. will not be provided to prevent ingress of fluid . (7) Cables used in fire-resistant circuits (fire detector and extingui er circuits within the protective zone). Protective sleeves. if possible.8 joints. Specific approval must be obtained from the airworthiness authority before incorporating in-line crimps in the following: (1) Screened cable. and in no case must the number exceed the following: (i) Runs up to L o f t . 10 MILLIVOLT DROP TEST ON CRIMPED TERMINATIONS Kepair schemes are restricted to the following: (a) The minimum distance between joints in any one cable must be 2ft. additional to the crimp insulation.In-line crimps must be fitted either horizontal or positioned so that any ingress of fluid is impossible.particularly important in exposed positions such as wheel wells. aerial feeders). (3) Multicore cable. (8) Types of cable.S joints.200ft .h t leads.

eg using insulation or cable c l ~ p smust . ram so that the screws fit into the recesses on cither side of t h t r l l c h . Erma I-land-operated Hydraulic Crimping Machine For large size cables various hydraulic crimping machines are available. This leaves the slotted head of the tool open to allow the lower die to be fitted to the ram. This machine is supplied a s a kit containing eight sets of dies for cable size from AWG 6 to AWG 0000. (1)) Remove the upper die adapter by sliding it from the dovetailed head of the tool. Preparation of Machine The machine operating handles should be screwed into position a n d the code letters stamped on the dies checked for size. positive separation. Insert the spigot on the upper die into the hole in the die adapter until it is held in position by a spring-loaded steel ball.0000) and are the same as those marked on the cable lugs by the manufacturer. Close the hydraulic valve by turning the knob clocktvisc.On 11-1st allation. Pump the handles a few times to move the ram forwards a n d show the hexagon socket screws which hold the lower die. if possible. ( 1 ) Joints m u s t be positiorled so that they do not touch one another or touch duct cable-retaining straps and other fixtures which may set u p 'tracking' p a t h s .l-1N (for cable sizes AWG 6. Fit the lower d ~ into e the. 4 . jc ) Joints must. be positioned on the outside of the loorns unless special fixing attachments are preferable. m u s t be approved. (cl) If it is impracticable to accommodate a stagger of joints along a cable r u n . all fixing attachments. observe the following: (a) All joints m u s t be accessible for visual inspection. The crimp formed is a regular hexagon shape and h a s two code letters impressed on it by the dies during crimping. HH . Slacken thr-se screws using the Allen key provided. wherever possible. a n d a n Allen key used for fitting t h e dies to the machine. described here is the Erma Crimping Machine. s u c h as corrugated wrapping strip. be carried out. Check that the lugs to be used have the same code letters marked on the terminal palm. These code letters are HG. If the dies are to be changed carry out the following procedure: (4 Select the two matched dies bearing the correct code letters for the size of cable in use.

(b) Strip the cable insulation so that when it is inserted in the lug the insulation lies flush against the end of the barrel and the conductor projects slightly from the other end. \ FIXED HANDLE RAh HEXAGON ~ ~ Y D R A L J CONTROL ~IC SOCKET VALVE SCREW Fig. Place the lug centrally between the ales a n d p u m p the handles until the lug is lightly gripped. (a) Close the hydraulic valve. ensuring that they are below the surface of the ram body. illto the dovetailed grooves until i t is located centrally by a spring-loaded steel ball. Tighten t h e screws to hold the die. ((j Open the hydraulic valve to allow the ram to retract. 11 ERMA HYDRAULIC CRIMPING MACHINE Operation Check that the two-letter code on the cable lugs and on both dies is correct for the size of the cable to be terminated. (c) Insert the conductor into the barrel of the lug arld pump the machine handle until the dies are fully closed. corriplete with die. Open the hydraulic valve to retract the ram (4 Slide the u p p e r die adapter. . Clperate the handle until the safety valve operates with a n audible click and pressure on the p u m p handle reduces. The crimped termination can then be removed from the machine and inspected.

To ensure that the wire is corirlected to the correct pin/c:oilt. Fitmcnt/ Removal of Wired Pins/ Contacts Each pin/contact is crimped to its respective wire then fitted in to the plug/socket. Care should be taken when handling and connecting miniature and sub- miniature connectors. After the pinlcontact is crimped onto its wire it is Insvrted in to the correct hole within the plug/socket.~ct and the pinlcontact is fitted into the correct hole in the plug sorket tllcx followi~~g location procedure is followetl: . O n no account should force by used to effect mating. In rnost modern systems the method of conncc. Both plugs and sockets should be checked for any signs of dirt. To prevent damage a n d the entry of debris protective caps should be f~ttcdto plugs/sockets at all times when disconnect from the aircraft and no work is being carried o u t on them. bent pins or physical damage to the shells before attempting to connect. a n d rectify o r renew.tion 1s by crimping. Rent pins should be removed a n d new ones crimped in position.PLUGS A N D SOCKETS Most wires a r e terminated in a pin or contact which is fitted ~ r l t na plug /socket along with many other pins/coritacts. If connectors will not mate. On older aircraft wires/cables were soldered ~ n t osmall 'cups' at the end of each pinlcontact. check for the reason. SHELL ATTACHMENT SHFLL SHELL \ FLANGE \ SCREWTHREAD / \ AUG~MENT GROOVE ALIGNMENT LUG SOCKET / MOULDING CONTACTS Fig. 12 TYPICAL PLUG & SOCKET Lubrication Some ranges of plugs a n d sockets require the engaging threads to be lubricated with a suitable lubricant to ensure that they can readily be disconncctcd.

POLARISING OR PINISOCKET LOCATOR LUG/ CONTACT NUMBERS Fig. one where the contacts are released for removal from the rear a n d orie were removal is from the front.-. instruments and other electrical components may now be terminated by a rear release system. INSERTION END REMOVAL END 7--- (WHITE) I-. The extraction tool enters the connector from the rear of the connector a n d the contact is also removed from the rear. When fitting the crimped pin/socket it is located irito a numbered hole in accordance with the wiring diagram. 3 When the plug is screwed into the socket there is a locator lug/groove so it can only be orientated one way. motors. switches. Front release. 2. Rear release. The correct insertion/removal tool is used in each case. Multiway connectors. i Each wire is identified by a unique aircraft wiring diagrarr~ rium txr. inline single wire connectors.l for each size of contact. 1 3 PIN/SOCKET LOCATION IDENTIFICATION There are two basic types of pin/contact retention used in plug a n d socket connectors in aircraft. indicators. The contact is removed by pushing from the front of the connector a n d removing the contact frorn the rear.- Fig. Contacts crimped with a standard crimping tool are inserted and removed using a single fail-safe plastic toc. termlnal junctions. 14 REMOVAL AND INSERTION TOOL .

When inserting the wire into the tool. 15 PIN RETENTION . in which case the tool should be positioned on t h c back of the crimp bucket. except in the case of size 22 contacts. 16 PIN RETENTION . In figure 15 the spring clips s n a p in behind the shoulder of the contact '['he removal tool displaces the clips sufficiently to allow the contact to be withdrawn.'The Hvllermann Deu tsch 4601450 Series Connectors. u s e the thumb a n d not the t h u m b nail as this could damage the insulation Position the tool on the contact shoulder.Typical Procedure 1. PLUG BODY RETENTION CLlP RETENTION CLIP \ cY'Mp / Fig. Remove t h e backshell or other accessory from the rear of the connector a n d thread on to the cable loom. Holding the connector with the rear insert facing you. A positive stop will \)e felt when the contact is locked in by the retention clip. tool which is fail-safe in t h a t mis-handling will result in damage to the tool rather than to the connector o r termination modules. . slowly push the contact straight into the connector.REAR RELEASE Contact Insertion .FRONT RELEASE RETENTION CLIP RETENTION CLlP Fig. S n a p the coloured end of the appropriate insertion/removal tool on to the wire. t errninal junctior~ modules a n d custom-made component termination modules can be used All terminations are inserted a n d removed by a single expendable plastic.

tc) release the contact. 3. Press the wire against the serrations of the central section of the tool and withdraw both wire and tool together.act Removal 1. The retention clip will now be unlocked. 17 INSERTION OF PIN INTO SOCKET Cont. Holding the connector with the rear insert facing you. 2. . s n a p the white end of the appropriate insertion/removal tool over the wire to be removed. ICSEZTIBN CORRECT Too. you must put the extr-actiorr tool over the front of the contact a n d down between the contact arid clip to release the clip from behind the front shoulder. Slowly slide the tool along the wire into the conrlector. until a positive stop is felt. INCORRECT U + b / SIZE 22 ONLY ALL OTHER SIZES INCORRECT CORRECT Fig. 4. A s you can see. The removal procedure is virtually the reverse of the insertion procedure.

Bendlx FYI' SE.BAe 1146 . MECHANICAL FLEXIBLE REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEMS CONTROL CABLES Aircraft control cables a r e generally fabricated from high tensile carbon steel or corrosion-resistant steel wire and may be of either a flexible or non-flex~bletype construction. ZZ a n d the AMP/AM series of rack a n d panel conrltxc.ature are Amphenol 246 and 48 serles.Flight FH.'Thls neth hod h a s wide usage. Cables are used in tension only a n d used for the control of primary and secondary flying control systems. FC Hellerman~lDeutsch SLPT. AILERON \ 1 SERVO TAB BRAN? AUTOPILOT TURNBUCKLES ERCONNECTING BALANCE CABLES DISCONNECT TURNBUCKLES TURNBUCKL Fig.tors In the case of the rear release. Some of the connectors you are likely to I lsc w ~ t h thls ft. P y l c National KPL/FPK. Cinch C0909. engine controls a n d the operation of certain valves and equipment. the extraction tool enters from the rear of the connector between the contact a n d the clip to release the contact. 18 TYPICAL A I R C M m CABLE CONTROL RUM . Cannon FKF'. DS. The contact is then pulled out through the rear whilst still in the tool. KPSE.

so the cable tensions will decrease. . elevator a n d rudder must not be smaller than 0. of course. Legal Requirements for Flying Corltrol Cables Cables used on aileron. I t is typical in that the system uses cable tension regulators (to keep correct tensions). pulleys (to allow a change in cable direction) and seals (where the cable passes through the pressure hull). Pulleys must be fitted with guards to prevent cable displacement or fouling.the cable is formed Into a complete loop with pulleys or quadrants or something s~rrlrlarat both ends. The structure will change its length as the temperature changes a n d since t' coefficient of A1 alloy (a = 2 3 x 10-6)is nearly twice that of steel (a -15 x 10 the cable tensions will v a r y considerably. 'return' of the system would be by the use of a spring at the o e ~ t p uend t o f t h e cable system. The steel cables will also shorter1 (assuming they experience the same temperature drop. The cat~lt:itself will almost certainly not be continuous. QUES'I'ION What would happen to the tension of a steel cable system within a n A1 alloy structure when the aircraft increases altitude -- assuming there are no automatic cable tension adjusters fitted? (5 mins) ANSWER A s the aircraft clirribs the ambient temperature drops (down to -56°Ca t 36. quadra ri t s etc. but be connected in various lengths by turnbuckles.125 (3. Advantages of Cable Systerns The advantages of a cable system over a rod system include a weight reduction and a cost saving. Figure 18 shows a control cable run to operate the servo tabs of the BAe 146 ailerons. the cable system i s heavier than a n electronic/light data transmission system such a s fly-by-wire. cable connectors.000ft) so the structure will get shortcr-. which is probably not likely) but will not shorten by the same arnount . in flying control systems for example . A cable must not change direction more than 3" after passing through a fairlead.17mm) diameter.Where a single cable is used tht. Tensions must be kept reasonably constant. Where corltrol is required in both directions . Specified parts of the cable system must have access for inspection.

valves. powered flying control units etc. Seals . Most aircraft now use Cable Tension Regulators whic. 2 0 CABLE MAKE-UP . This means lower rigged tensions on the ground with a saving in weight and wear Components in the system would include Push/ pull rods. D NON-FLEXIBLE NON-FLEXIBLE 1x7 DIAMETER IX I 9 STRAND EXTRA-FLEXIBLE FLEX'BLE DIAMETER 7x7 Fig. Pulleys. Chains a n d sprockets.turnbuckles.11 provide a nearly constant tension a t all times a t all altitudes. Torque tubes. Cable connectors. Fairleads.'To overcome this problem either very high terlslons are used on the g r o ~ l n d when setting u p ( a s was the case on older aircraft) or use is madc of automatic cable tension regulators. Automatic cable tensioning devices. Bellcrank levers. 19 TYPICAL CABLE CONFIGURATIONS PITCH - CABLE - STRAND WIRE Fig. Cable adjusters .for pressure cabins. A s well as input levers/mechanisms and output devices to include levers.

W 1 1. Pitch. If twisted the other way it is said to have a left-handed lay. A cable in which the wires and strands are shaped prior to wound onto the complete cable. Preformed cables have the following advantages: * More flexible. tend to lie flal and not stick up . W 12. Strand.5in) (12. J. --Preformed cable. * Does not unravel when cut . x Easier to hand splice. Lay or Twist. The central strand of a cable around which the remaining strands are helically wound. Tables 1. b u t on systems that not so important. The axial distance a strand or wire travels in one complete twist about the axis of the cable or strand respectivel. Cable Specifications Cable sizes and strength data are given in tables with sizes ranging from 1/ 3 2 n d of a n inch (0.(about I rnm or less) wire K ~ n gwire. Resistant to kinking. Non preformed cables are used. A cable is said to have a right-hand lay if the wires a n d strands twist in the same direction as on a right-handed screw thread (most screw threads).'I'erms used a~rcl-aftcontrol cables (figllrc 19). Un-preformed cable will unravel quickly when cut (using bolt cutters) so the cable is bound with cord either side of the c u t prior to cutting.y. . a n d W 13 or American specification MIL. 2 a n d 3 give some examples.-W-83420.this may cause jamming of the controls when passing through fairleads and around pulleys and is also a hazard to personnel. .79mm) to 1/2 a n inch (0. The helical form taken by the wires and strands in the cable. A Strands. when broken. The diameter of the cable measured across its greatest thickness. Core strand. Several strands are laid together to make u p a complete ~:able. A h ~ g ht e n s ~ l esteel small diameter. Cable diameter. The centre wlre in a strand around which all the other wires are laid.7mm) diamt r. These tend to unravel less tllan un-preformed cable whcn cut. Wire. A group of wires twisted together helically forms a strand. . Similar to pitch on a screw thread.031in) (0. Most cables used on British built aircraft conform to British Standards BS W9.for splicing etc.

1 9-.6940 resist= Carbon .W . 7 x 19 and 6 x 19 1_1WK? on-fexlble.60 / 5. c o rosion ~ - -. MIL specifications also exist that provide for a series of nylon covered cables. cable.5424 - "pZt I Breaking Strength Lbs I per 1 I.-. lx7and 1x -.-.---- 0.--7l Corrosion Flexible. W 1 3 and M I L W-83420 composition B) a n d is impregnated with lubricant during m:inufacture (reduces internal friction a n d wear).000 Nite 100 ftl= 30.08 0.G 100 ft 100 ft 100 ft 54 L__-_.The construction of the cable is deterxriined by the number of wires n7hlc\hgo to make up each strand a n d the number of strands that go to make u p the. - ..065 0.20 1 6.2 1 7 x 19 -- . Minimum breaking Construction --.A SELECTION . Diarrie er (in) Load fcwt force) ~ BS W9 ~ BSW11 .12 0.49m-llb force = 4. c'arbon ~~ MIL .15 0. _10.300 10.(: . For cxample. a cable designated 7 x 19 is made u p of 7 s t r a n d s each having 19 wires For the more common types of cable (those a t the bottorn of figure 19) each wire is laid around a king wlre in layers and the s t r a n d s are lad . /lng MIL .300 / 8. W 12 and MIL-W--83420composition A).16 7x 19 0.20 6.448N 1 inch = TABLE 1 MIL S P E C CABLE DATA ..18 0 18 7x 19 0. or corrosion resistant steel (BS W 1 1..176N TABLE 2 B S CABLE DATA . Note 1 cwt force = 498.A SELECTION Pre-formed cable is usually made of galvanised carbon steel (BS W 9 . 7 x 7. Check the Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM) a n d the Illustrated Parts Catalogue (IPC) for your aircraft for the actual cable used for any particular system.12 7x 19 0.16 0.065 0.irc~unda core strand. resist . .08 0. -.15 7x 19 0. -lFlexihg.

..E ~ w .. . 7 x 1 19 4200 7000 -- TABLE 3 CABLE CLASSIFICATION BY DIAMETER . Cable End Fittings 'To allow the cable to be attached to a component the end of the cable terminates in either a spliced end fitting. . Nominal Diameter Construction I I Minirnum breaking load I -.. -. - lbs . control cables are enclosed in a n aluminium tube or cladd' -g and are called Lockclad cables.....A SELECTION On some aircraft.. Used for straight runs and supplied a s a complete assembly from the manufacturer. OVAL SLEEVE CRIMPED CABLE TENSION REGULATOR SPLICED CABLE SWAGED END AROUND A BOBlN INSPECTION HOLE SPLIT PIN HOLE Fig. --.. -.--- .. 2 f CABLE END FITTINGS . or a swaged end fitting.. - Carbon steel CR steel 7 .. A spliced eiicl fitting normally takes the form of the cable being placed around a thimble or similar fitting and the individual strands of the cable woven or spliced back through the cable (see module 7 for more details)..-- 77 480 7 x 7 920 7 x 19 2000 ..8 3 4 2 0( A ) ~ MIL-W-84320 (B) BS W 1 2 lbs . a sleeved crimped end fitting....

This is not allowed to be carried out at user unit level for some aircraft systems and the person qualified to carry out the control cable splicing should submit test pieces for destructive testing at regular intervals. With :I crimped joint. The sleeve h a s to be a special size (as does the thimble) to match the cable a n d the finished crimp is checked with a GO/NOT GO gauge. JLL ROD PIVOT ADJUSTABLE STOPS BELLCRANK CABLE Fig.A s tlle individual s t r a n d s a r e spliced back through the cable the nurnbcr of full tucks are reduced after the third and forth row of tucks to gradually retluce the diarntlter of the splice. Is a rrquirement that this joining method is not used on certain control systems on aircraft. 22 CONTROL STOPS . A special crimping or swaging tool is used to crimp (compress) the sleeve to hold the two parts of the cable securely. Splicing is a very difficult task and should only be undertaken by propvrlv trained a n d skilled personnel. The total number of tucks is 5. Secondary control stops are fitted a t the cockpit or flight deck end of the system while primary control stops are fitted a t the output end --the flying control surface for a flying control system. Swaging is carried out by placing the cable in the end fitting a n d the end fitting squeezed (swaged) in a special tool using special dies. It is similar to electrical cable crimping but it may take several swaging operations to complete the job with the finished swage being checked with a GO/NOT GO gauge. a sleeve or ferrule is put on thc cable and the cable is placecl around a thimble a n d back into the slecve. SYSTEM COMPONENTS Control Stops Usually adjustable by the engineer to obtain the correct range of movement a n d may be fitted to both e n d s of the control system run.

a n d hence the range of movement of the whole system. locking plate.and t. This provides a positive d e to the sprocket. 23 CHAIN & SPROCKET DETAIL Chains a n d Sprockets Cables may go around a pulley or be connected to pulley end fittings. Cables can be supported by pulleys and special quadrants where they can . Chains may be of the 'non-reversible type'. Locking can be by locknut. locking wire.angular direction. Cable Support. The cable may terminate a t a chain fitting . They \will have provision for lockilzg once adjustment is completed.usually swaged into a turnbuckle type end fitting . Where little thy aircraft 's speed changes so the range changes . .he chain passed around a sprocket.fitted to the BAe 146 for example to reduce the range of movement of the control surface a s the aircraft speed in(-reases) Stops will be fitted so a s to control the range of movement of a component SU(:~I a s a bell crank lever .On some aircraft the range of rnovernent of the system is changed autoniatically during flight (sorne flying control systems for example . which means that they are so designed that they cannot be put on the sprocket the wrong way change in direction is required change various types of fairleads are used. PUSH PULL ROD / Fig. split pin/cotter pin etc.

. of course the AMM says otherwise. The supporting clip is held in place by a brackct attached to the structure. however the cable run usually terminates at a quadrant. plastic or metal and are used to support the cable and also to give a change of direction to the cable run. 24 FAIRLEADS Fairleads Fairleads (figure 24) are usually made of composite material and must not be lubricated . Can bc used to support a cahle run and join one cable to another (figure 26 left-hand picture) or to transfer cable movement to push/pull rod movernent (figure 2 6 right-hand plc t ~ r r c ) . Guard pins are fitted to retain the cable on the pulley should tensions become too low (accidentally) and some pulleys have debris guards to keep out unwanted small items which might foul the pulley/ cable.unless. Pulleys (figure 25) Made from composite. The split fairlead shown in the bottom right hand corner of figure 24 is fitted in two halves and movecl fonvard into its support clip. They may be split which aids replacement without disconnecting the cable. AIRCRAFT ST STRUCTURE UBBING STRIP SPLIT FAIRLEAD SLJPPORT CLIP Fig. Quadrants Not too unlike pulleys in that they support the cable in groves.

holding the two cable ends to prevent them rotating .Turn buckles These vary in d e s ~ g n(figures 27. SUPPORT BRACKET BOLT Fig. it is important that. 26 CABLE QUAISRBPJTS . that the threads are in safely (enough are engaged to ensure that they are strong enough to take the tension loads).both threads will screw in or out depending on which way the centre part is r o t a t r d Thr cable tension will then either increase or decrease. all the threads must be buried in the barrel. They all have a left-hand thread at one end a n d a right hand thread a t the other to allow tension adjustment. 25 PULLEYS For the barrel type turnbuckle safety means that. after adjustment and prior to wire locking. When the centre part is rotated . QUADRANT QUADRANT CABLE 2 TORQUE TUBE Fig.but in general may be of the Barrel type o r thr Trrlsion Rod type. 28 and 29).

29 TENSION ROD TYPE TURNBUCKLE . Rernernber to discard the old clips safely in the metal recycle bin. FORK END L H THREAD RH THREAD F i g .tirin hole The wire should be the same size a s the inspection hole a n d shoul(t not come out the other side. Each clip is then fed into its locking groove with the other end snapped into place in the centre hole in the barrel. 28 BARREL TYPE TURNBUCKLE . To remove the clip it is first cut using a pair of wire cutters. BARREL SHACKLE PIN FOR LOCKING WlRE \ \ THlMBLElBOBBlN \ \ ATTACH ME NT 1. SWAGED LOCKING CUT HERE TO REMOVE CABLE END GFKlOVE LOCKING CLIP RH THREAD GROOVE INDICATES LH THREAD LOCKING CLlP SLOT INDICATOR NOTCH INSPECTION HOLE Fig.For the tension rod type the threads must be screwed deep enough i r ~ r othe fork r n d s so that a piece of locking wire will not pass through thr insptl(. 27 BARREL TYPE TURNBUCKLE To fit the locking clips to the locking clip barrel type turnbuckle first ensure that the threads are in safety and align the indicator notch with the barrel grove.LOCKING CLIP TYPE FORK END RH THREAD LH THREAD \ \ 1 TENS'0N / INSPECTION HOLE \ NUT LOCKING WlRE Fig.

They usually do not provide for a n y cable terlsioxl adjustment . The two halves may be locked together using a circlip like device with a lock pin pushed through and secured with locking wire. On other systems the two- keyed halves are held together using a sleeve. OCKCLAD FEMALE QUICK DISCONNECT TERMINAL LOCKCLAD OCKCLAD MALE QUICK DISCONNECT TERMINAL CABLE QUICK DISCONNECT PIN ASSEMBLY / LOCK-WIRE ASSEMBLED CABLE CONNECTION Fig. Each keyed pair are unique a t that location. which is placed onto the cablc before the two-keyed ends are joined then slid into place.Cable Connectors 'Thesv are fitted to some cable systems at positions where the cables need to bfa disc-onnected frequently for maintenance pixrposes Each half of the connector m a y be keyed in such a way t h a t it can only be fitted hack to its mating half (Murphy proof) and is used where several cables run close together and all wlth connectors a t the same airfra~nelocation. 30 NOM-KEYED CABLE CONNECTOR . It is held in plact y locking clips. The connectors allow for quick cable disconnect and re-connect without the possibility o f connecting two wrong cables together.but some do.

32 QUADRANT TYPE CABLE TENSION REGULATOR . 31 KEYED CABLE CONNECTORS Cable Tension Regulators 'The majority of modern aircraft use cable-operated systems for their flying controls. ADJUSTABLE KEYED CONNECTOR Fig. Fig. to the development of efficient Cable Tension Regulators. in a large part. This is due.

Cable tension regulators are mechanical devlces and can be rnade 111 rnany configuratior~s. The swaged ends of the cable are inserted through slots in the recessed ends of the V grooved quadrants and the cable e n d s are secured at the cable anchorages. t h u s tlghtt ng the cables a n d maintaining them a t the correct tension. pulleys etc. Some systems simply have a spring loaded pulley to maintain tension. The springs react against the cross-head a n d when the cables slacken (with 1 increase in altitude).for exaniple. TENSIONER SPRINGS \ TO PFCU CABLES SLACKEN EQUALLY -CABLES TIGHTEN EQUALLY Fuselage temperature reducing Fuselage temperature increasing No pilot input No pilot input Crosshead moves freely with Crosshead moves freely with springs springs maintaining cable tension maintaining cable tension QUADRANTS ----a CONTROL INPUT APPLIED Pilot input (at any time) Crosshead locks on locking shaft Quadrants lock and unit behaves as a pulley Fig. but for clescript~vepurposes we wlll consider the quadrant type cable tension regulator The unit conslsts of a pair of spring-loaded quadrants with a pointer scale for recording the cable tensions. When the cables are tightened equally (as with the fuselage getting longer as the aircraft descends) the quadrants rotatc about the centre shaft and the linlts pull the cross-head frecly along the locking shaft. quadrants. 33 CABLE TENSION REGULATOR . push the cross-head back along the shaft. beli crank levers. compressillg the springs and.OPERATION . in effect tensioning the cables.

BELLOWS SECURED TO BUKHEAD BELLOWS CABLE \ AIR TIGHT JOINT PRESSURE BULKHEAD Fig. Pressure Bulkheads On pressurised aircraft where cable control r u n s p a s s through the pressure bulkhead special seals a r e provided to help minimise pressure loss. The link will tend to xrlove. preventing movement of one quadrant relative to the other with the whole systern now acts as a pulley. When rigging a regulated cable system therefore. . 34 BELLQWS TYPE SEAL Figurc 34 shows a self-aligning seal Made of a n elastorrleric material. b u t is self-aligning and provides a complete seal. be self-aligning. Both quadrants are.on the other cable. require little or no maintenance a n d provide a good air seal. therefore. Each tension regulator incorporates a scale and pointer. 'This arrangement is used wit 11 control systerlls using twin cables (one u p and one down). which provides a visual tension indication of the cable tension. 'rends to increase the s i n t ~ c frictio~lin the system. As the cabin pressure acting on thc bellows causes a load on the c:ontrol cable. Several types are available . The correct reading depends o n the ambient temperature a n d must be obtained from a special graph providetl for each regulator in the aircraft. the cables being tensioned until the correct reading is obtained on the regulator scale. which must he balancc~dby :in t:c]iial a n d opposite load . tilting the cross-head on its locking shaft (by a very small amount) and locklng it to the shaft.Whelr a control load is applied by the pilot only one q l ~ a d r a n twill tend to rriove (the orie on the tension side). a tensiometer is not required. They m u s t allow freedom of cable movement. part of which moves with the control cable. locked together and operate as a solid pulley until the control load i s released.2 are shown here.

They may also be used to give a n indication of the position o f the landing gear (back u p system on some aircraft) a n d the position of flaps . This is a more popular type of seal. which may be rigid or flexible. pneurnatic and emergency services. -k Engine controls. Remember.though usually on older/ smaller aircraft. Others use a n elastorneric material suc a s that shown in figure 35. -h Flying control trirn systems. Fig. k Selector valves for hydraulic. which are operated from outside the aircraft. . Several types are available with some relying on packing rings of silicon rubber composite or similar to provide the airtight joint. SPECIALISED MECHANICAL REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEMS These employ a push/pull or pull only cable type system. -k Brake control valves. k Cabin air durnp valves. which is housed within a conduit (sleeve). The controls are usually manually operated to allow flight crew/pilot to operate such remote services as: * Trim tabs. * Fuel cocks. The 'cable' is of a special design. They can bc used by ground crew for the operation of remote valves such a s toilet drain valves etc. though they do allow some air seepage a n d wear is a problem. they should be kept clean and not lubricated. 35 GLAND TYPE SEAL Alternative methods of sealing include friction type seals. Also they are not self-aligning.

engine throttle etc. quatirant.flying control Usually a flexible Will take both a p u s h systelns. THE 'TELEFLEX CONTROL SYSTEM This uses a lightly loaded cable system moving inside a fixed rigid corltlilit that will transmit both a tensile (pull) load and a corripressjve (push) load. copper alloy or even a polymer material. for example.selectur valve. 'I'fiis means. brake a n d engine controls may use Teleflex and Bowden type controls.enough to operate selector valves for example. The cables a r e usually of high tensile steel while the conduit may be made of aluminium alloy. t h a t a lever in the flight deck can be used to inptlt . Flying control systems have similar cables and components though they are normally designed to take heavier loads.Types of Cable Systerns (:ABLE SYSTEMS -. T ~ v o use of a return spring. Fuel cocks. Teleflex a n d Bowden systems are of the cablelconduit type where the cable moves back and forth within a tube-like structure called a conduit._---.. Trim t a b s usually use a light weight high tensile steel cable and pulley system with chains and sprockets. If direction coiiduit n ~ ~ at hsingle and pull input For tllc change is required a cable and return operation of such things pulley. . CON1)UIT Example . steel. no spring return 1s cahles are used to glve Example parking provlcled pull 111 both directions. b u t there may be variations that do not fit exactly into the general scheme a s shown.. The conduit i s also attached a t both ends to prevent it from moving a n d to allow for the correct operation of the system. I load in either direction to operate a remote device such as a l-lydraulic. Cabin pressure d u m p valves may use a system not too unlike the trim tab system./-/-.--- _. The cable is fitted a t both ends to suitable end fittings and comparatively light loads can be transmitted by the cable . --- TENSJON ONLY 'I'ENSION it. or being achieved by the a s control valves etc similar is used. t load the system is designed to take will determine what type of The a ~ n o u n of system is used. -1 . push/pull rods. (:OMPRESSION CURVEU \ / WITHOU'T CONDUIT \ WI'TtI CONIIUIT RICIDJSEMI RIGlU. torque tubes etc. brakc lever The above shows the general categorisation of flexible control systems.

junction box. straight lead.There 1s n o s p r ~ n greturn : d s 111 t h e case of Bou7denControls for example The systrrn uses wheel unrts where the helix winding of the cable engages with a toothed wheel and a s the cable moves back and forth so the wheel is rotated Rotation is limited by the arnoulit of linear travel of the cable. Each of the whec units (single entry. 36 GENERAL LAYOUT O F A TELEFLEX CONTROL SYSTEM & COMPONENTS . The conduit must be supported a t regular intervals and may have quick release break units fitted for ease of dismantling.ontrol cable starts a t the single entry unit and is continuous to the 180" unit where it will rnove in and out of the spent travel tube. The c. Sliding end fittings (with a swivel joint) rnay be used in place of a wheel unit where a linrar movement is required. 90" double entry and 180" L It) house a toothed wheel which engages with the helix winding of the cable. which is u p to about 4 in<-hes(1 02rnm). 90°DOUBLE JUNCTION BOX ENTRY UNIT ROTARY MOVEMENT NOT EXCEEDING 90' CLAMP BLOCK NIPPLE TYPE CONNECTOR FITTING 180° DOUBLE SPENT TRAVEL BREAK CONNECTOR ENTRY UNIT TUBE Fig. From the junction box a second cable engages with the toothed wheel to transmit the movement to the sliding end fitting. Figure 36 shows a system set up with a s many comporlents as possible a s a demonstration of what the system can so.

COMPRESSION SPACER SPACER WINDING t HELIX WINDING WINDING WINDINGS \ / / 'HELIX TENSION WlRE TENSION WlRE WINDING pTEK3-1 Fig. Connectors Uscd to connect one section of conduit to another.'I'lrest. .similar to flare-end hydraulic pige-line cormect ~ o n s b u t without the olive. Clamp type . There are several tyjxs: k Nipple type -. may be of various designs but shown I n figure 3'7 is a number 2 arid a rrurnber 380 type cable (See manufacturer's Irterature fbr further types! They havt: helix windings of opposite hand. each h a v ~ n g (he11own fittings.9m) but clamp supports should not be fitted where the conduit curves. Made of aluminium alloy. steel or tungum (a copper alloy).this clamps the two conciuits together a s a butt joint. Clarrlp Blocks Fitted on straight sections to support the conduit. 37 TYPES QF CABLE The cable will take reasonably light tensile and compressive loads with the core cable taking the tensile load and the compression windings taking the compressive load (the type 2 suitable for higher compressive loads). The helix winding is designed to be threaded into a n end fitting. are not interchangeable. The conduit should be supported every 3ft (0.

Wheel Units 'I'hese consist of a h o u s ~ n gin which a 'threaded' wheel engages with the helix winding of the cable. A sliding end fitting is attached after a swivel joint and the assernbly is used to move levers etc. * Quick break tvpe -. They allow for conversion of linear movt:rnent to rotary ~novementa n d vice-versa. 11 &? ANGLE Fig. * 90" a n d 180" types. The cable enterslleaves the unit via a conduit connector and in the case of the single entry unit the cable m u s t have a minimum engagement (at its extreme end of travel) as laid down by the equipment manufacturer/AMM.these allow for the disconnection of the system for cornponerlt rernoval etc and the re-assembly of the joint without having to set--11pthe system again. * Junction box type.t-lined rods with interlocking slotted ends attached Lo the end of each c-able. 7'hel-e are several types inclutling the: k Single entry type. 38 SINGLE ENTRY WHEEL UNIT Sliding End Fittings These are used where the linear movement of the cable is not converted to rotary movement. The cable joining fittings consist of mac. * Straight lead type. TEETH -rc4 CABLE. .

Figurt: 40 shows how the cable is screwed into a screwed-end fitting. They are adjustable for lcrlgth a n d have ball-end or ball and socket connect~ons INSPECTION HOLE - \ SCREWED END SCREWED END I3AL. or locking wire (as per the AMM of course). THREAD IN FITTING \ Lock-nut tightened onto outer sleeve. Some p u s h / p u l l rods will have a n end fitting a t both ends. $0 CONNECTION OF GABLE TO END FITTING .the slider tube is passed through the o ~ r t e r sleeve a n d over the conduit first with the belled end resting inside the taper of the o~lter sleeve. Fig.End Fittings Fitted to the end of the push/pull rod. or a t a b washer. cable and complete end fitting together. Note . which is connected to the lever . When the cable is caused to move it will move slider tube and end-fitting together. which is also screwed into the outer sleeve locking the slider tube. Outer sleeve locks slider tube and cable THREAD TO SUIT as it is tighted onto tapered split end.lrm of a slidin? end fitting or to a n arm f1ttt. The u n i t should be locked after final adjustment either using the lock-nut. 39 E N D FITTINGS When adjustment is required it is important that the correct range of move~nentis achieved a n d that the fitting is in safety (checked by not beillg able to p a s s a piece of wire the same diameter a s the hole through the inspection hole).L END FITTING SOCKET END FITTING Fig. INSPECTION SCREWED END HO MINIMUM THREAD SPLIT FOR CABLE TAPERED END Cable screwed into screwed end to minimum depth at inspection hole.d to the rotating shaft of a control utilt.

Cable Made of non-corrodible high tensile steel wire not too unlike cables fitted t~ flying control systems . THE BOWDEN CABLE CON'TMOL SYSTEM T l ~ esystem is used for lightly loaded controls (selector valve operation. 41 BOWDEN CABLE .END DETAIL . To give support a t the ends and to prevent fraying. STEEL WlRE FLEXIBLE CONDUIT / / SWAGED END BALL END FITTING FITTING Fig. with return being by a spring usually fitted a t the componerit end. parking brake operating cable etc) a n d relies on the cable working in tension only. On some installations rigid metal conduit is used on straight r u n s . which means that the cable system can be routed around bends (so long as they are not too sharp).though much smaller. 42 BOWDEN CABLE . This is covered with cotton braiding followed by a waterproof polymer coating. Conduit The conduit consists of a close coiled wire designed to keep the cable system stiff a n d takes mainly compressive loads. The flexible conduit is fixed a t both ends. metal end -caps are fitted.Split C:ollvt Type End Fitting These are fitted direct to the cable for the operatio11 of slidlng erid fittings.GENERAL ARRANGEMENT METAL END CAP MATERIAL BRAIDING COILED COMPRESSION \ \ WlRE \ WATER PROOFING Fig.

To fit the cable to a n end fitting the AMM must be consulted. Nipples are made of brass a n d soldered onto the cable end. SPHERICAL TYPE TRUNNION TYPE PLAIN TYPE Fig. To fit therrl t h e conduit a n d cable is made u p to the correct length (the cable end is tinned to prevent unravelling) and the metal end-caps are fitted over the cable :in(j onto the conduit. 'The nlpple recess is tinned. the cable is thcn passed through the nipple so that the end shows level with the top surface of the recessed end of the nipplc. When the solder hardens the nipple is firmly attached to the cable.These may be various types of soldered nipples or swaged end fitt~rigs'The swaged end fittings may be threaded. The strands of the cable a r e then unravelled as far a s possible within the r-ccess and the recess filled with molten solder. End Fjttings These are usually levers a n d handles. eye end or any design s u ~ t n b l ef o r the conlpor~entto which ~t is to be attached. They may be fitted with adjustable stops s o that the range of movement can be set to those specified in the AMM. 43 NIPPLES In some cases the cable may be swaged into the nipple using a special nipple a n d swaging machine. b u t in general terms the following applies to systems that employ nipple type connections to Imth ends: Adjust both end fittings to glve the greatest range of moven~t>nt to each. .

Figure 44 shows a typical use of a Rowden control. T h ~ means s that there is more slack in the system in this condition than wotlld otherwise be the case.input end and component end. Check for free movement. Carry out the same procedure a t the other end of the systeln. adjust thlern to their shortest length. Make sure the adjuster is in safety and correctly locked. This may require a higher level of motor skills because there is less slack in the cable system because the other end has taken up some of the free play between the cable and the conduit. . Record all the work done and sign. When the lever is released a return spring at the brake control valve end will pull the cable to release the brakes arid return the hand brake lever to the upright position. Adjust the conduit length adjuster to take u p the slack in the conduit. eg if it is a throttle system. which wlll adjust the length of the conduit but not the cable The cable passes straight through the adjuster). Carry out a full functional check. I t will allow easier fitting of the nipples. O n those conduits that are adjustable for length. Ensure that both conduit metal end-caps are firmly in place a t their respective ends . which means increasing its length. Check for correct sense of movement. pushing the throttle forward increases engine power. Move the control cable through 90" so that the control cable is now laylng in its correct orientation with the metal end fitting of the conduit resting on the fixed part of the end fitting. (Some conduits have a turnbuckle type adjuster part way down thelr length. Check the lay of the cable assembly. This will give a pull output a t the other end to operate a brake lever on the brake control valve. Align the cable so that the nipple will pass into the fitting hole and the cable will pass through the cable slot (cable rotated to 90" to its normal position). Adjust the stops a t the input end and the component end to give the correct range of movement (check the AMM). Ensure all adjusters are in safety and correctly locked. It is usual to adjust the stops at the input end so that they control the range of movement .but check the AMM. When the brake lever is pulled it will pivot and pull on the Rowden corltrol cable. The nipple is firmly located in its recess in the brake handle and the conduit is firmly located in the adjustable end fitting.

The LEVER nipple is then rotated t o the vertical through a vertical slot t o lay as shown. 45 CROSS SECTION OF FLEXBALL SYSTEM .the tail rotor control system of the Eurocopter EC135 were it is used to transmit the control inputs from the pilot's yaw pedals to the yaw actuator a t the tail rotor. The balls are spaced a t intervals a n d located within a stainless steel cage (can be YTFE). The end fitting is adjusted t o remove all slack from the cable. The centre rail slides back a n d forth between the balls to transmit both tensile and compressive loads. The system is made u p of two outer stainless steel rails a n d stainless steel balls located either side of a stainless steel centre rail. With plenty o f slack in the cable the nipple is fed into the hole in the lever with the cable PARKING passing through the slot. ADJUSTABLE END METAL END C:AP PARKING BRAKE LEVER CATCH CONTROL COLUMN Fig. Example . 44 BOWDEN CABLE CONNECTION TO PARKING BRAKE LEVER FLEXRALL CONTROLS A flexible control system fitted to some aircraft to provide control to take light tensile a n d compressive loads. PROTECTIVE OUTER RAIL Fig.

long a n d 5 different sizes.tached to the centre rail whilst the outer case is attached to the non-moving part of the component. 46 FLESBALL SYSTEM 'I'he assembly is housed in a semi flexible steel casing weather proofed by an outer PVC protective cover.81~1) Moving end fittings are directly at. Lengths supplied up to 6Sft (19. - / PVC COVER Fig. .

Revision Questions 1. Oxide on exposed silver plated wires is a) non corrosive b) an insulator c) a conductor 6. A clevis bolt in a control cable fork end would be loaded in a) tension b) both tension and shear c) shear 7. 'The doubler used to support a scarfed patch plywood repair should be made from plywood of a minimum a) 318 inch thick b) 114 inch thick c) 118 inch thick 5. Fabric seams a r e preferable a) spanwise to the line of flight b) parallel to the line of flight c) oblique to the line of flight 3. Exhaust systenrs a r e usually made from stainless steel which is susceptible to a) filiform corrosion b) intergranular corrosion C) surface corrosion 2. To check the interior of tubular members for corrosion attack a) dye penetrant testing should be used b) ultra sonic testing is necessary c) any form of test is acceptable 8. Drive planes on an epicyclic gear a r e a) at different angles to the plane b) at right angles to the plane c) around a common axis of the plane 4. Nickel coated cables temperature range is a) 150 to 200°C b) 100 to 150°C c) 200 to 250°C .

9. Monel metal consists of approximately a) 66% Nickel and 33% Copper b) 66% Copper and 33% Nickel c) 66% Chroiniun~and 33% Copper 1 I.S c) failure due to impact 15. if joined to another metal a) always be at the top of the table b) allow the less noblc metal to corrode first c) corrode before the less noblc metal 17. the most noble metal mill. In the galvanic series. Phosphating of steels is carried out by immersing the steel in ta a solution of a) nitric acid and sulphur b) phosphoric acid and metal phosphates c) metal phosphates and sulphuric acid 10. 'Turnbuckles a r e correctly fitted when a) both rods are seen to touch in the ~nspectionhole b) both rods enter the barrel by the same amount c) the inspection hole is blind or the required number of threads are showing 13. The British system of heat treatment codes is a) a series of numbers b) numbers and letters c) a series if letters . Fabrics may be fitted to airframe structures by a) wood nails b) always riveting c) tying on with string 16. Exfoliation corrosion is sometimes referred to as a) sub-surface corrosion b) filifonn corrosion c) layer corrosion 12.T. Fatigue failure may be defined as a) reduction in strength due to alternating loads b) failure caused by stress in excess of the material U. 'The length and time that a catalyzed resin will remain in a workable state i s called the a) service life b) shelf life c) pot life 14.

Bubbles are removed from a wet composite lay-up by a) application of pressure b) application of vacuum c) use of a roller 25. head diameter and type of material c) manufacturer and type of material 24. A non-electrolytic chemical treatment for aluminium alloys to increase corrosiorr resistance and paint bonding qualities is called a) alodizing b) anodizing c) dichromating 20. type of head and length of the fastener b) body type. Composite inspections by means of acoustic emissions monitoring a) pick up the 'noise' of corrosion or other deterioration taking place b) analyse ultrasonic signals transmitted into the parts being inspected c) create sonogram pictures af the areas being inspected 23. to apply pressure a) a vacuum bag is used b) weights are used c) clamps are used 1 9 . A splayed patch repair may be used on plywood damage which does not exceed a) 15 times the skin thickness b) 20 times the skin thickness c) 10 times the skin thickness 26. \Vhat is an advantage of a double flare on aluminium tubing? a) Ease of construction b) It is less resistant to the shearing effect of torque c) It is more resistant to the shearing effect of torque 21. In an autoclave.I$. The markings on the head of a Dzus fastener identify the a) body diameter. In an airtoclave what pressure would the vacuum alarm be set at? a) Operating pressure b) Lower than operating pressure c) Higher than operating pressure . A washer having both twisted teeth and spring actions is a) AN936 shake-proof lock washer b) AN935 split-ring lock washer c) AN970 large-area flat washer 22.

Cast iron is a) heavy and brittle b) very malleable c) tough 34. Arrstenitic stainless steels are a) magnet~c b) non-magnetic c) hardened by heat treatment 28. Which of these materials is the most cathodic? 3) Zinc b) 2024 aluminium alloy C) Stainless steel 30. annealed. 2024. 14H c) 1 100. If a material is found to be in the tertiary phase of creep the following procedure should be implemented: a) The crack should be stop drill.27. What type of material would hydraulic pipes on an undercarriage leg o r bay be n ~ a d efrom? a) 7075. What is used for marking out steels? a) Copper sulphate b) Engineers blue c) Wax crayon . H14 b) Stainless steel. in half hard state 3 1. Direct removal connector pins are fitted from the rear a) and removed from the rear R) are fitted from the front but removed from the rear c) and removed from the front 32. condition monitoring should be applied b) The component should under go dye penetrant process and condition monitored C) The component should be replaced immediately 33. Adapter nipples a r e not required on 3) pipe to internally coned adapter b) pipe to extenlally coned adapter c) pipe to pipe coupling 29.

Elow is the diameter of a cable measured? a) Diameter of one wire only b) Overall diameter c) Diameter of one wire lnultiplied by the number of wires . Tempering of hardened steel is carried out to a) retain core hardness. What type of test involves using a weighted pendulum to strike a material until fracture? a) Fatigue Testing b) Impact Resistance Test c) Hardness Test 37. spring washer. Which can be re-used'? a) Shake proof washer. locking plate b) Tab washer. but soften the surface b) significantly reduce the brittleness without suffering a major drop in its strength C) retain surface hardness. The dope applied to an aircraft's fabric covering causes shrinkage a) on the first coat only b) on all coats c) on the last coat only 38. circlip. locking plate c) Locking plate. Cobalt steel tested on the Brinell test would have a BHN number between a) 300 to 400 b) l 0 0 t o 175 c) 600 to 700 36. c) halved 40. Cable current ratings a r e based on a conductor temperature rise of 40°C and if the milximum design ambient temperature is continuously exceeded they should be a) divide by the 'M'factor b) ~nultipliedby the 'K' factor. circlip. spring washer 39. but soften the core 41. The pitch of a screw thread is a) 2 x crest to root b) crest to root c) crest to crest 42.35.

Fabric to be hand sewn must be doubled under a t the edge to a minimum distance of a) 3/8 inch b) 112 inch c) 114 inch 48. Flexible hose used in aircraft systems is classified in size according to the a) inside diameter b) outside diameter c) wall thickness 49. The normal moisture content in the wood of a wooden aircraft structure is a) 20-30% b) 10-12% c) 0-2% 50. rather than being torqued 45.3. requires a) high temperature b) low temperature c) room temperature . Adhesives containing phenol-formaldehyde. What two components of a three part polyester resin a r e dangerous to mix together directly? a) Accelerator and free catalyst b) Accelerator and resin c) Catalyst and resin 46. to cure. Titanium can be identified by placing it on a grinding wheel and looking for a) White Sparks b) Red Sparks C) Yellow Sparks 44. When using a spring washer. MS flareless fittings are norrnally tightened by turning the nut a specified amount after the sleeve and fitting sealing surface have ~ n a d econtact. Which statement about Military Standard QMS) flareless fittings is correct? a) MS flareless fittings should not be lubricated prior to assembly b) MS flareless fittings must be tightened to a specific torque c) During installatiorn. the plain washer would be fitted a) between spring and part b) between head and spring c) under the nut 47.4.

What is the purpose of the guard. What is meant by the term Pitch Ratio? a) The distance between the hole and the edge of the material b) 'The area of contact between the two sheets of metal when joining by rivet\ c) The distance between two holes 52. providing the fabric is the same strength as the original c) prohibited 53. Shrinkage of wood is a) negligible in the longitudinal direction b) greatest in the longitudinal direction c) negligible in the radial direction 57. Re-treatment of aluminium alloys can be performed by a) selenious acid treatment b) alocrom treatment c) brushing on phosphate treatment followed by paint 58.002 inch axial movement 54.51. Fork cnd fittings on control rod ends should have a) anti vibration compound b) bolt heads fitted upwards c) 0. where a control chain goes around a sprocket? a) Stops the chain coming off if it goes slack b) Protects personnel when carrying out maintenance c) Prevents entry of foreign bodies 55. A worm drive creates a) a drive in 2 planes but transmits I direction only b) a drive in 1 plane but transmits both directions c) a drive in 2 planes and transmits both directions . Kccovering o r repairing of an aircraft with a fabric other than the original fabric type is a) a major modification and requires approval b) a minor modification. will cause the curing time to a) remain unchanged b) decrease c) increase 56. The effect of a lower temperature than ambient during the curing period of a resin.

What amperage is an 18 swg cable'? a> 10 amp b) 1 amp c) 5 amp 64. Aircraft fabric lacing cord is reinforced with a) wax b) epoxy c) lanolin 63. Rivnuts were originally used for a) securing structural parts b) securing rubber de-icing boots c) securing cabin floorings 62. An alumiriiunl alloy L37 rivet identification is a) e~nbossed b) D embossed C) 0 embossed 65. sharp internal corners and inaccessible places should he avoided to reduce a) crevice corrosion b) fretting corrosion c) lil~formcorrosion 60. The main reason why crimped joints are preferable to soldered joints is a) no flux is needed b) the quality of crinlped joints wrll be constant c) there is no heat required . The vacuum connections on a fibreglass repair must be placed onto the a) peel P ~ Y b) top layer of glass fabric directly c) breather mat 66.59-During construction. Colour identification o f an aluminium rivet is a) black b) violet c) green 6 1. An alliminium oxide layer on a conductor will do what when the temperature is increased? a) Become thicker b) Remain the same c) Become thinner 67.

a firemall? a) Ceramic fibres b) CarbonJgraphite fibres c) Aramid (Kevlar) fibres . A co-axial cable is better than a normal cable because a) it has less resistance b) weight for weight it can carry more signal c) there is an electrostatic field around it which helps to reduce the electromagnetic field 74. 'The critical process of heat treatment is a) method of heating only b) temperature.68. e. In a sheet metal store the following is marked on a sheet of aluminium alloy: The following is true: a) Sheet one has a shinier surface than sheet 2 b) Sheet two is of a thicker gauge than sheet 1 c) Sheet one is more ductile than sheet 2 69. What material would be used where a high temperature application is required. /\ press fit requires a) some sort of driving force b) the shaft to be shrunk by cooling c) the hole to be expanded by heat 71. The oxide film on the surface of aluminium is a) nonporous b) hard and porous c) porous 72. 'The teeth of a gear would normally be a) tempered b) nitrided c) case hardened 73. Aircraft sheet plywood skins a r e a) covered in fabric b) sealed and doped c) sealed and varnished or painted 75. method of heating and cooling c) temperature and method of heating only 78.g.

length and strength b) length. What action should be taken on finding intergrannular corrosion? a) Replace complete component part b) De-corrode and reprotect c) Renew corroded area by patching . strength and squareness 80.70. you use a) synthetic resin adhesives b) inorganic resin adhesives c) organic resin adhesives 78. What metal is suitable for riveting alloy steel? a) Monel metal b) Mild steel c) Aluminium alloy 83. A spring should be inspected for correct a) width. powdery deposit formed on the surface of the metal b) cannot always be detected by surface indications c) are not likely to occur in parts fabricated from heat-treated sheet aluminium 79. Recovering o r repairing of an aircraft with a fabric other than the original fabric type is a) a major modification and requires approval h) a minor modification. When using a hot bonder to effect a composite repair. providing the fabric is the same strength as the original c) prohibited 81. Heavy corrosion deposits on clad aluminium alloys should be removed a) chemically by use of trichloroethylene b) mechanically using a pneumatic vibrator C) chemically by use of phosphoric acid 77. lntergrannular corrosion in structural alunlinium alloy parts a) may be detected by the white. An AN steel bolt is identified by what marking on the head? a) 14E b) An 'x' c) A dash 82. strength and squareness c) width.

096 plus 1. A self aligning bearing is a a) angular bearing b) precision bearing c) radial bearing .064 plus ID b) 0. Evcept where specified by the manufacturer. 'rhe strength classification of fabric used in aircraft covering is based upon a) tensile strength b) shear strength c) bearing strength 85. if a good seal has been accorilplished a) the dye mark will rub off b) the dye mark has no importance c) the dye mark will not rub off 90.064 is to be joined together the rivet should be a) 0. a wooden spar may be spliced a) at no point b) at any point except under the wing attachment fittings c) at any point 89.84. In the anodic film inspection and sealing test. and the sealant allowed to dry before fitting the bolt c) left unsealed and unvarnished inside the hole 86.032 plus 2D c) 0.032 and 0. Which of these is a common cause of corrosion? a) Spilled battery acid b) Water in h e 1 C) Untreated metal 87. Bolt holes through wooden structures should be a) sealed with varnish and wet-assembled with the bolt before the varnish has dried b) sealed.5 D 91. If a sheet of aluminium alloy of 0. What is Alumina? a) An alloy of aluminium b) Aluminium ore c) A ceramic oxide of aluminium 88.

a heated bending former must be heated to a temperature of a) 100°C b) 150°C c) 300°C 99.5 x working pressure c) Pressure test 1. minimum space between rivets is the a) thickness of the material being riveted b) diameter of the rivets being used c) length of the rivets being used 97. A factor which determines the.0 x working pressure 93. How would you test a hydraulic hose? a) Pressure test 2.92. To assist the bending of plywood. A material's yield strength is the ability to a) resist deformation b) withstand a crushing fbrce c) resist side loads 95. what material are you removing? a) Aluminium b) Alloy c) Oxide layer 04. Corrosion may be regarded as the destruction of metal by a) hydroelectric action b) electromechanical action c) electrochemical action . Cable stops a r e manufactured from a) magnesium alloy b) stainless steel c) copper 98. When buffing surface of Alun~iniumAlloy. Aircraft fabric covering is made from a) polyester b) silk c) nylon 96.0 x working pressure b) Pressure test I .

l'he stecpest slope permitted on the scarf of a scarfed plywood repair is a) 1 in4 b) I in 12 c) 1 in 20 101. \i pre-load indicating washer is correctly loaded when a) the inner ring is gripped b) the outer ring is gripped c) the inner ring rotates . The system can operate in two directions 106. which is most cathodic? a) Magnesium b) Nickel c) Stainless steel 107. the Teleflex cable consists of a) multi strand steel wires and is used primarily as a single one way device operated from a control lever b) a flexible seven or nineteen strand steel cable used for the operation of manual flying controls c) a high tensile steel wire with a right or left hand helix wire wound on to it. In a Telefles flexible control system. % \ h'at load a r e spring hooks subjected to? a) Compressive b) Bending c) Tension 105. From the following list of metals.100. Spherical roller bearings resist what loads? a) Large radial but no thrust b) Large thrust and moderate radial c) Large radial and moderate thrust 102. 'l'he pin section of an AN/MS connector is normally installed on a) either side of a circuit (makes no difference) b) the ground side of the circuit c) the power supply side of the circuit 103. Where would you find the inspection interval for chains? a) Overhaul manual b) Maintenance manual c) Maintenance schedule 104.

Which of the following is the definition of cure time? a) The time taken for the mixed compound to reach a final rubbery state b) The time required for the mixed compound to reach an initial rubbery state c) The period after which the surface of the compound no longer exhibits adhesive properties 1 12. Pure aluminium is a) highly resistant to corrosion b) reasonably resistant to corrosion C) not resistant to corrosion 113. Galvanic corrosiorl is most likely to be most rapid and severe when a) the surface area of the anodic metal is smaller than the surface area of the cathodic material b) the surface area of the cathodic metal and the anodic material are approxi~natelythe same c) the surface area of the cathodic metal is smaller than the surface area of the anodic material 1 I I. What is stress corrosion'? a) Corrosion in an area under cycIic loading b) Corrosion due to fretting c) Corrosion in an area under continuous loading . Plug pins are numbered a) from the outside in clockwise - b) from the inside out clockwise - c) from the inside out .108.anticlockwise I 10. A faint line running across the grain of a wood spar generally indicates a) compression failure b) shear failure c) decay 114" Which methods can be used to inspect fibreglasslhoneycomb structures for cn trapped water? a) Xray and back-lighting b) Acoustic cn~issionand Xray c) Acoustic emission and back-lighting 115. What a r e the signs of fretting corrosion on steel? a) Dark staining around area b) Surface cracking as corrosion breaks through to surface of component c) Rust on surface 109.

A crankshaft would be fitted with a a) spherical roller bearing b) cylindrical roller bearing c) taper roller bearing 123.i 16. " on a n electrical cable indicates a) control system b) emergency power c) AC power 121. Which of the following is a temporary protective measure? a) Sacrificial protection b) Chromating c) Paint finish 124. \i splayed patch repair may be used on plywood damage which does not exceed a) 10 times the skin thickness b) 20 times the skin thickness c) 15 times the skin thickness 119. Identification of British aluminium alloy rivets is with a) a colour and number stamped on the head b) a part number on the head C) a letter and number code 1IT. An S-N c u w e is useful in the design evaluation process for testing a) shear force b) tension c) fatigue life 122. corrosion occurs because a) the strip has become anodic b) it is affected by spatter c) the paint has been removed . A wire thread insert tap is a) supplied in a fitting kit b) slightly larger than the hole c) slightly smaller than the hole 118. Jointing compound is used for what reason'? a) To bond the components together b) To prevent dissimilar metal corrosion c) To make the components easier to disassemble 120. When a steel part is welded.

A material containing approximately 66% nickel and 33% copper is known as a) Invar b) Nimonic c) Monel metal 131. cool in air to anneal. \. cool in air to anneal. cool in air to normalize c) both are heated above the UCT. 'The general rule for finding the proper rivet diameter is a) two times the rivet length b) three times the thickness of the rnaterial to be joined c) three times the thickness of the thickest sheet 130. cool slowly to normalize b) both are heated above the UC'T.Vhat does the 0 in 2024-'r3 mean? a) The percentage of impurities In the alloy b) The alloy has been nlodified c) 'I'he alloy has not been inodified 127. What type loads cause the most rivet failures? a) Head b) Shear c) Bearing 126. The impact testing technique is used on a material to test for a) toughness b) hardness c) shear strain 132. Which of the following is true'? a) Materials with large grain size are more prone to creep b) Small grain size is normally attributed to rapid cooling rates and will give less tensile strength c) Large grain size is attributed to slow cooling rates and will give less tensile strength 129.125. cool slowly to anneal. cool slowly to normali~e .14 thermosetting adhesive a) can be re-formed when hot b) undergoes a chemical transformation and creates an insoluble substance c) will be resistant to heat 128. Grain size will effect the mechanical properties of metal. The difference between annealing and normalizing is a) both are heated below the LJC'I'.

('orrosion will spread more rapidly when metals are exposed to a) high temperatures b) dry climates c) cold climates 134. R.133.laximum temperature of tin coated copper cable is a) 260°C b) 105°C c) 200°C 136. ?'he Alocrom 1200 process was designed to treat a) surfaces too large for dip treatment b) chromium plating c) small surfaces 140. 'J'he maximum permissible grain deviation in wood is a) 1 :20 b) 1:15 c) 1:8 . What is the indication of fretting corrosion on aluminium alloy? a) Black powder b) Brown powder c) White powder 137. What action is taken to protect integral tanks from corrosion due tu micro- biological growth? a) A biocidal additive is used in the fuel b) Rubber liners are installed in the tank c) The inside of the tank is coated with yellow chromate 135. Hand sewn stitch must be locked a t a minimum of a) the end of the stitch only b) 20 stitch intervals c) 10 stitch intervals 138. even when it is heated to a dull red colour a) Tungsten b) Vanadium c) Nickel 139. Iligh speed steel relies heavily on the following metallic element for its ability lo cut other metals.