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The Art of can Drawing People Demet Cy techniques for CUT RCs al SE UT Cec CONTENTS Inrrapuerion to Daawine Peorut Tools & Materials 8 The ements of Drawing, 10 Basie Pencil Techniques. nu Other Ways ta Shade R Learning o See ry Poople in Perspe cive 18 Placing People in a Composition 1s Adding Complete Figures 20 Beginning Pomraiture 2 Anatomy with Ken GoLDMan Exploring the Taso: From View 26 Exploring the Tarse: Back View a Exploring the Tarso: Side View 28 Exploring the Torso: Tips 2» Depicting the Arn: Front View 30 Depicting the Arm: Back View a Depleting the Arm: Side View 2 Portraying the Hand 2 Sketching the Leg: Front View a4 Sketching the Leg. Back Wiew 35 Sketching the Ley: Side View 36 Drawing the Foot y Studying the Head & Skull 38 Capmuning Facal Features a Faces wit WALTER, FOSTER People ‘Women: Profile Women: Three-Quamer View ‘Women: Frontal View Men: Three-Quarter Wiew EMerly Women Blderly Men Pegple of the World Developing Your Own Style Male Faces: PEOPLE wir WILUAM F. POWELL. ‘Adult Head Proportions Head Positions & Angles Facial Features: Eyes Fackal Features: Noses & Ears. Facial Features: Lips Factal Features: The Smile The Pralile The Three Quarter View hihi Head Proporsions Sports Figures in Aetion Children in Action Developing Portrait Focusing on Foreshortentng, Applying Your Skills Mature Faces % Adult Body Proportions % Child Body Proportions y The Body = Hands & Feet al Clothing Folds ap Foreshon ening, 2 Movement & Bakince 4 Bending & Twisting Figures % 36 ar = % o PEOPLE Witt DEBRA KAUFFMAN YAU Understanding Facial Anatomy Leaming the Planes ofthe Face ‘Adult Facial Proportions Exploring Other Views Depiaing Adult Features Capuuringa Likeness loz Life Drawing (Portrait) 103 Approaching a Profile Wiew lot Working with Lighting, 106 Induding a Background lor Developing Hae los Depicting Age Lo (Creating Fasial Hair uu Children’s Facial Proportions 1D Portraying Chiklven’s Features Lut Drawing Buby Lie Choosing a Photo Reference us Indicating Fur Feauures Lo [Replicating Dark Skin Tones Be Understanding Body Anatomy be Adult Body Propartions Ls Hands. D6 Feet Lr Showing Mavement be Foreshon ening. Le Undersanding Lighting, Lo Life Drawing (Full Body) br Bridal Portrait Lt Children’s Body Proportions 6 Children in Action ur Choosing a Pose be INTRODUCTION TO DRAWING PEOPLE TOOLS & MATERIALS Dirt tt ont fan. also fan important for in sell. Even when you write or print your name, you are actually drawing? if you organize the lines you can make shapes, fund when you eimy that a bi further andadd dark and light shuding, your drawings begin to take on a three imensional form and look more realistic One of the great things about drawing & that you can do it anywhere, and the mat very inexpensive. You do get what you pay for, though, #0 pur chase the best you ean afford at the time, and upgrade your supplies whenever possible, Although anything that will mske a mark can be wed for some type of drawing, youll want to make certain your magnificent effons will last and not {ade over time. Here are some material that will gt you olf 10 2 good start ‘Sketch Pads con enervbouns eens. an ina gs bookla hess ayy cuca Uranpaperseaure ten eal ne ‘Soateotien nan ea choice Drawing ‘mre gr pat and otpesedl medi rah (eaigpenaa, snare smooth oe maha se pronuna anyouean Work st ie Bayou ety wakes hat has gaatghinganencgh tala Ofer anetteroomah ah ae ya dnoutor tr hing. when ugg, yu co esa htt a3 cw Ra recom yheso 93: jeuhtnedeh warm (elo) ana (ue ah Tortitons. rmesepapr ‘eunpe cn beuseeto oa adothanatheyre Arta’ Erasers rat wages nd pes ily Kodves uainy tres eecales"cate tine) weigeat ta tea catgarrnng (rethetoncn pa ay imacanges out sturpasscapela Gamuening tHe Basics. You dant need 3 lot of supplies stare, you can begin enjoying drawing with just a #2 oran HB pencil a sharpener, vinyl eraser, and any piece of paper. You always em add more pencils, charcoal, torillons. and such later. When shopping for penells, natice that they are labeled with ltters and nunibers; these ind cate the degree of lead softness. Pencils with B leads ave softer than those with H leads and so they make darker strokes, An HE 's tn between, which makes very vewatle and a good beginner’ tool. The chart at right shows a variety of drawing tools and the ‘kinds of strokes that are achieved with each one. As you expand your pencil supply, practive shaping different points and creating different eflects with excl by varyingthe pressure you pur an the pencil. The more comfonableyou are with your tools, the bette Yyour drawings will be! ‘AooING OW Unless you alwady have a drawing table. you may want 19 pur chase a drawing board It doesn't have to be expensive; just get tne hirge enough to accommodate individual sheets of drawing puper. Consider getting one with acurour handle, especially i You want todmw outdoors, so you easily can carry It with you. Spray He lee Sate a dei gand pecs Mom aang Same atte ald dig fete on pend vung Bacatse Rte deeper thet su dg ane Spoyearsare morecavwnrt, atin ha er pay an mare ven overage va, ‘ound poids Hh a shay pinyresces pss ters sd coma WH uns pon t mabeghy sib —— — alg SF ——— (Charcoal gesture sot sat makes ark ‘hace! elsterlendngan igheringareasi heir nig Conk Crayon Penland crayon laradtron very anpunesies nutnouiteaas satste inawiseraigeat SHARPENING YOUR DRAWING IMPLEMENTS Aut Kae ex tus i tomer (chee bun aria nana posah the "ry pasta pn Hasek ath le foie ena su anda yest aaa nya, ‘aku otftya ele wodanagrpice se fez ASandpaper wins wit such hone he leat is ang stape jaune alle soin sameatne od tre fer theo he aper.te exert lle the eating pt. al hap yeu gers when sharpenhatokag the tape eve RauphPaper snarl ta maatingthe pant mata parngltubhssnepipr Thats ea sre rym ese vey he pont ora na ‘Agar iporareo gary ot he per hari mstargen the tnd evn THE ELEMENTS OF DRAWING rowing consists of three fine. The three imensional version of the shape is known a6 the objects “form, ments ling, shape, and fon, The shape of an object can be described with simple ene-alimenstonal In pencil d muving, variations in wilue «the relax tive lightness or darkness of bitch or color) describe form, giving an object the illusion of depth. In pencil drawing, values range from black (the darkest value) shrough eliferent slades of gray to Wlte (the lightest value). Ta makea two-dimensional abject appear ie values of the three-dimensional,you must pay attention tod ighlighis and shadows. W! shading a subject, you m st alwayscon- sider the light souree, as this is what determines where your highlights and shadows will be Moving rRom Suave ro FORM The fra step in creating an abject isectablishing a line drawing or outline to delineate the fh area that the object tahes up. This is known asthe “shape” of the abjpet. The four basie shapes— the rectangle, eltele, triangle, and square—can appear 10 be three-dimensional by adding 4 few carefully placed lines that suggest additional planes. By adding ellipses 10 the rectangle, le.and trlangle, youve given the shapes dimension and have begun to produce 4 form within space. Now the shapes are a cylinder, sphete, and sone, Adda second square above and 10 the side of the first square, connect them with parallel lines, and youhave a cube, aang ont eytiakr see ‘ADDING VALUE To CREATE FORM. ‘A shape can be further defined by showing how light hits the object to create highlights and shadows. Fist note from which tection the source of light is coming, (In these examples, the light soumee is beaming from the upper right) Then add the shadows accordingly, & shown in the examples below. The core shadow # the darkest ares on the object and & opposite the light source, The cast shadaw is what is thrown omo a nearby surface by the object. The highlight isthe lightest area on the object, where therellectian of light is strongest. Reflected! light ten overlooked by beginners, issureounding light refleced Into the shadowed area of an abject ‘ue shine stone we shane made she CREATING VALUE SCALES Just as amusician uses amusicl saletomesnare range cf notes, an ast uses avale scale to mess sure changes vale. Youcan refer tothe maue scale sa youlatmay kno how dark toma be yout dae vases and ow Bphtta make your nights. The Scale also sees as a pude for tasting rom (pert darer shades. Mating yout own vase sale al hela fartirize ouwith thee ferent varision Invalue Wark ramlight dark, adding move ard more one forsuccessively drier values (st shown ‘stugperrptih Thenarestes blended value scale (ahownat lower rig. Ue orton 12 smudge and bleed each wae i nephboring vale fom Eph din a cose a pacha BASIC PENCIL TECHNIQUES ou can create an incredible variety of effects with a pencil. By using various hand positions and shading techniques, you can pro- duce a world of different lines and strokes, If you vary the way you hold the pencil, the mark the pencil makes changes. It’s just as important to notice your pencil point. The point is every bit as essential as the type of lead in the pencil. Experiment with different hand positions and techniques to see what your pencil can do! GRIPPING THE PENCIL Many artists use two main hand positions for drawing, The writing position is good for very detailed work that requires fine hand con- trol, The underhand position allows for a freer stroke with more arm movement—the motion is almost like painting. (See the captions below for more information on using both hand positions.) Using the Writing Position This familiar position provides the most control. The accu- Using the Underhand Position Pick up the pencil with y ourhand over it, holding the rate, precise lines that result are perfect for rendering fine details and accents. When your _penci between the thumb and index finger: the remaining fingers can rest alongside the hand isin this position, place a clean sheet of paper under your handto preventsmudging. pencil. You can create beautiful shading effects from this position, PRACTICING BASIC TECHNIQUES By studying the basic pencil techniques below, you can learn to render everything from a smooth complexion and straight hair to shadowed features and simple backgrounds. Whatever techniques you use, though, remember to shade evenly, Shading in a mechani- cal, side-to-side direction, with each stroke ending below the last, can create unwanted bands of tone throughout the shaded area. Instead try shading evenly, in a back-and-forth motion over the same area, varying the spot where the pencil point changes direction. Hatching This basic method of shading involves filling Crosshatching For darker shading, place layersofpara- Gradating To create graduated values (from dark to an area with a series of parallel strokes. The closerthe lel strokes.on top of one another at varying angles. Again, light), apply heavy pressure with the side of your pencil, strokes, the darker the tone will be. make darker values by placing the strokes closertogether. gradually lightening the pressure as you stroke. Shading Darkly By applying heavy pressure tothe pen- Shading with Texture Fora mottled texture, use the Blending To smooth out the transitions between strokes, cil, you can create dark, linear areas of shading, side of the pencil ti to apply small, uneven strokes. gently rub the lines with atortillon or tissue. 42 OTHER WAYS TO SHADE PRACTICING LINES When drawing lines, it is not necessary to always use a sharp point. In fact, sometimes a blunt point may create a more desir- able effect. When using larger lead diameters, the effect of a blunt point is even more evident. Play around with your pencils to familiarize yourself with the different types of lines they can create, Make every kind of stroke you can think of, using both a sharp point and a blunt point. Practice the strokes below to help you loosen up. As you experiment, you will find that some of your doadles will bring to mind certain imagery or textures. For example, little Vs can be reminiscent of birds flying, whereas wavy lines can indicate water. ’ Hi) = eee oo Zz (Wye et = e ay ee ae oe winil yd et (anit Drawing with a Sharp Point First draw aseries of parallel lines. Try them vertically: then angle them. Make some of them curved, trying both short and tong strokes. Then try some wavy lines at an angle and some with short, vertical strokes. Try making a spiral and then grouping short, curved lines to gether. Then practice varying the weight of the line as you draw. Os, Vs, and Us are some of the most common alphabet shapes used in drawing. Drawing with a Blunt Point itis good totake the same exercises and try them with a blunt point. Even if you use the same hand positions and strokes, the results wil be differ ent when you switch pencis. Take alook at these examples. The same shapes were drawn with both pencils, but the blunt pencil produced different images. You can create a blunt pointby rubbingthe tip of the pencil on # sandpaper block or on a rough piece of paper. “PAINTING” WITH PENCIL When you use painterly strokes, your drawing will take on a new dimension. Think of your pencil as a brush and allow yourself to put more of your arm into the stroke. To create this effect, try using the underhand position, holding your pencil between your thumb and forefinger and using the side of the pencil. (See page 11.) If you rotate the pencil in your hand every few strokes, you will not have to sharpen it as frequently. The larger the lead, the wider the stroke will be. The softer the lead, the more painterly an effect you will have. These examples were all made on smooth paper with a 6B pencil, but you can experiment with rough papers for more broken effects Starting Simply First experiment with vertical, horizontal, and curved strokes, Keep the strokes close together and begin with heavy pressure, Then lighten the pressure with each stroke. Varying the Pressure Randomly cover the area with tone, varying: the pressure at different points. Continue tokeep your strokes loose. Using Smaller Strokes ‘Make small circles for the first example. This is remi- riscent of leathery animal skin. Forthe second ‘example (at far right), use short, alternating strokes of heavy and fight pressure to create a patter that is similar to stone or brick. Loosening Up Use long verticalstrokes, varying the pressure foreach stroke until you startto see long grass (at right). Then use somevrhat looser movements that could be used forwater (at far right), First create short spiral movements with your arm (above). Then use a wavy movement, varying the pressure (below). Finpine Yous Srrte Many great arisis af the past can now be identified by their unig ue experiments with line. Van Gogh's drawings were a fea of calligraphic lines: Sewrat became synonymous with pointillism and Glacometti was famous for his seribble. Can you find your dency in a pencil stroke? Using hsaroseed ‘Steokes yon ur er yo ‘et canmal eae. ales squat aap laatgug me sence ‘Sate hing Circular Serbbbesthyou wr wenn, ose rch ‘asiging?—mnyenat sadig ete Seppo {aime ages eal ofp strokes Yeucan re srskesty ug sare rec ine Womans with Drrenent Tecwniques Below are several examples of tecig ues that can be done with penal. These techniques are important fer cteating mote pult erly effects in your drawing, Remember that B pencils have soft lead and H pencils have hard lead—you will need to use bath for these exercises. matin gereshes fe: saute pera purl reas wares rl win vane fabing Fie pone sneer manne 4 ‘yarpocitwit cp ne aan anrepicre on fe pe ys aretha lfc wth ssamfeuzer ste git ting Out sone st Sotemcmse ihe: ‘anne tannin Fredacing inéent res baw spam ‘om we rang ote Scudging isn impo rat technique for cresting sacs Sedgeadionts lve a rtllon ‘rdtanaiaclath to blend your ‘trates is importanttonctuse Jour Enger, because yournand, Tecndlchn, eatral s ‘iatean damage your SMUDGING ‘Soudging on Smoath Surfaces ust 24 pent ov LEARNING TO SEE Dress i toutes ooking cel he Subject; instead of drawing what they actually see. they draw what they think they se, Try drawing someshing you know well, such as your hand, without looking at it. Chances are your finished drawing won' look as realistic you expected. That's because you drew what you think your band Jools like. Instead, you need te forget about all your preconce tions and learn 10, draw only what you really see in fran of you (or in a photo). Two great exerces for watning your eye to see are contour drawing and gesture drawing, sessing oveyout ne. Ree score apes sue, Pencune re Contours In contour drawing, you pick a starting point on your subject and then draw only the eontours—or outlines —ol the shapes yausee, Because youre not leaking at your paper, you're training your hand wo draw the lines exactly as your eye sees them. Try doing some conaur drawings of yaur own; youTl be surprised at ‘how well youre able to capture the subjects #0 x brandng “ating Fs pe conta crag on te ‘DrnuingChildren Ones yas averse yar jets chan arty on sug ye ela apne stone ach is ean ana rang ne Rab sationte tne taeten, of asubjea—and un your hand to tecord them raplly is through gesture drawing, Instead of rendering the contours, jbuilder” DRAWING GESTURE AND ACTION v “4 Starting with a0 Cae way ve canner yee ae at eel coe a sé oh Aion ine Oreo ‘sure dvaveings establish the movement a Ogure, Fest dete y a tune the mal thrust of the evens om the xd dow the Mt is \ spine, and thteugh the legs: this the lke af action, of action \ \ this Ine. These quiek sketches are great far praaicing deawing ou et Serer figures in action and sharpening your powers of observation. WY, SYN, then staper atte au. -aWorking Quicy ro (raudng 4Group In Motion Oreyou hie comple aisot ges ara, yul sets embne em ine aan Heat pe natn. PEOPLE IN PERSPECTIVE nowing the principles of perspective (the representation of objects on a two-dimensional surface that creates the illusion of three- dimensional depth and distance) allows you to draw more than one person ina scene realistically, Eye level changes as your elevation of view changes. In perspective, eye level is indicated by the horizon line. Imaginary lines receding into space meet on the horizon line at what are known as “vanishing points.” Any figures drawn along these lines will be in proper perspective. Study the diagrams below to help you Vanishing point (VP) — Hosizon line Horizon line Note that objects appea” smaller and less detailed as they recede into the distance. ‘ry drawing 4 rota] view of muny heads as {they were in 4 inthe drawing, The technigue illustrated above can be applied ‘heater Stat by establishing your vanishing point a eye level when d awing entre figues, shown inthe diagram below Draw one lage head representing the person closest you. and Although all of these examples include just one vanishing point, use it asa reference for determining the sizes ofthe other figures a composition can even have wo or thece vanishing poles. youre a beginner, you may want to begin with basie one-point perspective, shown on this page. As you progress, attempt 10 incorporate two ar three point perspective. For mare in-deyal, information refer w the =~ book Perspective (ALI) in Wake Fosters Artists Uiaryens KR PLACING PEOPLE IN A COMPOSITION he positioning and size of a petson on the picture plane (the physical avea covered by the drawing) is af urmost importance to the campasitio, or the arrangements of elements on your paper. The openor “neg tive” space a oundthe portrait subject gener- lly should be larger than the area aecupied by the subject, proving a saet of personal spice surrounding them, Whe Iker you ate ddeuwing only the face, a head-and-shouldets portcalt, or acomplete figure, thougtaful positioning will establish 2 pleasing composition with proper balance. Practice diawing thumbnail skeiches of people o study the importance of size and positioning. Basics oF PoRMRAITURE CCovreet placement on the picture plane i key to a goad portrait, and the eyes of the subject are the hey to-placement. The eyes catch the viewer's attention first, so they should not be placed on either the horizontal or vertical centerline of the picture plane: preferably, the eyes should be placed abovets centerline, Avoid deawing tao near the sides, top, ot bottoms of the picture plane, as this gives an Uneasy feeling of imbalance ‘ADDING ELEMENTS tO PORTRAITS. Many poruits ate drawn without backgrounds 16 avoid dis tuaciing the viewer from the subject. If you do add background elements to portraits, be sure 10 control the sise, shape ata aartangement of elemen s surrounding the figure. Additions should express the personality or interests of the subject a ge Himuchel henge ine parr strighignes cane > 4 se} ‘A Placement of Prtralt the ide uminalsheeshow hesitshend dad tealarave de antes ov ine pene plne aggeaig satshe ngheestae a the rae tes fran orm tough raf The oa pespertne dxemie eves (se pages am] Or302vnsing pao ot nas ince thenop fee ans acco estrone Imertionally drawing your subject larger ‘han the image area, as inthe example below, can create a unique campestion ven if part af the image is eur aff, dhs bind of close-up creates a dramatic mood. oC y > eo You can create a flaw or connection Irewween mukiple subjects in @ com post ton by creatively using eiteles and ellipses, as shown below. Curved linesate good composition clemerss—ihey arn evoke harmony and ‘balance in your work. Try drawing some ‘curved lines around the paper. The em pay areas guideyou in placing figuresaround your deswing, ‘Shap angles can produce dramatic com: positions. Draw a few straight lines in various angles and make them intersect at certain points. Zigzagging lines ako form sharp comers that gine the compasition an energetic feeling. ADDING COMPLETE FIGURES reating a composition that shows a complete person can be challenging. A sand ing figure is much taller dhan it sw ide, so the fig- ure shoukl be positioned so that its action relates naturally w the eve level the viewera nd the horizon Line. To place more than one figure on thepiciure plane, use perspective as we did with the portals heads. Remember that people appeat smaller and less distinct, when they are more distant For comfortable plement of people in 2 compasition, they shoul be ou the same eye level asthe viewer with the horizon line about waist high, ure nacompesticn ‘Siang Mutipe Figures Focretsic eg Ail tetqurestereare in xo thetaghisteachtgwe- Star by gran athateon ine aneqaingavansing faint en henaramyeurrain chase lente ig herete wich at aha 7 Line of Sight rguecina compotion t fhe fisone cn ez one anor toobecemmhinnesceretircug nee! PLACEMENT OF SINGLE AND GROUPED FIGURES Antists often use the external shape and mass of figures to assist in placing elements within a composition divid ual figures form various geometric shapes based on their pose, and several figures in close proximity form one mass. Establish a concept of what you want to show in your composition, and make thumbnail studies before attempting the final drawing. The following exercise is based on using the shape and mass of single and grouped figures to create the drawing at the bottom of the page. Step One Beginby consideringthe overall setting —foreground, middle ground, and badkground—for a subject like these children at the beach. You can use elements from dif- ferent photos and place them in one setting. Block in the basic shapes of your subjects; the boy in the foreground is a clipped triangular shape, and the group of children forms a rough rectangle, Determine balanced placement of the two masses of people, ‘Step Two Next, sketch in outlines ofthe figures. The little boy with the shovel and pail occupies an ares close tothe viewer. The three children occupy a slightly smaller mass in the middle ground atthe water’s edge. Even though there are three children in this area, they balance the little boy through size and placement at the opposite comer. The wave and water line unite the composition and lead the eye between the tio masses. Step Three Piace your figures so that they fit comfortably onthe picture plane. Add detail and shading to elements that areimportant in the com- position. Use an element in the foreground to help direct the viewer'seye to other areas, such asthe outstretched arm of the boy. Placing the small rode between the middle: and foreground creates a visual stepping stone to the three chidren at right. BEGINNING PORTRAITURE ood starting point for draing people the head and face The shapes ate fay simple, ad the proportions areessy 5 to measure, And portraiture also is very eewand ing. You'll feel / agent sense of saisacton when you Took ata portait youve “tener prtn drawn and seea true Wheness of your subject, especially when | eens tee the model someone near and dent to you So why not star 4 with clildren? a lon ‘tine tra Vee Drawing A CiiLo"s PoRTRAIT = So Once youve graced dr ng lestinesyou'ezealy fr afl 4 porra YouTlpabably ware o drat fom a phowo, hgh ¢ children rarely i sll for very Tong! Suudy the feaures cally, and ery wo dray what you tly se, and not what you think an tye ora nose should bok Uke But don't be dlscouraged if you Aas conan dont get a perfect Iikeness right offthe ba. Just keep praaicing! Peo ea owiauiriaws werk rm gam ‘na wine pees fama “hougessavae™ yu eed ay he (estes Thephtogre t ora em cuca ms neta Cibemce mouasns Moen ramemaans, fared Oxaen ~~ a=eo we \ eer + oo (i — Grandin the tarchead neo \§ i mecca) | ? anos ; , i (Cheeks Too Round we ee \ ‘make them look (ke \/s Sooner | WES kd Saets Meomapane PLS vent sede , yar ioye ia askaiing emasevacrea soatees pect a fate ia Insets pect su tordypunhen ‘head andy year apps wah ene gay stun eee, ‘Sek crit at te shape: cont ny oa coh eo ep Drawine tHe Aout Heao Anaduls head has slighty different proportians thana child's head, but the drawing process s the same: Sketch in guidelines to place the features, and start with a skesch of hasie shapes. And dont forget the profile view. Adults with interesting featutes are a Tot of fun to draw from the side, where you can teally see the shupe of the brow, the outline of the nose, and the form of the bps. “andutt Proportions sj unquesroce te EXPRESSING EMOTION Irs great fun wo drawa wide range of dil cent facial expressions and emotions, espcally ‘ones that are extreme. Because these are just studiesand not formal por traits, draw loosely toad energy and a look of ia camera Bad ca paured the face at just that moment. You wsually don't need to bother with a backgiound—you don't want anything to detrace from the expression— ut you may want to draw the neck and shoulders so the head doesn't appent to be Boating In space. Mappy rourg ison ‘ary suri ws he snainake needy “aPortraying the | Prfite The rss 4 tinmateneces se Surpeised Lanett ‘he ofthepenct rhe ‘ese fr te mse! CHAPTER 2 ANATOMY WITH KEN GOLDMAN Ken Goldman is a popular instructor at the Athenaeum School of the Arts in La Jolla, California, where he teaches portraiture, artistic anatomy, and landscape painting classes. Ken also is the author of six Walter Foster books, including Pastel 1; Pastel: Landscapes; Acrylic 1; and Basic Anatomy and Figure Drawing in the How to Draw and Paint serie: s well as Charcoal Drawing in the Artist’s Library series and Understanding Values in the Drawing Made Easy series. Ken received his training in New York at the Art Students League of New York, National Academy, and New York Studio School. A recipient of numerous awards, Ken has exhibited widely in group shows and in more than 30 one-man shows in the United States, Mexico, and Europe. His artwork is featured in the permanent collections of several major museums. Ken lives in San Diego, California, with his artist-wife Stephanie Goldman. 25 EXPLORING THE TORSO: FRONT VIEW acromion process jugular noch sternum -xiphoid process thoracic arch 10th rib iliac eres vie girdle a anterior superior iia spine anterior inferior = iliae spine symphysis pubis Skeleton Some pats of the skeletal system ae important to the artist because they. are prominent and so serveas visual landmarks. Several bones of the torso’s frontal skeleton are obvious even beneath the skin, including the clavicles, acramion processes, ‘sternum, thoracic arch, xoth rib, anterior superiaritiac spines, and greattrochanters. The spinal column comprises 24 vertebrae, divided into 3 sections: The cervical (or neck) region has 7 vertebrae, the thoracic (or chest) region has 12, and the Jumbar (or lower back) region has 5. dlavicle stermomastotd trapesins ssid jugular notch process stern deltoid latissimus xiphoid dorsi process serratus anterior 10h rib linea alba iliac spine | inguinal ligament Diagram of Landmarks The observable muscles and bany landmarks labeled an the illustration above are the most important forartists who want to draw the torso's surface anatomy from the front view. Focus on accurately portraying these anatomical features to. achieve a lifelike drawing, such asthe example at right. sternomastoid trapezius peaoralis major Latissimus dorsi serragus anterior linea alba extemal oblique rectus abd aminus Trunk Muscles The torso's movement is dependent on and restricted by the spine— both the chest and the pelvis twist and turn on this fixed, yet flexible, column. And the iship between the rid cage, the shoulders, and the pelvis creates the shape of the ‘trunk muscles. The pectoral (breast) muscles are divided by the sternum, the rectus abdominus is divided by the linea alba, and the external obliques —which are interwoven cwith the serratus anterior—bind the eight lowest ribs to the petvie girdle. pectoralis ‘major anterior spines of the iliac crest Drawing Tips Use the bony skeletal landmarks, which are apparent despite the layers of muscles, to guide the placement of the features. For example, the nipples align vertically ‘with the anterior spines of the iliac crest, Note also that the pectoralis major sweeps across ‘the chest and aver to the arm, ending nearly horizontal to the nipples. EXPLORING THE TORSO: BACK VIEW Tthcevvical vertebyae clavicle acromion spine of scapula ‘ roc humerus timer margin of sca pula th and 12d ribs 12th thoracic vertebrae lumbar region posterior superior ile spine sacrum great wockanter Skeleton The back is one of the most challenging parts of the body to daw because of its skeletal and muscular complexity. From the artist's point of view, the most important bones visible from the rear skeletal view are the th cervical vertebrae, the posterior supe rioriliecspines (dimples on the pelvic girdle), and the sacrum, which together form the ‘socraltriangle—a major anatomical landmark at the base of the spine. crapeclas es detioid ae pa serra of sca pula anterior Af nnn ligament Ki Tih cervical vertebrae acromion nn spine of sapula Latissimus dorsi iliae crest ___ fx sacras pinalis exter nal oblique slutews medius sacrum posteriar superior iliac spine Diagram of Landmarks The observable muscles and bony landmarks labeledon the illustration above are the most important for artists who want to draw the torso’s surface anatomy from the rear view. Focus on accurately rendering these anatomical markers to achieve a lifelike drawing, such asthe example at right. Tih cervical vertebrae sternomaseid acromion wapezius 03s f " i spine of Yy scapula detwoid ha teres minor infraspinatus teres major nner margin serrams of scapala amterice 12th thoracic lati ssimus dorsi vertebrae ssacraspinalis external oblique tae crest utes medius sacrum posterior gluteus maximus superior iliac spine great trochanter Trunk Museles The back has many overlapping muscles; ourfecus will be on the upper layer, which is more immediately apparent tothe eye. The trapezius connects the skull to the scapuia (shoulder blade) muscles— deltoid, irfraspinatus, teres minor, and teres ‘major—which comect to the arm. The latissimus dorsi attaches under the arm, extending to the pelvis. Andthe gluteus medius bulges at the hip before meeting with the gluteus maximus. 7th cervical vertebrae spine of scapula infraspinatas deliaid teres major inner mar gin of xapula sacral triangle Drawing Tips Under the skin, back musclesare not easy to discern. However, the trapezius, 7th cervical vertebrae, spine of scapula, inner marginof scapula, deltoid, infra. spinatus, and teres major are all fairly evident. To depict the nuchal ligament, 7th cervical vertebroe, spinal column, and socral triangle, draw a long line and an upside-down triangle. a7 EXPLORING THE TORSO: SIDE VIEW cervical curve: Z + 7th cervical ena acromian process inner mar gin humerus of scapula | sternal angle U thoracic auve 10th vib lumbar curve iliac crest anterior superior , iliac spine sacrum sacral cur ve ——_________. anicrior inferior ‘iliac spine coceyx » i great wochanter pubic bone Skeleton The visual landmarks of the skeleton in profile are the 7th cervical vertebrae, ocromion process, inner margin of scapula, and backbone. The backbone’s four curves— cervical (forvard), thoracic (back ward), lumbar (forward), and sacra! (backward) —arrange the head, chest, and pelvic girdle aver the legs for balance. pectoralis major aacromion 7th I verte ) J a th cervical verte ee \ J clavicle deltoid —__ Z = elcid furrow angle of scapula A \ \ sania a = latissimus dovsi — é ——_§werratus anterior J 10th rib external oblique iliac orest iliac furrow slutcus medius anterior superior ‘hac spine glurews maximus: ” great (rochanter abdominal fat Diagram of Landmarks tis ack of fat in addition to degree of muscularity that deter- mines surface definition. To render the female form, it's important to become familiar with fat deposit areas, including the flank (iliac crest); buttocks (gluteus); and stomach (abdo- min), especialy below the navel. Mammary fat accounts for the smoothness of the breast, srapezius sternomastoid acromion process clavicle infraspinaus io delioid teres major pectoralis major serratus anterior latissimus dorsi rectus abdominus scr aspinalis extemal oblique iliac eres anterior superior ‘glucus medias lac spine _gluieus maximus Aensor jasciae latae (great trochanter Trunk Muscles The upper torso muscles—as well as the scapula, which is anchored by ‘muscle to the spine, ribs, and arms—follow and influence all arm movement. Mid-torso muscles, suchas external oblique, rectus abdominus, and latissimus dorsi, bend, twist, and stabilize the ribcage and pelvis. Muscles below the pelvicgirdle activate the legs. Drawing Tips Female figures display a more fluid contour than do male figures, largely because of the female's extra fatty layer, which serves a reproductive purpose but also obscures mus cular form. Muscular structure is basically the same for both sexes, but the width and angle of the pelvis makes the skeleton more recognizably male or female. EXPLORING THE TORSO: TIPS FRONT VIEW Proportion The pelvic girdle is about a head high, and the torso—from frachanters to 7th cervical vertebrae—is about 3 heads high. Trapezoids represent the ove bone structure of the torso from both front and rear views. Here you can see the same three-part division. ‘Sipe VIEW [ay The simpified torso from the side view hasa beam shaped appear: ‘ance, but the same proportional divisions of the torso apply. Ag Simplified Figurette ‘Sketching with simple lines and basic shapes is a good way to establish the base ofa figwe drawing. This simplified sketch from the back view includes an important feature:a line from the 7th cervical vertebrae to the sacral triangle. ir \ i} A. The simplified figurette in profie makes.use of the bean and oval shapes that appear in the pro- portional drawing at left. Tips The nipples, 1 head-width apart, arevertically aligned with pelvic landmarks and diag onally aligned with the acromion pro- cesses. (Onan erect figure, the bones ofboth the lower ribs and the upperspine are apparent, where- as the Jumbar region looks like a furrow. cervical ! curve thoracic curve Each spinal segment curves, more asthe column descends toward the sacrum. The thoracic region has the longest curve. Detail Note the relationship between the skeletal and muscular struc- tures (A). The linea alba (interrupting tendons) of the rectus abdominis create a “six pack” appearance as they arch progressively higher toward the sternum (B). Two ofthe interrupting tendons line up with the soth rib and the navel (C). ‘The shape ofthe trapezius is similar to that of a kite (A) or a four- pointed star (C), The simplified shape of the latissimus dorsi suggests the appearance of an upside-down triangle (B), with adiamond-shaped sheath removed fromits upside-down apex (0). The serratus anterior muscle starts alongside the first eight ribs, then ends at the inner margin of the scapula (A). Its main mass appears as a bulge underneath the fatissimus dorsi (B).At the muscle’ origin (on the ribs), it looks a little like the fingers of a hand (C). 30 DEPICTING THE ARM: FRONT VIEW A clavicle B. aeramion process C. humerus D, ower epicondyle E. inner epicondyte F. radius G. ulna H, head of radius 1. head of ulna J carpals K. metacarpal L phalanges Figure 1 Figure? Bones The underlying skeletal structure det ermines much of the overall shape of the arm (figure 1). Several elements of this substructure, such as the nner epicondiyle (E), act as visual landmarks that are identifiable even under layers of muscle (figure 2) and skin (figure 3). Muscles The upper and lowerportions of the arm each consist of three major muscle masses. The bicep and bractialis ofthe upper arm bend the lower arm, the tricep (see page 31) straightens it, and the deltoid raises the entire arm. In the lower arm, the flexors (flexor carpi radiates, patmenus tongus, and flexor car pi ulnaris} bend the palm and clench the fin- gers: the extensors on the back of the arm (see page 31) straighten the patmand open the fingers; and the supinators (brachioradialis, see page 31), attached to the outer epicondyle (0, figure 1) on the outside arm, rotate the hand outward. A fourth, smaller muscle, the pra- nator teres, rotates the palminward, delioid EP longus {flexor carpi ulnaris. delioid bicep brachialis Drawing Tips The bicep does not extend acrossthe full width of the upper arm. The det- ‘oid inserts in between the brackialis and the bicep. DEPICTING THE ARM: BACK VIEW A. daviele B. acvonnion process C. humerus Dinner epicond yle E, outer epicondy le F olecranon G radius Hudha 1 head of radius Figure 1 Figwe 2 Bones Much of the overall shape of the arm in the back view is determined by the under- lying skeletal structure, just as with the frontview. The innerand outer epicondyle(D and (€), are again identifiable, even under layers of muscle, And from this view, the olecranon, or elbow (F), also is evident. Muscles Muscles work in opposing pairs: Flexors (see page 30, figures 2 and 3) pull and extensors extend, moving in the opposite direction. When flexar or extensar muscle becomes active, its opposite becomes passive. From the back view, when the hand is, Pronate (illustrated in figures 2 and 3 above), extensor groups are the most prominent muscles. On the upper arm, the tricep is the most visible extensor. On the lower arm, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpiinaris, and extensor digitorum, which all originate on the outer epicondyle, are evident. ii sriceps {long head} j ariceps (outer head i 7 brachials p 7 R i brachioradialis extensor carpi radialis longus Se extensor miami | ulnaris a= fi ‘ abductor pollicis longus a Figure 3 Drawing Tips The tricep has three heads (the long and outer heads are shown here; the medial head lies beneath). All share a common tendon: a flattened form on the back of the ‘upper arm, 31 32 DEPICTING THE ARM: SIDE VIEW (CLENCHED FIST SA acromion process B. coracoid process wiceps (long head) iceps (ater heal) © tumerus brachialis brachioradialis D. olecranon E ater epicondyle F radius ulna flexor digitorum H. head of ulna I head of radius Bones Here the armis not viewed in full profile; rather it is seen from an angle that is DRawING Tips a combination of a side view and a back view. Because of the angle, the bony landmarks 5 most apparent under the muscle are the olecranon, outer epicond le, and head of uina. 14 _— Muscles. The side view provides a good angle for observing the extensors and jlexars of the upper and lower arm, The brachioradialis, located where the upper and lower arms meet, is particularly important. It originates onthe lateral side of the humerus (C), above the outer epicondyle (E), and then attaches to the lateral side of the wrist above the head of radius (I). Rovated arm The brachioradialis is responsible forturning The span between the inside bend of the the palm up (supinate}, and thepronctor elbow andthe wrist is usually about one teres (see page 30) for turningthe palm hand length. The arrows shaw the inward down (pronate}. The radius (shaded) rotates and outward curvature ofthe muscles, and ‘around the fixed una, permitting pronation _the dashed line shows the line of the ulna, ‘and supination ofthe palm. called the “uinar furrow.” PORTRAYING THE HAND OPEN PALM Bones The hand contains 8 wrist (carpal) bones: minor Muscles The flexor tendons (A, B,C) from the forearm muscles (see page 30) extend into the hand. The teardrop-shaped ‘muttangutar (1), major muttangutar (2), navicular (3), muscle masses, the thenar eminence abductors ofthe thumb (t,)) and the Aypothenar eminence abductor (D) and flexor (€) lunate (4). triquetsum (5), pisifonn (6), hamate (7), and of the little finger, are known asthe “palmer hand muscles.” The adductor of the thumb (G) lies under the flexor tencions copitate (8) The hand also features 5 metacarpals(g) and —_(F). The visible creases of the paim result fram the way the skin folds over the fat and muscles of the hand. 414 phatanges (10). Bones From this wiew of the hand, all the same bones. Muscles Whereas the palm side of the hand is muscular and fatty, the back of the hand is bony and full of tendons. The arevisible, butthe carpalbones appear convexrather than extensor tendons of the thumb (A) are visible when contracted, as are the other four extensor tendons (C). The first dorsal concave. From this angle, the bones have more influence interosseous (B) & the largest of the four dorsal inter osseous muscles, and it & the only one that shows its form through on the shape of the fleshed-out hand. the skin's surface; when the thumbis flexed, this muscle appears as a bulging teardrop shape. SKETCHING THE LEG: FRONT VIEW A great wochanter B. femur Cowes epicandyle D. inner epicondyle E, patella F tibial wberosity G heal of the fibula H. fibula 1 ubia J. inner malleolus K outer malleolus Bones The femur (8), with its great trochanter at the top (A) and outer epicondyles (C) and imer epicondyles (0) at the base, is the heaviest and longest bone of the skeletal sys- tem, The knee cap (patella) sits in between the outer epicondyles and inner epicond les on the patellar surface. The lower leg consists of the thick tibia (I) and the slender fibula (H), The tibial tuberosity (F) and head ofthe fibula (G) are important landmarks at the top, as are the ankle bones {the inner malleatus and outer malledtus ) Muscles. The upper leg has four major muscle masses: vastus externus, which attaches to the knee cap {€}; rectus femoris, which engulfs the patelta (€) and continues toward the tibial tuberosity (F); vastus intemus, a medial bulge; and the adductor group on the inside ofthe leg, There also are two other masse: the tensor fascia lata and the sartorius. The sortorius is thelongest muscle in the body. The lower leg has six long muscles visible: gastrocnemius, protruding on both sides; tibial’s anterior, running along the stin toward the big toe: soleus; flexor digitorunr longus; extensor digitorum longus; and peroneus fongus. 34 tensor fascia lata Drawing Tips The legs angle in toward the middte, positioning the body's weight over ‘the gravitational center. (Seefigures and 2.) The muscle masses on the outside of the leg are higher than those on the inside. (See figure 3.) The ankles are just the reverse—high inside, low outside, Figwe 1 Figure 2 Figwe 3 SKETCHING THE LEG: BACK VIEW gluteus medius gluteus maximus 7* ae adduetor grup " mY snouts A. great wochanter vastus exter mus i) biceps femoris B. femu 0 ‘semimembr anosis popliteal fossa inner condyle D. ewer condyle 1 gastrocnemins E. head of she fibula F. tibia G fibula Achilles tendon H. inner malleolus L outer malleus Bones From the back view, the same leg bones that appear in the front view are visible. Drawing Tips The calf is lower and Their appearance is slightly altered, however, because the bone attachments in the front rounder on the inside than it is on the are designed to allow muscles to extend, and the back attachment is designed for muscles ‘outside. (See figure 1.) to flex. ‘The hamstring tendons grip below the Muscles The upper leg consists of five large muscle masses: gluteus maximus; gliteus knee on both sides, almost like pak of ‘medius; the hamstring group (biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus); tongs. (See figure 2.) the adductor group; and the vastus externus, which can be-seen peeking out from behind the biceps femoris. The lower leg also features five masses: three larger ones and two smaller. The larger masses are the two heads ofthe calf: the gastrocnemius and the Achilles tendon, which connects to the heel bone. The two smaller massesare the inner sofeus and outer soleus. ‘Also notice the hollow area behind the knee where the calf tendons attach, called the “popliteal fossa"; this fatty hollow makes deep knee bends possible. Figwe1 Figwe 2 35 SKETCHING THE LEG: SIDE VIEW tensor fasciae lata A great rachanter 2B fonur illie-ibial band bice ps femoris papliteal fossa C. patella patellar ligament D. awer condyle E tibial tuberosity F head of fibula G fibula H. tibia outer malledus Bones and Muscles Because the long femur (B), and large tibia (H) carry theweight of Figure Figure 2 Drawing Tips The six arrows in figure the body, they sit directly on top of each other. But in a side-view drawing, the upper and 1 show the averall gesture of the leg. The lower leg appear staggered; the front of the shin lines up directly below the illio¢ibial band upper thigh and lower calf create the muscles and behind the uppereg masses of the rectus femoris and vastus externus. gesture. (See figure 2.) Figure 3 shows the pattern of tendons in the foot. (See page 19.) In the lower leg, the forms to look for are the gastrocnemius; the long, straight form of the Achilles tendon; the peroneus longus tendon, which passes betind the outer malfeolus (0) and the bulk of the extensor digitorum longus; and the tibiatis anterior, toward the front of the leg. Figure 3 DRAWING THE FOOT Top A talus B, calcaneus C. navieular D. cuboid E aamelforms F. metatarsals G. phalanges SIDE B. calcaneus Actalus ©. naviewlar E. cuneiforms D. cuboid 5. peraneus tertius 6. peronews longus Bones Like the hand, the foot alsocomprisesthree parts: seven tarsal bones (A-E), five metatarsals (F), and fourteen phalanges (G). The tarsal bones include the ankle, heel, and instep. The metatarsals are longer and stronger than the five metacarpals of the hand, and they end at the ball of the foot. The phalanges of the toes are shorter than those of the fingers and thumb; the four small toes press and grip the ground surface, and the big toe tends to have a slight upward thrust. 2 extensor digitorum brevis 1 extensor digitorum longus 7. abduetor digit minim Muscles When the foot is flexed upward, these tendons areevident: extensor digitorum longus (1). extensor digi torum brevis (2), tibialis anterior (3), and extensor hallucis longus (4). (From the side view, extensor digitorum brevis ‘appears as a round shape inside a triangular pocket.) Peroneus longus (6) curves around the ankle, whereas abductor digiti minimi (7) appears as a bulge.on the outer side of the foot. Figure | Figure 2 Figure 3 Drawing Tips The tibialis anterior (g) is an obvious landmark on the inverted foot. (Seefigure 1, above.) In Figure 2, dorsiflexion makes visible the extensor digitorum (1). In figure 3, plantar-flexion lets you see the ten dons ofperoneus (6). STUDYING THE HEAD & SKULL ‘om all angles, as shown Becoming familiar with the head and skul is an excellent way to improve your portraiture skils. f you purchase a plastic skull, you can practice drawing the skul in the charcoal pencil studies above. Start with an outtine of the basic shape of the skull; then block in the shapes of the main features and refine the lines (shownin the upper-right corner). The important skull bones for an artist to know are the paretal eminence (A), frontal bone (8), frontaleminence(C), glabella (0), superciliary crest or “brow ridge” (E), temporot line (F}, zygomatic process (G), orbit (H), zygomatic bone (1), maxitia (J), ramus of mandible (K), mandibte (L), and mental protuberance (M). FRONT VIEW A frontalis B.tempovalis ©. abieularis oculi D. nasalis E levator labii superiaris F. gygomaticus minor G. zygamaticus major H. masseter TL risorius J depressor ang di aris K. dep essew labit inferianis, L. mentalis M. abicularis ois N. procerus 0. eccipitalis P wapesius Q sternocleidamastoid ‘Most of the facial muscles originate from bone and insert into muscle fibers ‘of other facial muscles. They donot create surface form directly, as the skel- ‘etal muscles do, because they are much more delicate and usually concealed by facial fat. The wisible forms on the face are created by several factors — skin, fatty tissue, underlying skull, cartilage, eyeballs, and some muscles, ‘SIDE View STUDYING THE HEAD & SKULL (onr,) FRONT VIEW ‘Simplifying the Features When facial muscies contract, they affect ‘the shape of the fatty forms, skin, and other Facial muscles, causing, ‘the wrinkles, furrows, ridges, and bu gesthat convey various facial ‘expressions, Simplifying these complex shapes into easily recognizable geometric planes (the “planes of thehead”) can help guide an artist in ‘the proper placement of light and shadow. As an artist, there's noneed ‘to actually sketch the planes, but it helps to understand the planes and visualize themwhen approaching complex features and shading. Visualizing Light and Shadow in this final stage, light and shadow are translated from simple planes onto a more subtle, realistic portrait. Self-portraiture is a great way to practice identifying the planes ofthe head from many different angles. Using a mimor as reference, focus on the placement of the light and dark values that create the form of your face. just remember to draw what you really see in the mirror, ‘not what you expect to see. CAPTURING FACIAL FEATURES Drawing Tips The sciesa (A) is the white ofthe eye. The iris (B) is 2 colored disc that controls the amount of light entering theround opening ofthe pupil (C} The domelike, transparent comea (E) sits over the iis, The.inner canthus (D) at the cor- ner of the eye is an important feature of the shape ofthe eye. The Eye The eyeball is a moist sphere. Because its surface is glossy, the cornea (E) often features a highlight. Drawing Tips the vertical furow between the nose and upper lip is the phittrum (A). The tubercte (8) ofthe upper lip is a small rounded form surrounded by two elongated forms; itfits into the middle ofthe two elongated forms ofthe lower ip. The nade (0) is an oval muscular form ‘on the outer edge of the mouth. The Lips Because the lips curve around the cylinder of the teeth, it's helpful to draw and shade the mouth as ifit were a sphere. Drawing Tips The bridge of the noseis formed by two nasal bones (). The mid- dle section af the nose is made of a rigid ‘Septal cartilage (8), surrounded by two lateral cartilages (C), The bulb of the nose is formed by two greater alar cartilages {0}. Two wings (E) create the nostris. The Nose The nose is made up of bone, cartilage, and fatty tissue. Halfway down from the eyebrows, cartilage replaces the bone. Drawing Tips the cartiaginous helix (A) forms the outer rim ofthe ear. The ontinelix (C) lies just inside the helix, running roughly parallel to it; the two are divided by the scapha (B). The tragus (D) isa cartiaginous projection, located over the bove (the concha, G). The artitragus (©) is located opposite the tragus and just above the fatty lobe (F). The Ear Think of the ear as an oval disc divided into three sections and placed on a diagonal angle. an 44 PEOPLE Ma people believe that drawing EYE IN PROFILE Mout IN PRoFILe the human face is difficult, but it’s A really only a matter of proportion and —_— - properly placing the features. The lines and forms involved are just simple curves and basic shapes. The easiest w y to learn Notice that a good partion to draw people is to start with individual of the eyeball is covered by features such as the eyes and mouth. It’s the eyelid, no matter what . the viewpaint. best to draw from a photo or a live model E A reference makes rendering the head much easier! B = Eve . Most of the upper lip falls ta the left of the vertical guide line, whereas most of the lower lip falls othe right =D In chisview, the iris |} isset somewhat off center, so place you guidelines just to the right of center Highlight Whether from a frontal view or in profile, eyes and lips are dawn around horizontal and vertical guidelines, Both guidelines are perpendicular in the frontal view, and the vertical line is slanted slightly in the profile view, Then you can build on these guidelines with circles and simple curved lines. Study the outlines on this page, and practice drawing them several times. The dotted line indicates the shape of the eyeball beneath the eyelid. The curve of the eyelid follows the curve of the eyeball These human profiles are built on two slanted guidelines: one for the line of the plane of the face, and one for the line of the nose. There is a variety of sizes and shapes of noses, eyes, and mouths; study your subject closely and make several practice sketches of his or her features. Then combine the features into a simple profile. 4 \ | \ \ i | \ To draw the nose, block in a triangle, and draw the basic outline of the nose within the triangle, as in steps A and B. Refine the outline, and add a small curve to suggest the nostril in step C. Then add the centerline for the eye at the top of the bridge of the nose. Next place the eye, eyebrow, and upper lip. Once you are satisfied with your sketches, try a complete profile. For the full profile, start with a slanted guideline from the eyebrow to the chin. Then add horizontal guidelines to place the features. In adults, the bottom of the nose is approximately halfway between the eyebrow and the bottom of the chin. ‘The bottom lip is about halfway between the nose and the chin. Note that these are just general rules of human proportion. The precise placement of features will vary slightly from individual to individual and between men and women. 45 WOMEN: PROFILE hese heads were drawn from photos \ A ~ (photos serve as good models because \ they hold still). Try profile views like the ones you see here, keeping them fairly simple. Don’t worry about rendering the hair for now; spend time learning how to draw the face, and work on the hair later ae —= \ Step A illustrates the proportions of the | face. In this close-up profile, the bottom ; ee of the nose is about halfway between the In eyebrows and chin. The mouth is about halfway between the bottom of the nose and the chin. Once the proportions are 74 i Mouth established, sketch the actual Study each one closely to achieve an in accurate resemblance. This drawing was | done on plate-finish Bristol board, which ae usually is used for pen and ink drawings. / ures. Tortillon When drawing portralts, make sere youére comfortably seated ‘and that the drawing board is at a gand angle. Rotate the drawing often to prevent your hands 1 ¢€ ‘fran snud ging arcas you've \ alrealy drawn A tovillon is helpful for blending All figure and portrait renderings have been drawn diveetly the contour sof the face. from the artists imagination a from pati professional ‘madels. Any tenes co persans ather than those hired for this merpase is purely coincidental. Draw the guidelines in step A to lay out the correct proportions. Lay down each line in the numbered order shown. In step B, sketch the nose, eyebrow, chin, and eyes on the guidelines; then refine them into more recognizable parts of the face. All of these elements must be resolved before shading. Draw this line frst. Focus on the dark and light values of the lips in step C, as well as the direction of the strokes. The value contrasts make the lips appear soft and round, especially because the shading is lighter toward the middle of the lip. Note in the final rendering that the hair is merely implied as a surrounding element. WN j Keep the shading lighter { toward the middle of the lips to create highlights on aand make chem appear full The type of paper you use will affect your drawings This portrait was done on vellum-finish paper, which has a slight tooth that works well with pencil or crayon. WOMEN: THREE-QUARTER VIEW rawing a three-quarter view is slightly more difficult than the frontal view—but you can do it! Study your subject carefully, y and follow the steps. Block in the basic shapes, and use guidelines to place the features. Note that because the face is angled, the features are all set off center, with the nose at the three-quarter point. Curve the line for the bridge of the nose all the way out to the edge of the face, so it partially blocks her left eye c A s re + —— — | . . 1 4 a i Check the proportions and the placement of the features. When you're happy with your sketch, refine the features, and add some light shading to finish off your drawing. Shade as much or as little as you like; sometimes simpler is better. When you block in the hair, sink of it asone mass that has acu You can sugges some of the individ ual hairs later Browse through books and magazines for subjects to draw, or even look in the mirror and draw yourself. The more you practice and the more diverse your subjects, the better your drawings will become. Young or old, male or female, all portraits start with the same basic steps. Use the curved, vertical guidelines to help maintain the roundness of the lips and chin. 49 WOMEN: FRONTAL VIEW or these frontal-view drawings, you Fai need to pay special attention to the position of the features. In a profile, for example, you don't have to worry, about aligning the eyes with each other Study your subject closely, because a small detail such as the distance between. the eyes may determine whether or not your drawing achieves a strong likeness to your model. A few loose, curving strakes witha chisel-tipped pencil can wreate the appearance of a full head of hair wen persian” pesriataiinn. Step A shows minimal proportion guide- lines. You will be able to start with fewer lines as you become more comfortable with your drawing and observation skills. Even the two lines shown are helpful for determining placement of the features. In step B, make the facial features more recognizable, and begin to suggest the hair. Notice that features rarely are sym- metrical, for instance, one eye usually is slightly larger than the other. To finish the drawing, create depth by shading the eyes, nose, and lips. If you wish, practice developing form by shading along the planes of the face and around the eyes. Notice that the nose is barely suggested; the viewer's eye sills in the form. The features of this subject's face differ from those in the previous drawing. Here ~ Z the nose is much thinner, and the eyes ears are closer together. You will need to make these adjustments during the block-in stage. In step A, use an HB pencil to block in the proportions. Use the guidelines to place and develop the features in step B. Notice the types of strokes used for the hair; they are loose and free. Quick renderings like this one are good for practice; do many of them! Remember that your prelimi- nary drawing must be correct before continuing No amount of shading will repair the drawing if the praportions are not accwate. This rendering shows the finest details in the eyes Therefore, the eyes appear to be the facus of the drawing, with the hair aeting as a framing element MEN: THREE-QUARTER VIEW he three-quarter view is more chal- Follow the steps as shown, using charcoal lenging than the profile and frontal for the block-in stage. When you begin shading, use dark, bold strokes for the eyebrows, mustache, and beard. Notice views, but if you begin with the usual proportion guidelines, you shouldn't have any trouble. Simply take your time, and this subject's facial expression; his dark observe closely. eyes are intense. Fill in the irises with the darkest values, but be sure to leave tiny white highlights. > Clothing can be used to identify a character; here the heauldress emphasizes the model's Middle-castern heritage. The dark vertical soroees of the background are wsed to define the outline of the subject’ face Use phatos fram books of magazines to draw people ofall types and ethnicities in various styles of dress 52 This drawing was done alter an old mas- ter’s painting. Copying a master’s work is excellent practice; it helps to improve your artistic skills and understanding. When copying a great work, think about the reasons the original artist may have done certain things, and then use your F insights to better your own works. Use overlapping brush strokes to create the beard as / fe Follow the steps as illustrated, blocking in // \ each of the features with quick, confident strokes. Look for the basic shapes in your subject; then refine them as necessary to achieve a likeness. ¢tip of the brush is used to create fine lines Be tars piercing expression, which / is enhanced by the thick, dark eyebrows. Most of the shading and details for this drawing were done with a brush and India Sea eee ink, although charcoal was used for the 4; B inciapasaait guidelines and initial sketching. Brush and = ink is a good choice for creating the thick, i, dark facial hair. 53 ELDERLY WOMEN hese more advanced renderings bring out the character of the subjects. The elderly woman on this page, for example, appears stern and serious, whereas the woman on the opposite page evokes a certain kindness and gentle spirit Using the usual proportion guidelines, block in the face, Remember to include the hat as part of the initial sketch, as shown in step A. Add shapes to indicate the wrinkles and loose skin in step B As people age, certain features will begin to sag and perhaps become less symmetri- cal. Notice that the shading strokes are rather harsh and bold. This technique creates the appearance of rough, weath- ered skin. Be swe to include she pronounced creases around dhe mouth and under the eves; these details give your subject character. The shapes of the wontan’s eves differ slightly The small, sparkling eyes and fragile hand of this woman create an entirely different mood from the previous subject. Here the facial expression is more delicate, giving a feeling of compassion and sympathy In step A, lay down the guidelines for the features, and lightly block in the ears, nose, and mouth. In steps B, C, and D, continue to develop the features, adding craggy lines for the wrinkles. In the final drawing, shade the face to create the aged appearance. Hands can be difficult to draw. Study your own hands, and practice drawing them on scrap paper. Check the proportions to make sure your drawings are accurate For example, the length of the hand is approximately equal to the length of the face. What other hand-proportion rules do you see? ‘Occasionally step back from your drawing to get a mew perspective. Ase yourself if you've created the right mood and personality Ifnot, make adjustments! Keep the head wrap simple; it provides a contrasting frame for the face ELDERLY MEN Two media were used for thisdrawing A chise}-tipped 68 pencil was used for the shading en the face, and a brush and black India ink were used for the darkest ddeails, Experiment with different draveing. media to ereate new elle. | FQ As always, begin with quick | # proportion guidelines. Then sbetch \ te bate vhapas cna! is including the bushy mustache. Keep ) ceferring to yout subject, checking / the proportions and shapes. When the V0 ff eae ha ea i 4 through shading, PEOPLE OF THE WORLD hen drawing subjests of ethnic background, its im posta to study thelr features and propor ns closely. Although you may find some characteristics typical fa eettain ethnicity, there sill aremany variances between individuals. Your observation skill will be tested wih these drawings? C . For this young boy, bin as usual with guidelines and a block-in sketch Look rt for he fenttestat wake he sje wmique—for namie, bige,sound ewes, | wide nose. and full ips. Notice thatthe eyesare especially dark in value providinga seikingcomrastta the w hte highlights To tender the dark ckin, use chatcoal at a solt-lead pencil to shade over the face with even, purallel strokes. Leave areas of white for highlights, especilly on the tip of the noseand the center af the lower lip spective (ALL3Y ats Library sevies DEVELOPING YOUR OWN STYLE MALE FACES CHAPTER 4 PEOPLE WITH WILLIAM F. POWELL William F, Powell is an internationally recognized aitist and one of America’s foremast colorists. A native of Huntington, West Virginia, Bill studied at the Art Student's Career School in New Yorks Harrow Technical College in Harrow, England; and the Lauvre Free Schoal of Art im Parks, France. He has been professionally invalved in fine art, commercial art, and technical illustrations for more than 45 years, His experience as an art instructor includes oil, watereolor, nd pastel—with subjects ranging from landscapes to portraits and wildlife. He also has authored a number of art instruction books ineluding several popular Walter Faster titles. His work has included the creation af background sets for for films, madel making, animated cartoons, and animated fi computer mackup programs, He also produces instruction painting, color mixing, and drawing videos ADULT HEAD PROPORTIONS Lines persion wil eae yout ae ately daw the bead ofa person. Study the messuremens con she illustration below lef, Dravv a basic oval head shape, and divide tn half wah a ight, horiz0 mal line On an adult, the ces fall on this line, usually about ane “eye-widhh" apan. Deaw another lise dividing the bead in bal vertically to hate the position of the nose, rie wen ay The beige igh of een, madngche nae, icwsaly apa se ave longi Boils hcl as wat eh pps a. The diagram below illustrates how to determine corvect place ment for the west of the facial features, Study itelasely Before beginning to draw, and make some practice sketches. The bottom of the nose les hallway between the bow line and the battont of the chin. The bottom lip resis halfway between the nose and the cebin, The engi of the eats extends from brow line to the battoat of the nose. This drawing above illuswates haw the skull Mills up" she head Familtariing yourself with bone structure is especially helpful at the shading stage. You'll know why the face bulges and cusves in certain areas because you'll be aware of the hones that Iie unde neath the skin. Foe mote information, se page 38, ave pacer ew 9 a HEAD POSITIONS & ANGLES FACIAL FEATURES: EYES eyes are ihe most impona fea ture for achleinga tre Memes. ~ £ They also evel the mood or emotion of \ = — (FA freciee tie dliginms diowaglion ZO aM ee Bock infromal and prafteviewsoeyes. Novice that with the profil you dow bein withthe sume shape as with the WX. ce, Shade delicately around the eyes, but make your strokes datk enough ts show the eyes’ depth and indentation into the face. Very sharp pencils ae best for filling in the cwases and comers around the eve. These tiny areas (which dont get mucls light) should be very dark, gradually gete ting lighter 2s you shade away from the eve to bring out the contours of the face 8 K A three-quarter angle view can genemte ‘totally differera miaod, especially sf the C. eyes aren't completely open. FACIAL FEATURES: NOSES & EARS ‘oses easily can be developed from simple straight lines, The frst step is to sketch, the overall shape as illustrated by the sketches below. Then smooth out the cor rete ima subile curves in acootdance with the shape of the mose, A three-quarter view alse can be dtawn with this method Onee you havea good preliminary dtawing. begin shading wo create form, The nostrils enhance the personaly of the nase as well as the peson, Makesute the shading inside the nostrils en ttoodatk or they might draw 100. much attention. Men's nostrils generally are angular. whereas women’s nestls are more euly curved. Observe your subject closely to ensure that each feature of your draw ing Eas usually connect wo the head at a slight angle. To draw an eat, fist sketch the general shape, and divide i into thirds, 48 shown above. Shatch the "edges" of the ea with light Lines studying where theyfall in relation wo the division lines, ‘These ridges indicate w heve to bring out the grooves in the ear; vou should shade Ieavier Inside them cae Bontngestrem gen ¢ | ils many ewes, the ip brpnsto sagandivum (Lo) be — hese details are Lsipor- tant for producing a realistic work. Pts fan gue FACIAL FEATURES: LIPS eee ice peace eiects gee secre htt rt alse familiarize yourself with the various, me — eine To draw the bps, block in the overall mouth shape with prelmirary guidelines. (Once you have a satifactary line drawing, ‘you can begin shading. paying particu: larattention to where the highlights ate. Highlights enlance the Lips fullness. ; ee Wier dieetag meni lips tarp te (FS eee. 1 do not appear as (ull as women's Divide the upper lip into theee parts art the lowe lip into wo parts, © shown above. These light division lines wil help you draw the top and bottom lps in pro portion with eich other. Face panes an te mou . Awe) Smee ‘eeu haw oy {ear mad eh a daa hs dpe ok er cnatpmboeee FACIAL FEATURES: THE SMILE 2clal exptessions will ad Me to your asic work because your drawings will seem mote realistic. One of the mest ‘masle ways to create expresdn Is with a smile, The illustanions on this page dem- onstrate steps for drawingsm ies. Ys, ‘When a person smiles, the rest of the facial features ate affected. For example, ‘he bottom eyelids move slightly upward, making the eyes appear small. eels mead dg pan fal oes ‘amie th oa th ct fae Ui ehhad epe fee yauve ately karen areaty are emi Smillngalso causes creases around the mouth and produces more highlights on the cheek area because the cheeks are fuller and rounder. The lips, on the other hand, requite fewer highlights because the smile causes them tosligttly flaten out THE PROFILE profile drawing can be very-dramaiic. This drawing was done on plated nish Bristol board. With am HB pencil, frst sketch. the lines to establish the head angle. You ‘might want to use the techn que of drawing a bax fist to position the head, as demon. strated caller on page 67, » the Bice. These aeillstratd inthe deawing o the right. When you rach the shading sage use 4 sharp 2B pencil il in datkerarea auch a= 8) Wrinkles a teases Use a paperstumprosotien me smoother atures, such as cheeks. e Spero meena corte — eee ae ese need! Youeat pesca ery Strength nee dae dng Puna) fase Although the nose is a prominent part of the profile, make cemain it doesn doval- rae the entire drawing. Take as much me desing the othe r features a8 you ‘would the nose >: / e THE THREE-QUARTER VIEW lnhough the three-quarter view may avcan be drawn by following all of the techniques you've alread yleamed. With an HE peneil, use the proper head proportions 10 lightly latch the guidelines indicating whete the main featutes will be located. a agin to smiaotls out your bloein Bnes, Stading lightly with an HB peneil wo being out the (ace theedimensional form, Fill in the creases and decals with a sharps pointed pencil, then use a kneaded eraser ‘molded into an edge o point to pull out the hightighas inthe hair Begin blocking inthe shape of the head; then add the Initline, and sketch the ear. Bringowt che planes of the fae (imagine 4 box), and position the nose correctly. Sketch the eyes and mouth on the guide- lines youve drawn, irra ico CHILD HEAD PROPORTIONS The forchead can be divided into five equal sections with verti- jg Gillies. You can position the other facial featuresin relation these Tings as well. MATURE FACES yorialts of eller individuals requiee ‘move decal because fine lines and ‘wrinkles must be included. Artempt this drawing on vellum-inish Bristol board, using an HB pencil w block in your fQuidelines and facial festures. Then Bnd your own dia wing model ‘oer pape wns reve lca charactor ee aes. "Dewey aatranl ty 40 eign for ecenzent promt ‘yew dene Once youve drawn the isichead shape, Ugly indicate wherethe weinkles will bee. Some of the minor lines can be “sux gested” through shading rather than drawingeach one, This process can be sed for drawingall der individuals. \ Shade delicately vwith a skarpenedt 20 pens. A sharp, dak lead is best for drawing tiny dexai, such as creases inthe lips, fine bate stens, and the corners ofthe eyes. Your shading should help the feauees “emerge” from the lace. Again, notice the areas wwhete there is no shading and how these a teas seem te come toward you. Practice this drawing: then find ‘your own model a a photograph. When drawing the face of an older can be more sggrestive with the lines and shading, bscause men usually have ‘more rugged features and pronounced creases than women, Develop the curves and planes of an alder man’s face with darker shading than for the worn on the previous page. This enhances the rough quality of hisshin, on Be ven move rugged and aed han the previous / —*\ awing, Mis check ‘eeiseeaee oe at \\ efined, and he has a i | A 4\) | ht aA \\ wider chin. Its helpful tw envision the skull Ja. tnside this fellows > fhe head to accurately = ee shade the outer features. ie a “Saran Maa oR ate Nae ‘A paper stumps helplul for the smoother areas of this subject's face, wheteas a sharp 2B will aid in rendering the craggy texture of his chin and the distinct wrinkles around his eyes. ADULT BODY PROPORTIONS ‘Realistically, most bodies are about 7-U2 heads tall (average), but we usally desw be CHILD BODY PROPORTIONS THE BODY “Ti anan tnt chain order sberefore, it's impor HANDS & FEET ‘ands and feet ate very expressive pants of the body and also fare an artistic challenge. To famillaize yourself with hand proportions, begin by drawing three curved Lines equidistan fom exch oiker. The tips of the finges fall at the firstline, the sevond knuchle at the middle ling, and he first bouckle at she last one. The thind knuckle falk: halfway between the finger Ups and the second knuckle: The palm, coincidentally, isapproxt mately the same length as the middle finger. ’ es : ie — iy safe oc atthe if roca = Rigopickaal roe : ‘resume TM hap Se : oF Srey ue ha Follow te sep sown oda eee Bloc in he shape in wo parts the main part of the foot and the toes. Once youve drawn a good ourling, add minimal shading se you dow' call 100 much attention to the feet a CLOTHING FOLDS Nori mostra c ( yQ the body, you need te know ceraain techniques that will improve the quality of your work. Drawing realistic cleshing {olds is one of those techniques, _ Q thd Begin by dimwing 2 stick figure, indicating the location of cach joint with some light elreles, Then sletch the autline of the clothing. alongwith preliminary guide lines foe the folds; the gulde ines will later provide a map for your shading. Indicate only the major falds at this poine, while continuing to add baht guidelines. Tovshade, darken the areas inside the folds with short, diagonal strokes using the point of a 2B pencil. Overlap your strokes a1 different angles, making them darker toward the cemar d the folds. Use a paper sump forthe fin hing touches, Blending the edges of thet olded areas. You might ako want w Ieave some shading Tins to Ne the drawing an rustic fel of ritsmae ae i cg = FORESHORTENING ‘oreshoniening allows you to eteate the illusion of an object coming toward ‘you in space. While the principles of per spective stl exist, hay purtsare more difficuk wo diawin this manner because they dant have steaightedges. In add tion, the body proportions ate somewhat skewed, of shortened, ina diawing that includes foreshoriened subjects. (See [pages 90-91 for mare information} The ann resting on the keyboard appents to be receding back into space. The pais of the body closest to you should beshaded the least because they Ihave the most light on them. Abo keep {i mind that asobjects move Gther vay, they become less detailed and “With etossed legs most of the shading fallson the part ofthe leg farthest away, enkancing the perception of depth inthe dawing. Be certain to rough in both legs and the major folds corvecly before you ‘begin shading, MOVEMENT & BALANCE BENDING & TWISTING FIGURES SPORTS FIGURES IN ACTION Dae ee VU) Ze i 4 AY ep : Gee sr * J Z Ps scuicnaras tteawetrenerng tee tpt Use ; Far tea igeal ropes carat CHILDREN IN ACTION Recognize how the line of action Aiffers from the boy jumping for the ‘all anal the gil gathering flowers Also, adding a ground, field, o river ko enhances your work by providing, a nice backround for your subject. DEVELOPING A PORTRAIT rawing a petson teally & ne different than drawing anything, else. & human face has contours just like a landscape, an apple, orany other subject—and hese contours catch the light and cewate studow patterns just as they do on any other object. The diffe ence is that the contours of the face change slightly from indi- vidual to individual. The “Uriek" to portmmmure is obse wing these diffe ences and duplicating them in your drawings. “aac Proportion fan he nak tine oe ‘ime cance ac ronhe «fine nesea emhe Ch The ower ip hata beeen he oe tamale mean the emer the wthet he teat ete dtincs fom ‘ne caear ene eet CAPTURING ALIKENESS Youdon'ineed to memorize all he bones, muscles, and tendons in the human bead to draw 2 porteat; just low the general ruesof proportions,as shown in the chart at right, Simply divide the face into irds, aad note where the features fallin relation wo the face and w one ancther. Then study your model to determine how bis cr her face differs from the ebart (that i, how itis unique). Look for subde changes, such as.a wider nose or thinner lips, wide- or elose-set eyes, or 3 higher or lower forehead. ht alsois important to practice drawing faces from different viewpoirss—from, side, and Sesternereaire three-qua ter views—kexping the proportions the same bus noting Gaweeree how the featuees change as the head tums. Remember Draw what waite nee you wally see, andy our portealt willlook like your model! ‘Avoze ia:hee curse view ea (ot fomsigh The ate ‘lhes ret srengyon theca ge, here adhe lamby ads Ihe sliet heron under ‘nips waren ten, = aeyes n 242 sew, ‘reupper ip tHe eS ‘heeyehasa rans ‘posh anasto Ipbychadngthe en dla dry ot ot ethene ney bio (he towalie rot 43 Front View natumdvieuwecinaetutdets Profle Thahaasehape nanan sees tthe These View Thi vewes bechatengng erat precy srmeuical Om epee geartysmalky —Seawesrananin these eu poston: Aagh _ecauceyeuhavetoaiou the fewest make fem ‘hantfeahactene might slqhehyiteem ange. thenacelsaproninntieaye poe shecxenatte Ink wai hee chngeatheeyealipstapesto Thome ktueottiees Chea andes ofthe it coruawethe axe Mis YaReIiCN Duawehe | re mt hetace. Ya MGC WORE Dat wh Aca nose anatte out yest anshaw he we pees nthe, awn werk eu howe tes eatyleck FOCUSING ON FORESHORTENING Dismissal ators, bu nots leo hand ‘variety magicians perform. In my drawings. I create the illu- sion of three dimensions in a variety of ways, but in every case ‘im just drawing what Isee in front of me. Foreshortening isan important method of creating the lusion of depth, and it works ‘hand in hand with perspective; hat i, the part af the subject that is closest to us appears to belaeger than the pars that are farther Taxing & DIFFERENT View Se what exactly is oreshortening in terns of deawing? W's a technique for rendering abjects that aren't putallel to the pleture pine in which you shorten the lines on the sides of the abject thar is losest 10 you (lt may sound confusing. but its really not once you get the hang of it.} For example, fyou look at someone hholding his arm straight down agains the sideof his body. the arm is perfeely vertical and so looks in prsportion to te test af the figure. But fhe raises hisarm and points directly at you, the aris pow angled (and not parallel to the plewre plane}, soit appears distonted. In other words, the hand looks bigger and the ann boks shorter Se, in tum, you would draw a big hand and anarm with shortened sides, Thats foreshertening! cee ten he mae shaper no dete ya The be mscogitcing oreshortesing he pom ot aie rede angle ttre shri. tes fe nce me saee! feet Mie becaie Wt seen ay tens lepsmust te beget han pou anathnow tas feateartbette sme (eephashestin Be these latches 7 {Mepis ghty ade amend y arene feats restr cae pls son i ana ny see as pees sk mmatechtompren ‘ay toseahow he ‘eter area rake shemaypesitocametr ward wreath inne, farce ies ote upper ecprecese Tse FORESHORTENING SIMPLIFIED f leat fr eharienng. ofr yur rues vray getsore pet oksth wat ian } th \ ~ Oban TapesAngud om fe ee Ree ean el ear erate eee ‘orencenng.thnges sem tcolont at ‘tek retan te th bach of hehand, APPLYING YOUR SKILLS Nore 22s ial th edge ni cape yu a incorporate them into one finished work. As you can see his drawing demonstrates principles of persprotve, line af action, and center of balance. I also illustrates successful renderings of figures bending and twisting. siting and maving in a variety ef sctLon poses, I's important that you atten redraw achallenging work lke this to lamprove your artic skills. On location, revord your subjects wit quick simple Ines, creating a reference fora tighter, more polished work hack at home. Remember, suecess ragutes ptlence and a lo of practice. gy ee aT 6 + the) CHAPTER 5 PEOPLE WITH DEBRA KAUFFMAN YAUN Debra Kauffinian Yaun discovered that she had a kinack for drawing people when she was a young gitl growing up in Tampa, Florida Alter graduating from the Ringling School of Art and Design in Sarasota, Florida, Debra worked as a fashian illustrator. Debra’s arte work has been published in several art magazines and bo aks, and she has won numerous awards, including an international award She is a signature member of the Colored Pencil Saciety of America, having served as president of the Atlanta chapter, and she is a juried member of the Portrait Society of Atlanta, Debra’s work is featured in four Walter Foster titles: Drawing: Faces & Features and Drawing: People with Debra Kauffman Yaun in the How ta Draw and Paint series, and Colored Pencil Step by Step anel Watercolor Pencil Step by Step im the Artist's Library series Debra and her artis-hushand have wo grows sans and reside in Georgia UNDERSTANDING FACIAL ANATOMY LEARNING THE PLANES OF THE FACE nce you understand the basic structure of the hea: howe pttnes are the foundation fer studing x ple ips he sal 1 propedy place hghlghs The Errects oF LiGHT ADULT FACIAL PROPORTIONS DEPICTING ADULT FEATURES { youlte a beginner, i's a good ica to practice drawing all the facial feat uses separately, working aut any problems before attempting 4 complete portrait. Facial featues work together to convey everything fiom meod and emotion to age. Pay attention w the areas sround she features, as well, wrinkles, moles, and other similar characteristics help make your subject distinct ews , ty VARYING QUALITIES / 5 y* “Them a several charac that infie ) > eee the Hal impres ton at ao pes ( ‘ie: The shape ofthe eye postion ofthe = ‘yebron i Step One tsescraetatenictse nencauthe | Step One oawsinaghac de rte oe stn emhsover(Oramnganarttechectheaeasingany | aauitweydigaranckanown tte vethe Seetapengeioar cla “eawingvoughcIroe | rhancpigiate aars the mp ancboron ate ise | wortlogeter ‘natpatd te rs aay covaes yee ee overs e poe ans one yeh men ana fe yak i tnas he cura ft yak a ath ne ema, thease ut Rama pu ‘Step Three Contre shady the Fi ewcingeutins fran foepuph. Tan ase the ey sth as ne syete asst iran tom sep aE FACTS saps sep sf ye tr ci nro avng a te conan ans int We eyeuiahapartemasch ar Ans Keep nt rat ecre dunes {al adenaly scour mesnsucn paste night simaand ex, ate reunsthahigighes butt Redington an rat {ace-Gemaiy mers bers ae mare agus, woareacwoners re moregeey caved — | ethehene easier the wach Ie golly stout neta she gt when au ips ts, leh gonusesove the texas ‘he boa tipsaso uasly area st Step Two Nex epnstacng ine ectencttheplneso fe ips he shacing onthe aresupwars athestucg cae ami cae ‘Step tives |cirimestasng, making ‘neues vateat fe tineweette Ips ieee Tent gl easo me ighigsto {ee helps shine atom. ghghsalse ‘hance feline unesssirsohanbest ‘binds ange igi one le Mi = @» o — e Gs tans ce Rsv see see sop ‘beveloping the Earin Profile istlekin he germastape veal kng ke ste pars. Wat sarshadigte akest eae antrngiherkgesanaiel as Then raceme cittees, lang hhh bey rene case fellate Werparsetnesten Gant Fh tyoucan caw doses Gand COMBINING ‘Step Tw: How thy snagetheswenelne entarpwintene ‘ne cusin afte. crema ete mo A, ‘spas theipana gees ‘hen een, aneheop ofthe t,he rows on he ipsinica FEATURES Step Tie Icon nut stagny este 4s pte retn ght ‘Fete ghgnesansto Gx. ‘Pownce for tram pleut gon heap paste pote mse ancon te tage athe mse CAPTURING A LIKENESS Coser racial dering te noha eae youve seady to combine then i fll potas yout undrtandig of he basics of proportion teblockin the head and place the features, Study your sub ect carefully to see how his ot ber facial pro- por ions differ rom the “average”; capturing these subtle differences will help you achieve a butter likeness to your subjea. Drawing What YousSee werkingtan ashotehebs ——StepOne Using a1 HEpend | aaah gemma cu» ——_StepTwn Sint 28 pent tne te ound valaanvbaryaureay see-aicgpesectowiatyen Mee! esibyertace. hen Ipheethetadd fucelnes ness the tad fenwes 1compare mse hothe pho: apa tesee-becaise ya canchaMe you vewRDie. oe cnn e ec roce atcreuth Packethx —aymtin,mUKrE ae hat Feces Hes Tirarnngbon te phate iayouraavingipacedons — themarthakesupabwctefout othetetl aso fut sala uique. tke hea mec noe 2Syou wots yl nga au negra ay ekin te shapeeechar dncudngheban gs, aig yamesialeyes mcs ate ‘hapesmare aca, FOCUSING ON FEATURES. ‘This raving sows the same vounglady witha cere ait Shyte expression ancpose Athoughshe's costume, she estilmeoprizableas re fae subjectbeca use twas festa he fol characte lates mat ae specificto this ecsvidual, oO Stepthree lamer gucsine ancshen beh hea teste et ighty nating sepazkns ch comple nes Tent sea 8 pa ‘Sap Four Toren the arooth shiny ale. |e 248 ayn daker ry the Lag te once plingzon seceimotRa ares, otharhassathave baat wie fr Mghhestoproaies = arctan tamighs ak Than Irate Rees an meh 8y LIFE DRAWING (PORTRAIT) Tintetsty neon stores ay you nodesae int ove incos ovcan poston he suet you Hing yout uh an epost jour nev yee anid = Creating afomfortable Setup wen wingiie med: Step One fis Iplae hese snpea! heat win StgpTew use hesime Ho pont mostra te emake are ey xeconéarate ann apeattnycan an pen: My algec'sheaé edad 2 fvee atte holt or ila Seale shot bree leo shi the wera cava tte rah a soa bth ou maura (sre page pp rspetelefematn on paper inate glamt dew sem gull noha whaemy meat esezing (ernedisce mashenutes ‘rans gh ener |) nese sears, Step Four an | shang he aceite jj saedyonshove. Tha lk smymac tole th gies les inhat te, Taira at are Mh gs oben a a tart rk amcaming a net APPROACHING A PROFILE VIEW profile view can be very dramatic, Secing only one side of the face can bing outa subjects distinctive feats, such asa prom ‘uding brow. an upturned nose, o¢ 4 song chin Because pars of the face appear more prominent in profi, be careful not 1 allow any one feature to dominate the entire drawing. Take your thmewarking out the proportions before drawing the complete portrait ae | Drawing in Profile when sawing atop poi eau ode mpataaet ts ee houthe posto: snaangicotne eect an the "ace toheneas snstga s wuarathe cusaecarar athe ye he Iesmre tng pol cael sing fartapasotinachn msthaneck(ndudngthe ness caeelnee austen hanes meri StepFour in aprtevew.te ule stnpa ano ovedng ewes ast aerate teams she ofthe hating Isertednngthe ernie sry er rm WORKING WITH LIGHTING haaher you're drawing fiom photo-or feom life, lghting is extremely imporiana to the averall feeling of your portrait. Lighting ‘can influence the mood or atmosphete of your deawing—intense lighting creaes drama, whereas soft lighting preduces a more tranquil feeling, Lighiing also can affect shadows, creating stronger conttasts between lightand dark values. Remember that she lightest highl ghts will be in she direct path af your light source, and the darkest shadows will be op posite the light source. Using BACK phtng Here Haecurets coming fran vetincthesunece ete in cow. tutte SRP Ome Iskech he Bane shape ote hens nck, hak nghightes when args baie abject ay anc whan HB penal My apcrsheasistirmes leamgsoneaeave! paper wi arcind te eanesctte a thmequire vew.20cinetheguelnes waunaine Sapna suichig 1 228 parc, lanes eres eas Tsheepstte hat rom coking urease, faseasur dry. (se pep Then! iy chine ana. he gets ake ch afew crete a aso septaesthe ha fom the akgpeun facaiemwesinscang te munaiessatihenaceand he mouth ang weunathe ayes enlace cla, ‘Step Theos Usng 28 and quent string io my VV, photograph Llacethe ight face Fest arly ayer algh shortarchag shen Igo bckanappy + lay ottnger ota. llmaht nga bghtouch Tadtuaamenay, leave seratubee 2a est ur Sil uinga 28 pve cantmie shang ef, keeping alte aitlghein vues hows ha alight change ic spay leageveber, thal saureis caring Manthesubjaree als athe alata aig erate amare isha haste snaggeing tan te wp othahaat wpacee an ek aya mubighinphaus Beat Than! ado nites thas eating seman space unethe uneven erste ap sagestouiggetthlghezhnig trap the INCLUDING A BACKGROUND n effective background willd aw the viewer's eyete your subject and play a rale in sewing a maod. A background always should complement a drawing: it should never overwhelm the subject. Generally light, neutral setting will enhance a subyect with dk air or skin, and a dark background willset off subject with light halt or shin ii ‘Sinpityinga Background wien wing om phase ence a en tuesar uifunering tnegreu, ye salen change Sighly ate {pound semovnganyeet arms ‘Step Four |tnehshasnghe tee wh, 8 ‘Step One wenanks pene. tsteehin nent itch mihepedtonctnesyes, Trewsioet and meh. Qc ede Steptoe Snisingioa28 pen, hear caingthestape the eyes, cee gules etl he ce becueotte voy de heise ened Nast nda heredhan ee ‘Sap Thee Fist ohae the es wh 2 Byer Then tegh shag! tak hee nebaekgramatssin |e 38 wilgupeasdauazcl nerst 0 pene ha bcgre are ep selcresansce! ae) CREATING DRAMA Adair background can intense dramas your portrait Were the subjects inprofie so the Uphtestwaluesofher fae standout ‘pains the dank values ofthe background. To ensure that her dark Goes net became “tos.” Leste 3 gradation for dark to gr ein te bgitestamusolthebackyroutdatthe op ard along tieedge of te ha for separation, hs sana ates 36 mare ark meaty ha lapplyatomeriyer a a ‘uj adig scun amar ans eng at fs tanta ees DEVELOPING HAIR ‘here are many different types and styles of hale—shick and thing long and short; curly, siaighé, and wavy: and even braided! And because Tair is often or of an individuals most distinguishing feacures, knowing how to render different types and text utes is sential, When drawing har, dont try todiaw every strand; just cteate the overall Lmpuesston and allow the viewer'seve and imaglna- ‘Hon 1 fil in the rest. ‘tap Two swing a pen at rerng te ees eyerows nose. anamouth ‘hat ste te meh Ine ath wth are est alow te shape other bay. fetunng tothe ar tslysiethinsecnactengle wath an fp tskomem t sirtaddngakduccuncaeat ae behind cetansaiow ofhatceaingcoae ace see “Ceang ingles hen Fags, CREATING RINGLETS. sero tessa nage Gi a aan i? y)) ‘Step Two To ghe the ringlets form F squinermy 2 J isos nerans . Ny = : ( C ( os ‘nen re noabrgeaurgesin erecta sep ap? mp DEPICTING AGE s people age, iheirskin hises elastic, causing loose, wrinkled skin: drooping moses; an sagging eats In addition, lips often become thinner, fair turns gray, and eyesight becomes poor Cw hich is why mary elderly subjects wear glasses). ccurately rendering these characteristics is essential to creating suocessful portraits of maturesubjects, ‘Step One | cw ultenes when ets pane aes re 8 6 rou, aN Mau. Te pet eut ans SE pews age tea Ham seer a8 ae he ‘ap cutne che ‘Stay Ywo | ara he ba shapactine ages than begins agzestmpainecsageby adnate ee uncer esanacess Pet fhe Acoreunieut ay ome ; ¢ ‘Step Your siusing 226.1 stasenetaceans neck, Tihganker tthesked ite nedetereiaies | fhnstucnge ees ane he ey shade here ewer dg cle chek an the pbre ‘Schewthepranbert decKene, dl addchadng, ute Tan ae carsales er na caus aah he faces mare non heaving anges I seas he tet angl uae have cathe unpre tae earner ae ‘Steptaree swiching'03 spon, heph stacngche harancoerelaang te eye, agong i aves nes Moun use the eyes cexe"D39e" a5) ‘he wahessigyey we fey cn be seen ough Mase. (Se Rencerng Wines" dow) RENDERING WRINKLES ‘Thekerto deaning real scooting winks et keep them sie. Indiate wren wih oltahading notwith ardor angular ‘Youean best achieve tvs effet rings ‘duper poet Yau ssoeamuse s ot ‘orstartilonts softybiend the transitions between te light and dark siaes inte swrnkes, Or ute kneaded eraser soften wines that appear ta deen ‘Winn ding 2 subject withglasses 23 the examglebelan, try tomagriy fe minke lncsthatare seenthoughthe len sex You ‘senda this by crewing the foes of shading 1 fie argevand apung them farther eam Ferrers CREATING FACIAL HAIR 2clal fair is another characteristic that distinguishes one individval from the next, Short, dark strokes ae perfect for rendering a thick, coarse beard; whereas light weeping strokes ate kleal for depicting a wispy mustache. Experiment witb variat ons of light and dark lnes when drawing a"salt-and-pepper” beard, and we a series of quick, shart lines when indicating stubble, Drawing Through hen aawigatue fa ay aceny facthar ie mparare toca he ere hence he, “tawatiu tana asahe Na, er ang acestres ach athe ha ough he ay athe a deren. Step One fst enh he stape othe tae nth nH ‘heal mustacheang enaihtoee cue es st ‘Step Two swicting oa 2 pend, tne thecyes, cnthetorehead ten Ibuld upthe hat sketdhthe it ‘he gmeral hapesarine age. Step Three new esary my pines. sangre ioe an ating ej sae te ath ‘Saeae apamem anthabana Ibepnrenseary tase. ‘gi ateate nessanathaructcha then sa. saluiothe ar one a ace ofthe fate sabe ‘remand show the ct asow de, FOCUSING ON BEARDS ‘when diavang a wiite beard. suchas thisene, pun severlees iogetier create for, but leave some amas wie. ‘so ry dewng the strobes vary sitection 1 sade bterest end more ‘ment. W130 modidea w overag Your shading 2 bt whew the shinmeets ‘the rindi thatthe a showing through fhe besa Ina ear car soe werk am Ug he cape a ended evs pall ghghon cca ‘Sahowthe elatelghe Lay moe shang the aes ve mone ofa inercetlektan tae heupensrsantha he fy eh Neca ie seaght musshe na zansthe nat lapongmest otter the devas agit CHILDREN’S FACIAL PROPORTIONS hildren’s proporionsare diferent than shose of adults: Young chikiren have rounder faces wih larger eyes that are spaced farther fapart, Their features aso are post oned a litle lower on the face; for example the eyebrows begin on the centerline, where the eyes would be oma teenager or an aduli. As achild ages, the shape of the face elongates, altering the proportions CHANGING OvER TIME “The placement ofthe atures changes asthe fae become’ longer and inner wit age, Use horizontal guidelines to deride se are ftom Pie heriomtal centeine the chininwequsl secionsthevelines can fen Dbewiedte detemine where te place the facil lestares. 7 Oraning a ont ( | Senge arto Sones toe aon Drawing 2 Toddter Draming a Child i seachianeasseven ! sreghian fags \ f ‘ ‘Sunes Drawing 2 Teenager yagers.te tele / marti au tap f | omienere ora he Placing the Features sess he seamen he te'staes yu ene a Corina Sgarsiacs tavees sige moe rama dato cys ate erga: Henge, Geen ese nite sity oftheraxuresnth age) a Drawing Babin Profle the roto smdterané moe indo a wel Te shape! hlpinaests aby spe sehen ge ser terns onze sa siyioveryroinsea Yount: gewely hae gersmerepronuing freer than aside tngchicrey neat tnd he lyfs ad rolle doa es htoa que Bch hhelargecranal maar nth chelator etch esa The two Inet ‘Shutyhre enh ear lle latin tote dldngloes-Inatlog yl penne sw ipyha << / \ | ‘a é | Adding hirer Detals The sees sghty bee quart vi ashon here Miteughs aby steatareae placed deny onthe haath alr his Plaeietentees accords tothe sales Har ste and dcthingincading acces ‘Hesnaks conlluncathe preevedage of our ae MODIFYING THE PROFILE As edren age, te pmfles ange gute Bit Tha head elongates at each stage: The tp of le 3 baby's eyebrow Ben up with he Batam ofthe {exiles eyetrom, the mica ait etaeen the voungbor eyetvow are eyelid, andthe wpe he teenage gis epic Ey PORTRAYING CHILDREN’S FEATURES iden ate fascinating drawing subjects, but they can bea challenge to draw acc uately, I's Lmportant w get the eight proportions for the purniculsr age (see pages 112-113 for more on children’s propottians) and to correcaly renter their features: Their eyes tend w be bigger and move rounded than those of aduks, their nostrils ace barely visible and their hair is usually fine and w spy ‘Step One ih achapones spend, ceah ebadcrtapect he te Ung my roseaieotdulgers papeconsas 3 pase! ly ow he genes wich ae igiyiecuseofe vewpon | sace the featutsbdow he haa crete ‘Step Two | ass cratstote cy ns inca Nigh rane: highs he hare te eetionsene bloke ound eyes pad femalete mechan cee ches ees ates ‘heea afi atte, ‘etare tetas, eae ant nate hing ei deem | ‘doch a feck ns nda the agey catty ungernthe eyes enna, ‘he chek ie erate asthe banganigh ae schon. \ = Q aa ‘Stapour tshas eUpe ih 28 pana eng Ign sesso e ttm pa aha than ahage he canis ta me hope eh EN festa tines aa neepoue |as a ght andere va Hat ot ate gn xen renee nes xeanstheayee nathansuth ig stthe nase ang okie ck we iy) }) } | \ > DRAWING A BABY rawing babies can be icky because its easy to unintentionally mabe themlook older than they are. The face gets longer in pu portion to the cranium with age, so the younger the child, the Tower the eyes ate on the tuce (and thus, the larger the forehead) fnyadadition, babies’ cyes are dispropouionately large in comparison to the test of their bod ies—so draw them this way! ‘Step One vsingan ts pc bck fe canis nce al psetnes. (3 aE iy shack reo nak an eran the: ects anges he pasgy euch. chase the mie the ‘Step Four wena 28 pect chase heice dicots |einpeimiienctarer over cncucine? “Sylteneareaeat i to the viewer appese proportionately lager than objects luther tuna tte make / feay. For cumple, vat eld ou owed the vwer vllegk — Sibvaemtante rea tubo I Sete Gediichod «lMlecklagedimanenbdainigh Meeecaeumecastst (MS Ae niniaia wuseeyamckagh meaenosaaee mt \ adrawit sure to draw the object the way you really see h— ie Reenter t lea ing, be stu to draw che eject th eal beet anon oe } | inal the uaty you think i should Ibok, Foreshortening Ielps create ) ‘a thtee-dimensional effect and often prov ies dramatic emphasis. Study the examples here tosee how foreshoutening influences ther sense of depth, rte ungussint argos hae anlage teat ‘Wethybesnntosp: te sana ans ont ver Ta Derternatiene cry fangs sma oeoreecbec thyme } cetsrevatie. _‘ouaatiovenr a | ‘i 2 tomsaenny. ‘he rgheam signocting Dy perapecve because ‘oievions ante feast 30, ‘othe for appa etay bata ‘hey wads nema The owe eg - forenormetbeauie teyare mee | ecty tore theviewe st of behnathelege-renenter 4 wa ouca at (ick Viewwith Angled Head ad Aras bien, rst olthebadysenthe ane pan (apres he Fee dane este head and ame ala ty ap temthesney 20 theyappe rte anal hen Cangaresuir neretot ab Focus ON FINGERS “¢ wens on ee ee eteattqranctonaini esha ihn foreshore x you mt oget Keg thereto: tetpan etme pa ‘everghing youknow about propertionand draw = A = ‘cqualinsize. when: ofthe rounded finger Satyr scetsienlofaayeumpectmace oF . Sanaa ure tas le m6 eollong aaa epee A Nc (EB) mrtrrreeerecctc tern ate Conamsecoaqo « ——) inratterrarear fanart co UNDERSTANDING LIGHTING Atinnsam ssa of doing—espcily when daving Sp Oe Fe sehen ie people—is lighting the subject. Lighting can have a dramatic eae ate ear ea Hct on the flutes appearance elciing am emotional tesponse eae from the vewer and seting the mood ofthe drawing Subtle Gi tny nats onpen pote lighting often is associged with wanquilty and can mabe a sub- Se a ct wo ea ect appear soft and smooth, This type a lighting ends © ghee eee ee the mod, generally nding a more cheerful el wo the compose Suen cht cot andere st ton. On the other hand, traigighting makes i cir ose ge eesti ro peste mediate a fant the contrat between ight and dad, which can add drama and ierecataun tote Ime the subjec appear mote preckely formed. Longer shows ee Can mate ihe mood ofa porra. producing an air of pensive nes, Seneracaine Here stong shadows on the subjects fae make her subi se “sanyo a seem refetve rather than conte isiapeceeteee Step Tae Sutctingtea Spend, bain ” range easy agengihe ere ans {heh ersingumessed ner as hecranng pogreswsnetnsthe tin misjam asing (daatha tam skagen hash ack fetta ansrtteeshage ones ct rere het gers anatte shapes ofthe snot thecsea shape oh ge =chacigtolnc cae igrengancrocaullcome nxt step Tee nae ork 0 Shecawesie seer (ae Seu got aan fe shan Mntoyer Siem dere ett voereheigcs hints rs Tiere manatier te ose Sura hesars waa oo Seve wen qatem maeeateg Ont fox dogaatnatouysaiex nay rm he It octane shes cn ca bye es othe ejecta ‘Steprour chase skins gig, geal toh exp hare highs sromect aoe siprermiingshadng gulls Then daw he sta! he stects {Rie llogigiteloiran!arvesctthe itcovahelomandlendrgthe his sreisuhke Mer add etleto he shoes urea sBpenclta ree madecontast (vie snag heise ofthe Wey aang feu mre valuert the at and aaungite cutie ofthe shan enthataa Lak styau wees Pst eae {deck te placement near gM! you higigisané cx alu Then apy 363" ‘it shag tbo las cfthechakansehace hewn coat ane LIFE DRAWING (FULL Bopy) rang rom ive model aso called ing fom Me" ap Ota Wigan pei ead Cr lfe dain”) isavonerfulenercse nding the 2aprtoeerahrag a fname ely aac ches sal pallens Dursley Seg eee ee ese Tends mold oertortag ow drevbgberasyere” hace mediaaereaceatetioea eh ales ch a Ne ea taka! he cag Foreshatan instead focused on quihly recording the gesture and speci deals of your model before he or she maves, resulting in a spontaneous. uncomplicated finished drawing. Take advantage team heritlg is ngectowa te deat of available model—your children, otlerfamily members, o¢ friends —where ver possible. When drawing ftom Ie, be sure the pose i comfortable for the model. Allow shomt beaks for your models (also providing you time to rest), and don require them to smile, as this cam te ou thelrfacial museles. Because youre working ata faster pace, drawing from Ife will help you sam freedom and flex bilay—both of which will benelit your duawings regardkess of the type of reference. I also will help you appreciaie the subtle es the eve perceives that the camera can'— ‘such a6 the winkle in this man’ eye! ‘Step Ta begin orte te shapes Incatng te chinigandshoes then beck be mata a ben sndplrepuldlneatothetadateren Say Se trade's ees at hte progr tre apace Sigatesures ita em amserge pertane StepTivee wi 38 pert, rae w het foxes _nareénethechapes othe ad. ncuang ee, har. 2nahat thenhore hereto fe boo. ra te kc ‘ndceuatsethe tate maagent he tngersente lt Sales Comrue by sig seh, esac the farrak ancte modes ck. ry Sepree Using 2 pen gists, Face DETAIL ‘Taerente the Beal aps tpvery deritanew seasofthe Bear, ‘towing the gaps between lanomgtheareasuie fengiesia une else his, \wutcne aapesof the wendezanahow hay ster a ges and shay Mao ae some afte ck ant gn etch ne tapecot necatena ome. ie ‘tape Ugly chaste fea saingysarstchests felt ate pants hasta ean hs tethaayex nose mathe a nak sty your asl ne tat etl aca Than hae te clamngané naa ae where ight coming fom anda elite 2 stacous a: mee enfant sion of pth. {be caveces Yaryareasare we gt orton ak, austen asmecesany BRIDAL PORTRAIT pecial occasion photas, such as a bridal potrait, provide great references for dawing people. When drawing a bride, focus on capturing the key elements that symbolize the eveim, such as the vell, bouguet, ane gown. The deaails of these objects are always Unique to she particular subject, making Lt easy te achieve a Ukeness, Pay special attention to she way the gown aud veildrape, the small details on the gown, the way the veil ftson dhe bride's Read, and how her hairs styled. Finally, be sure to capture the glowing, expression on her face! ‘Step One Wiha 8 perch eh inte ape oe iu a area ater arty 6s eas aL St weh anova he ead. a! he ook she gomnis tog ecu inraasanss teuedeans ‘Ravyeu avant mage shenanctco smaller be H eaaontothe bc) (ry may take m ete wo ork gle fou toa fe suacts ene bay est fen cawibecestngoverey Ore yourenappy wine aac evs, oat guise faa Peres a4 ~ ‘Step Tow usngits tut guidins plcashe ay. son baghtingng he exten vel am etch nplacemert ‘Step Three Sitchis 2B pec Then she the lla Andcurdngtha tees sound he hat ese let ‘het Mphighenes tha a th hasan Nee ily tag he cresz an evel ince ae he fe as king ateutwhare fe Ig condo tom Bese ro wave senghighigrtsalony ne nage: fea aaggcte xiucncyo et ny, wie fc stam tet owes athe Bowe, sate fe ‘fapesc! neaiterem yes ofoners now eee facafeans. cranny heey psans aenteg ‘heshage ote oa. Than bin hy srucethe shina! ne fare ches, angarm cs inportan nto Pl cutaomeotthetenecr va highges CHILDREN’S BODY PROPORTIONS owing children can be challenging because you have to get their proportions just right er your d wings will lok add, [Child en's propoaions are much different than aduks’, and children's proportions change as they age. For example, a baby's dead iseniremely large in proportion to iss bod)—bus as the child grows up, the bead becomes smaller in proportion to the body Additionally, a childs bead is wider than i ¢ long, «i's rounder than that of an adult. If your deawings of children look too old make sure youlte not usingadul propartions! Proportion Scale forGrowth Years inte stor, ming {her eesanshedeste in elongate By agetve chi ete abst 3s ‘eaheassnhaghs ter eengatgthetony. fear seat the te face (wteetheyarekcategon aa ies the change grat a Fstsins leech ny bier owt ay at _ People wechihet fl ak hight botner the aero! Band ) stnsedon svaagescrly say yar abjecate | \ \ 4 ( \h JA ) \ sagetwe areene Young tee ‘ver teen 42 heads tlt (ahead 10 es beads) Thesis a) Toppers’ Limes ( SQ a ‘\ > x demand Want te smote As vay 388 ttyans ee nensccls———Anphan Feet te awh aes ues sel Deepa oan ne dow det munch by cians. the oats Pn oats are 2elutyanme, se xeamplesce eetow nt Teimgenzepumpsnateyeen hr. fomsans mal stages eet at CHILDREN IN ACTION 'o capmure children’s actions, train your eye to assess the essential elements of the movement, and then quickly draw what you see One way torapidly record details is dhrowgh a gesture drawing, a quieksketch establishing a figure’ pose. First determine the main sheust of the movement—or the line of actien—feom the head, down the spine, and through she legs. Then sketch general shapes around this line. AS you can see heve, aquick sketch is all you need to capture the main gesture—ar you always eam add details later. ‘Step One rH bter poathastwo eco! fue connie e:the lesruncanétiows acess / tMectes, owt tate Stapome pe otthcnswacan be am, an eaugn there i falerging braze anbaster chan a [sper toy gent aps recat eae mivtee | teeter snap arwrgsraghteletengn. —— SUNBT ue farearan minal staang, in ane he gull hrcorplted poetic ‘Than athe arms the ghee tor et eens ees asthis one, E'simportant Imosamart re aking. Lesa thesauri b's a, tedrc kept er nin wt he ‘Sheep indian othe xeon tay prepare etoutwehorrie seston { WIT y { \ Sip om opie piel fee ays teenth estan ten ‘Slaps ernie Insatahncon ay nbng and pe rove unespine staph hs Wl. vharahewagh Ebsbneas Te Aoyon ——undemeare bezel. bat yc cet Na Noe eA elles ea frarkhelshicngth sng eg now Rasy Sakek cusachistoywhenste ut vemaplex Wardha whaluce caving Un sen at tansona espns es rah, toa at. Regge esas 1 ar CHOOSING A POSE IN rerio yout in to Be noo ands cer pose vo rode! strikes is going to be perfect. Look for poses that are natural and hlanced, not stl er boring, Seme movement or texsion can make the pose more intetesting, but your subject should laak stable and comfortable in the position. Unless in motion, the model should nat have his or her arms and legs stretched out in all directions; instead, be or she should be mote compact and relaxed. The pose should reflect the personality or interests of the subject Take many photos to use as references, and evaluate them (or suitability EVALUATING PHOTOS ‘Step Ove vsgan pene bockinnetgue. Ace ‘neat above hacen fhe mainbesy masts 2 igs craing ought ovsrapping bay ats Selecting a Pte Reference Ipoh ‘te aiypc tusa sate, compact pose tut Blimae mba tutteboploasaltte ‘hanhvard pasos In act, thet hn goat tut poston hiseasisumes ioet angles hicks when heb ghe Step Two Now estine frome etiton Pace the enerea gard hres eae w tone pe ef once ans ages acca yr np, ecu, (erties Mh leead and wats yes the Findon the low oti ghtam. Beto he shaper Step Thre aie he guadines. ren we a8 penal teen thetic fares anche har vet fps {mere pier shape nace he Herat Renee ‘hayes tne ams eg andor, ereingunnerzes Ins wha mendes wase.ang"anictc ieee” the ders prngatne gre wht aay es an tale changes detonate, theaur dele {Sang he cheers is peta dy sichigupat esate (Wing 228 perc. eastacigahe na kth ow fi dracon ogra Leas ene vi paps ee hea hs eta Shuge sre Ipsec ante mck Une sary she pecan, {Indl hsb the epcnadlches Baan fe lopenheretheyaeinstndow;theasseckestotouthe tine de aga flpshew ts ern (ee "Shag he Fecnet if) Baga teshat thea! ofr eas atasou, uehsetie us ofthe Hgars A re sone sacionnganaztaes wnaringasatioa seesien yal ga SHADING THE FoRMS ‘Shading with warping vslues—fromblack though ‘Al shades gray toe enhance the Msn of depth ina daning. Elec breshadng aie ache “fe (ie and reakien oa eaning, When shading cya Sikalelementh Such ab ered erdlegh lke {le yourpened stokes fom tec uved forms, ‘satan inthecap amstrig it. Th on \ thas been exaggerated todemars tate te ferent i Srestionathe shasing Hes sould fll your strokes of course, wil be smoother wth subtle adstions and nigh hing ry acy shady sme lepers ng INDEX A Action. See Lines (of action): Movement ‘and action Age, depicting. 34-57, 76-77, 110 Anatomy, 25-41, 14 arms, 10-32, 83, 90 facial, 06 feet, 37, 81, 90, 127 hands, 35, 55,81, 91, 126 head and skull, 38-40, 96 legs, 436, 83, 90 {ors0, 26-29, 80, 124. See also Faces: Head: Muscles; Shelcion and bones Angles, 19 and active bedy. 85,86 and facesand heads, 48, 67, 72, 15 and noses, 69 Amtistie Heese, 90, 120,139 B Babies. Ser Chuklten (babies) Background and childten tn action, 87 importance of, 107 and placement of figures, 21 and portalts and faces, 18, 23, 52, 60, 107, 135, Blending, and clothing. 8 and skin, 102 and smudging. 13, and tomtillons, 8, 11, 117 and values, 123 anal whae charcoal, 9 and wsinkles, 63,110 Blocking in, 21.38.43. 4851, 52, 58 54, 55, 58, 68, 70, 73, 76, 79, 81, 90,99, OL, 102, 103, 104, 10F, 108, 110,111, 113, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 130, 132, L437, 8 Bady proportions, 78-70, 125, 136, Bones, See Sheleton ana bones Breasts, 28, Bristol board, 13, 46, 72, 76 Cc (Clasreoal, 8.9, 52, 52. 58,63, 89 Children, 15) in action, 87, 137 abies, 112,113, 116-117 beach, 21 body proportions of, 79, 146 faces and heads of, 22,23, 58, 74275, L213, LIMAL15, T6117, 81 abs of toddlers, 136 and porttalture, 22,23, 18 pomtaying features of, LI4=115, Chins, 39 and childven, LL2, 115,116,117 and elderly people, 56, 77, 110 and ethnicity, 122 and head and facial proportions, 66,98 and planes of face, 97 and porttaits, 88, 108 in profile. 45, 46-47, 99, 104, 105 in three-quaner view, 49, 99 Clothing, 82,85,90,91, 111, 115, 122, 123, 12811, 132, 133, 134,135, ha, 139 Composition, 18-19, 20, 21 Conte emyon, ° Contour d swing. 14, 88 Caosshatching, 11, 13, LLL D Depth and color of paper, 8 and eyes, 68 and foteshonening, 83,90,91, 29 and fale, 108 and light and shadows, 153 and perspective, 16 and shading, $0, 60, 139 and values, 10 Dimension, 10. Se also Thice dimensions Distance, 16, 20 Drama, creating, 106, 107, 130 Drawing board, 8, 46 Drawing elements, 10 Drawing table, 8,9 Drawing theeugh 100, 130 E Ears. 1,55, 66, 75, 88, 98, 99, 104, 105, 10, 112, 114, 115, 116, 123, 194 steps in diawing, 60, 101 Easels, 8 Erasers, & 8, 73, 89, 100, 101, 103, 105, 109, 110, 115, 117, 121, 123, 193, 14,135 Ethnic people, 38-59, 122-123 Eyes. hulls of 41, 44, 68, 100 Imrows of 46, 47, 52, 53, 56, 57.68, 100, 104, 105, 106, 110, 113.113, 114, 115, 116, LL, 120, 121, 122 and childeen, 74, 112, 113, 114,115, 16,117, 118 119 and elderly people, 54, 38, 76, 77, 110 and et leity, 58, $9, 122 franial view of, 50, 51, 68, 100 alasses for, 110, 111 and guidelines, 44, 73, 98 and head and facial proportions, 66, 88,98, 09, 136 intense, 52,53 and line af sight, 20 As most important facial feature, 68 and pout mits, 18, 88, 89, 102, 103, 106, Lor in profile, 44,45,46, 47, 68, 88, 100, 104, 105, and shadows, 97, 100, 106 and smiles, 71 stepsin drawing, 68,100 tn three-quarter view, 89 vowinkle in, 133 varying qualities of, 100 F Faces, 43-63 adult, 23, 45-57, 88-89, 98 anatomy of, 96 ebildven, 22, 23, 8, 112-113, A115, N67, Lea and emotionsand expressions, 23, 40, 52, 54,54, 55, 56, 68, 71, 86, 96, 100, ur,34 and features, 22,23, 41,44, 48, 50-51, 54,55, 60, 62, 66, 68-71, 88, 89, 98, 9, 100-101, 102, 112 male,62-63 mature, 16-17 and muscles, 38, 40 planes af, 45, $0, 67, 70,72, 73, 77, 8, 97, 123, 133 in profile. 23.44. 45, 46-47, 56-57, @-61, 67, 72, 88, 09, 104-105, or, 113 three-quaner view of, 48-49, 32-53, 73, 88, 99, 113, 134, 135. Ser also (Chins; Eavs; Eyes; Heads; Lips; Meuths; ‘Noses; Portraiture; Proportion (andl faces); Smiles Fair features, 120-121 Figures, placing in composition, 20-2b Fingges. See Ancaamy (han) Fixatve, 9, 39 Foreground. 21 Foreshortening, 9, 83, 90-91, 99, 102, 127, 129,12, 137 Farms, 10 Foster, Walter T., 43 Frecbles, 121 G Gesture drawing, 14,13, 137 Gheome, 13 Goldman, Ken, 5 Goldman, Stephanie, 25 Grading, LL Guidelines. Se Lines (guide) H Hale, 48, 47, 76 ‘locking in, 48. ids, 109 and children, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 1719, developing. 108-109 and elderly people, 36,57, 110 and ethnicity, 122, 123 facial 52,93, 105, 111, 132.133 fair, 120,121 fine, 120 apd highlights, $0, 73, 102, 103, 105, 106, 109, Une, 73, 98, 99, 104, 112, 13,12 cunlines for, @, 108 and partraits, 88, 89, 102, 103, 106, 107, 134, 135 ringlets, 108, 109 shiny Blick 59: and strokes, 50, 51, 52,53, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107,108, 109, LLL, 114, 15,122,133, 14, Bo Hands. See Anatony (hanes) Haching. 11,55, 107, 120, 131 Hats, 111, 132, 133 Heads adult, 23, 46-57, 66 and body proportions, 78, 79,125, 136 children, 22, 23,58, 74-75, 112-113, 1-115, He117, 118-119, 136. and composition, 18 and perspective, 17 planes of, 40, 07 positions and angles of, 67, 72, 75, 98 in profile, 3, 45~47, 56-57, 60-61.67, 72, 88,96, 28, LO-105, 113 ana sku, 38-40 theee-quanter view of, 48-49, 52-52, 73, 88, 99, 106, 113, 138. See also Faces: Portraiture; Proporiion (and heads) Highligtes and clothing, 134, 139 and ears, 101 and eves,44, 52, 68, 89, 97, 100, 114, 116, 117, 133 and faces, 37, 58, 71.97, 103, 139 and fees, 27 ana forms, 139° and halt, 58, 73, 102, 103, 105, 106, 109 and hands, 126 ana light, 10, [BL and lighting, 106, 130 and lips, 47, 70, 71, 101, 105, 117, 11,123 and mouths, 117 and noses, 97,101, 123 and skin, 131 and thtee dimensions, 10 and value seale, 10 India ink, 53.37.39 K Knives 8,9) L Life drawing. 103, 132-133 Lifting out, 13, Light ‘back, 106 and highlights, shading and shadows, 10, 40, 88, 97, 105, L065, 123,126, 17, Bs and Lifedmawing, 103 and planes of face, 97 and portale, 88, 103, 106, 118 strong natural, L3L Lighting, ® 106, 118, 130-131 Lines of action, 15, 84, 86, 87,92, 128,137 center, 18, 2 45,79, 84,98, 99, 112, 113,114, 138 and contour diawing, Lt division, 69.70.74 experiments wih, by great artis, LY fide, 18, 20,22, 23,44, 45, 47,48 49,50, 31, 52,53, 34,55, 57.38, 59, 67, 10, 73, 76,82, 85,98, 98, 102, 104, 107, EEL, 112, 113,114,115, 132, 14, 13) horizon, 16,17, 18, 20 indented, 13 looping, LS and pencil point, 12 perspective, 18, 20 practicing, different types of, 12 and shapes and forms, 8,10 stor and sweeping. 13 of sight, 20 and writing hand positon, LL iggagging, 19 Lips and children, 114, 115,116, 17,119 and dark shin, 122 drawing. 41,70, 101 and elderly people, 76,110 and ethnicity. 58,122, 123 and fue features, 12, feantal view, 44, 30 and ead and fact and ports, 88 in profil, 44, 45, 47,99, 104, 105 and smiles, 71 teequaner view, 49 M Men ‘body prapostions of, 123 elderly, 56-87 faces of, 62-63 three quaner view of, 52-53 Middle geourd, 21 Models, 108 132-133, 138, Mood and backgwund, 107 and com position, 19 and elderly woman, 33 and eves, 68 and Facial feanures, 100 proportions, 66, 98. and lighting, 106, 120 and strobes, 13 Mouths, 73. 101 and children, 112, 113, L14, 115, 116, ny, 19 and elderly people, 34,55, 110 and ethnicity. 122, and portiisuie, 88, 89, L03, 103, 106, 107 In profile, 44, 45, 46-4799, 104. See algo Lips; Smiles Movement andaction, 86, 92-93, 8 and balance, 84 and bending, wisting, and stretehing, 85 128 and children, 87, L3? and gesture draw ing, 15, 137 spon figures, 86, 137 Muscles, 26-37, 28, 40,80, 96, LA, 125, 26, RT N Noses. and children, 113, 113, 114, 113, ie, 117 and elderly people, 55,57, 110 and ethnicity. 38,122, 123 and eyes, 100 and faclil proportions, 98 frontal view, 30,31 and head proportions. mabe-up of, 41 and planes of face, 97 and portals, 88, 102, 103, 106, 107 In profile, #5, 46-47, 72,99, 104, 105 eps Ln drawing, 69, 10L Im thee quarter view, 48, 73, 09 types.of, LOL 0 Ourdoor drawing, & 9 i) Paper, 8,9, 12,47 Paperstump, 63,72. 77,82 Pencils sharpening, 9 techniques with, 11-13 types, Perspective, 16-17, 18, 20, 83, 90,92 Phowes: eboosing, 118-119, 138, and poses, 138 use of 14, 21.22.44. 46, 52, 58, 78 7, 80,00, 102, 106, 107, 120, 131, 134 Picture plane, 18,20, 21 Pointof interest, 1, 20, Portraiture and background, 107 ‘beginning, 22-23 ‘bnidal, 134-135 and capuuring likeness to subject, 102 and choosing plots, 118 and composttion, 18 developing, 88-89 and Life deawing, 103 and lighting, 108, and planes of head, 40, See also Fuces, Heads Poses, choasing, 138-19 Powell, William F., 65 Profil, See Faces (in praile) Heads (in profile) Proportion and adult body, 78, 124, 125 and child's body, 79, 87, 136 and faves, +H, 45,46, 47,48, 50, 51, ‘2,54, 57, 58, 3, 2, 88, 08, 99, 102, Lod, 112-113, 114 and foreshortening, 83, 90 and hands, $5, 81 and heads, 66,73, 74-75, 88, 09 and Ife deawing, 132 and lips. 70 and movement, 86 and multiple figures, 20, and poriaiss, 22, 23, 102, 103,134 and prollles, LO4 and torso, 29 R Realism, 8 68 71.82.84, 96, 109, 139) Rubbing, 13 S Sandpaper black, 9,12 Seeing, M15, Seurat, 13 Shading and background, 107 and bedy contours, 8 and bones, 66 and children, 74, 75, LIA, 1L5, 116, 117 and chins, 116 and clothing, 82, 85,132, 133, 134 and eats, @, 101, 105, 114, 116 and eyes, 8,88, 100, 102, 105, 107, 11, 114, 116. and faces, 47, 48, 50, 51,52. 53.54, 55,56, 57, 38, 60, 62, 68, 67, 72,73, 76,88, 89,07, 106, 110, L14, 115, 116, 117, 19, 120, 122, 123, 133, 130 and feet, 81, 127 and fixative, 9 and foreshowening. 83, forms, 139 and hair, 106, 108,108, 110, 111, 119, 14,135, 139 and heads, 40, $6, 66, 97 and lle drawing, 132, 133 and light, 10, 13 and Wglting, 130 and lips, 70, 88, LOL, 105, 14, 116 117, 119, 122 and mouths, 101, 102, 110, 116 and movement, 137 and noses, 69, 88, 101,105, 110, 122 and older people, 76,77 and pencil ypes, 9 12 and planes, 97 and porraits, 23, 88, 89, 02, 103, L435 and skin and wrinkles, 56,63, 131, 134 and smudging. L3 techniques, 11-13, and thinning hair, 56 and three dimensions, 8 and undevhand position, LL, 12 and wrinkles, 76, LLO Shadows: ‘est, 10, 58,97, 111, 131, 133 cote, 10, 97 and feet, 12? and foreshanening, OL and ands, 126. and beads, faces, and portraits, 22, 40, 83,89, 97, 100, 103, 106, LL and ight, 10, 97, 123, 13 and ghting, 106, 130 and three dimensions, 10 Shapes. 8 Task, 10 and childs body proportions, 73) and faces, 41,48 and figures, 21,29 ‘Skeletal structure, baste, 80, 124, 125 Skeleton and ones, 26-38, 41, 66, 77, 80, 96, 14,125, 126, 27 Sketching, and base of figure drawing, 20 and pads, 8 Skin, 34.56, 58, 89, 96, 102, 103, 110, 111, 131, 134, 196 dark, 122-123 fair, 120,121 and values, 123. Secalso Wrinkles Skulls. See Anatomy (hand an shall): SKeletan and hanes Smiles, 71, 89,101, 102 Seuudging. 13 Sippling. 13) Suokes, and background, 52 and clothing, 82,123 diagonal, $6,82, 107, 131, 135 and eyes, 100 and hair, 50, 51,32,53, 102, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, LLL, 114, 115, 122, 133, 134, 130 and hand position 11 ‘hatching, 11, 55, 107, 120, 131 and Lines, 12 and lips, 47 and mood, 13 and shading, 11,12, 13,44, 58, 106, 134,135 and smudging. 13 and tools, 9 T Teeth, 70,71, 101, 102, 118, 119, 122 Teutute and clothing 115 and paper, & and shading, 11 apd types of lines, 12 Three dimensions, & 10, 16,73, 81,90, 98, 100,111, 124, 129 Tose, 12 Tools and materials, 8-9, See also specific teas and mater tls Tortllans, 8, 0, 10, 1, 13,46, 110, 117, 13,35 Vv Values and background, 107 sdramatie contrasts in, 131 and fair features, 120. and form, 10 and hair, 102, 103,105, 107, 108 109, Ho, 111, 120 and lighting, 106 and lips, 47 and noses, 101 sea of, 10 and skin, 123, ‘arlations and gradations in, 10, 89,139 and wrinkles, LLO Van Gogh, 13 Vanishing points, 16,17, 18, 20 Ww Washes, 13) Women ody proportions of, 125 elie tly, 54-55 facial profiles of 4647 frontal view of, 50-51 three-quarter view of, 48-45) Work sition, 8 Wrinkles, 54,55, 56,63, 72, 33,136 Iheys 10 drawing. 110 Y Yau, Debra Kauffman, 95