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5 11 Substituting these values in the equations determined in Prob. 1.25, compute i the voltages at the nodes of Fig. 1.23. Numerically determine the corresponding : Zous matrix. : Solution: : Using the Yous solution of Problem 2.26, substitute the given admittance values. 7145 789 740 725 Y a a0 so 360 380) Ye | ° 740 j40 -388 0 Vs | 1.02= 90° os jaa 90 83] LM | | o6sezuase Compute voltages: You¥ = 7 You? YouV = You I 30.7187 70.6688 0.6307 0.6194 70.6688 30.7045 70.6242 70.6258 04307 50.7045 70.6840 0.5660 306194 0.6258 70.5860 70.6840 where Your! = Zou = Vou‘ j07187 70.6688 0.6307 0.6104 ° jose8s 50-7045 30.6242 70.6258 ° 30.6907 70.7045 0.6840 0.5660 | | 1.0790" Jo.61ed 0.6258 0.8860 70.6840 } | 0.68,—155° 0.9285 ~ 50.2978 0.9780 17.78 o.9251 — 70.3000 |_| 0.9728 ,=1802" o.g562- 70.2721 | ~ | 0.994) 35.89% 0.8949 ~ 70.3289 0.9534200.188 Chapter 2 Problem Solutions 2.1 A single-phase transformer rated 7.2 kVA, 1.2kV/120 V has a primary wind- ing of 800 turns. Determine (a) the turns ratio and the number of turns in the secondary winding, (0) the currents carried by the two windings when the transformer delivers its rated KVA at rated voltages. Hence, verify Eq. (2.7) Solution: ie) Mo ML eat mR ow 7M ‘Therefore, Nz = 12 (b) Sratce = VilreteeIltlares tod Vt lecee 2x10 = 1.2% 108 Wiha = 120 Valence 72x10 Miles = Tyqagor = 6 A 72x 108 Waleates = pg = @ A Leftchand side ofa (27; = B= Son efhend sdeofEa 27h = = Np iL Right-hand side of Eq. (2.7): > On Lefichand side of Eq. (2.7) = Right-hand side of Eq. (2.7) 2.2 The transformer of Prob. 2.1 is delivering 6 kVA at its rated voltages and 0.8 power factor lagging. (a) Determine the impedance Z) connected across its secondary terminals. (6) What is the value of this impedance referred to the primary side (i.e. Zi)? (c) Using the value of Z/ obtained in part (6), determine the magnitude of the primary current and the kVA supplied by the source. Solution: (a) Sp = |Si20 = 6x10 -36.9" VA hos = — oF ~ Sei 369° = 2423699 MQ = (1.924 j144) 2 (8) My? wy? . ae (R)a (Hi) a = ox 2ecseer 0 = 240236.0° 2 = 19245144 2 fe) Wil | 12x10 In = pe gt ao IS) = Milh| = 12.0% VA = 6 kVA 13 2.3 With reference to Fig. 2.2, consider that the fiux density inside the center-leg of, the transformer core, as a function of time t, is B (2) = By sin (2x ft) where Bry ig the peak vaiue of the sinusoidal flux density and f is the operating frequency in Hz. If the fux density is uniformly distributed over the cross-sectional area A m? of the center-ieg, determine (c) the instantaneous ux ¢(¢) in terms of Bm, f, A and t, () the instantaneous induced-voltage ¢1 (t), according to Eq, (2.1). Hence show that the rms magnitude of the induced voltage of the primary is given by |Ei| = VOrfNiBmA. (d) IA = 100 cm?, f = 60 Hz, By, = 1.5 T and Ny = 1000 tums, compute isl, {e) Solution: (a) off) = BU)A = B,Asin(2nft) (3) y $88. = WB, AS fsin2xf2)} = 2rfM By Acosl2af6) fe} By = Fplelthnee = MPa = VEnfN BA (e) With given values, Ey = VOr x 60 x 1000 x 15x 100 x 107 V = 40 KV 2.4 For the pair of mutually coupled coils shown in Fig. 2.4, consider that Li = 19H. Ly. = Lg, = 0.9 H, Ly2 = 0.5 H andr) = rp = 0 9 The system is operated at 60 Hz. (a) Write the impedance form |Eq. (2.24)] of the system equations (0) Write the admittance form (Eq. (2.26)] of the system equations {c) Determine the primary voltage Vi and the primary current J, when the secondary is (2) open circuited and has the induced voltage Vz = 1002.0" V (i) short circuited and carries the current Ip = 290° A 14 Sotution: (a} From Eq, (2.22) and (2.23), [E] = [Bt Br) 8] = om ( 38 gy 8] > ae [8 BBY 4 09 BB BTU = 107] 998 “YTB : (el) | {le} = mae 38 ! hence I 0.298 —90° A. ; Yi ALIo® Vv : (i) [ade] ~ wvsceee hence Vi = 1iT7a00 V A = 1ilgg0® 4 2.5 For the pair of mutually coupled coils shown in Fig. 24, develop an equivalent-T network in the form of Fig. 2.5. Use the parameter values given in Prob. 2.4 ond assume that the turns ratio a equals 2, What are the values of the lealage reacrances of the windings and the magnetizing susceptance of the coupled enile? Solution: yy = Ly:~alay = 19-209 H= 01 H tn = lna~ Lissa = 05-2% 09/2 H = 0.05 H Pla = 4x00 H = 02H Im = alg; = 2x09H 2 18H © = 120m tad/see ira yrsea eal Leakage reactances: 2, = 377 9 15 m= BA OQ Ta - » = Son wesn L L Magnetizing susceptance: Bm = = Gaeta S = 1aTdx 107 § 2.6 A single phase transformer rated 1.2 kV/120 V, 7.2 kVA has the following wind- ing parameters: 7) = 0.8 2, 2; = 1.2 2, 7) = 0.01 Nand 22 = 0.01 2. Deter- mine (a) the combined winding resistance and leakage reactance referred to the pri« mary side, as shown in Fig. 2.8, {b) the vaines of the combined parameters referred to the secondary side {c) the voltage regulation of the transformer when it is delivering 7.5 kVA to a load at 120 V and 0.8 power factor lagging. Solution: (a) With turns ratio a= 1.2 x 10°/120 = 10, ritelrs = 08+10x001 2 = 18 2 ito’, = 124100x001 2 = 229 R xX 1 Ry 2 Rife? = 18/1000 = 0018 2 Kyo? 22/100 2 = 0.022 Oo —, h % mk in [ fo {e) a a = (1843922) 9 7200 Bre = 1M] 28 = TR aap.9r A = oo s0e* A be Ae, = BEE = 6.0,-36.9° A eVae, = 1200 V arth rZ View 16 1200 + 6.0,=36.9° (1.84 j2.2) V = la65720.19° Vv ‘ Wrl = mov Wesel = Virw/e = 12166 % Regulation = (121.66—120) 190 = 138% 2.7 A single-phase transformer is rated 440/220 V, 5.0 kVA. When the low-voltage : side is short cireuited and 35 V is applied to the high-voltage side. rated current flows in the windings and the power input is 100 W. Find the resistance and reactance of the high- and low-voltage windings if the power loss and ratio of Teactance to resistance is the same in both windings Solution: 5000 io = Fp = 1.36 A (high voltage) 100 go. R= Ah, = orm a Rated! = = 22.78 A (low voltage) 35 Frag = 308 & (R, Z, X high-voltage) X _ 298 Soe OTe = = 288 3088 OFT? = 2.98 9 = x " For equal loss in high- and low-voltage windings, High voltage: = 2. oser 0 = = 5385x0387 = 149 9 220)? wow voltage: + = 0.387 x ( 220)" © Low voltage: os @) 0.097 2 220\? ts a0 (Ft) = 0373 9 2.8 A single-phase transformer rated 1.2 kV/120 V, 7.2 VA yields the following test results Open-Circuit Tesi (Primary Open) Voltage Ve = 120 V; Curent Ip 2 A; Power Wy = 40 W Shori-Cireuit Test (Secondary Shorted) Voltage Vi = 20 V: Current J) = 6.0 A: Power W, = 36 W 17 Determine tara, X, = x) + a%xt2, Ge and Bm referred to the (a) the parameters Ri = primary side, Fig. 2.7 (0) the values of the above perameters referred to the secondary side {e) the efficiency of the transformer when it delivers 6 BVA et 120 V and 0.9 power factor. Solution: (a} From open-circuit test, C Wy/VP = 40/1207 S = 2738x1077 8 Tal hfV; = 12/108 = 0.01 S Br, = yi¥alh- 62% = 9.606 x10-* § a = 12%10/120 = 10 Therefore, G. = Gia? = 27810 § Br = Br/a? 9.606 x 1075 S From the short-circuit test, R= Wifi} = 36/6072 = 10 9 IZ| = Vish = 20/609 = 333 9 X = yiZP-Ri = 3180 e) X/e = 0.0318 2 Ro = Rf? = 00 9 9.606 x 10"? S Gi = 27x SB, (2) When $; = 6.0 KVA and Vz = 120 V, 6x10 oR 50 A he Core loss at Vp = 120 = 40 W Winding loos at I, = SOA = [f|7R’ = 50?x001W = 2 W Power output at Sp 6OKVA at 09 pf = 6x10 x09 W = 5400 W 5400 1 = Speaoaas 7 881% 2.9 A single-phase transformer rated 1.2 KV/120 V, 7.2 kVA has primary-referred parometers Ry = 11 $a°r2 = 1.0 Mand X; = 2,-+a%x, = 4.0. At rated voltage its core loss may be assumed to be 40 W for all values of the load current. 18 (a) Determine the effcieney and regulation of the transformer when it delivers T2KVA at Ve = 120 V and power factor of (i) 68 lagging, (i) 0.8 leading. (6) Fora given load voltage and power factor it can be shown that the efficiency of @ transformer attains its maximum value at the EVA load level wink makes the T°R winding losses equal to the core loss. Using this recat determine the maximum efficiency of the above transformer at rated voltage and 0.8 power factor, and the kVA ioad level at which it secu, Ye = im0zo y 7200 9 oe . ty = FR n209° = 60/-369° A Total loses = 40-4 60° x EE w = 76 w Ourpat power = 72x 10x08 W = 5760 W 5760 7 = garryg * 98.608% he Mirw = o¥aen + 2k (ay 4 5%.) eo 80 7° Mart = 120x 10205 + = 36. (2.04-54.0) V = 1219.30.73 Mart = 120 VY Wem = Wyei/e = 2g v 121.93 ~ 120 % Regulation = ULSI) _ es (i) 0050 = 0.8, leading @ = 36.9° 7 88.6987 because it does not depend on whether @ is leading or lngging bs Vise = othr + 28 (Ry 4 9X) fur = 120 1008+ Beas 9" 1.04940) ¥ = nis06c13e 119.06 ~ 120, % Regulation a = ~0.78% (3) Load current at which 71s maximum is given by mp = p. Therefore, 0 El = \iari0e A = 63.245 A Winding joss at Wiz] = 40 W 19 Ouypur = 120 63.245 x08 W = 6071.57 W 6071 57 mee = STE = 98,700 % Corresponding kVA level 120 x 63.245 VA = 7.589 kVA 2.10 A single-phase system similar to that shown in Fig. 2.10 has two transformers ‘A-B and B-C connected by a line B feeding a load at the receiving end C, The ratings and parameter values of the components are ‘Transformer A-B: 500 V/1.5 KV, 9.6 KVA, leakage reactance ‘Transformer B-C: 1.2 kV/120 V, 7.2 kVA, leakage reactance Line B: series impedance = (0.5 + 78.0) 2 Load C: 120 V, 6 EVA at 0.8 power factor lagging 8% (a) Determine the value of the load impedance in ohms and the actual ohmic impedances of the two transformers referred to both their primary and secondary sides. {6} Choosing 1.2 kV as the voltage base for circuit B and 10 kVA as the systemwide kVA base, express all system impedances in per unit (c) What value of sending-end voltage corresponds to the given loading condi- tions? Solution: (a} Ohmic impedances 2 500 5 ‘ Transformer A-B Pomary: Sigs x 7005 = 51.202 9 15? x 108 aur Secondary: GE" Ty x 40.05 = j1LT19 9 22 x 108 Danstormer BC Primmar x = Fax aor * 708 = F808 Seconda 20? P Secondary: «oy x JO = 7008 2 ME ne = 2 eons = 24r359° Load: wr! = Se. = 242369" 9 (0) Impedance bases 12? x 108 Cireuk B: AE = as 2 Cuca c; 120 = 14a Tx 18 20 Per unit impedanees on new bases: 179 ‘Transformer A-B: ‘= 0.08138 per unit ‘Transformer BC: j= = 50,0558 per unit Line 3: , = 0.0108 + 30.0208 per unit Load: 74 2960* = 1.607236.9" per unt (ec) Sending-end voltage calculations SE alone sean08 RE. "038 161.269" 5 (oma) S157) Va = 120V = 10 per unit Vg = 10 RERTABBSE C0010 + FOASTTE) oy oe ie 1867 (65° ‘The sending-end voltage base is Ve = — 300 a = Vayu = Te cyge % 12% 10° = 400 V ‘Therefore, the required sending-end voltage is Vs = 400 x 1.0642 = 425.69 V 2.11 A balanced A-connected resistive load of 8000 kW is connected to the low- voltage, A-connected side of a Y-A transformer rated 10,000 kVA, 138/13.8 KV. Find the load resistance in ohms in each phase es measured from line to neutral on the high-voltage side of the transformer. Neglect transformer impedance and assume rated voltage is applied to the transformer primary. Solution: Mined R 2.12 Solve Prob. 2.11 if the same resistances are reconnected in Y. Solution: I the &-connected resistors are reconnected in Y, then the resistance to neutra! will be three times as great and R = 2x 2380 7140 2 21 2.13 Three transformers, each rated 5 kVA, 220 V on the secondary side, are conected. A-A and have been supplying a balanced 15 kW purely resistive load at 220 V. A change is made which reduces the load to 10 kW, still purely resistive and balanced. Someone suggests that, with two-thirds of the load, one transformer can be removed and the system can be operated open-A. Belanced three-phase voltages will still be supplied to the load since two of the line voltages (and thus also the third) will be unchanged. To investigate further the suggestion (a) Find each of the line currents (magnitude and angle) with the 10 KW load and the transformer between a and ¢ removed. (Assume Va, = 22020° V, sequence @ bc.) {) Find the kilovoltamperes supplied by each of the remaining transformers. (c) What restriction must be placed on the load for open-A operation with these transformers? (2) Think about why the individual transformer kilovoltampere values include a Q component when the load is purely resistive. Solution: = & {a} Vas and Vee remain the same after removing the third transformer, so Veg is also the same and we have a three-phase supply, and these voltages are: Vou = 200° V, Vie = 220, 240° V and Veg = 2202120 V. Then, Van = 127 230° V, Vin = 1272210° V and Ven = 1272908 V. The line currents are 10,000 000 ag? = 26.24 =80° Vax eA 26.24.2210" A 26.2690 (B} EVAcuppties = 220 x 26.24 x 1078 = 5.772 KVA {ec} The load must be reduced to (5.0/5.772) x 100 = 86.6% or 4.33 kW for each transformer. (d) The current and voltage in each of the remaining two transformers are not in phase, Output of each transformer before the reduction in ioad is, S, = Vas] = 22020% x 26.242.30° = 5000-4 52886 VA Si = Wael? = 200,605 x 26.242.270° = 5000 — j2886 VA ] i Lt 22 Note that Q is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. There is no Q output from the open delta. After the joad reduetion, Ss; S: 4333 + 42500 VA, 4333 — 72500 VA 2.14 A transformer rated 200 MVA, 345Y /20.5A kV connects a balanced load rated 180 MVA, 22.5 kV, 0.8 power factor lag to a transmission line. Determine (a) the rating of each of three single-phase transformers which when properly connected will be equivalent to the above three-phase transformer and (} the complex impedance of the load in per unit in the impedance diagram if the base in the transmission line is 100 MVA, 345 kV. Solution: {a} Fach single-phase transformer is rated 200/3 = 66.7 MVA. Voltage rating is (845/¥/3) /20.5 of 199.2/205 KV. ® (22.5) Load Z = - cos 10.8 = 2.813687" © (low-voltage side) A the BaseV = 205 kV Base 2 = PSP _ 520 9 2a Load Z = 5548687" = 0.669296.87° per unit 2.15 A three-phase transformer rated 5 MVA, 115/13.2 kV has per-phase series impedance of (0.007 + j0.075) per unit. The transformer is connected to a short distribution line which can be represented by a series impedance per phase of (0.02 + 0.10) per unit on a base of 10 MVA, 13.2 kV. The line supplies a bal- anced three-phase load rated 4 MVA, 13.2 KV, with lagging power factor 0.85. {a) Draw an equivalent circuit of the system indicating all impedances in per unit. Choose 10 MVA, 18.2 kVA as the base at the load. {b) With the voltage at the primary side of the transformer held constent at 115 kV, the load at the receiving end of the line is disconnected. Find the voltage regulation at the load. 23 Solution: {@) Base voltages are shown on the singleline diagram new BE Gav oat Haccner 2 = 22,a00" joer) = 006-0150 per un Vs 1.0 per unit Lint 2 = 082-69010 proms (13.2)? x 1000 st vend 12) = BEA ese 0 sun Zaria = 82? ore a Lodz = 256 = 2.50231.8° = Fis arr perune abe = 080 ‘002-010 {values are in per unit) (8) Voltage regulation calculations 16 1.0 te 0014 +0.02+ 2925+ 701504 010+1317) Fe08ca5.aT° = 0.375 2-95.97" per unit Vere = OS762-8597° x 252818" = 0.997 24.37° per unit Vawe = VR = %100 = 6.72% aaa7 2.16 Three identical single-phase transformers, each rated 1.2 kV/120 V, 7.2 kVA and having a leakage reactance of 0.05 per unit, are connected together to form a three-phase bank. A balanced Y-connected load of 5 © per phase is connected across the secondary of the bank. Determine the Y-equivalent. per- phase impedance (in ohms and in per unit) seen from the primary side when the transformer bank is connected (a) Y-Y, (b) Y-A, (c) A-Y and (4) A-A Use Table 2.1 24 Solution: (e} Y-¥ connection: Lary 20 e q (Vist 12x18 x V3 V ix T285kVA wiv —rim 3 rao p r : nes = wo 9 Be ~ (38) w * (12v9)’ x08 [Mel a 200 9 4 Tx xs X, = 005 per unit = 200x0.059 = 10 9 Zi = (9004510) 9 (8) ¥-4 connection: votre 20 ix 72K38VA Weel 3200 x VB-V rn —_ip— Wal = 320 -V r r 2 12008 7 : R= 5x (24) isco Xi; = 10 9 from part (2) Zi, = (18004 j10) 9 ® ¥ {e} S-¥ connection: awry 1% caer Wis! = 1200 V mn 3 Vd = 120V3 Vv r » 5, (2200)? _ 500 _ . : & R= ox (3) p= 16867 Da Re 2200" 2 = syxaxte ~ 067 8 Xp = 005 per unit = 6667x0059 = 353 0 Zi, = (166.67 + 53.33} 2 nave (2) 0A connection: ME Wil = 1200 rH Val = 120 -V Tr cr 2 . : & 1200 e me R= 5x (BR) = ow 0 X= 8.33 9 from part (¢} 4 Zi, = (80049333) 9 2.17 Figure 2.170 shows a three-phase generator supplying load through a three- phase transformer rated 12 kVA/600 VY, 600 kVA. The transformer has per- phase leakage reactance of 10%. The line-to-line voltage and the line current at 25 the generator terminals are 11.9 KV and 20 A, respectively. The power factor seen by the generator is 0.8 lagging and the phase sequence of supply is ABC. {a) Determine the line current and the line-to-line voltege et the load. and the per-phase (equivalent-Y) impedance of the load. {b) Using the line-to-neutral voltage Vz at the wansformer primary as refer- ence. draw complete per-phase phasor diagrams of all voltages and currents. Show the correct phase relations between primary and secondary quanti- ties. (c) Compute the real and reactive power supplied by the generator and con- sumed by the load. Solution (a) 12 x 308 Voltage ratio = a = SAM Curent ratio = 2 = 005-20" _ fx 108)? _ x = AEE ol = 240 8 ug , Let Vs = USyor uy = 687 kV vi Then, Jp = Ti, = 20-360 A EL = Tye” = 2x 2j-36% - 9" A = 400;-669" A Boca 2G) ww , ~~ 000 ‘aac arcsunasensie nee: theeaneenancerssiaate wit sme VE = Vs-3Xis = sarcot -( Kw 83.340 . ses yy = 220.65,-1.0° V Line voltage at the Joad, Line current at the load 929.65 33.34" Load impedance - Z, = Vi/i, = SS = 0smpaa6* 0 2 26 (e) ef = Vs = 6.87 LV ar Ve 6593 kV ver m296sv (e) Py+3Qy from the generator is V1, where BVsIf = 3x 6.8720" x 20/86." KVA = 412.20 36.9" KVA = 320.8 KW + 5247.3 kvar Pi +5Q1 by the load is 3VLJZ, where ayy = SERA OL yy ays 5580" WK i = 300.7 kW 4 928.7 kvar 2.18 Solve Prob. 2.17 with phase sequence ACB. ' | Solution: : (a) Final answers remain the same except for the following intermediate results: a = 202308 1a" = 0.05,—30° i Iz = Tie? = 400,236.94 30° A = 4006.0 A Vi = Visa = 320.65/-3.34° + 30° V = 329.65,267° V ® Vi 32965 0 a et, nt, Ven 657 EV > be Vim 6593 kv Ts 4 Riv ly = 208, (c) Same results as in Problem 2.17. 2.19 A single-phase transformer rated 30 kVA, 1200/120 V is connected as an auto- transformer to supply 1320 V from a 1200 V bus. (c} Drew a diagram of the transformer connections showing the polarity marks on the windings and directions chosen as positive for current in each wind ing so that the currents will be in phase. 27 (0) Mark on the diagram the values of rated current in the windings and at the input and output. {c) Determine the rated kilovoltamperes of the unit as an autotransformer. (d) If the efficiency of the transformer connected for 1200/120 V operation at rated load unity power factor is 97%, determine its efficiency as an autotransformer with rated current in the windings and operating at rated voltage to supply 2 load at unity power factor, Solution Connected for 1200/120-V operation (regular transformer), Poy = 30,000 W Py, = 30,998 W Loss = 928 W Loss remains the same in the autotransformer because current in the windings and voltage across the windings are unchanged. For the autotransformer, Pog = 250% 1320 = 330,000 W Py = 330,928 W 330,000 _ ergs * 100 = 99.7% Rated kVA = 930,000 Note chat, once we consider loss, we no longer have an ideal transformer; and both winding resistance and reactance as weli as magnetizing current and core loss must be considered. ‘The applied voltage and input current will be greater than the values shown to achieve rated output, in which case the equivalent cirewit corresponding to Fig, 2.7 would be used. 28 2.20 Solve Prob. 2.19 if the transformer is to supply 1080 V from a 1200 V bus Solution: 2904 Asin Prob, 2.19, Loss = 928 W. As an autotransformer, Pou = 250 x 1080 = 270.000 W Py = 270,928 W 270,000, Froang *100 = 97% Rated KVA =: 270,000, but see the note which accompanies the solutiox. of Problem 2.19, 2.21 Two buses © and ® are connected to each other through impedances Xj = 0.1 and X; = 0.2 per unit in parallel. Bus 6 is a load bus supplying a current I = 1.0;—30° per unit. The per-unit bus voltage V, is1.020°. Find P and Q into bus b through each of the parallel branches (a) in the circuit described. (6) if 2 regulating transformer is connected at bus d in the line of higher reactance to give a boost of 8% in voltage magnitude toward the load (a = 1.08}, and (c) if the regulating transformer advances the phase 2° {a= e/™). Use the cireulating-current method for parts (b} and (c), and assume that V, is adjusted for each part of the problem so that V, remains constant. Figure 2.26 is the single-line diagram showing buses a and b of the system with the regulating transformer in place. Neglect the impedance of the transformer. n= Solution: (c) Thru X, the current is Z = 3 x 1.0,—30" = 0.577 ~ 0.893 and thru Xz the current is Ja = § x 1.0p230° = 0.289 ~ 70.167. Into bus ® thru Xi, P+5Q = Vuh = 0577+ 30.333 per unit 29 and into bus @ thru Xa, P4jQ = Valp = 0.2894 50.167 per unit 0.03 (8) AV = 008; ve = Soy = —308 Jy = 0877 — 70.333 —(—30.1) = 0.877 ~ 70.283, Fy = 0.289 ~j0167 +(-J0.1) = 0.280 - 0.267 Into bus @ thru X;, P+jQ = 0.577 + 50.233 per unit and into bus ® thru X3, P+ jQ = 0.289 + 30.267 per unit fe) AV = Locat-10 = 0904+ joous 10 ~ nes. joes Tove = 2M BONE 935 jee Ty = 0.877— 70.333 - (0.316 + 70.002) = 0.461 — 70.835 Tz = 0.289 ~ 30.167 +0.126 + 70.002 = 0.405 — 70.165 Into bus © thru X1, P45Q = Vr = 0461+ 30.335 per unit and into bus @ thru Xa, P+jQ = VAI" = 0.405 + 30.165 per unit Note: Compare P and Q found in parts (b) and (e) with patt (a). 2.22 Two reactances X; = 0.08 and Xz = 0.12 per unit are in parallel between two buses © and © in a power system. If Vg = 1.05210? and Vj = 1.020" per unit, what should be the turns ratio of the regulating transformer to be inserted in series with Xz at, bus © so that no vars flow into bus ® from the branch whose reactance is X;? Use the circulating-current method, and neglect the reactance of the regulating transformer. P and Q of the load and Vj remain constant. 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