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The Moment of Truth

International Multi Journal (e-journal)

By CFTRA- Global Volume 1 No.1 , 19th July 2012
Editor : Dr. Neelam Tikkha

Dr. Neelam Tikkha

M.A. (English), MBA (HR), M.A. (Soc.),
DCE (N.D.), Ph.D. (American
Literature), TEFL (Tampa, US), IELTS (Cambridge UK)
Professor, English Department

Where I Met My Horizon

Fire Management of
A Multidisciplinary Critical High Rise Buildings
International Perspective (A Case Study of Delhi Area)
Editor : Dr. Neelam Tikkha Author : Dr. Neelam G. Tikkha

If egg is broken
Labor to keep alive in your
breast that little spark of
celestial fire, called conscience.
by outside force,
life ends.
George Washington

If broken
by inside force
life begins.

Other Books of Interest by Dr. Neelam G. Tikkha

Spoken English
Great things
Impressive Letters
Personality Improvement always begin
Common Mistakes Made by Indian Speakers of English Also available as e-book at:
101 Stories and Jokes for Elocution.
from inside.
Essay for International and Competitive Exams
(IELTS, TOEFL, IAS) ISBN 81-86067-16-7

Word Power
Conversations at Jewelers Store
Communication skills for small children 9 78 9 380 51 4 8 6 4
Ist International Web Conference
Organized by

Edited by Dr. Neelam G. TIkkha Theme : Teaching and Learning in 21st Century

ISBN no. 81-86067-16-7 Key note presenters

Copyright @CFI 2012. Publishers: CF International, 1. ML Goel

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The book The Moments of Truth (A Multidisciplinary millions.
Critical International Perspective) has been dedicated
to Mr. Narendra Modi, Chief Minister of Gujarat India We welcome original articles and value the creativity and
who is a great source of inspiration and motivation . innovative ideas therefore there are no publication
We also dedicate the book to parents of all the writers charges. Scholarly papers on any topic in any discipline
who have contributed to the book, are accepted.
Dr. G.S Tikkha , President, Confidence Foundation,
Professor Rakesh Batabayal, Dy. Director , ASC JNU , V The Moments of Truth is a multidisciplinary book and
Sujatha , faculty and staff of ASC, JNU , Dr. Khurad , has double blind peer reviewed articles on many
Director ASC , Nagpur , Mr. Ravindra Fadnavis disciplines like, political science, law, literature, society ,
President MMV and Dr. Mrunalini Fadnavis , Principal business, pedagogy of teaching language , environment
MMV. and social responsibility.
Special thanks to all the contributors and Mr. Bhagirath
Kaushik , Vice President, The contributors have great experience in their field. The
S .Chand and Company. book also has two special invited papers First article titled
India's Caste System and American Pluralism by M. Lal
Goel, Professor Emeritus of Political Science, University
of West Florida and second article titled Giving The
Meaning & Purpose To Life, is a courageous saga of
making life fruitful.

Dr. Neelam G. Tikka

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HOD English Department
Dr. Neelam G Tikkha has done her MA( RTM Nagpur University
English) , MBA , Team Building ( XLRI) , Email :
Ph.D ( American Literature ) and TEFL ( US Cell : 09923399672
Florida Tampa ) . She is working as Professor
at MMV,RTM Nagpur University. She has
Taught at US and UK Universities She is
president of CFTA- Global, an interactive
platform for teachers and trainers. She wears another hat that is of a
Corporate trainer for MNC's like World Trade Centre, ONGC,
HPCL, Mercedez , HUL. She is winner of British Council
International Anecdote Writing Competition. She is an examiner
for Cambridge ESOL Exams. She has written 28 E- books on
Communication Skills, Soft Skills and Essays for International
Exams. She has been a key note speaker and chief guest for various
International conferences. She has won several awards for best
paper presentation. Cell: 09422145467
Dr. MM Niyazi, Head Of Tamil Nadu Region :
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Dr. J. John Sekar, an Associate Professor at PG & Research
Head Public Relations: Riya Watson, Department of English, The American College, Madurai, in
Email : addition to MA, and MPhil in English, holds a PG diploma in
Teaching of English from CIEFL, and PG diploma in
Editor: Dr. Neelam Tikkha Communicative English from University of Hyderabad, and
Reviewers: Dr. ML Goel, Professor Emeritus, Florida US Postgraduate Diploma in Higher Education from IGNOU. He was
awarded PhD in ELT by Madurai Kamaraj University. He has
Dr. Nidhi Tiwari presented papers and chaired technical sessions in
Email: international/national seminars and conferences on ELT and has
Cell: 9425303719 got his papers published in journals and proceedings with ISBN.
He has been a resource person for seminars on ELT in several
Dr. Nidhi Tiwari is Associate Professor of institutions. His areas of interest in teaching and research include
English at Regional Institute of Education ELT, History of the English Language, Linguistics, Modern
(NCERT), Bhopal (M.P.). She is an Eliot English Phonetics and Phonology, and Literary Theories. He
scholar. She has over two decades of teaching serves as a member of Board of Studies in English either as
experience. Her area of specialization is in University Nominee or a subject expert in autonomous colleges.
ELT, Sociolinguistics, Psycholinguistics, He is also a Counsellor in IGNOU for Certificate for Teaching of
Archetypal Criticism, Canadian Native Drama and Indian Writing English and language-related courses for BCA and MCA.
in English. She has published three books and has published many Currently, he is collaborating with Prof N. Krishnaswamy for a
papers in journals and books. Her publications include: Imagery book on Literary Theories.
and Symbolism in T.S.Eliot's Poetry, Critical Perspectives on
T.S.Eliot's Poetry and Linguisticality of Being in Native Canadian
Native Drama. Two projects on ELT have been successfully Profile : Dr Sanjay Kumar Singh,
completed by her. Associate Professor & Head,
Department of Humanities,
OPJIT, Raigarh
Dr Sanjay Kumar Singh is Associate Professor &
Head of Humanities Department in OPJIT,
Raigarh. Having more than Ten years
administrative and teaching experience, his specialization is in the
area of Indian Writing in English. He has delivered many visiting
lectures on ELT, Soft Skills and Human Rights. Dr Singh has
organized One International Conference, four National
Conferences, two National workshops, twelve workshops under
Faculty Development Programme and participated in more than 40
International, National Conferences and Seminars. He has edited FACE- TO- FACE
Young Professional- A monthly magazine for youths and has edited
four Books - Aspects of Functional English, Rainbow: True Now, for the first time ever, a collection of scholarly articles on a
Colors of Life, Elixir and Aangan Ki Dhoop. He is Editor of variety of disciplines like Law, Culture, Society, Business,
The Quest- A quarterly News Bulletin (OPJIT). Fifteen research Language, Literature, Social responsibility, Pedagogy and
papers, many poems and articles are in his credit He is recipient of Politics are reproduced in a book form. There are articles on
the awards- Distinguished Leadership Award, Creative Giant experiences of real life after which the book has been named; THE
2007, Subhadra Kumari Janma Shatabdi Samman, Rastra Moments of Truth - A Multidisciplinary Critical International
Bhasha Ratna Samman, Rambriksha Benipuri Samman, Perspective .
Padmashri Laxminarayan Dubey Smriti Samman, Biswi
Shatabdi Ratna Samman and Honorary Degree of Achrya. All the articles in this book have been double blind peer reviewed
and ensure quality work. Dr. Neelam Tikkha has labored hard to
bring this volume which is a tribute to the world of knowledge. The
book provides an experiential read for all Academicians, Scholars
and in fact anyone interested in enhancing knowledge.

Dr. Jaydipsinh K. Dodiya

Dean, Faculty of Arts, Saurashtra University,
President, Indian Association for Canadian Studies.
Professor and Chairman Board of Studies,
President Vice President
Dr. G.S. Tikkha , Mrs. Kanti Bharadwaj, The Moments of Truth - A Multidisciplinary Critical
LLM, MIRPM MA, B.ED, Sahitya Ratan International Perspective, is unique in its endeavor . The articles
are from various disciplines and range in their approach yet there a
reader feels a beautiful thread around which these sparkling beads
of scholarly articles are woven with great care which provides an
interesting reading. The scholarly articles are interesting case
studies which have added new dimension to the field of knowledge
and research.

Dr. M.M. Niyazi

SB City College,

Write to Us : Join CFTRA Global or publish

the work kindly write to us at
CONTENTS Soft Skills
Invited Papers 13. Dr. Neelam Tikkha :Soft Skills for the Gen Y 163-172
1. M. Lal Goel : Professor Emeritus of 14. Kurapati Malati Latha : Soft Skills@21st 173-178
Political Science, University of West Florida Century
India's Caste System and American 15. Kiran Bableshwar :What they don't teach us
Pluralism 179-182
in college!
The Moment Of Truth 16. Dr. Neelam Tikkha : Oh ! Where have my
2. Varun Arya, Giving the Meaning & Cindrella and Red Riding Hood 183-189
19-46 disappeared???
Purpose To Life
Culture and Society 17. Yogesh V Kshirsagar : Soft Skills Training for
Young Graduates 190-200
3. Dr. JJ Sekar : Taminglish: A Study in Social
Psychology of the Tamils 47-63 Literature Section
4. Dr. Neelam Tikkha: Is English in the loop of 18. Dr. Nidhi Tiwari : Promise of Ecofeminism-
Glocalization? An Ecofeminist Reading of Gita Mehta's A 201-211
5. Sunand T : Miscommunication At The River Sutra.
Workplacean Interpersonal Approach 19. Dr. Neelam Tikkha : Changing Identities of
6. Ms. Sharmistha Das: Citizen Journalism and Women A Refection of Culture
New Media: A New Challenge to the 88-97
Mainstream Media Language Teaching
Business, Environment and Sustainable 20. Dr Shree Deepa : Humor and the Language
Development Classroom: Wedding Possible?
7 Dr. Neelam Tikkha : Shopping is an 21. B. Sreekanth Reddy :Action Research - A
98-107 Device to Solve Language Issues in English 256-263
Indulgence in Greed
8 Dr. Neelam Tikkha : Ethics and Law A
108-117 22. Dr. Neelam Tikkha : Challenges in teaching
Shocking Culture
English Language to economically weaker
9 Dr. Neelam Tikkha : Nanoparticles Pollution 264-271
118-123 sections of Children from Vernacular
A Murder of Sustainable Growth medium.
10 Dr. Neelam Tikkha : A Mile for Several 23. P. Hiltrud Dave Eve : Value based teaching of
Smiles -CSR, Sustainability and Local 124-135 272-278
Community Development
11 Dr. Neelam Tikkha : Sustainable Growth - The Moments Of Truth
The Tribute to The Mother Earth Dr. Neelam Tikkha : Why People Stuff
Suggestion Box with Peels of Banana? 279-283
12 Dr. Neelam Tikkha : Dust to Gold A
Remedy for Mahagenco Power Plant
Indias Caste System and American Pluralism The caste system in ancient times was not static. Castes rose
and fell. Under extended Muslim rule, a number of caste
M. Lal Goel groups that fought against Muslim tyranny (for example,
Professor Emeritus of Political Science, Rajputs) were pushed to the outer edges of the social system.
Among the sweeper castes in India, one finds many Rajput
University of West Florida gotras.;
Different caste groups in India are comparable to different
Abstract ethnic groups in the United States. There are rich Italians and
poor Italians, rich Irish and poor Irish, and so on.
Throughout history, all developed social systems (European,
Historically, American ethnic groups practiced
Islamic, Chinese, Hindu) were socially and economically
endogamyJews married Jews, Blacks married Blacks and
stratified. No society is a mass of individuals. European
Italians married Italian, and so on. This is natural. People
society was organized along class, guilds, and religion
seek matrimony within their own social strata.
(Catholics, Protestants, and Jews), Islamic society along
Muslims, dhimmis and kafirs and so on. India had castes, or
The caste defined Indian society is a model of
more accurately, jatis.
multiculturalism. Different castes practice their unique
customs in marriage, child-rearing, food and worship. A
As a political category, caste in India is a result of British
multicultural society by definition is more democratic, open-
policies. The British introduced the category of caste for
ended, tolerant and freer. Multiculturalism is much in vogue
purposes of counting population in the census that began in
in the United States these days.
1871. The British began to rank order castes by status and
economics. Many petitions were filed by caste groups to seek
While there is much to celebrate about caste, any caste and
higher ranking. Castes began to be organized as political
birth-based discrimination and preference, where it exists,
movements. The British granted special electorate to the
must be combated.
Scheduled castes around 1931. Mahatma Gandhi launched a
fast unto death in 1932 to undo the partition of India on the Indias Caste System and American Pluralism
basis of caste. He almost died but he won.
A recent article in Newsweek by Lisa Miller indicated that
Americans are slowly becoming more like Hindus and less
Castes in India are different than classes in the West. Castes
like traditional Christians in the ways we think about God, our
are not structured entirely by economic differences. There
selves, each other, and eternity. The author cites the
are rich Brahmins and poor Brahmins. I grew up in rural
following poll data: 67 percent of Americans believe that
Punjab. As a general rule, Brahmins were among the poorer
many religions, not only Christianity can lead to eternal life,
section of society. This observation runs counter to the
reflecting pluralistic Hindu ethos rather than monotheistic
prevalent view in some circles that Indian society is Brahmin
Christian view; 30 percent of Americans call themselves
dominated and Brahmin exploited.
spiritual, not religious; 24 percent say they believe in
1 2
reincarnation; and more than a third choose cremation rather only in passing. They did not emphasize its importance in
than burial. http://www.newsweek .com/id/212155. understanding Hindu society. Alexander Dow of the East
India Company published The History of Hindustan in 1768.
To this list may be added the growing caste-like pluralism and He devotes only 1 page to caste.
multiculturism of the American populace. This essay
describes features of Indias caste system, its origin, the Caste did not strike early European writers as something
negative impact of Muslim and British imperial rule, and peculiar to India. They knew it in their own countries and saw
concludes with a description of the caste-like pluralistic it that way. J. S. Mill in his essays on Political Economy said
American social landscape. that occupational groups in Europe were "almost equivalent
to an hereditary distinction of caste".i
Caste is Indias badge. When we think of Hindu India, we Abbe Dubois, a French missionary, was one of the most
think of caste. Caste has become the subject of national influential European travelers. He learned Tamil and lived
shame. All have paid tribute to the caste system: Gandhi, among ordinary people. Dubois had difficulty in converting
Nehru, Ambedkar, Orientalists, James Mill, Abbe Dubois, Hindus to Christianity. He attributed this difficulty to the
and anthropologists G. S. Ghurye and M. N. Srinivas. Caste Hindu caste prejudices. Hindus are addicted to their
is a specter that continues to haunt India. Yet, Indias caste superstitions and prejudices born of caste affiliation. Nobody
based society preserves and values social diversity. can change them. His book Hindu Manners, Customs and
Ceremonies (1816) became the official gospel of the East
Nicholas Dirks tells us that caste is not the basic expression of India Company.
the Indian tradition. Rather, caste is a modern phenomenon.
It is the product of an historical encounter between India and Christian missionaries in general were frustrated in getting
the British colonial rule. Castes of Mind: Colonialism and Hindus to convert to Christianity. Caste was blamed for their
the Making of Modern India, Princeton University Press, lack of success. All the abuse was heaped on the institution of
2001, P. 5. caste and on crafty Brahmins who kept the masses duped.
After the 1857 rebellion, the British discouraged missionary
In pre-colonial society, Indians had multiple identities, activity. The British were fearful that interference with
consisting of temple communities, village communities, peoples religious customs would foment rebellion.
lineage and family groups, occupational guilds and
devotional societies. Caste identification was one among the Caste became rigid during extended foreign rule, especially
several social groupings. Under the British, caste became a under Muslim rule (1201-1707). A number of the caste
single term to categorize and systematize complex Indian groups that fought against Muslim tyranny were pushed to the
reality. See Dirks. outer edges of the social system. I have been told that among
the sweeper untouchable castes in India, one finds many
th th Rajput gotras, clan names. Writes Ram Swarup:
European travelers in the 16 and 17 centuries noted caste

3 4
With the advent of Islam the Hindu society came strengthened by the breast-beating of our own reformers.
under great pressure; it faced the problem of survival. Today, it has acquired its own momentum and vested
When the political power failed, castes took over; interests.iii
they became defence shields and provided resistance
passive and active. But in the process, the system also The caste system in ancient times was not static. Castes rose
acquired undesirable traits like untouchability. and fell within their Varna, the four-fold classification into
Alberuni who came along with Mahmud Ghaznavi Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. Different
mentions the four castes but no untouchability. He castes produced great saints revered by all. The great saint
reports that "much, however, as these classes differ Ravi Das was an untouchable Chamar, a leather worker.
from each other, they live together in the same towns Saint Kabir was a Jolaha or weaver.
and villages, mixed together in the same houses and
lodgings." Varna and Jati
There are four varnas (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and
. . .during the Muslim period, many Rajputs were Shudras), and hundreds of jatis meaning birth groups or
degraded and they became scheduled castes and genus. Jatis are communities by birth which practice
scheduled tribes. Many of them still retain the Rajput endogamy (marriage within their own group). The jati
gotra . . . marriage circle may consist of some 500 families spread over
The same is true of bhangis (sweepers). William 50 or 60 villages within a given region. Members of a jati also
Crooke of Bengal Civil Service tells us that the "rise follow common dietary rules and other social customs.
of the present Bhangi caste seems from the names
applied to the castes and its subdivisions, to date from Each varna is divided into numerous jatis, birth groups. Some
the early period of Mohammedan rule". Old Hindu jatis are small, numbering a few thousand members (the
literature mentions no bhangis of present function. In Saraswat Brahmins of Konkan region numbered 20,000
traditional Hindu rural society, he was a corn- according to a 1971 survey). Other jatis are large and number
measurer, a village policeman, a custodian of village into several million. Theoretically, each jati belongs to a
boundaries. But scavenging came along with the particular varna, but this is not always clear-cut. Some jatis
Muslim and British rule. Their numbers also misperceive their varna or do not know which particular
multiplied. According to 1901 Census, the bhangis varna the jati belongs to. Many lower castes identify
were most numerous in the Punjab and the United themselves as Kshatriyas.
Provinces which were the heartland of Muslim
domination.ii The four varnas are loose configurations with little
organizational structure. Jatis are better organized and jati
Ancient India had castes, but not casteism, the politicization associations are more common. When Mohandas Gandhi
of caste. Casteism is rampant in India today. In its present decided to study in England in 1889, he was chastised by
form, casteism is a construct of colonial period, a product of leaders of his Modh Bania jati in Bombay, not the Vaishya
imperial policies and colonial scholarship. It was
5 6
varna. The jati rules prohibited crossing the black waters. weddings (see more below). Modernity has seriously eroded
Gandhi ignored the protest and booked his steamship this feature even where it existed.
Hierarchy : There is some rank order among the castes in
Jatis vary by region and state. Chetiars are found in the terms of status and prestige. The rank order is not always
Southern states and Marwaris in Rajasthan; both are clear nor is it accepted by all. It varies by region. In some
mercantile communities. localities, Brahmins may be at the top; in another locality
Vaishyas or Kshatriyas may occupy that position. Status is
Attributes of the Caste System not co-equal with economic ranking. Brahmins may have a
higher religious status but most are poor, especially in
The following features are commonly associated with the villages (75% of India).
caste system.
Membership by Birth : One is born into a given caste. One
Endogamy : Marriage is restricted to members within ones does not voluntarily choose it.
own caste. This feature continues to hold sway even among
the modern sections of society, although weakened. Origin
Occupational Specialization : Different castes pursue The caste system has existed in India from very old times.
different occupations. Roughly, the following occupational Several factors contributed to its birth. I describe four such
specialization was practiced. Brahmins=priests and factors.
teachers; Kshatriyas=rulers and warriors; Vaish or
Vaishya=merchants and farmers; Shudras=service 1. Originally it may have been based on Gunas, innate
occupations such as carpentry, barbering, weaving; qualities, into the fourfold classification of Brahmins,
Untouchables=leather workers and sweepers. The feature Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. Krishnas words in the
was not strictly adhered to even in ancient times. In the Bhagavad Gita may be quoted: The four varnas have been
Mahabharata, Acharya Drona was a Brahmin by caste and yet created by Me through a division according to guna-karma,
he taught the science of weapons to his royal pupils, the qualities and work. (4.13) Even if once the caste system was
Pandu brothers. Modernism and urbanism has seriously a division of society based on gunas or innate qualities and
eroded the occupational specialization by caste. All caste occupation, the system degenerated. It became fixed in birth
members now enter government service, teaching and the and lineage. Sri Aurobindo writes: There is no doubt that the
professions. institution of caste degenerated. It ceased to be determined
by spiritual qualifications which, once essential, have now
Commensality : Caste membership restricts eating and come to be subordinate and even immaterial and is
drinking activities among members of the caste. This was not determined by the purely material tests of occupation and
true in rural North India where I grew up. Different caste birth.iv
members shared their food and attended each others

7 8
2. Like other ancient societies, India was once divided into a Indias Caste System and American Pluralism
number of tribes or endogamous ethnic groups. Each tribe or
ethnic group followed its own particular customs and Christians and Muslims in India do not escape caste divisions.
traditions. The tribal or ethnic groups became castes. Dr. Both communities are divided into a number of subgroups
Ambedkar has drawn attention to this continuity between which function like caste groups. Christians include Syrian
caste and tribe: Christians, Catholics, Protestants, Goan Christians, Adivasi
Christians and are also divided by state and region. A Tamil
The racial theory of Untouchability not only runs Christian may have little in common with his compatriot in
counter to the results of anthropometry, but it also neighboring Kannada, much less in Delhi or Calcutta.
finds very little support from such facts as we know Muslims are even more divided: Sunnis, Shias, Bohras,
about the ethnology of India. That the people of India Khojas, Ismailies, Ahmediyas,Wahabis and so on. Christian
were once organized on tribal basis is well-known, and Muslim caste groups practice endogamyBohras marry
and although the tribes have become castes, the tribal among Bohras and Catholics among Catholics. Admittedly,
organization still remains intact.v these practices are being eroded under urban and modern
influences. The following description of Muslim division is
Ambedkar did not subscribe to the racial basis of caste: i.e., taken from Imtiaz Ahmeds book, Caste and Social
the conquering Aryans became the upper castes, and the Stratification among Muslims in India, South Asian Books,
conquered darker races became the lower castes. The Aryan 1978, p. 142:
Invasion Theory on which the thesis is based is now
discredited and is no longer a dogma. While there can be little doubt that the Koran
recommends the egalitarian principle, actual practice
3. Migration of people creates new castes. Jews and Parsees among Muslim communities in different parts of the
who entered India to evade persecution at home survived as world falls short of the Koranic ideal. Particularly in
distinct groups within the multiethnic Indian social mosaic. India and Pakistan the Muslim society is clearly
Jews disappeared in China because of intermarriage but stratified. First, there is a line which divides the
survived in India because of separate caste identity. Saraswat Ashraf from the Ajlaf: the former are high and the
Brahmins on the Konkan coast in western India are a caste latter low. The Ashraf are further divided into four
group that migrated from Kashmir to evade Muslim ranked subgroups: Sayyad, Sheikh, Mughal and
persecution. Tibetan Buddhists who fled to India with Dalai Pathan. Some would regard Muslim Rajputs as a fifth
Lama in 1959 are a new caste group. Tibetans largely marry subgroup of the Ashraf. The Ajlaf are similarly sub-
amongst themselves and follow common dietary and dress divided into a much larger number of groups. All
codes. these groups, the Ashraf and the Ajlaf, are
endogamous. Furthermore, they are hierarchically
4. Religious conversion leads to new castes. When a caste of arranged in relation to one another, the Sayyads
weavers converts to Islam, a new caste group is born. occupying the highest and the Sweepers the lowest

9 10
The Ashraf-Ajlaf distinction is not limited to India or considered European untouchables.
Pakistan. One of my Moroccan Muslim students proudly told
me once that he was an Ashraf and that other Moroccan Just because untouchability existed in several
students at the campus were not. countries does not excuse the disability associated with it.

In Iran only Arab descent qualifies one to hold high Vilayat-e- Indias Caste System and American Pluralism
Faqih religious office. Only Arab descent from the Prophet
Muhammads Hashemite tribe qualifies one to wear the black I grew up in rural Punjab (Ladda village in Sangrur District)
turban. Other Iranian clergy wear white. in 1950s. My village contained some one dozen different
Hindu and Sikh jatis or caste groups. Population count was
Ethnic specialization received scriptural sanction in India. taken by the number of family units, not individuals. Of the
Other than this fact, ethnic specialization is not unique to total 300 families in 1950, the approximate caste breakdown
India. It is common around the world. The Lou tribesmen of was as follows: Jat farmers 180, Baniya merchants 20,
Kenya, who live next to Lake Victoria, are fish merchants. Brahmins 20, the service castes of Lohar (blacksmith), Nai
Because of their reputation and skills, the Lou control the fish (barber), Carpenter, Teli (oil presser), Jolaha (weaver) 30, and
trading business in countries of East Africa, as far away as two untouchable groups of Chamars and Churahs (leather
Mombasa. Even in the global business center of New York workers and sweepers) 25 each, for a total of 300 families.
City, there are ethnic concentrations by occupation. Hasidic Some 20 Muslim families of potters and weavers left the
Jews control the diamond trade in Manhattan. The village in 1947 to migrate to Pakistan or to majority Muslim
Vietnamese immigrants control and run most of the nail towns within India. Each caste was traditionally associated
salons, and Koreans run the convenience stores. Because with a particular occupation. But all did not pursue it. None
some occupations are more lucrative than others (diamond of the Brahmin families pursued the traditional priest-craft;
business for example), ethnic or caste income inequality is some did farming, others did retailing or labor. Many of the
inherent. untouchables did share cropping, in addition to leather work.
For each jati, the marriage circle consisted of some 40-50
Even Untouchability is not peculiar to Hindu India. It existed villages spread within a radius of about 50 miles. This was 60
elsewhere. The Packchong in Korea, Eta or Buraku in Japan, years ago. With the availability of modern transportation and
and Ragyappa in Tibet all had in common the fact that these communication, the marriage circle now encompasses a
groups performed work that was considered polluting and wider area.
impure. The work consisted usually of animal slaughter,
tanning of animal hides and scavenging. These groups The village consisted of four contiguous sections or
married within their own group (endogamy). The Eta in Japan neighborhoods, called behras. The untouchables occupied
lived separately from the rest of society. Their work was one of the four neighborhoods. All other castes were mingled
associated with death, dirt and blood, considered morally in the remaining three sections. Untouchable separateness
impure and Gypsies or the Roma people may be was not strictly adhered to. Members of the higher castes
bought properties adjoining the untouchable quarter. The

11 12
primary school I attended was located in the untouchable religion. Even though I left the village some 50 years ago, I
section of the village and nobody thought much about it. With make periodic pilgrimages there.
the exception of the untouchables, all other caste groups were
intermingled. They shared each other's food and water. They Mine was a peaceful village, like all other villages in the
attended each other's weddings and special ceremonies. Even vicinity that I knew. Inter-caste tensions were rare. Textbook
though food and water was not shared with the untouchable, accounts of inter-caste conflict are exaggerated or untrue.
they were an integral part of the village social and economic There was small scale thievery but little serious or violent
fabric. crime. There were no accounts of girls being raped in the
remembered history of the village. All lived in similar
My Vaishya family's three immediate neighbors were a housing, one or two room clay-brick houses with front
Brahmin, a Tailor and a Jat farmer family. No taboo about courtyards where animals might be tethered and cooking and
sharing food held sway. As a child I accepted water and food washing were done. Their possessions were few in number.
at the tailor's home (technically a lower caste Shudra) and Milk and honey did not flow, contrary to idealized versions of
nobody in my family told me otherwise. Nobody in the Punjabi rural life. But all managed a healthful organic diet.
village identified the tailor as a shudra. Only after reading There was the close-knit family and the larger village
books on caste did I know that the tailor belonged to the lower community that gave one the sense of belonging. Fairs,
shudra caste. The barely literate Brahmin neighbor pursued festivals and wedding feasts provided entertainment and
subsistence farming rather than the traditional priest-craft. gaiety. We lived reasonably contented lives.

Many descriptions of caste system popular especially in the In post-Independence India, caste has been politicized and
West are based more on certain ancient law books (for arenas of conflict have increased. Political parties now
example, Manusmriti, or the laws of Manu) than on ground accentuate caste and religious divisions in order to garner
reality. Even sixty years ago in 1950, hereditary occupation votes.
was not much followed. The principle of pollution and purity
did not strictly hold sway. The status difference among Economic Disparity : The Untouchables were somewhat
different groups was minimal. Only the practice of poorer than the rest in the village, but not by much. All were
endogamy remained. And, things have dramatically changed poor. There was no correlation between upper caste and
since my childhood. economic standing. Theoretically, Brahmins were supposed
to occupy the top rank; in reality, they received no elevated
Village identification was more important than caste or status, economically or in prestige. Jat farmers and Baniya
religious identification. When I left India in 1956 to travel to merchants earned better than other jatis including Brahmins,
the United States for study, the entire village walked two individual cases excepted. With land values skyrocketing in
miles to the railway station to send me off with their blessings. the recent decades, the gap between Jat and non-Jat is even
Many had teary eyes. When I returned three years later, a sharper. As 95 percent were illiterate, educational gaps were
similar reception waited for me at the village gate. My minimal. One of my fond memories as a young student was
emotional tie to the village is stronger than to my caste or to read and compose letters for the villagers. Letters were
13 14
exchanged only on special occasions--to announce births, exploited India.
deaths, and marriages. Even though most adults were
unlettered, they were not un-smart, unwise or ignorant. With In South India in contrast, I have been told that Brahmins do
all my education, I would not want to match my wits with hold land and property. Temple entry was denied to the
them. untouchables in the past. On the other hand, Brahmins are
systematically discriminated against in present day India,
The untouchables were fully integrated into the economic and especially in Tamil Nad. Reservation quotas in state
social life of the village. All worked together on the farm and employment for the lower castes are vigorously pursued all
all bought and sold from one and another. The embroidered across India. The temple exclusions for the untouchables and
brocade shoes I wore at my wedding were made by the highly caste-based discriminatory practices in employment of
respected village cobbler, an untouchable by caste and a course need to end.
friend of my father. I still own the flat-soled brocade pair. My
village was typical of the ground reality in rural Punjab as I Negative and Positive Aspects of Caste
saw it. The village had not changed much in several centuries.
Major social and economic changes occurred in the Caste has too long been the bane of Indian society. Negative
subsequent decades. In a 2010 visit to my native village, I aspects of the caste based hierarchy in status and economic
was informed that Jat farmers and untouchables not only differences have received much scholarly attention. Where
worked side by side on the farm but also now shared water, tea these exist, they must go. Caste based discrimination where it
and food. remains must end.

Brahmin poverty runs across North India. Swami But the positive aspects of the caste system need to be
Vivekananda tells us that his master Ramakrishna recognized. Caste based society is a tolerant society. It
Parmahansa was born into a very poor Brahmin family in celebrates our cultural differences. Different castes practice
Bengal. Writing about the Brahmins, Vivekananda observes: their own customs in marriage, worship, food and dress.
Minorities, whether religious, racial, language or ethnic,
You have heard of the Brahmins and their priest-craft retain their cultural distinctiveness within the larger Hindu
many times. . . They are the poorest of all the classes caste system.
in the country, and the secret of their power lies in
their renunciation. . . . Theirs is the poorest Caste system is a model of a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic
priesthood in the world. tolerant society. In contrast, egalitarian societies that
emphasize universalism (one set of laws and customs for all)
Writing about life in West Punjab, now part of Pakistan, often use force and coercion to achieve oneness. Note the
Prakash Tandon gives a similar picture of Brahmin poverty following negative consequences of universalism.
(Punjabi Century: 1857-1947, Chatto and Winds, 1961). I
write about Brahmin poverty to counter the often made Stalin liquidated 30 to 40 million Russians in order to
statements that Brahmins are the top dogs and that they have create a classless egalitarian communist society in the
15 16
Soviet Union. The same goes for Maoist China. My Master, delivered in New York City, published in
The Islamic conquest of the Middle East resulted in the Inspired Talks, Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, NY, 1987,
exile and murder of hordes of non-Muslims, called p. 157.
Kafirs. Non-Muslims, when tolerated, were turned
into Dhimmis, third-class citizens. Before the advent See Bat Yeor : Islam and Dhimmitude : Where
of Islam, the Middle Eastern countries were Civilizations Collide, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press,
religiously and ethnically diverse. Jews, Christians, 2001
and Pagans lived side by side in equal status.viii
During the Church sanctioned Inquisition that lasted Richard Zimler reports in his book Guardian of the Dawn
several hundred years in Europe, especially in Spain that the Portuguese Inquisition in Goa was the most
and Portugal, many were tortured, liquidated or merciless and cruel ever developed. It was a machinery of
exiled. Inquisition reached as far as Goa on the Indian death. Over the 250 years (1560 to about 1812), any man,
coast. woman or child could be arrested and tortured for simply
saying a prayer, wearing a religious symbol or keeping an idol
With emphasis on pluralism and cultural diversity, the at home. The Portuguese are nostalgic about Goa and think of
caste based society escapes such large scale onslaughts on it as a glorious island, peaceful, multicultural and prosperous.
people. Different caste, religious, ethnic and language groups Indians also are not aware of the horrors of the Inquisition in
follow their particular modes of living and religious belief. G o a . Vi s i t : h t t p : / / w w w. c h r i s t i a n a g g r e s s i o n . o rg /
item_display.php?id=1126738163&type=articles .
'Quoted in Ram Swarup, Logic behind perversion of caste,
The Indian Express, 13 September, 1996. There are different accounts as to when Christianity came to
Kerala. It is now generally agreed that Christianity was not
Available at: introduced by St Thomas in the first century but by Syrian
what-caste-actually-was-like/ . A must read piece. merchant Thomas Cananeus in the 4th century. See
Ram Swarup, Ibid.
Most Indian Jews have migrated to Israel in the recent
Ram Swarup, Ibid. decades for economic reasons. They did not depart because
of any persecution or discrimination in India but for
Sri Aurobindo, Indias Rebirth, p 27 economic advantage, as publically stated by them.
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Writings and Speeches, V 1, p 303. Koenraad Elst, Who is a Hindu?, Voice of India, 2001; Ch 1,
at: .
Harold A. Gould, The Hindu Caste System, V. 1, Delhi:
Chanakya Publishers, 1987, p 82-83.

17 18
Giving the Meaning & Purpose to Life of IIT Delhi and Secretary of IIM Ahmedabad Alumni
Association. He is presently on the Boards and Advisory
Varun Arya Councils of various companies, educational institutions and
other organisations. Presently he is also a member of IIM
Ahmedabad Governing Society.

Because of his firm belief that education, by definition, is

based on ethics, his journey as an educational entrepreneur
has been filled with unending hardships, risks, sacrifices and
Alumnus of IIT Delhi (1976-81 Batch) struggles much beyond his expectations and imagination.
& IIM Ahmedabad (1981-83 Batch) Some of his major satyagrahs (struggles to ensure that the
Member, IIM Ahmedabad Society & truth alone triumphs, despite all the odds) during the last over
Formerly President, IIT Delhi Alumni Association a decade have been :
E-mail :,
In the year 2003, he got drug mafia to vacate a public park
Prof. Varun Arya at Jodhpur through mobilization of the colony residents,
Director, Aravali Gurukul Ashram, Jodhpur administrative action and filing of Public Interest
Litigation in Rajasthan High Court which he won.
Prof. Arya is a first class graduate from IIT Delhi (1976-81
batch) and post-graduate from IIM Ahmedabad (1981-83 In 2004, he galvanized and organized thousands of IIMs
batch). Thereafter, he worked for 16 years in senior positions alumni from all over India and abroad to fight the
with the leading companies like Indian Rayon, Reliance and onslaught of Ministry of Human Resource Development,
American multinational DuPont. After having established Government of India, on IIMs.
and successfully run Aravali Institute of Management for 13
years, he is now associated with his dream project of By actively involving the support of villagers and
establishing and shaping up a top quality educational panchayat in 2007, he fought successfully against the
complex Aravali Gurukul Ashram including a university, onslaught by the local MLA and MP on the Institute
envisioned to be a model of no compromise blending the best campus land.
of traditions with the latest in modernity, at Jodhpur in his
home state of Rajasthan. In the year 2009, he got the All India Council for
Technical Education (AICTE) to confer approval to
Amongst the various positions held by Prof. Arya, he has been Aravali strictly on merit alone, after fighting for nine long
the President of prestigious IIT Delhi Alumni Association - years.
the apex body of over 30000 member alumni based
worldwide, alumni representative on the Senate of IIT Delhi, With facts and figures, extensive usage of RTI Act and
member of the Technology Business Incubation Units Board writs in Rajasthan High Court, during the last three years
19 20
he has been fighting successfully against Commissioner Over the last 54 years of my life, I have come to firmly believe
of Income Tax and Chief Commissioner of Income Tax, and realize that life is all about what you do with it, discover
Jodhpur who have been all out to harass him and Aravali with it, make out with it, get out of it and lastly, give back to it.
in view of his persistent refusal to compromise. If you wish, you can complain all the time about it and if you
wish, you can compliment all the time about it. The choice is
After fighting for six years including 145 hours fast at entirely yours! To be complimenting all the time about the
Jantar Mantar, New Delhi and extensive usage of the life, you have to necessarily stand out of the crowd. You have
Right to Information (RTI) Act, he succeeded on 01 to look at the life differently, passionately and uniquely!
November 2011, with the Government of Rajasthan
granting conversion approval to 94.4 acres of land for Opportunities Vs Threats
Institute campus, without any compromise. Life provides both the opportunities and threats. People, in
general, look only for the opportunities and hate the threats.
To build the campus, around eight years back he had The fact is that opportunities provide only the ordinary
purchased 236 bighas (around 94.4 acres) of private opportunities to which everybody jumps, leading to dilution
extremely high salinity wasteland at Village Kaparda, Tehsil of the strength in the opportunities. Whereas the threats
Bilara, District Jodhpur in Rajasthan on which nothing could provide extraordinary opportunities in disguise to which
grow, nothing could be constructed and there was no water hardly anybody jumps and hence the opportunities get
in/around the land. During the last seven years, this land has exemplified.
been painstakingly transformed under his leadership and it
now has 15 lakes having around 6 crore litres of water with Governance Deficit
migratory birds visiting, various water harvesting structures
People are generally found to complain about the government
including two bridges, over 6000 trees grown upto 15 feet, 60
practically all the time, especially in India. Yes, both the print
solar lights, three huge lawns of around 2.5 acres each, six
and electronic media in India everyday publishes news about
smaller lawns, a natural meditation centre with capacity for
the authorities in the government being mired in corruption,
2000 persons on a mound surrounded by 1500 plants, and
criminalization, favouritism, injustice, nepotism and red-
vegetables grown organically.
tapism. Yes, these all certainly demonstrate the serious
governance deficit in India. However, the fact is that since the
His endeavours have been extensively appreciated and
government does not do much, it provides us all the unique
recognized locally, at the state level, national level and
opportunity to do so much.
globally with a large number of honours and awards.
Introduction Stay Hungry Stay Foolish
Life is the greatest teacher. As the saying goes, while in the In his now famous Stanford University commencement
conventional exams you first get the learning and then appear speech delivered just a few months before his untimely
for the exams but in the life, you appear for the exams first and demise, legendry Apple founder Steve Jobs spoke about
then get the learning. Stay Hungry Stay Foolish.

21 22
Learning is a life-long continuous process. Learning leads to For every human being, I believe the first turning point can
development, development leads to competency, come around the age of 20, when you decide what type of
competency leads to results, results lead to success, success career to get into architect, bureaucrat, doctor, engineer,
leads to satisfaction and satisfaction gives meaning and manager, scientist, etc. You accordingly decide the course of
purpose to life. Therefore, to be satisfied with life all the time, higher studies. After this, if you wish you can have the second
we should yearn to learn all the time. We need to stay hungry turning point around the age of 40 when you can decide
for learning life-long. what kind of second career to get into. Then if you are hale
and hearty then you can have the third turning point possibly
When you take the first step towards doing what is perceived around the age of 60 when you can decide to have the third
to be impossible, people would call you foolish. However, career. Thereafter, if you are still alive and kicking then you
when you struggle, strive and succeed by ultimately can have the fourth turning point around the age of 80 when
managing to turn the impossible into possible then the same you can decide to have the fourth career. Of course, one can
people who had earlier called you foolish, would now call you have less or more turning points and at other ages as well.
extraordinary. Of course, it is doable only through focused
and sustained strength of character, strength of commitment,
strength of confidence, strength of conviction, strength of Core Human Values
cooperation and strength of courage. Therefore, it pays to stay
The Almighty or the Creator or the Nature made all of us as
foolish life-long.
human beings, with one community : Humanity, and one
Turning Points of Life common code of conduct : Human Values. The fundamental
human values are Peaceful Co-existence, Societal Welfare
Everybodys life has milestones the increasing years of life (Shubh-Labh), Equality, Merit, Quality, Ethics & Integrity.
as the counting goes on from the first step on the Earth to the However, the man made divisions within the community of
last step on the Earth. Generally people begin with a given humanity by creating the differentiations using castes, creed,
status at birth and die with the same or similar status, colour, class and religions. With these began the man-made
involving the usual ups and downs. They are generally not distortions in human values. Unfortunately the people at large
remembered beyond family and friends. However, few have come to accept these distortions and live the life with
people manage to also have the turning points involving these distortions. However, few persons come out of the
unusual ups and downs in life as they go ahead crossing crowd and create their own core values, generally derived
milestones. These few people at times are mystery and at from the fundamental human values mentioned above and
times make history. They are generally the change agents, chart out their own path forward.
institution-builders, leaders and path-breakers. They are
remembered by a larger population, besides the family and It is necessary to have your own core values and path forward
friends which create your unique personified equity and
demonstrate your distinct identity.

23 24
Pygmalion Effect Over
l 6000 plants and trees which have grown upto 12
Those who are born poor, need not die poor. The poverty is
not only in terms of finances but can also be in terms of status, Main campus building (first phase).
intellect, image, respect, remembrances and assets creation.
All one needs is to look for, capture, capitalize, catalyze and Added to the above are hosts of migratory birds visiting the
realize the opportunities to learn, develop, do and lakes and really memorable sunrise and sunset with
demonstrate. By this you can turn weaknesses into strengths, reflections in the lakes. It is a place I feel like just not leaving
threats into opportunities and impossible into possible. at all and sitting there for eternity.
If you look back into the history and look around yourself, However, the land was not like this when we purchased it
you will find many shining examples of Pygmalion Effect eight years back. It was extremely saline wasteland (people
Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, Nobel Laureate Dr. Subramanym say, it was the worst land in Rajasthan) with water level
Chandrashekhar and Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam. around 400 feet below ground, which too highly saline. It was
the land on which nothing could grow and nothing could be
Nurturing A Dream constructed. Comments from some of the experts :
Today I am reminiscing sitting on the banks of one of 1. ISRO : Campus land is extreme wasteland and
the lakes and looking at our around 100 acres campus development of the same for academic purpose is going
demarcated by three kilometers long boundary wall which to cost enormous effort and the money.
2. CAZRI, Ministry of Agriculture : Plot lies in a
A total
l of 15 lakes, made through rain water harvesting, wasteland with high inherent salinity that is difficult to
having around 6 crore litres of water capacity with fishes, develop. The salinity also makes building construction
frogs and even tortoises into these. risky because corrosion problem is very high.
Three large size lawns of 2.5 acres each, with solar lights
l 3. AFRI, Ministry of Environment & Forest : Soil depth 25
on the periphery of each and 60 benches made of fibre to 40 cm (rock beneath), PH2 7.8 to 8.8, EC2 7.8 to 26.7
glass. dsm-1 and Texture Loamy Sand.
l guest rooms with attached bath rooms, one When I left a high paying senior position with American
conference room, one office, one electricity room, one multinational DuPont 14 years back, people called me a fool.
guard room and two stores. When I chose Jodhpur in Rajasthan as a location for
establishing the top-quality educational complex, people
A truly
l natural meditation centre with capacity of 2500, called me a big fool. And when I purchased the above
surrounded by 1500 plants. wasteland, people called me a bloody fool!
25 26
Eight years back when we were looking for purchasing land lEnglish Babool Problem
for our campus, we had placed an advertisement in the
newspapers. One of the important conditions mentioned in When we purchased the land, it was full of English
the advertisement was that the entire payment would be made Babool. We got our friend Magsaysay awardee
by account payee cheque. Around two dozen proposals came. waterman Mr. Rajendra Singh to visit the site. He
However, all except one backed out when they were told that advised us to immediately first remove English Babool
we really meant hundred percent payment by crossed cheque from its roots. He told us that English Babool did not
only. They said that they would accept the cheques but allow anything else to grow and also made the land
suggested some payment under some other heads like infertile. We got a JCB machine which worked for
development of land. When they were told that there was only several days and removed around 1500 English Babool
one head purchase of land then they all backed out except from the site.
just one the above land owners. They agreed since they were
trying to sell the land for several decades but there were no lLand Earmarking
takers, in view of the land perceived to be totally useless.
We were advised by our well-wishers to dig up the
We also had really no choice except to purchase this land boundary of the land to ensure that there were no
since no one else was willing to give us the land with entire problems. We placed a large board with proper
payment by cheque. When we got into this educational cemented foundation declaring the land as ours and
entrepreneurial venture 14 years back, we had told ourselves started digging the boundary. Soon a host of people
that education, by definition, was based on ethics. No came protesting and next morning our board was also
compromise under any circumstances irrespective of the found removed. We got the local police to come to help
difficulties, hardships, sacrifices and struggles. us, which it did. However, we could not have got the
police everyday. We asked some people in the nearby
Eight years back this was the land on which you could not village as how to tackle the problem. They said that we
stand even for five minutes since it was so hostile. Today we would need to make sizeable cash payments. We replied
feel like staying there forever. This painstaking that we would not be able to make any cash payments.
transformation from wasteland to wonderland carried out
during the last eight years has meant a lot of learning from the Then one very elderly villager told us that if we could
first principles, many intuitive experiments which fortunately get Darbar to come to the site and address the villagers
succeeded, enormous efforts with patience and perseverance then the problem would be permanently solved. Darbar
and investing reasonably large finances. Some salient details meant Maharaja Gaj Singh of Marwar-Jodhpur, who
are as under : happens to be Chairman of our Board of Governors. I
met Maharaja and he promptly agreed. Maharaja came
to the site, spoke to all the villagers and had tea with
them. Next day onwards, the people came and offered
all their help, saying that so were the orders of Darbar.
27 28
Since then we have been getting enormous cooperation underground water table. Therefore, we decided against
and help from the villagers in all matters. doing the lining at all.

lWater Harvesting In three months time, the water in the lakes indeed
became saline. People told us how foolish we were that
For cultivating and nurturing the flora and fauna at the we ignored their advices for lining. The saline water
site needed water. Our friend Magsaysay awardee was, of course, no use for plants as well as construction.
waterman Mr. Rajendra Singh advised and guided us Our friend Mr. Rajendra Singh advised us to have
with how to go about rain water harvesting. patience. In the second year, the water in the lakes
Accordingly we dug up the land upto 10 feet in the became saline in five months. In the third year, it
demarcated areas to make six lakes. We had to became saline in seven months. In the fourth year, it
extensively use blasting since at most places there were became saline in nine months. In the fifth year, the water
rocks beneath. People laughed at seeing the dug up became saline in eleven months. And in the six year, it
areas, questioning as to from where so much of water was sweet throughout the year!
would come in the scantly rained Rajasthan.
As soon as the first rains came in July 2006, I rushed to Encouraged by the above, we dug up the land at other
the site. With my own eyes, I could not believe all six suggested places also and made four more lakes four
lakes with capacity of around 2.5 crore litres of water years back. Two years back, when we had a meeting of
getting filled one after another in a matter of just one our well-wishers at our campus site presided over
hour. After this, the water was overflowing the lakes for Maharaja Gaj Singh of Marwar-Jodhpur to discuss the
around a month. So our conviction had proved right! No future plans, Maharaja advised us to make five more
matter what the intensity of drought would be, it would lakes in the suggested areas. We did so recently.
certainly rain at least for one hour sufficient to fill in
our six lakes. With the above, we now have 15 lakes with total water
carrying capacity of 6 crore litres. These cover and take
People then said that the water would become saline in care of the eco-system of the entire land. Also the
no time and suggested us to do the lining. When we underground water level which was around 400 feet
consulted our friend Mr. Rajendra Singh, he advised us eight years back, when we had purchased the land, has
strongly against it. Firstly, it would cost a lot of money, now become just 4 feet because of water transmission
which we did not have. Secondly, in case there is even from the lakes horizontally as well vertically.
one puncture in the lining (which was quite likely) then
the entire lining would be of little use. Thirdly, the lining lBridges
would hamper the process of reducing the salinity by
natural process. Fourthly, the lining would come in the During the first rains on our campus site in the year 2005
way of vertical as well as horizontal seepage of water after we purchased the land, we found that there was a
which would in turn adversely affect the charging of water passage through which significant amount of
29 30
water was getting into our land and flowing out. When With their advice and suggestions, we planted around 25
we were crossing this water passage during the heaviest different varieties of plants some salt resistant and
rains, we found it literally touching almost our shoulder some normal ones. The major plants were Khara Jal,
level. This was actually the passage we decided to use Karanj, Kasod, Neem, Peepal and Kumat. For all the
for rain water harvesting for creating the first six lakes. plants, we first dug up a one metre x one metre x one
It occurred to us that during the rainy reason, this water metre pit in the rocky land using JCB. Then we got sweet
passage would cut our campus site into two with soil from quite a distance and filled each pit with it after
people unable to cross from one side to another. To take mixing it with traditional fertilizer made of cow dung
care of this critical aspect and also to provide proper and goat bits. Then the plant was placed surrounded by
water inlet and water outlet for the first set of six lakes, the tree guard. The tree guard helped us to place jute
we decided to construct bridges on both sides of the cloth around the plant in extreme summer to protect it.
boundary in the line of this water passage. We also planted low roots high foliage plants like castor
and sunflower around each plant to protect these from
The two bridges have come out to be really good and the extreme heat in the summer.
while providing a place to view the campus from the
birds view, these further add to make the campus look At those locations in our land where the salinity was the
beautiful, interesting and unique. highest, we went a step further in our experimentation.
In the pit dug up, we first placed a large multilayer
lPlantations jumbo bag and then put the sweet soil inside the said
In view of it being extremely high degraded saline jumbo bag. This multilayer jumbo bag helped greatly in
wasteland, the plantation was a big challenge. The preventing the seepage of salinity into the plant and thus
villagers in the vicinity had told us that we would not be safeguarding its longevity.
able to grow anything. However, our close friend Dr. R. All the above experiments and innovative plantation
L. Srivastava, Indian Forest Service officer of 1978 practices facilitated us greatly to ensure that our plants
Batch who was Director of Arid Forest Research survived and grew. Today we have over 6000 plants at
Institute (AFRI) at Jodhpur, disagreed and came our site surviving and growing upto 12 feet.
forward to help us out with the plantation. Also Mr. lLawns
Narayan Dass Prajapati, Managing Trustee of Asian People said that we would not able to have any lawns on
Medical Plants & Healthcare Trust at Jodhpur the site since these would not come up properly. To take
volunteered to advise us in the matter. Mr. Jagdish up this challenge we decided to first have a small lawn of
Kishwan, IFS, Director General, Indian Council of around 25 feet x 25 feet. This was made at a location on
Forestry Research & Education of Ministry of our site where the salinity was relatively less. It came up
Environment & Forests in the Government of India also very well and survived throughout the year. It also
visited our campus site and advised AFRI to make it as changed the topography and scenic beauty of the land.
their experimentation site.

31 32
Encouraged by the success of the above experiment, we actually reduce or remove the salinity. The only way the
made five more such lawns of around 25 feet x 25 feet salinity can be reduced certainly but slowly and
size but at locations which were in the increasing extent progressively is by natural means. Eight years back
of salinity. Where the salinity was more, we first put when we had purchased this land, there was thick layer
pebbles in the demarcated proposed area of the lawn of salt covering practically the entire land. Today you
thereby effectively raising the level of the lawn and then see only patches and traces of salinity at various
placed sweet soil. These five lawns also came up very locations on the site. This has been achieved naturally
well and survived throughout the year. through the following means :

After the above, we were truly buoyant to extrapolate i) Water harvesting

the above experiments to significantly larger levels.
Three years back we decided to make two large lawns of Making 15 lakes without lining helped us greatly to
100 metres x 100 metres, that is 2.5 acres each. Similar reduce the salinity. By capillary effect, when the water
system was followed first we placed stones pieces in goes down in the land, the salinity comes up. With the
the proposed area and then put sweet soil over the passage of time, therefore, water in the lakes becomes
stones. In the process, the lawns level was raised around saline. When the rains come, this saline water is flushed
three feet. For watering such large lawns we installed out and the fresh sweet water fills the lakes. When this
sprinkler system. To beautify these large lawns, we process is repeated year after year, the salinity gets
placed Neem trees around on the periphery of the lawns progressively reduced.
and also did tapering down dressing of soil touching the
periphery of the lawns. We also placed solar lights on the ii) Plantation
periphery of these lawns.
These two large lawns came up very well and added We have planted many plants which are salt resistant or
greatly to the goodness of the entire campus site. salt absorbent. Such trees, over a period of time, help
Encouraged by this, two years back we made one more reduce the salinity.
lawn of 2.5 acres size.
iii) Dhencha
These lawns are proving to be of great use for holding
the students and other activities including sports with Dhencha is a highly nitrogenous plant. It greatly helps to
no-holds-barred. Students have been enjoying their reduce the salinity. Its seeds are planted just when the
activities like never before. rains are about to come, in early July. By the end of rains
in September, it grows reasonably well. In
lSalinity Problem October/November, it is cut and mixed in the soil.

We are given to understand that there is no real man- In the first year, we got 5 quintals of Dhencha seeds and
made way available in the world whereby you can planted these over around 20 acres of land in the area of
33 34
our site having maximum salinity. We could clearly see hollowness increases with time making such
the positive impact of this over the year. Next year we construction weak and fragile.
planted 10 quintals of Dhencha seeds over around 40
acres of land. The effect was again there to be clearly After purchasing the land, we decided to first construct
seen. In the third year we got 15 quintals of these seeds the boundary wall 3 kms in length. This was for four
and used over 60 acres with the positive results clearly basic purposes firstly for earmarking permanently the
visible. In the fourth year, we got 20 quintals of seeds boundary of the wall, secondly to ensure that there are
and used these over 80 acres with better results. In the no encroachments, thirdly for the safety & security of
fifth year we got 25 quintals of seeds and used these over work and the assets inside, and fourthly for ensuring that
the entire land. Since then it has been repeated every the animals do not come inside. In view of our having
year. made the lakes and there being no water availability in
the nearby areas, we found animals coming. Specially
lConstruction dangerous were wild cows who came silently, could
jump upto five feet, did not fear anything and even if you
For hundreds of years, conventional lime has been used touched them you could get into serious problem since
in the construction. It was around 160 years back that the certain communities would protest. Therefore, this 3
cement was invented and in India, it has been used for kms long boundary wall had to be necessarily minimum
the last around 120 years in construction. The strength of six feet high. In addition, there was three feet of
construction with lime is the least initially but it foundation beneath the ground level.
increases over the passage of time. No wonder, over 550
years old Meherangarh Fort in Jodhpur made with When we tried to find out the availability of
conventional lime is so strong today. On the other hand, conventional lime (called mudia lime) we found that it
the strength of construction made with cement is highest was scarcely available since not much used. For the
initially but it reduces over the period of time. Not quantities needed by us, we explored around and finally
surprisingly, therefore, the buildings made with cement could get a supplier near Nagaur who was in a position
start giving serious problems after 50 years and many to provide large quantities. We did the costing and
are advised to be demolished when around 100 years. discovered that the construction with mudia lime was
Lime and salt are understood to be close friends, while five times costlier than cement. Therefore, we decided
cement and salt are believed to be arch enemies. Salt to use mudia lime for construction only up to plinth
blends very well with lime construction, while the salt level, since the salinity came in contact with the
eats into the cement construction. Therefore, it is construction only till the plinth level. Above plinth
necessary to use sweet water in cement construction, level, we decided to use cement for construction.
otherwise the construction is prone to get damaged in
due course. As the saline water or salinity seeps into the Historically in Rajasthan, the mudia lime was processed
cement construction, making it hollow and this using camels. Since we did not have camels, we again

35 36
did the exploration. We found a person in Didwana in lLand Conversion
Nagaur District who used to make the machines for
processing the mudia lime. We got two such machines When we decided to venture into this educational
custom-made from him. These were made operational entrepreneurship venture over 14 years back, we had
using the tractor motor and it really worked. told our selves that education, by definition, was based
on ethics. No compromise under any circumstances,
The success of above experiment got manifested three irrespective of the difficulties, hardships, problems,
years later when there were heavy rains and the Pichyak sacrifices, struggles and sufferings.
dam nearby was damaged. The water from the dam
created havoc in the villages in the area damaging the During these 14 years we faced a large number of
buildings and reached upto our campus site. However, occasions when we got stuck in view of our refusal to
our 3 km long boundary wall survived without any compromise on ethics. It is shockingly ironic that the
damage. very people in the government who are expected to
facilitate and support the activities for the development
lVegetation of our nation and benefit of its people are at times
actually the biggest hindrance in the same, in view of
Our next major experimental endeavour was to grow their vested interests. Moreover, the biggest source of
vegetables. For this, we used the area in our land with corruption in our country is undoubtedly the land
less salinity. We got sweet soil from outside and used it matters. No wonder the issue relating to our having land
after mixing with conventional fertilizer of cow dung to construct the campus turned out to be the most
and goat bits. A number of vegetables like cucumber, difficult and the longest one involving the authorities up
spinach, ladies finger, tomatoes, brinjals, moolis, to the highest levels in the government.
carrots, etc. grew very well. Their quality was much
better than the available in the market. When Dr. We wanted land for education, not free but at the reserved
Montek Singh Ahluwalia, Deputy Chairman of price meant for educational purpose. People at the highest
Planning Commission of India visited our site with his level in the state government gave a written commitment to
wife Dr. Isher Judge Ahluwalia, he was pleasantly provide us the land. I came to Rajasthan in April 2000, various
surprised to see the quality of these vegetables. options of land were immediately shown to me and one piece
of land was finalised. I was asked to meet a henchman of a top
We also planted aloe vera and because of salinity, the politician to "negotiate". I refused because of my firm belief
aloe vera variety which got developed was different that education, by definition, was based on ethics. We did not
since it was easily eatable and tasty. The colour of aloe get the land.
vera which grew was also reddish as compared to
greenish which was planted. Then the government changed and we hoped that it would be
different. However, one of its senior functionaries made a
strange statement "Giving land without bribe will set a wrong
37 38
precedent". The fact is that we did not get the land again. Tehsildar of the area levied penalty of Rs. 76 lakhs in a
Mind you - in both the cases, some of the most distinguished sadistically fraudulent manner and to recover it, issued orders
persons of our country had also written to the respective for the auction of our land, without even giving us the legally
governments in support of our project and requested for mandatory notice and without the information of his
helping this noble cause. superiors - SDM and Collector. The minister had told
Tehsildar directly to issue the auction order. When the
I met the highest authorities in the government but none of minister was contacted, he said "no compromise on bribes
this helped in any way. Instead, with full force of state, the and these have to be paid". Fortunately the District Collector
government unleashed against us several enquiries and false of Jodhpur intervened to stop the auction, after he was
cases including concocted cases even for disturbing peace in convinced that it was being done fraudulently.
the city of Jodhpur, death and molestation. There were even
attacks on the lives of me and my family members to make me To have our own campus was certainly a question of the life
surrender to the whims and fancies of netas and babus. and death for our Institute and to do the construction, it was
However, I refused to buckle and continued to strive for essential to get the land converted from the government. For
results while persistently refusing to make any compromise. this we completed all the requirements as per the rules for the
conversion, including payment of full conversion charges,
Having seen both shades of government and failed to get the way back in October 2009. When the things did not move for
land without compromise, finally we purchased private a full year then during November 2010 to January 2011, we
extreme salinity wasteland at market price. Even here, instead got some of the distinguished persons of our country to talk to
of facilitating and supporting our having taken up this the highest levels in the state government as well as central
challenge, the netas and babus continued to create problems. government, including the political leadership. When none of
On 28 March 2007 night some people came to the campus this worked, we filed a writ petition in Rajasthan High Court
site with a truck to steal the tree guards and damage the plants. in February 2011 but it was not being responded by the state
They were the henchmen of a leading local politician. When government and we were only getting the dates after dates.
our security guards caught one of the persons, got him On 24 March 2011, a petition to Rajasthan Chief Minister was
arrested and we filed an FIR, this politician rang up the police placed online by IIT Madras senior alumnus Ram
to release this thief and asked the police to instead file a fake Krishnaswamy based in Australia, which was signed and
counter FIR against us since how we had dared to catch his supported by over 2600 persons from worldwide. During 01-
henchman and file FIR. It was only after the villagers there 04 April 2011, my wife and I were at Jaipur to meet the top
threatened to block the National Highway that the police did government officials to convince them the necessity and
not do as asked by this politician. urgency of action but it did not work. Finally on 11 April
2011, one elderly person very close to the Chief Minister
A minister of Rajasthan repeatedly asked me to meet him to since childhood travelled to Jaipur to make the things work.
"negotiate". When I conveyed to him that I had nothing to When none of it produced the result, in view of our persistent
"negotiate", I was threatened that then we should be prepared refusal to compromise, we were left with no choice but to go
to face the consequences. Soon the consequences were there - on indefinite fast at Jantar Mantar, New Delhi to expose the
39 40
injustice and get the justice. who had visited us at Jodhpur, we were allowed to move
Around 60 of our students, staff and faculty members
including my wife and I left Jodhpur for Delhi at 05.30 P.M. When we rached Jantar Mantar, New Delhi around 09.30
on 12 April 2011 in one bus and two cars. Around 08.00 P.M. A.M. on 13 April 2011, we received a call from District
we reached a small place called Bar, where our Prof. Sanjay Collector of Jodhpur informing us that he was sending us the
Diddee received a call from District Collector of Jodhpur conversion approval letter and asked us not to begin the
informing us that we would get the conversion letter in a indefinite fast. We gave him the fax number of Swami
week's time and asked us to return back. He informed us that Agnivesh, who has been a member of our Board of Governors
he was doing so as per the instructions from the Chief since inception and whose office was just at Jantar Mantar
Minister's office and Revenue Secretary, with whom he was Road only. Soon we received the fax but its contents were
coordinating. We refused. After sometime, Collector shocking. It conveyed us conversion approval of only 135
telephoned again and said that the conversion would be done bigha of land, subject to our paying the conversion charges
in three days time and asked us to return. We refused. Then again, not using the land for non-agricultural purpose (which
after sometime, he called up again and told us that we would was self-contradictory) and handing over 101 bigha of land to
get it next day and asked us to return back. We refused. Then the government. We refused to accept it and formally began
he told us that conversion letter would be handed over to us at the indefinite fast at 10 A.M. on 13 April 2011, though we had
Kishangarh, which was around three hours away. Collector not eaten anything since 08.00 P.M. previous night.
took our bus and cars numbers. We reached Kishangarh
around midnight. A posse of around 20 policemen including The passion of our students, staff and faculty to this noble
two Inspectors and four police vehicles, who had our bus and cause was seen to be believed. The support of IITs & IIMs
cars numbers, stopped us. When we asked for the land alumni and faculty members, former judges & Chief Justices
conversion letter, they said they had none and told us that of High Courts, top officials, academicians, defence officers,
there were instructions from the highest level in the state social activists, media, lawyers and many others was
government not to allow us to travel ahead. overwhelming. There was excellent coverage in both print
and electronic media, especially The Times of India, The
When we insisted to travel ahead, they contacted the officials Hindustan Times, The Hindu and Nai Dunia. There were a
and told us that we would have to go to State Secretariat at large number of our well-wishers working behind the scenes
Jaipur under police escort, where we would be provided the to garner support and message reach the leaderships at both
land conversion letter. We reached the State Secretariat at the government and political levels in Jaipur as well as Delhi.
Jaipur around 02.00 A.M. in the night but there too, there was The state government was in regular touch with our Prof.
no letter. While the police went here and there, we escaped Sanjay Diddee.
and moved fast towards Delhi. When we entered Delhi
around 08.30 A.M. on 13 April 2011, we were again stopped On 15 April 2011, we received second communication from
by Delhi Police from moving ahead. When we threatened to the state government. Shockingly it again confirmed
complain to Mr. Tejendra Khanna, Lt. Governor of Delhi, conversion of 135 Bigha only subject to our paying the
41 42
conversion charges for this land again and handing over the evening, next day around 15000 people from Bharatiya Kisan
balance 101 Bigha land to the government. We refused. Morcha and Bharat Swabhiman Andolan would have joined
Meanwhile, our support grew but the condition of my wife us, whose leaders had come and assured their support to us,
worsened. Doctors from AIIMS New Delhi came and apart from Sri Sri Ravi Shankar and many others.
examined. Our daughter flew from Mumbai to take care of
her mother. On sixth day, 18 April 2011 evening around 06.00 I had no words to describe how happy we all, in Aravali
P.M.Dr. Rajiv Sharma, Additional Chief Secretary and Mr. family, were to at last ensured the significant success of truth,
Vimal Sharma, Resident Commissioner of Rajasthan came. against all the odds. Around 08.00 P.M. on Monday, 18 April
They discussed, understood and followed up our demands 2011 we received the requisite confirmation letters relating to
with the concerned in the state government till finally we got the conversion of our campus land from the Government of
the written confirmation of our demands being met around Rajasthan. With overjoyed students, faculty, staff and other
08.00 P.M. After that we broke the fast and around 09.00 P.M. well-wishers providing us juice, my wife Anita and I broke
Resident Commissioner of Rajasthan Mr. Vimal Sharma our 145 hours continuous fast during which we did not eat
came again and said that the Chief Minister wanted to talk to anything and did not drink anything, except a little water. For
me. Chief Minister Mr. Ashok Gehlot spoke to me and while this, before putting life of mine and my beloved at risk, we
apologizing for our hardships, assured us of all support from had tried everything.
the state government.
Next day, on 19 April 2011, we left Delhi at 05.45 A.M. At
Throughout the above period of six days and six nights, the 01.00 P.M. we reached Jaipur where all 60 of us were invited
girl students and lady faculty stayed in the guesthouse of for lunch at Chief Minister's Residence. Chief Minister Mr.
Bangla Sahib Gurudwara. I stayed at Jantar Mantar footpath Ashok Gehlot met us, talked to us and while again
only, along with our male students and faculty. In the night we apologizing for the hardships faced by us, assured us of all the
slept there only, despite the onslaught of mosquitoes whole support. In fact he went a step further, asking us to establish a
night. In the mornings we used public facilities by standing in similar large educational campus for girls also for which too,
the queue with the beggars, taxi drivers and others. Each day he said that the government would provide us all the support.
we walked upto Bangla Sahib Gurudwara to have bath in the At Jaipur we also had our alumni based there who came in full
open there. Everybody cooperated with us fully including the attendance to felicitate with tilak and garland all the students,
keeper of public facilities and people at gurudwara. There faculty and staff who were part of this historic struggle to
was constant vigil on us by the police, CID, Intelligence success.
Bureau and many other agencies. At one time, we were about
to be evicted but courtesy the timely intervention of Lt. Around 10 P.M. we reached our campus site, where the
Governor's office, we were allowed to stay on. We had a large garlands and flowers were offered in the temple there. At
number of visitors from early morning till midnight everyday. 10.45 P.M. we reached Umaid Bhawan Palace where
Finally when we achieved the victory, a large number of our Maharaja Gaj Singh and Maharani Hemlata Rajye were
well-wishers came till midnight with sweets, ice creams, etc. waiting for us. They felicitated all of us, offered juices and
Just in case the success had not been achieved by sixth day sweets and talked to us. Finally around midnight we reached
43 44
our Boys' Hostel. By the time we reached our homes, it was make somewhat hospitable for the campus purpose, we are
past midnight. now gearing up to take our activities for various societal
benefit purposes to a new pedestal.
We should all know that the land matters (which include land The adventure of this educational entrepreneurship venture
conversion) are the biggest source of bribes, black money and continues. Right thing must be necessarily done the right way
corruption in our country. Ours was not a personal matter, but only! No compromise at all!!
a case study struggle to fight successfully this menace for a
noble cause, turning impossible into possible without any

However, the above joy unfortunately turned out to be short-

lived. To end our indefinite fast at Jantar Mantar, New Delhi
during April 2011, the state government had given us
conversion approval for 135 bigha and written promise to
convert the remaining 101 bigha also within a week after the
due process was completed. Despite our having completed
the due process immediately after the end of the indefinite
fast, later the government went back on its commitment and
insisted us to surrender 101 bigha to the government wrongly
citing the ceiling limit. In view of this, we refused to accept
the conversion of 135 bigha also unless the entire 236 bigha
was converted, without surrender of any land to the

Finally with the extensive use of RTI, at last we received the

Government of Rajasthan's approval letter on 01 November
2011 for the conversion of balance 101 bigha of land also,
which they had so far been insisting for us to surrender to the

I am glad that we have succeeded yet again to get the

conversion approval for the entire 236 bigha of our campus
site land without any compromise on our core value of ethics.

With the basic issue of the land conversion approval done and
the significant transformation achieved on the wasteland to
45 46
Taminglish: A Study in Social the Devanagiri script for official communication. Tamil has
Psychology of the Tamils already permitted hundreds of English words and set
expressions both in oral and written discourses. This paper
Dr J. John Sekar, M.A., M. Phil., PGDTE (CIEFL), proposes to diachronically and longitudinally interrogate the
PGDHE (IGNOU), PGDCE (UH), Ph.D., history behind the evolution of the phenomenon called
Associate Professor Taminglish, a process of code-mixing/switching in
PG & Research Dept of English Tamil/English discourse, and to establish that English
The American College teachers need not feel guilty about this linguistic hybridity.
MADURAI 625 002
INDIA Introduction
From an apolitical point of view, it was a proud moment in the
Abstract life of every Tamil speaker, Tamil user, and Tamil scholar that
the entire Tamil community which negates the geographical
Taminglish is a reality. English teachers in Tamil society are boundaries in search of material well-being of its members
made to feel guilty about what they are accused of doing as a celebrated the World Classical Tamil Conference a couple of
professionthe teaching of English as a neo-imperialistic years ago at the turn of the second decade of the twenty first
language(!) to Tamil learners of English at different levels. century, the first of its kind in the history of any modern
Politicians and Tamil activists alike raise a lot of hue and cry language. Also, the Tamils should feel privileged and proud
against the mixing of English in the daily Tamil discourses. of the undeniable reality that the oldest Indian
They often fail to understand a linguistic fact that changes on languageTamilhas found a place along with twenty one
account of language contact do not amount to corruption but languages as national languages in the VIII Schedule of the
enrichment of the languages involved and that change is Constitution. The Conference was not only a celebration of
natural and inevitable in the history and development of any an early birth, uninterrupted growth in spite of imperial and
language. They would like to artificially maintain the colonial forces that were at work from time to time, steady
classical status of Tamil even now when Tamil society has and sturdy development, and ever increasing use of Tamil in
irretrievably become a bilingual and bi-cultural community. all the newly emerging departments of life, but also an
One of the psychological impacts of such a political project of occasion to take stock of its changing role and nature in Tamil
preserving the purity of Tamil on English teaching community community that is re-inventing itself as a tool for literal,
is that they refuse to accept the bilingual method of teaching literary, and science communication and as a culture-
English without any professional basis. The process of preserver in a bi-/multi-cultural society. Yes, Tamil society
language development has always been independent of is no longer a mono-cultural community, but it has become a
human intervention and therefore, Tamil is firmly entering a multi-cultural society that is open-minded to absorbing and
new phase of its development, which in this article, is termed amalgamating cultural diversity and plurality. It has been
as Taminglish. Through a recent order, the government of steadily influenced by and is influencing other cultures.
India has instructed all its employees to follow Hinglish in

47 48
But the phenomenon of admixture of several cultures and
languages in Tamil society, which is practising an exogenous d) Even if English is permitted, should it not be taught
bilingualism with English and celebrating multiculturalism only as a language and not as a medium?
with several cultures from across India and from the world,
raises several questions and a sense of uncertainty and fear in iii) Economic and scientific development
the mind of Tamil scholars, educational experts, and political a) Is the use of Tamil not possible for research and
patrons. Some of them articulate and confront these innovation in science and technology?
questions in a way that is convenient to them, while others b) Why shouldnt parents prefer English as a language
ignore them blissfully. The questions are raised in the context of employment and economic prosperity for their
of the fear psychosis created over the liberal use of English children?
vocabulary in the daily discourses by even uneducated Tamils c) Is it not possible for Tamil to replace English?
who live in remote rural pockets. The unsettling questions d) Shouldnt the youth studied in Tamil be given jobs in
can be critically viewed under the three heads: i) culture and government?
society, ii) language and education, and iii) economic and At one point of time or the other, every educated
scientific development. Tamil has to face such questions (un)comfortably?

i) Culture and society The 1960s political rhetoric of Hindi Never, English Ever
a) How long can English be allowed to be used in Tamil has paved the way for the unrealistic but emotional linguistic
society? jingoism Tamil Anywhere and Everywhere, and Hail Tamil
b) Doesnt the continued use of English bring and Let Tamil Grow in contemporary Tamil society. These
world/western cultures into Tamil society and spoil empty politics-loaded slogans are harmless ornamental
the ancient Tamil culture? declarations that are designed to adorn the government-
c) Hasnt English (Western) culture encroached into owned public spaces, such as government buildings and bus
the cultural space of the Tamils? stations. It is not difficult for common people to comprehend
d) Will English replace Tamil as home language one the simple logic that neither does a language grow by such
day? visibly emotion-packed loud self-proclamations nor its
growth is stunted by the presence of other languages/cultures
ii) Language and education in a bilingual or multilingual community. The images of the
a) Will the uninterrupted use of English in formal Tamil language like Goddess and Mother are deeply
domains, such as science and technology, trade and embedded in the collective unconsciousness of the Tamils to
commerce, pre-primary to tertiary education the extent that one has to think if it is genetically
endanger Tamil or stunt its growth? programmed! Thats why the Tamils are more emotionally
b) Isnt code-mixing and code-switching inimical to attached to their language than any other linguistic
the growth of Tamil? community though language is always an emotive issue. For
c) Will Tamil die someday if English is allowed to mix the Tamils, Tamil is not just a tool for communication and
with Tamil? civilization, but an umbilical cord connecting its users with
49 50
the divine. cultures, and languages. Languages in a multi-cultural world
In response to and in consonance with global reality that are influenced by and are influencing each other. They
keeps changing, Tamil society is constantly changing unconsciously absorb the elements from each other. No
(growing) and re-inventing itself. No speech community human intervention in the guise of control is plausible in the
around the world can preserve cultural purity in the life of any language. Like language change, language death
contemporary world. Technological advances, capitalist is also a reality. Languages are not immune to the principle of
commerce, trade entrepreneurial motives, and professional the survival of the fittest. Any language that is trying to
ambitions cause the breaking of political and geographical react negatively against changes either internally or
boundaries of nations paving the way for the emergence of externally faces its extinction. The use of language in
culturally one global human society. Migrationemigration different domains by the members of a speech community can
and immigrationfor education and employment is already a not be regulated either by legal force or by emotional appeal.
reality. As a result, all the mono-cultural and mono-lingual When it is a matter of convenience and contingency, any
societies are increasingly becoming multi-cultural and multi- political decision into language issue would be counter-
lingual. Multi-culturalism/lingualism has become a norm productive.
rather than an exception. Tamil society is second to none in
grabbing opportunities for such trans-national and The political decision with administrative sanction to honour
supranational ventures in the fields, such as trade and Tamil with classical status should not be conveniently
commerce, science and technology, art and culture, and sports construed to mean that Modern Tamil is a classical language.
and games. Tamil Diasporas have become a reality around Modern Tamil is derivative of ancient/old Tamil that has been
the world. They bring in world languages and cultures and now officially recognized as Classical. The non-existence of
take with them Tamil language and culture. They act as a speech community being a primary western parameter for the
powerful conduit for the natural dissemination of world consideration of languages as classical was not followed by
cultures. Tamil literary and film artists contribute their might the Government of India for declaring modern languages like
to the culture mix. The Tamils relish cultural hybridity and it Tamil (2004), Sanskrit (2005), Telugu and Kannada (2008) as
is self-evident in the dress that they wear, the food that they classical languages. The Union Government seems to have
eat, the education that they receive, the literature that they borrowed its criteria from the American Tamil scholar,
produce, the fruits of science and technology that they George Hart (2000) who supported the demand for Tamil
consume, the religious faiths that they practise, and above all, (read as Tamil literature) a classical status on the basis of four
the philosophies that they endear with. principles he outlined in a letter to the government of India.
They are: considerable antiquity, rich literary tradition
Languages change, too. Change is the sign of growth while indigenous to India, quality of literature, and a primary
stagnation, a sign of decay and death. It is a law of nature for independent source of modern Indian culture and tradition.
those who believe in the evolution theory of language that Classical Tamil that is available to the present Tamil speakers
treats language as a living organism. Change happens neither through its rich literature is literary, archaic, and obsolete, and
for the worse nor for the better, but it is natural and inevitable. not fit for secular and scientific discoursal purposes. It can
The whole world is becoming a net work of human relations, not even be used as a vehicle for literary education since it is
51 52
not in use even among academics and literary professionals. the 200 year long rule in England by Normans and English
Tamil used in contemporary literature, including poetry and almost changed its Teutonic character and acquired the
for communication purposes through spoken and written character of a Romance language. The English treated it as
media in various domains is more or less the same. blessing and never lamented over the change nor politicized
Positively, it is a sign of growth and development. English it. (Albert Baugh, 2008) After political independence, the
too has changed to a great extent that English used by Chaucer presence of English was liberally welcomed as a permanent
and before him looks and sounds like a foreign language to guest. Meanwhile, as a typical living language, the role of
most of its native users. They cannot read Chaucer now English in the world affair underwent a great change from
without Nevil Coghill ! being a language of colonization and westernization to
becoming a language of globalization and modernization. As
Now, the question is Should or can or does modern Tamil a result, it acquired the new role of a world language bearing
resemble Classical Tamil which is marked as poetic, literary, the humanistic and scientific culture of the world,
and unmixed? Modern Tamil is used in a Tamil society that transmitting it across the cosmos (it is language of
is characterised as multilingual, multi-cultural, multi- International Space Station), and shrinking the entire world
religious, and multi-ethnic. It happily bears the burden of into invisible cyberspace. It has even redefined reality as
experiences that were unknown to the speakers of Classical virtual reality or hyper-reality. The transitional period for the
Tamil. Over the period of several centuries, it has come in role change of English is so smooth and short that the Tamils
contact with Sanskrit, Arabic, Urdu, English, Portuguese, were left with very little time even to think of embarking on
Hindi, and Telugu, and has been influenced by them and the decolonizing project. In fact, they faced the dilemma
influenced them. Of all these languages, English has between decolonizing their mind and enriching their socio-
exercised an overpowering influence over Tamil as it was the educational developmental spheres, and re-colonizing
language of colonial project for just about three hundred themselves by way of accepting English as the language of
years. Inexplicably, it has colonized [endeared] the mind and modernizing their society and thereby humbly
the heart of the Tamils. It has endeared them as closely as acknowledging English linguistic imperialism. In the
Tamil to the extent that both co-exist as sibling/daughter invisible battle between what Tamil would be made capable
languages! Never has English been resisted in Tamil society of in due course of time and what English was capable of at
nor opposed as it had been in the North, though the colonial that time, the Tamils chose the latter. Known devil is better
masters created in them a taste for English language and than unknown angel!
culture as a strategy of subjugation and essential requirement
for careers in the colonization project. Tamil society post-independence was determined to become
a bilingual society with English. In tune with the changed
The Tamils have appropriated much of English vocabulary, status of the English language in the present scenario, the
idiomatic expressions, proverbs, and literary forms, and government, the educational institutions, parents, children,
assimilated them either wholly or partially. This and employers and industries prefer English as the most
appropriation has resulted in a new modern Tamil which can desirable second language as passport to employment. While
be called Taminglish. This is what happened to English after the governments and the UGC continue to subsidize English
53 54
literary education in the country, the academics continue to
maintain, through the academic curriculum, the hegemony of That Tamil society is now a bilingual society is an undeniable
English studies over the regional literatures. The culturally reality. Language-mixing or switching is the language
irrelevant English nursery rhymes continue to be taught to the behaviour of a bilingual society, and it is motivated by the
toddlers at the kindergarten level. The cinema and the social-psychological as well as linguistic factors. As a
mediaboth electronic and printliberally mix with and universal phenomenon of a bilingual society, code-mixing or
switch in English. They project all successful characters both switching is caused by contact between two languages.
in real and fictional world as products of English (education). Mixing is a rule-governed and not capricious behaviour.
Through the electronic media and films, people are given to Bilinguals are not individuals with split personality, but
understand the grand narrative that all well-dressed people individuals with more linguistic repertoire. Borrowing is a
occupying high positions in society use English as a means of process through which the speakers of the matrix language
their achievement while Tamil teachers are either comedians liberally use material from the embedded language.
or old harmless but semi-serious academics teaching some Borrowing involves phonological and morphological
classics, or as entertainers. Moreover, words and phrases adaptation of the lexical items into the host language, whereas
referring to the much-coveted positions, power and authority code-switching does not. Hundreds and thousands of words
are in English. Some of them are PM, CM, President, and phrases from English have been assimilated into modern
Collector, Superintendent, DSP, Inspector, Police, RDO, Tamil and it has made it morphologically richer and
BDO, Judge, Magistrate, MP, MLA, Military, Bank manager, syntactically smoother and more elastic than ever. The result
cashier, and so on. is post-colonial linguistic identity through Homi Bhabas
hybridity called Taminglish, a process of mixing/
During the colonial period the Tamils were the first to switching with English in Tamil.
welcome and endear the English language for both political
and career reasons. They found a powerful weapon in it to The motivating social-psychological and linguistic factors
fight against the supremacy and hegemony of Sanskrit for code-mixing and code-switching in bilingual Tamil
language and culture, and they, in fact, used it to fight against society are quality education, job opportunities, career
the numerically superior, but a minority language, Hindi, promotions, respect, power and authority, all-India positions,
post-independence. They also endeared it because it liberated positions in MNCs, opportunities abroad, commanding
them from the shackles of the feudal society and caste-based positions in national politics, etc. Linguistic factors include
profession and helped them to enter knowledge-based service lexical gaps, easy accessibility to concepts, convenience,
sector. It provided a key to unlock the world of opportunities greater range of choice of vocabulary, cultural and
in modern science and technology, trade and commerce, art community neutrality, reiteration, repair strategies like
and culture, and agriculture and health. English continues to omission, insertion and repetition, discourse allocation, etc.
guide the Tamils in these fields though a lot of translation of Code-mixing and/or code-switching is/are not a burden but
knowledge in these fields into Tamil has taken place. an enabling and enriching phenomenon on the part of the
Original creation of knowledge in Tamil is far from individual members of bilingual Tamil society. It enriches
satisfaction. their linguistic repertoire, it makes them more versatile in
55 56
communicative and interactional terms, more open-minded dictionaries, reference books, language books on teaching
and broad-minded to varied cultural conventions and customs Tamil as a second/foreign language, pronouncing
and usages. It also increases their reach in terms of dictionaries, science encyclopaedias, etymological
information and knowledge about the world that is passing dictionaries, and modern Tamil philosophies need to be
from the age of Industrialisation to the age of Information published. It is satisfying that it is being recognized as a
Technology. classical language. But it is not enough. All possible kinds of
institutional support should be extended to Tamil so that it
The bilingual users do not belong to the remote past but to the may emerge as a modern world language. The main and
immediate future, not to the mono-cultural parochial society essential component of a world language is that its ownership
but to the multicultural cosmopolitan society, and not just to is widened in terms of national and cultural boundaries.
the world of BPOs but to the world of KPOs. They need a
new idiom that comprises elements from all languages. A world language is one whose ownership is denationalised
Bilingual societies do not recognize purist linguistic as in the case of English. It must belong to all those who use
boundaries, but celebrate a world wide web of natural human it. It knows no geographical and cultural enclosures.
languages. They undergo several stages of acquiring the Enculturation or acculturation is the key feature of a world
mixed linguistic system. There is no need for competition language. It freely permits vocabulary and grammar from
between the matrix language (Tamil) and the embedded other languages to mix with it. It widens its cosmopolitan
language (English). The relationship between them is outlook, broadens its use in the hitherto unknown territories,
complementary. It is mutual and voluntary, and not thrust and adapts to different linguistic and cultural ethos, and
imposed. Tamil continues remain the matrix language or host assimilates without any hesitation language elements from
language in which are found heterogeneous vocabulary from other sources.
all the embedded languages including English which by tacit
consent plays the role of the world language, because it has Tamil has welcomed lexicon from other languages that came
assimilated without any reservation a plenty of vocabulary in contact with it. It has definitely become richer in terms of
from the languages around the world. expressive power and vocabulary. It must be used for wider
purposes than the ones used so far. It should be used as a
Hence, the long journey of Tamil language and culture language of research in science and technology. Mere
through several centuries of contact with other languages and translation of knowledge from English into Tamil will not
cultures has irrevocably changed its nature and content to a suffice. Translation of both classical and modern literatures,
bilingual language. It is now acquired the capacity to be its art and culture, religion and faith, lifestyles in the past must
employed in fields that are hitherto considered conceptually be rendered in English so that as a first step the world
abstract and technologically advanced. Since it has attention can be drawn to Tamil as language and literature.
accelerated the assimilative capacity, there is no need for Their contribution in other secular fields should be brought to
translating concepts into neat equivalent Tamil lexicons. It is the attention of the world. A taste and thirst for Tamil should
now in the process of emerging as a modern world language. first be created in those who do not know Tamil. The fact that
It will not be surprising if it evolves a new grammar. New Tamil society is a tolerant community should be known to the
57 58
rest of the world. The international science community will becomes a global language. And English teachers need not
turn their attention on to Tamil only when it is used as a entertain any kind of guilt feeling about either teaching
language of research in various science fields. Research English through bilingual method to the Tamils mixing
articles should be written in modern Tamil (Taminglish) so English words/switching to & from Tamil and English. In
that they can be translated into English on demand. The fact, they patronize a silent revolution for the emergence of
English-speaking world will be induced to learn Tamil as the Taminglish.
language of research.
Works cited
The Tamil language that is used for the expression of secular Baugh, Albert C. (2008). A History of the English
art and science concepts in research will have all the elements language. London: Routledge.
of a bilingual language. There will be mixing, switching, and Hart, George L. (2000). Statement on the status of
borrowing. It may have sounds that are not indigenous to it. Tamil as a classical language. University of California,
There is not even a single department in the life of the Tamils Berkeley. Available at
where English has not percolated. It is thoroughly /2010/06/04/statement-on-the-status-of-tamil-as-a-
assimilated into it. It is used both intersententially and classical-language-george-l-hart/ (accessed on Friday 9
intrasententially. Still, Tamil as a host language retains its December 2011)
essential structure. English can never change Tamils basic
nature. Since both the languages do not belong Appendix
genealogically to the same family of languages, there need Domain-wise use of English in the daily discourse
not be any anxiety that Tamil would be subsumed by English of Tamil society
in the long run. 1. Family : daddy, mummy, brother, sister, family, cousin,
house, bedroom, hall, kitchen, bathroom, brother-,
In conclusion, it is not unnatural that Tamil mixes in and father-, sister-, mother-in-law, compound wall, switch,
switches with English in Tamil society which is fast wire, pipe, leak, tap, screen, ceiling, paint, bore, motor,
becoming a bilingual/multilingual and multi-cultural society. engine,
Ultimately, it is Tamil and its users who stand to gain because 2. Work : office, file, canteen, officer,
Tamil society is an exogenous bilingual society where 3. Food : cake, coffee, tea, glass, tumbler, halwa,
English and Tamil operate in complementary roles and are hot/cold/cool drinks,
given equal value and respect though Tamil continues to be 4. Dress : coat, gown, pyjamas, pant (s), trouser (s), shoe
the matrix language. When two languages are in contact, 5. Post office : letter, cover, stamp, speed post, inland letter,
there is also a contact between two cultures. At the linguistic card, parcel, postman/master, money order, coupon,
level, the process is called bilingualism and at the cultural post-box,
level biculturalism or acculturation. Thus, Modern Tamil 6. Revenue department : collector, RDO, BDO, RI, VAO,
should eventually emerge as a world language by widening its stamp, receipt,
domains of use and by enriching its expressive capacity in 7. Judiciary: judge, lawyer, case, stay, judgment, court,
secular realms. When Tamil sheds its regional ownership, it and court fees stamp, document, jail, witness,
59 60
8. Police: Inspector, SI, Circle Inspector, DSP, SP, yellow notice, habeas corpus petition, speaker,
Commissioner, Head, writer, police, traffic police, FIR, 18. Expressions: thanks, thank you, no mention, welcome,
complaint, dont mind, gazetted officer, join duty, ladies, left, right,
9. Educational institutions : college, school, book, note centre, lift, drinks, LPG gas, match box, cigarette
book, teacher, sir, recess period, scale, box, science, packet, missus for wife, money purse, mosquito, native
ground, PT master, PED, principal, headmaster, clerk, place, non-veg, or veg, no more, NRI, on/off, oil bath,
lab, library, chalk piece, board, table, chair, bench, TC, one-by two, out of station, paisa, panchayat election,
fees, admission, join, bureau, shelf, hundred per cent, phone booth, pin code, pin drop silence, power cut,
tuition, prepone, private sector, public sector, quick-quick,
10. Computer and mobile: computer, net, sim card, tower, reservation, heater, tank, sales tax, sit-out, hall, kitchen,
charge, cell, prepaid, postpaid, monitor, SMS, disk, bedroom, bathroom/toilet, group 1/2/4 exam, study
floppy, facebook, you tube, orkut, email, holidays, leave apply, too much, tiffin, topper, gold
11. Health sector: hospital, nurse, doctor, compounder, medal, tower, water/ward boy, write-up, IPL match,
operation, X-ray, scan, ward, glucose, discharge, ICU, one-day series, night watchman,
urgent, emergency, ambulance, stitch, bandage, report, 19. Adjectives: strong, weak, dull, cushy, serious, names of
English marundhukadai, ESI aaspatri, government basic colours,
aaspatri, 20. Games: cricket, volley ball, foot ball, running, walking,
12. Trade and commerce: business, bill, receipt, hartal, pull up, push up, marathon,
13. Entertainment: cinema, film, song, fight, scene, 21. Use of English words as they are or with partial/full
direction, producer, love, DVD, actor, villain, theme, assimilation: cut and right, dirt cheap, assault,
super, bore, music, joke(r), carousal, aaspatri, line man, helper as elper, hold on as
14. Art and Literature and language: music, novel, olden, brake,
essay, quotation, comma, full stop, sentence, paragraph, 22. Verb + panni, eduthu, seithu, po:ttu, : educated and
spoken English, grammar, letter, spelling, writer, semi-educated people do not use the English verbs
15. Transport: bus, mini-bus, van, road, line, left and right, without such Tamil suffixes; [dismiss,
centre, signal, driver, conductor, ticket, right, stop, 23. General: AC; Category of caste names (SC, MBC,
speed, seat, standing, brake, horn, auto, rail/train, FC); Age-barred; AIR. Air-cooler, all-in-all, Anglo-
foreign, hill stations, scooter, bike, mile, kilometre, Indian, auto/autorickshaw, pooja holidays, backside,
inch, centimetre, balance, balcony, bandh, batch, batch-mate, bed-sheet,
16. Compounds: pooja room, dining table, ration kadai, black, black money, block, bungalow, butler, calling
gas adupu, motor repair, bus ticket, platform ticket, bell, colour pencil, cantonment, capitation fees, caste,
register thapaal, centre (government), CM/PM, minister, collectorate,
17. Literal Tamil translation of English expressions in college, colony, commissioner, community certificate,
daily discourse which the common man does not compound, compound suvar, compounder, contractor,
understand: red-carpet welcome, brain drain, who to cotton pants/saree, current, DA, decoction coffee,
bell the cat, all are equal before the law, white paper, deputed, district, iron box, mufti, sweeper, petrol
61 62
bunk/bulk/bank, maidanam, policekaarar, dispute, Is English in the Loop of Glocalization?
24. Abbreviations of names of institutes / Titles
/degrees: IAS, IIT, IIM, MA., Ph.D., B.Ed., Mr, Mrs, Dr. Neelam Tikkha
Dr., PA, MLA, MP, sir, madam, SSA, BRT, TRB,
When the mode of language changes,
the walls of the globe shake
Advancement of web technology and smart phones has
brought a revolution which has brought in changes faster
than the speed of rocket in the pattern of communication,
business, society and economy of the world. The change has
been furthered with the emergence of social sites like Face
book, Twitter and professional sites like Linked In. A cultural
lingua franca of web has emerged which has changed the way
people communicate the way people socialize and the way
people do business.
There has been a great paradigm shift in the culture
from regional to national. National to global and now from
global to Glocal . Glocalization as a concept arose to help
alleviate the conceptual difficulties of macro-micro
relationship. This paper examines the evolution and
transformation of the concept of globalization highlighting
the tangled relationship among the discipline of lingua
franca, economy, sociology and globalization. The paper will
also trace the history and the development of the concept of
glocalization, which originated in Japan as a popular
business strategy. The paper will also examine the transition
of lingua franca from Baby boomers to Gen Y and its impact
in the business and economy of the globe. This paper will also
touch on the changes that should be integrated in the teaching
patterns of English language to prepare an individual to meet
with the changing social and business lingua franca to surge
ahead in economy and prepare for future changes that an
individual might encounter in the ever leveraging race of

63 64
enjoying a cool breeze. The clatter on the
Key Words : Glocalization, Globalization, Mc asphalt was tremendously effective: knives,
Donaldization, homogenous culture, evolution, Pidgin, forks, can-openers, pie pans, pot lids fell
beautifully together, in a lingering, clamant
Introduction : crash. Stop the car ! shouted father. I cant,
When the mode of language changes, the walls of the globe shake Roy said, The engine fell out. God
Almighty said father who knew what it
Since ages mans struggle for survival and growth has pushed sounded as if it might mean. 1
him to new horizons. His search touched the sky by virtue of
his reasoning and articulate speech. In this quest he spread The above snippet mimics the social change and psychology
his wings of his business to other parts of the world which led of confusion that modernization had brought in society. The
to globalization and countries became a part of the globe and change is like the mystical car of Thurber a frightening
were termed global villages. The dawn of the 21st century experience to father who did not understand the control
witnessed globalization which became a buzz word, a slogan, system. Machines created problems for some:
a concept, a term most frequently used than any other term.
Some perceived Globalization to be a heroic change; some a world made up of gadgets and that whir and whine and
considered globalization to be a sinister change, depending whiz and shriek and sometimes explode. No man who has
on which side of the debate one stood. wrestled with a self- adjusting card table can ever be quite the
man he once was.
Sociological change and technological change : Many
writers like James Thurber projected this confusion and fear This was the impact of Globalization. The older generation,
of the machine and gadgets that change brought and how it represented the confused Homo sapiens, who were unable to
was apprehended by two different generations- the older and bear the shock of a world becoming chaotic and cluttered
the younger, in the story The Car We Had to Push. The with grisly gadgets and macabre machines. The generation
narrator of the story recalls with lucid details a funny situation who could not work on any modern gadget without courting a
, when Thurber boys duped their father into believing that the disaster and saw changes as sinister and perceived
family car was falling apart. Actually the boy had attached a globalization as a brakeless band wagon crushing everything
package of kitchen utensil underneath the car, to be dropped in its path whereas the younger generation believed it to be an
at a particularly serene moment: air craft of opportunity sky rocketing them to comfortable
life, economic growth, and modernization.
This was a little scheme of Roys to frighten
father, who always expected the car might Change in Language : Globalization brought a change in
explode. It worked perfectly... Roy twitched the communication which brought a massive change in the
string in the middle of a lovely afternoon on world. It led to a great paradigm shift in the culture from
Bryden Road near Eighteenth Street. Father Regional to National and National to Global. Business people
had closed his eyes and, with his hat off, was

65 66
started moving from one country to another for business richness of vocabulary to express better and faster. Language
initiating a new culture and a new language which gave birth of social interaction also changed for example, formal
to the language of commerce called Pidgin3 in China. Pidgin salutations from Dear Mr. Soni, Hello!, was replaced by
would sound very funny to other non users but was crucial in Hi! Buddy. Names got cramped and last names were
expediting the business contracts. For example, Piano in dropped for example; Nikita Daniel became Nikita as a result
Pidgin was referred to as a big box you hit um in the teeth and of globalization. Similarly, type of food people consumed
it cries. The other parts of the world also saw an emergence changed. The loaf of bread was replaced with Pizza and
of functional business language. For example, West African Burgher. Television and MC. Donald chain spread outside
Pidgin English which is still used extensively between America giving birth to McDonaldization of the world
several ethnic groups along the West African coast." For (Ritzer, 2000) a homogenized world, a world dominated by a
some Pidgin became the lingua franca the first language and it single culture that erased the differences of local cultures of
was called Creole. An example of early Hawaii Pidgin hybridization or synthesis. Much of the human evolution of
English (HPE) spoken in Honolulu in the late 19th century : culture could be seen as exchanges, diffusion, etc. where
cross-breeding, borrowing and adjusting to the local needs
What for Miss Willis laugh all time? Before and so on were very common. Foreign goods were available
Fraulein cry all time. easily and everywhere. Competition increased forcing local
"Why does Miss Willis often laugh? companies to strive for better and better performance to
Fraulein used to always cry." 5 survive competition by foreign goods which led to improved
quality of goods and modest pricing. Affordability for people
"Againye tried to be a good nurse, attentive with modest income also increased leading to mass
but not cloying, fetching me a stool to use production. Companies profit margin reduced. The
while I bathed from a bucket and petting my Customer acquired the power to choose from a variety of
head as I napped, saying, 'Pain you well products and price range according to his taste. Customer
well' in soothing pidgin." became the king. The World was a work place. Swaminathan
(Mary Helen Specht, "How Could I S Anklesaria Aiyar narrates a humouros example of his
6 family :
Embrace a Village?"
My son Sekhar won . Won a scholarship
English was taught with a different methodology and was to Oxford University , taught for a year at
called ESL ( English for specific purpose) . The language Colombo . Next he went to Toronto ,
served the purpose of communication to further the business. Canada , for higher studies. There he met a
English unofficially with variation became the official German girl , Fraziska .
language of commerce for two reasons: i) The British had They both got jobs at IMF in Washington
spread English far and wide during colonization so it was a DC USA. This meant that they constantly
popular fruit of colonization which world had tasted and travelled on IMF business to disparate
could comprehend. ii) Acceptability for other languages and countries. Shekhar went on missions to
67 68
Sierra Leone, Seychelles , Kryzgystan and Laos . Later stages of Globalization was marked with the invention
Franziska went to Rwanda ,Tajikistan and of computers that led to the change in the working pattern.
Russia . They interrupted these perambulations Microsoft Office with its key features of Word, Power point
to get married in late 2003. The readers might and Excel were used in every office and at home children used
think that my family was born in jet plane the feature of paint brush and also used it for playing of
rigid Tamil Brahmins were transformed into a video games . Cell phone was also introduced in this era but
beef eating, pizza guzzling, hip hop initially, it was merely used by rich businessmen or people in
dancers.quite at home sitting on the floor of high position but the common man was still far away from
the Kargudi house on a mat of reeds eating from this magic box. Later with Governments liberalization
a banana leaf with my hands . I feel just as much policies in the cellular world brought in a number of global
at home eating noodles in China, steak in Spain, companies to India like Vodaphone and Uninor that enabled
teriyaki in Japan and cous- cous in Morocco.7 people with 2 G and 3 G licenses the world was a localized
society. It gave birth to smart phones and SMS virus hit
Early Stage of Globalization shed the shackles of religion and people of all age group and all profession round the globe .
region and was not just the movement of goods and capital but The magical wand reached the hands of people of all age
also of people. This brought about transformation in the groups and all classes in the hands of people of all age groups
social pattern since the most powerful social institution- the and all classes . It became an addiction SMS is a chill pill - a
marriage institution witnessed a change leading to a change in necessity on which teens and business people thrive . The
the way people behaved, the way they thought and ate. lingua franca was lingua shrunka. In fact, it gained so much
popularity that teaching writing of sms became a necessity.
The change was so gigantic that globally a cultural and social Maharashtra State Board responded by including a chapter in
change started becoming visible. As such it is very difficult to course curriculum for xii th class English language.8 Not
perceive the conceptual changes in sociological maneuvers only this there are exercises to help learner to learn writing
till we see the dramatic shifts. Concepts change due to a SMS.
number of factors but primarily they change because of
business interactions and social interactions and this was very SMS is the hottest euphoric addiction in teen town Its more
evident , in Singapore, from the inflow of foreign capital, addictive than Marijuana or Hashish. At the play of your
technology, workers or foreign talents, music, movies, fingers you can latch generations. All you need to do is be a
popular culture, almost everything resonated a shift towards proud possessor of a smart phone. Marshall Mc Luhan father
global culture, resonance with globalization. Fashions of mass culture said :
witnessed a marked change and ironed the differences in all
classes because of the use of denims amongst teenagers - We become what we behold. Flaunt a mobile
Jeans and sports shoe became an informal dress style and you become a symbol of nomadic tribe;
statement world over. ESL teaching gained high importance. speak sms and you add status to the symbol.
You bring grandeur to the gadget.

69 70
Once there was English concocted by guardian angels like 2B or nt 2B: tht is th?
Wren &Martin and Thomson Martinet that tightened the Whthr ts nblr in th mnd 2 sffr
leash on the necks of a common man . Then came the Th sings & ROs of outrajus 4 fun, 12
hurricane cell phone , which has unleashed rings and beeps
into solitude . Expression of love is laconic and pithy. Comas, Lingua franca of Gen Y is abbreviation for example :EMI -
exclamations and semicolons and dashes take the message to Easy monthly installment . PI is personality Improvement .
magical moments of subliminal ecstasy. Its brave- witty . Boy friend is BF Nikita Joeseph Daniel reduces to Nikita ---
SMS is an extension of mind. You acquire the status of ATM Informal names of baby boomers generation are formal
Available to Messages romantic, business or SOS or help names for Gen Y . Baby boomers find Gen Ys attempts to
to anyone , anywhere , anytime to everyone. Bulk SMS help refrain from last names or family names as an attempt to hide
you be in touch with as many friends, at the same moment the identity and Gen Y feels it is an attempt to own an
with the same click. Say S to sms. In fact, sms is a cultural independent identity.
revolution of Mess Ages which says be brief, be quick to
capture your scintillating nano- moments through the For all limitations , Lingua tech is a sign of shrinking
language of Sms. In the olden days , those who wrote could boundaries and world becoming local arena. Tech shrunka is
not add. If you loved sums , you hated sonnets. These days, not a spurious concoction, it is a genuine decoction. Its the
Maths and English are cohabiting making messaging essence of English , as we want it to be . So next time you meet
sensual. Try this: RU + /X, IM(.) /CU @7/MH%KED. an Smser, say cheers. For the worlds happiness depends on
the giggle line he bombards his( girl friends) with.
Boy : Are you cross?/ Girl: No , Im lonely/ boy: see you at 7
/Girl: I am hooked. Teacher : What s the meaning of green
dot on Parle G packet
Initially, sms was the lingua franca of young but now it is of Student: Mam it means Parle G s status
all age group rather it is now called the Tech lingua shrunka . is online .
If you are on tech roller coaster ride you have acquired status
and a power to communicate in Tech lingua shrunka where : Glocalization
punctuations make words, letters create Japanese ,pioneer in business world had thought of concept
sentences, and words become paragraph. And of Glocalization which was initially a term used by the
in the sms of love a mere preposition is a marketing experts which meant the products of Japanese
proposition . 11 origin should be localized so that, it suits to local taste and
Infact Hamlet has been transformed into SMS interests and is acceptable through out the globe but of late it
Ys&hres Hmlts sililoki to prve it. has acquired a new meaning that there are no longer
(Wth a lttle hlp fm Jg Srya &NLBH Ban RG ) geographical boundaries- of culture or religion or country. It
is a tech culture or a Face book culture.

71 72
Internet technology and changes in communication system part of the world whereas on TV it will remain localized and
among the countries world over has led us to the concept of may not reach every part of the country like remote villages.
Glocalization. This means that all countries have become a Seminars and conferences are being replaced by Webinars
part of every other country and is no longer a foreign counter and web conferencing because of the sites like Second life.
part but a local peer. Glocalization alleviate the conceptual On this site people even choose an identity they like . They
difficulties of macro-micro relationship, evolution and select avies or avtar they prefer and they dress it with the
transformation of the concept of globalization highlighting clothes of their choice . Avies also give a liberty to select the
the tangled relationship among the discipline of lingua franca, gender a man can select the gender of a woman and can even
economy, sociology and globalization. Advancement in the decide on the hair style or hair color and the age you would
technology of web and smart phones and the affordability of like the world to see of yours. This site also helps Companies
this technology by the common man has further brought have round table conferences where virtual Avies of theirs sit
about changes faster than the speed of rocket in the pattern of and discuss. One can teach and learn on such sites. People
communication, business, society and economy of the world. even buy and sell virtual spaces. Everything can be
The change has been furthered with the emergence of social communicated virtually so people can have office at home
sites like Face book, Twitter and professional sites like which gives them flexibility of time and of geographical
Linked In. Face book has become so popular that it is the boundaries. No body had ever imagined living in India one
first tech company to be listed on NASDAQ. Face book has can have a foreign employer who sits in America and his
become a tool to endorse a product an idea, a concept. It has colleagues in all parts of the world. This is the magic of tech
become a popular and important branding site. A cultural revolution. Man is looking for a possibility of gigantic leaps
lingua franca of web has emerged which has changed the way in every vista of life - be it language, be it marketing, be it food
people communicate the way people socialize, the way and very soon online marriages would be very popular.
people dress and the way people do business. For example , Restaurants are being replaced by online stores that deliver
Face book language is cool and awesome. The word products at the door step. Fast food is being replaced by
situation or condition is replaced by status; beautiful packaged ready to eat food. Mall is being replaced by online
is replaced by sexy and thanks has been replaced by big stores like Flipkart .com, OLX , Shop and Buy and Home
big hug. The feeling of love, happiness, sorrow and anger is Shoppee. Second Life can give you a virtual tour to the
expressed by emoticons. The salutations of globalizations various museums across the world at negligible cost. It has
like Hi! buddy has been replaced by Hi all or simply Hi! The become a booming business to buy and sell virtual space all
language has shortened in length but not in spirits. It is a over the world. A World Park in US gives the ultimate
power packed language of SMS and symbols. Snail mail had experience of a digital world. There are digital trees. You can
been replaced by E Mail and then by sms through smart scan the card and listen to music , watch movies and also learn
phones. One message communicates with people all over the about the history of any era.
world. Advertisements in the news papers are being replaced
by advertisements on the web. Branding of products on face The most important generation in India is Gen Y . India is
book is more important than the advertisements on the called the country of youth. An enormous number of
television since an advertisement on Facebook reaches every teenagers are on Face book and Twitter communicating
73 74
through out the globe. They put their pictures on the site and systems are trying to give customer virtual experience for
buy clothes and stuff online. In fact the youths dressing style everything before one goes to finally decide to buy a car ,
has changed . Every one on face book is young since decide an education product , decide to buy a production plant
conversation takes place with like minded people and it is the even planning seating and leg room in the airplane . Next
same with people of all age group . Salutations and greetings what scientists have developed a way to turn living cells into
have changed. It is no longer representative of a particular rewritable digital data storages like living hard drives Just
place but of a particular time . Traditional dresses like sarees as a computer chip stores data by flipping an electrical bit or
are a thing of the past and would soon be extinct like the magnetic field on or off , the DNA system flips the orientation
Dinosaurs. It is being replaced by business suit. It is a culture of a section of DNA to indicate an or-off- bit .Many
marked by similar, dressing up style, hair style , similar food boardroom meetings people look for possibility of coming
pattern, similar way of talking rather similar belief patterns. out with a chip that can be planted inside the brain to hold
The social change that we see is in the kind of food that we eat huge amount of information and have a quick access to it that
, the clothes that we wear the hair styles ,faceless working on will increase the working speed and quality of product. The
net and net banking, faceless marketing and man becoming technology is trying to cramp everything like the entire office
withdrawn from face to face interaction but becoming good at is accommodated in the pen drive.
faceless interactions. One can perceive Glocalization in every
aspect of life . English has been guillotined by the tech revolution .
Sentences have acquired zero figure and Slang is courting
Globalization was a gradual process but the speed of syntax. The language of symbols written on Facebook walls
Glocalization was that of a Tsunami which said Be a part of it is similar to that on the walls of cave. The Lingua symbol of
or be washed out. One had a choice to accept Globalization tech cave would be represented by emoticons and ready
but there was no choice as far as Glocalization was pictures and cartoons that will express feelings with / without
concerned. It was a concept that arose to help alleviate the emotions. It is an ? ? generation where love is a word
conceptual difficulties of macro-micro relationship. written on T shirts . One night stands would define marriage
Glocalization originated in Japan as a popular business institution. Sex would be a recreation or leisure activity.
strategy but was twisted in its meaning and became a Virtual sex would gain popularity giving birth to virtual
nomenclature for homogenized tech culture that had a global egocentric tech babies moving in their cocoon. These babies
presence a status as evident on social sites. It is one culture be would be a societal recluse , chatting away on the internet
it America, England, India, Thailand or China. No longer is changing and shifting identities .The pace of our life will
Kiwi an exotic fruit or Chinese Noodles Chinese or Thai food speed up: we will move faster from one place to another, from
that people just read but forms a dish at all special occasions one continent to another using high speed jet airplanes.
like weddings or birthday parties even in India. Samosa Virtual space travel will be a reality for a common man . We
travelled to the luncheon table at white house given by will be able to do many things that take much time now
president OBAMA. The song Kolavaeridi had fan following without leaving our house. Computers will be everywhere .
from all over the world.
World is becoming virtual, infact,companies like Dssault
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Conclusion: Notes And references:
Have we taken a baby step towards the vision of John 1. Thurber, My Life
Lennon? 2. Thurber, My Life
Imagine theres no country , 3. David Crystal, English As a Global Language.
It isnt hard to do. Cambridge University Press, 2003 "
Nothing to kill or die for, 4. (cited by Jeff Siegel in The Emergence of Pidgin and
And no religion too.14 Creole. Oxford University Press, 2008).
Extended statements will be used by highly pedantic 5. (cited by Jeff Siegel in The Emergence of Pidgin and
Philologists or Linguists studying the development of Creole. Oxford University Press, 2008).
language . Nikita Joeseph Daniel --- Niki ----- ND. Next 6. The New York Times, Feb. 5, 2010).
????? 7. Aiyar, Swaminathan S .A.(2011), My Family and
Speed will be the buzz word: Globalisers, in Yuwakbharti (1st edition), Pune:
The only language would be ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? MSB,pp.200-201,2011.
8. Kamat vinay, ( 2011), Is SMS Ruining the English
Language? in Yuwakbharti (1st edition), Pune:
9. Ibid .p 208- 209.
10. Ibid. p.219- 210.
11. Ibid. p 209.
12. Srya ,J.G. & Nlbh Ban R.G, SMS. in Yuwakbharti (1st
edition), Pune: MSB,p.215.
13. Bonnet, DNA turned into living Hard Drive, Times Of
India, Monday , May 28, 2012.
14. Aiyar, Swaminathan S .A.(2011), My Family and
Globalisers, in Yuwakbharti (1st edition), Pune:

77 78
Miscommunication at the Workplace- Introduction:
An Interpersonal Approach Workplace communication is increasingly becoming important in
today's organisational life. Employees are spending considerable
Mr. T. Sunand Emmanuel amount of time at the workplace today.
Assistant Professor in English
Vasavi College of Engineering, Given the nature and complexity of today's workplace,
Ibrahimbagh, Hyderabad-500031 relationships have assumed significant importance. Successful
communication, hence, necessitates that employees have good
Email: listening skills, good nonverbal communication, and the desire to
establish supportive and understanding climates. They should also
be able to manage conflict and resolve misunderstandings. There is
ABSTRACT pressure to perform to the expectations of the management, the
clients, and the organization as a whole. And so, in our haste to live
The voluminous work in today's organizations and the inevitability up to the myriad expectations of the ever changing demands of the
of working in teams for the accomplishment of organizational organization and society at large, employees are under an intense
goals often lead to misunderstandings among employees. In this pressure to perform. In this process, there is bound to be friction
process, our assumptions and fallacies, personal idiosyncrasies, and misunderstandings between peers. There can also be
and our own personality traits precipitate the workplace miscommunication between superiors and subordinates. Hence,
environment. This leads to a crisis and contributes to increased interpersonal conflict seems to be an inevitable reality at the
miscommunication. Diverse views and perspectives on how work workplace today. Before we try to understand what interpersonal
should be done or shared invariably lead to misunderstandings. conflict is all about, let us delve a little deeply into what we mean by
This leads to miscommunication creating bad blood among interpersonal communication. What exactly is interpersonal
employees in the organizations. If misunderstandings persist for communication? Interpersonal communication is selective,
too long, the stability of the organization itself would be at stake. systemic, unique, processual (is an ongoing process) transactions
This affects the employees and vitiates the atmosphere prevailing in that allow people to reflect and build personal knowledge of one
the organization. In this article, the writer is making an attempt to another and create shared meanings (Wood, 2010).
understand the nature of conflicts generally prevailing in
organizations from a very practical perspective. Differences of Beebe and Redmond define it as the process of interacting
opinions, of course, exist among peers or between superiors and simultaneously with another person and mutually influencing each
subordinates. However, determination to resolve issues amicably other, usually for the purpose of managing relationships.
should never be abandoned. Sincere intentions to resolve issues According to Martin Buber, a 20th century philosopher,
and a desire to put aside individual interests for the sake of the relationships lie along a continuum of I-It, I-You, and I-Thou.
organization should be of paramount concern for any employee.
Only when issues are resolved amicably can organizations function In an I-It relationship, the speaker treats the other person based on
smoothly. Maintaining good interpersonal relations by reducing the societal role. For example, in interactions between a bus
misunderstandings should be the responsibility of every employee passenger and a conductor, or between a customer and a server in a
in the organization. hotel, there is hardly any self-disclosure. We ask for the ticket and
the conductor issues the ticket. We order an item in the hotel, and
the server gets it. Beyond this, there is hardly any communication

79 80
between the two. In 'I-You' communication mode, both the It is natural, thus, to have miscommunication in organizations.
communicators recognize each other as individuals, and there is When miscommunication gets escalated over a period of time, it
some amount of self-disclosure. In the terminology of Patricia Sias, results in breakdown in communication leading to gradual eroding
this relationship approximates 'collegial peers'. There is mutual of relationships. Employees exhibit their behavior in different
respect and a bit of personal element in such transactions. In 'I- ways during a conflict.
Thou' mode of communication, there is highest self-disclosure
between the two participants in communication. We have I-Thou Different people express their resentment in different ways at the
relationship with very few people in life. Again, in the terminology workplace.
of Patricia Sias, this may approximate 'special peers'. The
participants know each other well, and can predict the other's Causes of Conflicts
behavior to a reasonably good extent. (Miller and Steinberg, 1975). In an educational institution, conflicts are natural. But what could
At the organisational level, we are expected to have I-You level of be some of the reasons for conflicts? Conflicts can take place due to
communication with our peers, subordinates, and superiors. inequality or injustice in workload distribution, invigilation duties
given to staff during exams, delegation of departmental
Going by Martin Buber's communication continuum, what is the responsibilities. Other reasons could be when a coworker is
nature of communication in organizations? Is it an I-It, or I-You, or progressing in his/her professional career. Sometimes, when a
and I-Thou? According to Julia T. Wood, it is important to have and coworker is recognized by the management of the institution for
maintain I-You communication in organization. This is professional reasons, it can cause some sense of uneasiness and
fundamental and necessary. insecurity in others. And all that is required is a 'spark' to ignite an
imaginary conflict. Miscommunication between employees takes
Now, why does miscommunication take place in organizations? place due to 'cognitive fallacies'. Some common fallacies include:
What conflicts result due to miscommunication? What is 'conflict'
basically? Interpersonal conflict occurs when there are different 1. Halo effect: Based on one trait, we see in the other person, we
views, interests, or goals between individuals. (Wood, 2010). generalize or attribute many other qualities to him. For
Communication scholars William Wilmot and Joyce Hocker define example, if somebody tells us that a certain coworker is lazy,
an interpersonal conflict as an expressed struggle between at least then we also assume that he is irregular, aggressive, rude, etc.
two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals,
scarce resources, and interference from the other party in achieving 2. Allness fallacy: It is the belief that one can say everything
their goals. So, incompatible goals and scarce resources are the there is to say about something.
essential elements of an interpersonal conflict. According to Kory
Floyd, conflict in interpersonal relationships is natural, can be How do individuals deal with or respond in conflicts?
direct or indirect, harmful, and beneficial too. (Kory Floyd, 2010) Aggressive communicators resort to shouting, screaming, and
accusing. They become even more provoked if the listener is a
Conflict In Organizations: passive communicator. Using abusive language, threatening,
All these different ragesroad rage, air rage, whatever rageare becoming hysterical, and rallying support from others for their
all symptoms of the same thing: We all have too many assumptions is common. An aggressive communicator would
commitments and too little time. Lynne McClure, McClure say, I tried my best to understand, resolve, and forgive the person,
Associates. but everything failed. And so I had to shout. This, generally, could
be one of the ways a person with an aggressive style of

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communication reacts. Most aggressive communicators claim to 4. You were supposed to inform me, but you didn't
be assertive in dealing with conflicts, and consider themselves to be 5. How am I supposed to know that?
'sanctimonious' even! But the reality is otherwise. They have just 6. Who are you to tell me that?
lost control over their emotions. 7. I don't care.
8. Who cares?
Passive communicators, generally, do their best to avoid, ignore, or
pretend that there was no conflict. Since passive communicators Passive speaker:
suffer from low self-esteem and are timid, they do not speak 1. I was wrong.
assertively. They wish that the problem or conflict would subside in 2. It's okay.
due time. They do not assert themselves. A standard answer of a 3. Leave the issue here.
passive communicator would be like this: It is not a big problem. 4. I don't know.
Things will subside. In fact, there is no conflict here. That means a 5. I shouldn't have done that.
passive communicator even denies the existence of a problem. 6. God is there. (fatalistic)
Withdrawing, denying the existence of a conflict are some of the 7. Let God take care of the situation. (fatalistic)
ways a passive communicator does. 8. Time will heal.
9. I don't know anything about it.
Assertive communicators are those who disagree respectfully.
They do not let others talk to them rashly or let others heap abuse on Assertive speaker:
them. In a conflict situation, they express their opinions frankly and 1. I understand your perspective, but please listen to me too.
boldly, but with due respect to others. They believe in an 'I win- you 2. You may be right; however, I wish to add..
win' approach. An assertive communicator would protect the face 3. I am not blaming you, but there could have been a better way
of the listener. They help people maintain a 'positive face to deal with this
(Goffman). In a conflict situation, hence, an assertive 4. A little clarification would have resolved this issue between
communicator protects his own face and the face of the listener's. us.
Brown and Levinson in their classic work on politeness define face 5. I am sorry that this had to happen, but ..
as the public self-image that every member of a society wants to 6. I am sorry if you are hurt because of what I said. I didn't
claim for himself/herself. Face is a social image that individuals mean that.
would like to preserve for themselves. 7. I believe we should resolve this issue amicably, and it is
So, what essentially an assertive communicator does is to protect
the face of the persons in conflict.
How to resolve conflicts?
Most conflicts can be resolved if our concern for ourselves is
Some common statements communicators would utter in conflict matched with concern for others.
It is natural to think about our self interests; however, it is equally
Aggressive speaker: important to empathise with the other person's situation too. We
1. You were completely wrong. should cultivate genuine concern, empathy for others. A sincere
2. You did it, not me. (Emphasis on 'you') altruistic attitude goes a long way in resolving problems at the
3. You did not inform me. workplace. Respecting others' views is very important.

83 84
According to researchers Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, there are parties leave the conflict having gained something valuable. There
two underlying dimensions in our approach to dealing with is some satisfaction of having gained something. (Floyd, 2009)
conflict. They are as follows: our concern for our own needs and
desires, and our concern for the other party's needs and desires. Collaborating: Here, the individuals believe in 'I win- You win'
mode of communication. They try to ensure that both the parties
There are five major strategies for engaging in conflict. They are as gain. This requires patience, energy, and time since the needs of
follows: competing, avoiding, accommodating, compromising, both the individuals should be met. This is also called the
and collaborating. (Floyd, 2009) 'collaborative' approach. (Floyd, 2009)

Competing: The competing style represents a high concern for The writer believes that the desire to resolving conflicts should be
your own needs and desires, and a low concern for other's needs. reciprocal in nature. It cannot be the concern of one individual
The person just wants to win at the cost of the other. Here, one alone. It is important to understand organizational conflicts can be
person wins and the other person loses (Floyd, 2009). It is at the resolved when individuals put aside their ego and strive towards the
cost of the other person. There is aggression and lack of concern well-being of the organization. It requires courage to be humble,
for the other person. Power is the distinguishing characteristic here. courage to admit one's mistakes, and courage to forgive others'
Physical or implied force is used here. In organizations, people use mistakes.
implied force when they want to win at any cost. Superiors can use
implied force to get their work done (Adler and Rodman, 2006). What should employees do?
1. Do not start a conversation with assumptions.
Avoiding: Here the individual simply ignores or fails to deal with 2. Be ready to forgive others' mistakes for the well-being of the
the conflict. They even deny that there is a conflict. This is more or organization.
like a 'loselose' situation, neither of the individuals has any gain. A 3. Empathise with the listener why he/she behaved in a certain
nation may gain military victory at the cost of thousands of lives, manner.
large amounts of resources, and a damaged national consciousness 4. Understand the fact that mistakes are human in nature.
hasn't truly won much. It is only a pyrrhic victory. On an 5. Be supportive, helpful, and altruistic in nature.
interpersonal level too, this holds true. Most of us have seen battles 6. Do not be supremely egocentric of your own interests,
of pride in which both parties strike out and both suffer. This comforts, and needs.
approach does no good to the individuals or the team or the
organization. (Adler and Rodman, 2006) Conclusion:
Conflicts are natural at the workplace. Unless employees have a
Accommodating: Here, there is high concern for the other party sincere desire to resolve all outstanding issues amicably, it is
but a low concern for the self. In the accommodating style, the difficult to think of successful organizations! In resolving conflicts,
person gives up his needs to meet other's needs just to protect the there should be empathy. Accusations, assumptions, rashness,
relationship. It is keep the peace in their relationships (Floyd, aggressive tone and negative body language do not serve the
2009). purpose at all. People in conflict in organizations should willingly
come forward, agree to disagree respectfully, think of the 'big
Compromising: It involves a moderate concern for other's needs picture' and resolve issues at the earliest. Unresolved issues can
and desires. Here, both parties give up something in order to gain precipitate the crisis further. This does not help the individuals or
something. They may not get exactly what they want, but all the organization. This writer is of the opinion that employees of an

85 86
organization should have a sense of solidarity and compassion for Citizen Journalism and New Media:
one another. Else, organizations are bound to suffer due to rash A New Challenge to the Mainstream Media
assumptions. Compassion and empathy are not a choice that
employees can exercise at their discretion. On the other hand, they About the Author:
must show these qualities of compassion and empathy as a Ms. Sharmistha Das
'binding, reciprocal obligation' towards one another. UGC NET Scholar
Misunderstandings and assumptions cannot continue perpetually
Department of Mass Communication
in organizations. Employees should be cognizant of the sacred
reality that 'an institution is greater than an individual or a sum of University of Burdwan
individuals any day'. Hence, a desire to resolve conflicts should be WestBengal , India
of paramount importance to all employees. E mail:

1. Mark L. Knapp and John A. Daly. The SAGE Handbook of
Interpersonal Communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage With the devastation after the South Asian Tsunami (26th
Publications. December 2004), a new term has secured a profound place in the
journalism's vocabulary that is 'citizen journalism'. The
2. Wood, J. T. (2007). Interpersonal Communication: Everyday
astonishing first person account of the deadly quack, camcorder
Encounters. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
video footage, mobile and digital camera snapshots all those were
3. Sias, P.M. (2009). Organizing Relationships: Traditional and posted through blogs and online personal web pages by amateur
emerging perspectives on workplace relationships. Thousand bystanders (most of them are tourists) without any proper
Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. journalistic training were widely used by the mainstream media.
This was the first time that television reporters had to become so
4. Emmanuel, Sunand T. Striving to Communicate. Technocrats dependent on these amateur videographers. Stuart, A.(2009)
Magazine 2008 Issue, Vasavi College of Engineering, commented , Producers and news cameramen often found
Hyderabad. themselves being sent not to the scene of disaster to capture the
5. Floyd, Kory (2009). Interpersonal Communication, The footage of its aftermath, but to the airports where holiday makers
Whole Story were returning home with footage of the catastrophe as it
happened .Not only tsunami but other tragic incidents like
6. Understanding Human Communication, Ronald B. Adler and bombings in London's underground carriages (July ,2005) ,
George Rodman, Oxford University Press, 2006, Ninth inconceivable scenes of Hurricane, Katrina and Rita were reached
Edition to all only by these kind of ordinary persons' recording gadgets .
Though citizen journalism emerged from crisis reporting but with
7. P. Brown, P. and S. Levinson, Universals in language usage:
the passing of time it has been evolved into various forms such as
Politeness phenomenon in Questions and politeness:
grass root journalism, open source journalism, participatory
Strategies in social interaction (E. Goody Ed.) (Cambridge:
journalism, hyper local journalism, 'democratic journalism
Cambridge University Press, 1978) p 56-289. 2
and alternative journalism .

87 88
Citizen Journalism: A Brief Account Commoditization of News
In citizen journalism a common man without any journalistic Since 1990s with the globalization deregulation has been started in
background plays an active role in bringing news often with the Indian mainstream media. The corporate sector has entered the
help of new media technology such as blogs, social networking press mainly to do business like other business. The press has thus
sites and media sharing websites. Jay Rosen, a professor of become business oriented rather than people oriented. Editorial job
Journalism of The New York University defined when people and policy have taken the backseat whereas market pressure has
formerly known as the audience employs press tools they have in become the main driving force which directs at what time in which
their possession to inform one another'3. Anyone can now use UGC way what news will be catered to the audience. Increasing
(User generated content) applications to share incident which is importance of public relations in media houses has been observed
news worthy to them by uploading images and videos. With the in order to serve the narrow interest of the corporate and the
help of latest technology citizen journalists often beat mainstream government in power. Walter Lippman(1997) aptly described this
journalists in terms of breaking the news. Journalism 'for the process as the manufacture of consent 7 Conglomeration and
people' started to flourish with the development in internet and concentration of ownership left the control of major media houses
mobile computing systems. Now smart phones with its integrated in few hands. A few media house now decide what the world should
latest features inspire so many people to become citizen journalist. know and what the world should take as truth. They have
Social media such as Face book, Twitter, and You Tube connect monopolized the media business. Monopoly over information
people 24x7 where one can share his thoughts with other whether it is public or private is destructive for democracy because
instantaneously. This has revolutionized the communication it would be short of fair and objective approach. To these business
system. Twitter was influential in Arab Spring uprising. bug audience is nothing more than consumer and news is mere a
commodity. News which has market value gets priority. In such
The basic objective of journalism is to inform and educate not to environment where media outlets seek to deliver audiences to the
entertain. Ideally the press should play an important role in the advertisers, 24- hour news cycle places a premium on speed not
formation of public opinion and the shaping of policies regarding accuracy and all too often style triumphs over substance. The result
social, political and economic issues of the country. A well is a form of journalism that lacks context and perspective, and blurs
informed citizen can form his/her opinion independently and in any meaningful distinction between information and entertainment
turns becomes intelligent voter. This is the basic requirement for 8. The main agenda of the big media houses is to flourish
any democracy. Over the years the press has become so powerful consumerism by manipulating minds, homogenization of culture,
that British politician Edmund Burke aptly described it as the sensationalism and yellow journalism.
'Fourth Estate'4. Habermas in his normative ideal said that news
should do more than simply by reporting on important issues, but The Rise of Alternate Journalism
by providing opportunities and resources for citizens to identify In an era when a handful of transnational media conglomerate
and address these issues and concerns5 A serious news media more specifically on 1990s, Like NEWS CORP, VIACOM,WALT
should perform a set of functions in the benefit of the society. These DISNEY, SONY or AOL TIME WARNER dominate the global
are: a) the credible informational, b) the critical investigative media flows, the interest and perspective of citizen are rarely heard,
'watchdog' c) the educational and d) the agenda building functions and their participation in public discourse is severely constrained.
6. The Government will be more accountable to its citizen if the But one incident which empowered the citizen and gave voice to
media can play the vital link between the people and those existing the voiceless - that is the invention of the internet. The modern
in power. internet became operational as US military flipped the switch on

89 90
TCP/IP on January 1, 1983 9. Internet is completely different form technology. Internet does not have the limitations of print and
of communication from the communication we are used to, broadcasting media. It can enable i) many to many conversations ii)
whether it is mass mediated communication or interpersonal in the simultaneous reception, alteration and redistribution of cultural
sense that people can use the Net for both. The World Wide Web objects iii) communicative actions out of the posts of the nation
(www) has enabled people to reach the world instantaneously from the territorialized spatial relations of modernity iv)
creating cyber communities and connected continents through instantaneous global contact and v) subject, new or old whatever
information super highway. Now citizen can publish and share within the reach into machine apparatus that is networked (Poster)
their individual story outside the traditional media. As a result a 12. New media opens up abundance of scopes for the authors.
new world of publishing has come out where anyone can become There are numerous evidences where anonymous bloggers have
publisher in a blog or through other channel on online. This new become famous in internet. Bloggers are making money from their
form of publishing world which turned out to be an alternative blogs, web diaries, picture chronicle, personal web pages, online
journalism democratized the publishing system. It offers everyone journal and websites which draw maximum audiences. Like
opportunities to publish and share his/her individual thought with newspapers the bloggers are now becoming opinion makers but
other. The operation of the new media is not usually professional or more striking is the fact that one can write whatever one wishes if
bureaucratically organized to the same degree as mass media. Here one attracts enough audience. Amit Agarwal was computer
it is important to note that the new media correspond with mass engineer passed out from IIT quit his job in 2004 and become
media primarily in being widely diffused, in principle available to India's first professional blogger. 'Digital inspiration' is one of his
10 13
all for communication but at least free from control famous blog.
Scope of New Media in Contemporary Proliferation of Social Media
At present the total number of internet users in the world is 2 Social media have become a new platform where one can share his
billion, of which 50% constitutes outside the developed world. It is or her thought and feelings with other 24x7. The social networking
assumed that global internet population will be estimated 2.6 2.9 sites which were started to connect people are now becoming the
billion by 2015. Interestingly India has achieved third place in the tool to mobilize and influence. Some may argue that why there is
world in total number of internet use .Currently India has 120 need for citizen journalism as these sites can carry out the role of
million internet users and the projections say it will surpass 350 citizen journalism. But the problem with the social media is that the
million within 2015. According to the market predictions India will conversations generated in it are widely dispersed and full of noise
soon grasp the second rank with the fastest growth rate. Moreover where as citizen journalism is focused on its issues. News which is
there has been observed a phenomenal growth in the use of mobile produced outside can be shared in social networking sites to reach
internet. Internet has become affordable to the general people those wider audience. So both media can complement each other. No
who cannot afford internet in computer. It is expected that India doubt the face book and twitter are now big platform to create
will have about 165 million mobile internet users by March 2015, opinion. The use of social media is increasing day by day. The total
up from 87.1 million in December 2012 as more people are number of social media users was 62 million in December 2012 and
accessing the web through mobile devices and dongles, as per it will soon reach 66 million by June 2013 a report on social media
report by Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) and in India by Internet and Mobile association of India (IAMAI) and
IMRB11. So it is clear that the reach of new media will only Indian market research Bureau (IMRB) said.
increase in future. The reason why internet has become more
popular than the old media as it has the advantage of incorporating In recent past there was huge uproar against the incident of gang
the radio, film and television in it and distribute then through 'push' rape of the young girl in Delhi and these sites played a great role in

91 92
formulating countrywide protest against such a heinous crime. President's Men' in 1976 dramatizing the reporting of Watergate
Influence of social media is found in such an extent that hundreds scandal is now becoming blurred.18 With the proliferation of
of Hyderabadis got motivated from social media and decided to internet use today audience have total control to choose whatever
donate their blood to the victims of the twin blasts on 21st February, information they like. As a result the audience no longer subscribes
2013 at Dilsukhnagar. So great were the numbers of donors to a particular news paper or news channel rather access the articles
assembled at the Care Hospital in Nampally that the management from different newspapers or navigate between news channels or
was compelled to put a board which said we have enough bloods, search for particular video online which interests them. The
thank you Hedrabadis demand of profession is such that the journalists are now becoming
information broker to adapt themselves with the changed
In severe weather like storm or in natural calamity people are atmosphere. Even this abundance of online news and the
playing the role of citizen journalists through these social worldwide recession of 2008 have seriously declined the
networking sites. User can upload real time evidence of weather in circulation and advertising rate which forced many news paper to
face book and twitter. A great example of social media was close its operation or simply economize expenses.
observed during the time of Sandy. Even the users' response to the
super storm often worked as alert to the rest. During this time 20% The demand of user generated content has also observed in
of 20 million tweets during Sandy were photos and video of Sandy broadcast news channels. The trend was started with the CNN's
Pew Research report said. Even in the case of Wenchuan Earth innovation with its iReport20 initiative. Through this iReport
Quake in Southeastern China in 2008 also revealed how citizen CNN broadcasts the stories of many citizen journalists. IN India
journalist broke the news of earth quake both to Chinese and CNN IBN has a program entitled Become a Citizen Journalist21
international audience.17 There are plenty of instances worldwide which invites the audience to share their story with CNN IBN and
where citizen journalists were first to break these kind of stories. quite possibly with the world. Today in the age of internet a
significant relationship has been developed between news
Are Mainstream Media under Challenge? channels and the internet sites like youtube, facebook and twitter
that they incorporate real-time tweets, instant messages, and Face
The combined impact of new media technologies has also book comments from viewers into live programs.
transformed journalism as a professional practice. Especially there
has been observed a huge change in the profession of newspaper
world. Computer Assisted Reporting not only provided more Voice of the Voiceless
precision and scientific approach through sourcing verifiable Gone are the days when mainstream media played a pivotal role in
online data but it also compelled the authority to strengthen its mobilizing the people of India in its struggle for independence. But
online presence. The age-old concept of deadline from newspaper now the scenario has changed. Heightened commercialism of the
world has vanished. Now every minute is deadline for the big media market is neglecting the democratic function of
newspapers which have its online editions. The competition from communication. The vertical pattern of mainstream media
citizen journalism and other online news sources have put discourages active participation and dialogue. One of the
continuous pressure on the mainstream media for continuous advantages of new media is that it is not easy for government to
update. On the other hand mass popularization of internet has come control the access and use of the internet by dissident citizen. This
with plenty of sources which offer news to the audience. This has has led new media to create an ideal space for civil society between
also brought crisis in journalism. The ideal of 'journalism as hero' the private domain and that of the state activity. Blogs, face book,
which was developed in the public eye from the film 'All the

93 94
twitter, YouTube, Wikipedia, Reddit, Digg etc. have empower the Conclusion
citizen and gave voice to the voiceless which seem to fulfill
Citizen journalism and new media empowered the audience to tell
Habermasian ideal of public sphere. Activism in social media went
their own story but demand of mainstream news media have not
to such an extent that civil wars erupted in Arab world on 18th
lost. In the case of news there is still a perceived need for reliability
December 2010. Protests and demonstrations forced the men in
in news, the trust, the objectivity, the brevity, and balance in
power in Tunisia, Egypt, and Yemen to give in to their revolution. A
reporting that some of the conventional news media have earned
poll in which nine out of ten Egyptian and Tunisians responded that
cannot be substitute. Nevertheless, the basic features of the role of
the fade book was used to organize protest and awareness and even
media in public and private life seen to persist. Even the new media
28% of the Egyptian and 29% of the Tunisian of the same poll said
22 have become a new platform for the advertiser and have gradually
it disrupted their communication.
come to be accepted as mass media as it exhibit many of the
features of old media.
Recently the students of The Dhaka University in Bangladesh used
Face book to assemble themselves in SHahbag region of Decca
with the demand of the execution of war criminals like Kader Molla
and Rajakar for the '71 genocide. Later thousands of civilians 1. Stuart, A.(2009). Histories of Citizen Journalism. In A.Stuart
joined there with the same demand. Activists named their & E. Thorsen (Eds.),
association Gana Jagaran Mancha and began their non violence Citizen journalism global perspective, peter lang Publishing,
protest against Jamat- E Islami, the supporters of Kader Molla Inc. New York, (pp. 17-32).Retrieved from
through blogs and social networks. A kind of cyber war which
erupted from Shahbag soon spread the whole country. The effect of 2 Ibid .p18
the blogs were so intense that Rajib Hyder , a blogger activist was
3. R e t r i e v e d f r o m h t t p : / / e n . w i k i p e d i a . o rg / w i k i /
killed inhumanly by the Jamat E Islami supporters on 15th Feb
4. Mc Quail, Denis. Mass Communication Theory, Vistaar
Even in India social media and blogs played a vital role to create Publication(vth ed) 2007,p 169
countrywide protest in the demand of the stringent punishment for 5. D, Eoin. Community media and public sphere,Sage
the culprits involved in the gang-rape of the 23-year-old student of Publications, New Delhi 2007, p 346
Delhi on 16 th December, 2013. A huge number of people including 6. N, Ram. Principles of Ethical Journalism in Practicing
students and informal groups gathered to show their peaceful Journalism, Nalini Rajan, (ed), Sage Publications, 2005, p 40.
protest seeking the justice for the victim in the different parts of the 7. D, Eoin. Ibdi .p 348
capital like Jantar Mantar and in front of the Rastrapati Bhaban 8. D, Eoin. Ibdi .p 347
which compelled the government to take quick action and form a 9. Business Economics, The Internet Touch: 30 Years of
separate committee to review the law of sexual assault against Internet, Jan 16 31, 2013 Vol.18, issue no.20 India.
women. Justice J.S. Verma Committee was constituted on
10. McQuail, Denis. Ibdi. p137.lication 5th Edition (2007)
December, 23 2012 to recommend amendments to the criminal law
so as to provide for quicker trial enhanced punishment f or criminal 11. Business Economics, The Internet Touch, 30 Years of
accused of committing sexual assault against women 24. Internet, Jan 16 31, 2013 Vol.18, issue No.20 india
12. McQuail , Denis .ibid p138.
13. Retrieved from

95 96
14. The Business Economics, The Internet Touch, 30 Years of TITLE : Shopping Is Indulgence In Greed
Internet, Jan 16-30, 2013 Vol -18 issue no. 20 , India.
15. We have enough blood, thank you Hyderabadis! Afrin Professor Neelam G.Tikkha
Humayon, TNN | Feb 25, 2013, 11.09 AM IST Retrieved
fitness/health/We-have-enough-blood-thank-you- Abstract
16. Retrieved from A number of sweat labor works night and day through out the globe
weather-social-media/ to create high brand garments . The fashion industry is flooded by
17. Citizen Journalism in China: The Case of the Wenchuan garments that stink of the sweat of these labor . But, this issue is left
Earthquake Retrieved from untouched by the government since the focus is more on a number
media_communications/downloads/documents/09_Citizen_ of international issues like protection of environment, terrorism,
journalism_in_Chinas_Wenchuan_earthquake_pre_publicat and poverty affect our entire world. As globalization continues
io_%20version.pdf and the earth's natural processes transform local problems into
18. Retrieved from international issues, few societies are being left untouched by
c39365S.pdf, p 7 major environmental problems.
19. Retrieved from
Objective: To throw a light on the ingrained exploitation of poor
20. citizen journalism hits the mainstream Retrieved from labor by fashion industry and why the issue has been neglected . The paper will also show latest practices to improve the conditions
PA246&dq=first+citizen+journalism+in+tv&hl=en&sa=X of poor sweat labor by a few highly reputed brands .
w#v=onepage&q=first%20citizen%20journalism%20in%2 Surely, these eco-friendly costumes can also make a green fashion
0tv&f=false statement. The buying of these dresses is the testimony of the
21. B e c o m e a C i t i z e n J o u r n a l i s t R e t r i e v e d f r o m consciousness related to the environment. Shopping will get new dimensions and a new definition as it will no longer remain a trivial
pload?tag= activity practiced by self indulgent individuals but take a wider
22. Social Media and The Arab Spring Retrieved from perspective and would be a token of care, gratitude and love for the mother planet by a sustainably aware ( post) modern shopper.
d_the_Arab_Spring A time will be witnessed where fashion apparel or eco-dresses
23. Delhi echoes in Dhakas Shahbag Square Retrieved made of environment-conscious materials and by fair trade would
from dominate the market and fashion streets of various countries. Thus
08/south-asia/37560654_1_abdul-quader-mollah- ,catapulting shopping and shopping activity to great significance
projonmo-chottor-war-crimes and raising it to the levels of other equally important global issues.
24. Justice J.S. Verma Committee Retrieved from Key Words : Sweat labor, Shopping, indulgence , globalization

97 98
Introduction: experience. He feels a shopper, like in any MCdonald chain,
which ever part of the world it may be, undergoes the same
A number of international issues like protection of environment, experience. The worker and the customer are concerned only with
terrorism, poverty affect our entire world. As globalization their goals towards achieving the most rational means to their
continues and the earth's natural processes transform local individual end whether that end be to eat a predictable 'safe' meal as
problems into international issues, few societies are being left quickly as possible or to dispense with the queue at the 'drive- thru'
untouched by major environmental problems. Resources are in an efficient fashion . He labels this as 'McDonaldization of
depleting every day. The global percentage of people living in society'^1 . Similarly, retail system has lost any creativity due to
abject poverty and/or suffering from hunger, for instance, although intense competition one store tending to clone another resulting in
definitely still major social issues, is lower today than perhaps ever 'identikit' shopping centers.
We are living in a profoundly material world, which is
Shopping, in the backdrop of various other political, global, social characterized by a vast accumulation of objects. During our
issues of immediate and significant importance does appear to be lifetime there is a complex mesh of products that each of us has
the most trivial issue to be even thought about. However , last used, seen or become attached to. One part of our human condition
decade a number of researchers like Appadurai ( 1986) , is addicted to acquiring and collecting far more things than we have
Zukin(1991), Dittmar ( 1992), Daniel Miller( 1995) , and many time to handle. Mankind, or rather the rich part of the mankind, is
others became interested in shopping since they recognized suffering from 'cultural obesity'.^2 Most people in the developed
shopping as a cultural phenomenon that could be related to social world own many more things than they actually need; closets and
action, interaction and experience that is an important part of (Post ) attics are clogged with unused 'stuff'. Katrina Kaif, a top ranking,
modern society. This marked a major shift, in the society, from Indian film star, in one of her television interviews, titled Coffee
'production' based society to 'consumption based society. This with Karan, remarked that her closet is full of clothes that she had
restructured the fundamentals of society from traditional concept purchased and have not worn them even once. This would be the
of shopping as 'selling goods' to 'recreational shopping around' story of many teenagers.
which was taken a step ahead by the mushrooming of malls that
provided him with the perfect fantasy world ultimate in A (Post) Modern shopper is a consumer of experiences, who
epicurean delight for a shopper. exercises the freedom to move around in the secured
environment or in an artificial Utopia that exists within the Malls
A shopper lives in a time, where he has access to goods that could or urban spaces and enjoys the attractions that are offered by things
not have been foreseen anytime in history, even by any royalty. and people and also exercises the freedom of choice . Baudelaire
Amusement and entertainment opportunities are ubiquitous opines that, The shopper's experiential focus is not primarily on
shopping centers beckon him. Consumer culture has set in that 'the crowd 'experienced as 'an immense reservoir of electrical
defines human values by the amount of money made and the energy ' by the 'perfect flaneur' but rather on the cornucopia of
degree of power and the kind of reputation enjoyed: greed is goods. A (post) modern shopper appears to be with an
accepted as a legitimate human virtue, and one's own needs take epicurean hunger for the goods : an 'I ' with an insatiable appetite
precedence over the welfare of the community. George Ritzer for the 'non I'.^3
believes that human contact is reducing and detachment from one
another is taking place. The system is becoming fast and The personal belongings of a shopper are familiar to him and reflect
automated. Shopping is becoming dehumanized and a controlled parts of his personality. Cummings and Lewandowska point out

99 100
that, we use objects as a sophisticated means of making both through their retention and divestment of these objects and how
ourselves and our world knowable.^4 Consuming products that social relations are created through consumption as an activity.
narrate the best story about us. Bauman also echoes that a shopper Furthermore, another important issue that needs attention is that a
is engaged in 'self -construction' by a process of acquiring large number of women are leisure shoppers apart from being need
commodities of 'distinction and difference' where he considers the shoppers. They not only 'shop for' but also 'shop around' .The
purchased objects as signs rather than things. He words it as number of women leisure shoppers is more world over which is due
'fashioning their subjectivity'. He can be seen as 'buying an identity to the fact that men and women view world and shopping
for him/herself. ' According to Bauman contemporary society differently because of their socially conditioned stances. This is
employs consumer goods to communicate information about due to the fact that for individuation process to occur each must
themselves to others. As consumers they try to achieve self- connect to the significant others and so a girl and a boy has a
construction and hence consumption reduces to an activity in different script of upbringing. For so long gender bias made people
which individuals employ the symbolic meanings attached to ignore shopping and giving any importance to shopping activity or
goods in an endeavour both to construct and to inform others of making it an experience but shopping has become a dominant mode
their 'life style 'or 'identity'^4 He is thus trying to construct of post modern shopper's life.
himself with a persona he likes to be or that can distinguish him
from others. Thus, he stands as a metaphor for identity shopper. He As (post) modern grows older, the objects surrounding him are
ignores himself, and chooses the model -the self-as- identity- replaced according to his interests and his social status. This
shopper , and wears an identity for a while , like a costume and practice is acceptable in our throwaway society^6. His ability to
disposed when it no longer appeals him. Hence shopping place can throw away objects can be compared to the speed a child loses
be regarded as a huge stage where a shopper buys a mask to conceal interest in a toy.
his true- self and reveal the identity he would like to communicate
to others. Fashion designers and consumer culture are largely responsible for
the mass of useless products this world has become swamped with.
Apart from being an identity shopper at shopping sites he also Bauman looks down upon shopping as total commodification
enjoys several things like, watching movies, eating out or even or celebrated as a 'fun culture' and the shopper is reduced to a mere
getting married. He gets an identity of playful, recreational 'subject of consumption'
shopper, in fact he is a wonderful representative of an identity
shopper. A recreational shopper is , someone who spends free time On the flip side of the coin, we have fashion designers vouched for
in the shopping sites and practices choice and builds her /him self Ethical fashion/ Sustainable Fashion and working towards
'freestyle' and so the circuit completes since recreational shopper's preserving mother nature. Sustainable fashion is a fashion that is
image is already built on identity shopper and thus completes the designed to be environmentally friendly. It is a part of the larger
circuit and the formula that emerges is flaneur/flanuse = shopper = trend of "ethical fashion," and according to the May 2007 Vogue it
( post ) modern self. ^5 would continue for multiple seasons. Ethical fashion has two areas
that need to be looked at the people, and the environment; or to put
Another researcher , Daniel Miller, emphasizes the emotional and in other words; fair trade standards and organic standards.
psychological aspect of shopping. His work on ethnographic
research, on material culture expounds the relationships of love and Fairtrade standards:
care that is developed through the acquisition of objects in This includes the workers who sew the clothes, and those who
shopping and how they deal with issues of separation and loss produce the raw materials. There are 30 million cotton farmers

101 102
worldwide, in 90 different countries. Much of the crop comes from The working conditions of garment workers are precarious in
developing countries. Fairtrade cotton ensures that the growers are Bangalore. They have to work for nine to ten hours with a break of
paid a living wage, and that women and children are not exploited half an hour for lunch, that's it! They are forced to complete targets
in the harvesting of cotton. of 100-120 pieces per hour, when under normal circumstances one
can do just 60 pieces. Many get paid well under a living wage, yet
It's also about the people who make the clothes. Do they get a fair they are expected to take care of a family of four or more! Overtime
wage? What are their working conditions? What kinds of hours do is not paid, workplace harassment and abuse are rampant and above
they have to work? Do they get holidays and time off? Can they all, workers cannot voice their opinion through unions. Similar is
form unions to represent their views to their employers? the condition in Jaipur , shadow work and crochet work on cotton
Sweatshops are normal, but that does not make them right. kurti's is done for INR 5/= per piece, though the kurti is sold for INR
1000/= . Story is the same elsewhere in most developing countries
Organic standards: like India and China. Small children work in sweat shop conditions
Secondly, ethical fashion respects the earth. Growing cotton is a and are exploited. Time and again it is uncovered that poverty pay,
polluting business since eight times more chemicals are used on unacceptable working conditions and a lack of trade union rights
cotton than on an average food crop. This pollutes rivers and soils, prevail in the factories that provide clothes for the UK high street.
and it also has serious effects on the people working in the fields. A The companies that make massive profits off the back of the
large percentage of deaths because of pesticides, are in the cotton clothing industry have a responsibility to ensure that their suppliers
fields of the developing world. A lot of these pesticides are treat workers fairly and that cheap clothing does not come at the
unnecessary as cotton can be protected from pests with chilly, soap, expense of workers' rights. Not only this ,fashion industry also
or garlic. Further chemicals are used in processing and dyeing the exploits interns. since many fashion industries, and most creative
cotton. Around 8000 different chemicals are used in producing a t- industries, rely on unpaid interns to make things happen. Their
shirt. ^7 magazines wouldn't get published, film wouldn't get developed,
and fashion shows wouldn't run so smoothly if they did not have
Ideally then, ethical fashion is clothing that has been made with fair unpaid interns working on sets, or in the offices. Interns work 18-
trade organic cotton, in sweatshop-free conditions. hours for days on a shoot or spend a day on cleaning the office for
free. These are some of the un ethical practices and the ugly side of
Despite the awareness, fashion Industry is full of material that shopping that trivializes the whole issue and labels it to be an
comes from sweat shops. Delhi and Mumbai Fashion streets and activity of self indulgence practiced by self centered individuals.
UK High street, are full of such stuff. Sweat shops showcase an
ugly face of shopping. To name a leading brand like Tesco, the On the flip face of the coin, many fashion designers and many large
largest retailer in the United Kingdom and fourth largest in the companies globally are promoting their new-found green values
world, should be leading the way toward ensuring the rights of and have recently adopted the idea of sustainability, using more
those who produce and manufacture its products. Instead, Tesco's environmentally-friendly materials and methods in production of
garment workers in India make less than a living wage and are modern clothing rather than producing 'dusty, hippy-looking
subject to precarious working conditions, states labor rights clothes.' The dresses made of a new synthetic material produced of
researcher Suhasini Singh.^8 While Tesco is a member of the corn are a new hit. Going Green' has been a catchword in global
Ethical Trading Initiative, Indian garment workers who fashion circles for long, and Indian designers are waking up to the
manufacture Tesco clothes work in sweatshop conditions, getting fact that being environment-friendly can also help them to raise
paid 1.50 a day (US $3.00) -- only half a living wage. more money since international market supports ethical fashion.

103 104
Several green shows like Wills Lifestyle India Fashion are being vegetable-based dyes . Used sarees are made into carry bags and
organized that work as an outlet for designers to show case their used instead of polythene bags. Many designers have transformed
green products. Not only this the efforts are being rewarded by Khadi into a garb of modern man. It was long associated with the
awards like Sustainable Business Award (Laurie Foon, founder of common man but its versatility is catching the attention of
Wellington fashion company Starfish, won this award in 2007, an designers within and outside our country. Khadi created a
award that for the first time any fashion designer has ever won. ) revolution in weaving, and once people understood its range, the
Laurie Foon has made a commitment for life and strongly desires vibrant colours, its design elements and geometric patterns, they
and promises to focus on the use of fabrics, trims and started using it in various crafts, shoes, home accessories and
manufacturing techniques that have minimal environmental designer clothing. Famous Indian designers like Manish Malhotra
impact. More importantly, she is committed to show that designer has started making designer clothes from Jute and Khadi .Silk
fashion often linked with willful obsolescence - can be khadi which is available in a variety of hues and shades adds
accountable to sound, sustainable business philosophies. Starfish elegance and a touch of royalty to any space. The dye gives the
has started making more use of materials such as hemp, not cloth a whole new dimension and looks great on cushions,
traditionally used in high fashion. Coathangers and plastic garment tablecloths, runners, curtains, or sofa covers. Another advantage
bags are now reused, carry bags are made from recyclable chlorine- Khadi goes well with traditional as well as modern setting.
free paper, and surplus fabric is given to community groups. It uses Although khadi might not fall well due to its stiffness it looks great
recycled buttons, vegetable-based dye, and sells sneakers with when used for curtains. Khadi can replace the paper or fabric of
soles of recycled rubber and has eco-focused label. Labels on blinds. The fine weave allows light to pass through while keeping
Starfish clothing tell the buyer if it uses recycled buttons, organic the heat out. It is cool in hot Indian summers and keeps one warm
cotton, New Zealand-made fabric, zero-toxin printing, hemp, and too in winters. Beautifully textured, sensuous and skin friendly, it
if it was made in New Zealand. also makes for great sofa covers. Slip covers of khadi, that are
easily washed, can be used for light colored upholstery. Khadi
Several celebrities and designers such as Bono and Stella comes in many prints like block print, warli figures, floral designs
McCartney have also drawn attention to socially-conscious and and can be dyed into any colour . It can be easily matched with
environmentally-friendly fashion. The "hot ticket" of the Fall 2007 furniture. Khadi is also used for framing pictures. It is also used for
fashion week was the Edun show showcasing sustainable fashion making rugs. Fashion designer Astha Behl( Delhi, India) makes
while songs about war, climate change, and gasoline were handcrafted zipper boots from jute. Not only this, Salabh Ahuja
performed. Portland Fashion Week, attracted international press and Anita Ahuja have started to use Delhi garbage by upcycling
for showcasing sustainable designs in a 100% eco-friendly and technology ( patented by India) which involves washing, drying
sustainable production. An increasing number of Hollywood and pressing, and are making their 'Conserve' collection- designer
celebrities have been associated with sustainable fashion, bags, belts, seat belts, lamps, shoes and sarees. It is an effort to
including Natalie Portman, Cameron Diaz, Alicia Silverstone, save the resources . She helps her rag pickers by providing them
Jennifer Aniston and Selma Hayek. health care facility and education.

An Indian fashion designer, Rodericks has used cotton and silk Surely, these eco-friendly costumes can also make a green fashion
dyed with indigenous colours, eponymous to Goan community, statement. The buying of these dresses is the testimony of the
to create 'The Kunbi Tribe ' collection. Chauhan collects silk consciousness related to the environment. Shopping will get new
without killing silk worms ( ahimsa collection) ^10. In Jaipur dimensions and a new definition as it will no longer remain a trivial
and Jodhpur , Bandhni print fabrics are dyed by using natural activity practiced by self indulgent individuals but take a wider

105 106
perspective and would be a token of care, gratitude and love for Ethics and Law India and Canada
the mother planet by a sustainably aware ( post) modern shopper. A Affiliations: MMV, RTMNU India
time will be witnessed where fashion apparel or eco-dresses made
of environment-conscious materials and by fair trade would
dominate the market and fashion streets of various countries. Thus
,catapulting shopping and shopping activity to great significance Cell: +91 - 9422145467
and raising it to the levels of other equally important global issues.

Notes and References : Dr. Neelam Tikkha

1. Gearge Ritzer(1993) in Falk,P. and Campbell,C."The Shopping
Experience",London , (1977) p62.
2. Van Hinte, Ed, Eternally Yours. Time in Design, Rotterdam: 010
Publishers, 2004, p.51 In the 2011 Corruption Perceptions Index of Canada ranked as the
3. (Baudelaire , 1964), Falk,P. and Campbell,C. "The Shopping tenth least corrupt country in the world whereas India's corruption
Experience",London , (1977) ,p6-7. perception index would be one of the most corrupt countries in the
4. Cummings, Neil and Lewandowska, Marysia, The Value of world. India was once upon a time looked as highly ethical and
Things, Basel; Boston; Berlin: Birkhauser, 2000, p.10 peaceful country. A land of Mahatamas ( great souls) and peace
5. Falk,P. and Campbell,C. "The Shopping Experience", London , loving law abiding Indians. Peace was not by virtue of force, but
(1977) p8. willful because of fear of God. But, now it seems that India will soon
6. Van Hinte, Ed, Eternally Yours. Time in Design, Rotterdam: 010 turn into iniquitous paradise. The crime rate has been increasing
Publishers, 2004 day by day in India. Women were considered Goddesses but now
there is a question with the recent incident of gruesome
7. What is ethical fashion?, Posted on December 17, 2007 by psychopathic gang rape in Delhi of Nirbhaya which has fractured
the image in several bits.
8. Inside a Sweatshop in India War on WantJuly 25, 2008.
9. on Facebook The entire world was shaken up and raised questions before the
10. Indian government about the presence of fear of law in the minds of
the Indians. Are the Indians not scared about the consequences of
flouting law? Is there a need for making law more stringent; where
an eye for eye and tooth for tooth rule exists? The answer
12. Studies in Advertising and Consumption; Mica Nava, Adrew apparently lies in the law being law for name sake in India.
Blake, Iain MacRury, Barry Richards , Routledge,1996,p340.
13. Studies in Advertising and Consumption; Mica Nava, Adrew There are a number of crimes like infringement of intellectual
Blake, Iain MacRury, Barry Richards , Routledge,1996,p340. property, cyber crime, Ponzi dealings, violence at home and the
14. Appadurai, A. (1986) Introduction: Commodities and the Politics law is flouted audaciously day in and day out! Time and space
of Value, in The Social Life of would fall short to enumerate list of scams that have taken place
15. Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective, ed. Appadurai, A. and taking place in India.
Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 3-63.

107 108
We are going through crisis of ethics. Behaviors that were once fall short to enumerate list of scams that have taken place and taking
thought unacceptable for example; lying, cheating, place in India.
misrepresenting, and covering up mistakes, have become in many
people's eyes acceptable or necessary practices. Our society has We are going through crisis of ethics. Behaviors that were once
been totally fragmented and we live in a sophisticated savage thought unacceptable for example; lying, cheating,
world where dog eat dog. Here intellectual capacities are used for misrepresenting, and covering up mistakes, have become in many
pulling other person down and manipulating. people's eyes acceptable or necessary practices. Our society has
been totally fragmented and we live in a sophisticated savage world
This study explores various crises of ethics in India and the reasons where dog eat dog. Here intellectual capacities are used for pulling
for lack of fear of law in India. The paper will also examine why other person down and manipulating.
Canada has been rated the least corrupt country.
This study explores various crises of ethics in India and the reasons
It is seen that India snail and corrupt judiciary exists whereas in for lack of fear of law in India.
Canada people are afraid of law since it is just and fast.
Business Ethics:
Introduction: There has been a sea change in the laws and regulations to nurture
right ethical practices at workplace. If we compare the working
India was once upon a time looked as highly ethical and peaceful conditions of today with the times of the Pharaohs or the Romans
country. A land of Mahatamas ( great souls) and peace loving law the findings suggest that thousands of slave labour perished in the
abiding Indians. Peace was not by virtue of force, but willful construction of the awe-inspiring pyramids. Hands were amputed
because of fear of God. But, now it seems that India will soon turn of the labour who constructed Taj Mahal. Colour and race
into iniquitous paradise. The crime rate has been increasing day by determine the master and the slave. In western countries, children
day in India. Women were considered Goddesses but now there is a because of their small size were employed to clean the soot from
question with the recent incident of gruesome psychopathic gang inside chimneys. Many such children perished from lung disease.
rape in Delhi of Nirbhaya which has fractured the image in several Women would not be employed in factories.
Laws changed and society demand that businesses place should be
The entire world was shaken up and raised questions before the on premium of fairness and equal rights. So, labour laws were
Indian government about the presence of fear of law in the minds of instituted. Government watch-dogs were established. Unions were
the Indians. Are the Indians not scared about the consequences of formed. Laws and regulations like the MRTP were introduced.
flouting law? Is there a need for making law more stringent; where Despite all these efforts there has been an increase in the crime rate.
an eye for eye and tooth for tooth rule exists? The answer Sweat labor still exists. Women are exploited sexually at work
apparently lies in the law being law for name sake in India. place and are underpaid. Children work in tea stalls.

There are a number of crimes like infringement of intellectual Many scams, frauds and Ponzi dealings are surfacing. The history
property, cyber crime, Ponzi dealings, violence at home and the law of India is full of sagas of fraud, deceit and corruption, not only at
is flouted audaciously day in and day out! Time and space would the hands of a few mercenaries at the top, but also with the help of
employees willing to climb the bandwagon.

109 110
The Top 10 Scams in India 4) Satyam Scam
1) 2G Spectrum Scam: Deals with the allocation of unified access
service licenses. The scam artist is the former Telecom
minister A Raja who according to the CAG, has evaded
norms at every level as he carried out the dubious 2G license
awards in 2008 at a throw-away price which were pegged at
2001 prices.
2) Commonwealth Games Scam:

The scam at Satyam Computer Services is something that fractured

the faith of Indian investors and shareholder community beyond
repair. Satyam was the biggest scam in the corporate history which
was to the tune of INR 14000 crore.

The company's disgraced former chairman Ramalinga Raju kept

everyone in the dark for a decade by fudging the books of accounts
for several years and inflating revenues and profit figures of
Another crown in the glory of India is Kalamadi a con artist of
Commonwealth Games loot. Even before the sporting bonanza
5) Bofors Scam
could begin, the grand event was in the highlight with the The Bofors scandal is known as the hallmark of Indian corruption.
allegations of corruption. It is estimated that out of Rs. 70000 crore The Bofors scam was a major corruption scandal in India in the
spent on the Games, only half the said amount was spent on Indian 1980s; when the then PM Rajiv Gandhi and several others
sportspersons. including a powerful NRI family named the Hindujas, were
accused of receiving kickbacks from Bofors AB for winning a bid
3) Telgi Scam: to supply India's 155 mm field howitzer.
It was unique scam full of suspense and drama and money was
The Swedish State Radio had broadcast a startling report about an
made in unscrupulous manner.
undercover operation carried out by Bofors, Sweden's biggest arms
Abdul Karim Telgi had mastered the art of forgery in printing
manufacturer, whereby $16 million were allegedly paid to
duplicate stamp papers and sold them to banks and other
members of PM Rajiv Gandhi's Congress.
institutions. The tentacles of the fake stamp and stamp paper case
had penetrated 12 states and was estimated at a whooping Rs.
Most of all, the Bofors scam had a strong emotional appeal because
20000 crore plus. Telgi clearly had a lot of support from
it was a scam related to the defense services and India's security
government departments that were responsible for the production
and sale of high security stamps.

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6) The Fodder Scam 9) Share market Scam:
Harshad Mehta was considered the Pied Piper of the share
market, who created huge wealth, a fabulous house, a platoon of
cars and multiple stock exchange memberships. He was the first
broker to become a mega-star of the Indian capital markets, who
fired the greed and imagination of every middle class Indian in the
early 1990s. Charismatic, cheery and recklessly ambitious,
Harshad Mehta who set out to be a role model for investors turned
out to be India's best-known con artist. He was the main architect of
INR50-billion scam - India's biggest securities scandal.

The exposure of the scam reduced all fawning epithets that were
showered on him, by his investor fans, such as the Big Bull, or the
Amitabh Bachchan, or the Einstein of the share market, turned in
Bihar's fodder scam of 1996 or Chara Ghotala , popularly known in no moment into a naught.
the vernacular language.In this corruption scandal worth Rs.900
crore, an unholy nexus was traced involved in fabrication of vast 10) Ketan Parekh Stock Market Scam :
herds of fictitious livestock for which fodder, medicine and
Ketan Parekh is popularly known as Pentafour Bull for K 10 series
animal husbandry equipment was supposedly procured.
stocks. And was involved in over INR. 1000 crore scam that
washed off the shareholders wealth in form of big market jolt.
7) The Hawala Scandal
The Hawala case to the tune of $18 million bribery scandal, which A look into deeper levels will reflect that unethical behavior at
came in the open in 1996, involved payments allegedly received by workplaces stems from a few rotten apples among the bunch. There
country's leading politicians through hawala brokers. From the list are a number of people like Nick Leeson, the young stockbroker in
of those accused also included Lal Krishna Advani who was then US, whose huge losses from illegal trades led to the downfall of the
the Leader of Opposition. venerable Barings Bank

Thus, for the first time in Indian politics, it gave a feeling of open We have many examples of CEO's greed . For example CEOs of
loot all around the public, involving all the major political players Satyam and Enron who hitched the country into a downfall of their
being accused of having accepted bribes and also alleged companies.
connections about payments being channelled to Hizbul
Mujahideen militants in Kashmir. Satyam:
Satyam, came in fame for bribing World Bank for acquiring the
8) IPL Scam: loan. Then surfaced years of falsified profits and an audacious
Embezzlement with respect to bidding for various franchisees. The financial fraud worth 1.5 billion dollars:
scandal already claimed the portfolios of two big-wigs in the form
of Shashi Tharoor and former IPL chief Lalit Modi. The founding promoter of Satyam Computer Services Limited,
Ramalinga Raju, resigned as the company's chairman on

113 114
Wednesday, putting out a confessional statement admitting that month can afford it. The ugly side is that earlier the brand name that
roughly 1.5 billion US dollars (or the equivalent of 70 billion appeared looked slightly similar that could be identified by a closer
Indian rupees) of the firm's past funds were "non-existent". look so passing off was the crime committed. But, now it is
outrightly flouting IPR . Chinese cell phones, for example carry
What has shocked analysts is that the money, that is now supposed the brand name of some popular brand and even the spelling is
to be fictitious, had been recorded in Satyam's balance sheets and similar example of the popular brands that are being copied are :
books of account that had been audited by the internationally Blackberry, Samsung, Nokia and a number of them. It has become
reputed firm of auditors, Pricewaterhousecoopers.1 difficult for a layman to recognize whether it is Chinese or of any
reputed brand since they are sold openly in the markets. There are
Ramlingam Raju along with Pricewaterhousecooper had played no steps taken by government for flouting of law.
fast and loose with the business. Past success imploded in a wave of
accounting scandals. The business world now considers the past Causes of Aberration in Moral Behavior :
successes as nothing but an elaborate accounting hoax. A man's worth is known by the money he possesses rather than the
human relationships that he possesses. It is a materialistic society.
Satyam imploded, taking with it billions of investor dollars and the The ruling passion is insatiable greed for more and more money
jobs of more than 53,000 employees, as well as their retirement and power. Jyada ka karo irada are the catch words. Now a days
funds. Similar was the condition of Enron. publicity, whether negative or positive, is important. The passion
that is on the top priority is greed for money and more money. All
Enron : the hideousness is nullified out by one clothing that is money.
Enron imploded, taking with it billions of investor dollars and the
jobs of more than 4,000 employees, as well as their retirement India's Transformation into a Wasteland:
funds. An employee, Sherron S. Watkins, a vice president for The gang rape incidence also proves that the Indian society is
corporate development, blew the whistle and had informed the then heading towards becoming rootless, as Eliot calls in his poem,
CEO Kenneth Lay about the corrupt dealings that were going on in The Wasteland, 2with money as their God, Devil as their Guide and
the company. Lay ordered an inquiry but nothing came of it because Satan as their idol for satisfying lust. Plato says, people are trapped
those who were questioned about the deals "had substantial in psychic prison2. It implies that factors such as aggression,
professional and personal stakes in the matters under review," greed, fear, hate, and libidinal drives have no official standing
according to an investigative report prepared for Enron's board of neither at workplace or in society.

Both these companies' core values--respect, integrity, Implementation Of Law In India:

communication, and excellence--were once proudly etched on Court cases take tremendously long time . Law in India is only for
paperweights. Now they're an ironic joke. rich who can afford it for years together. Shakespeare's saying
justice delayed is justice denied3 is followed in true spirit of the
Intellectual Property Ethics: term. Sometimes, very poor people take the job of giving justice in
Chinese cell phones are flooding the Indian market for only one their hands. A few incidences are being reported when a group of
reason that they are cheaper than the branded phones. The good angry mob has beaten the goons and killed them. All theses deeds
side is that even a rickshaw puller who makes around INR 3000/= a are indicative of poor , ineffective , weak legal machinery.

115 116
Conclusion: Nanoparticles Pollution A Murder of
Training in emotional quotient should be given. Whenever, Sustainable Growth
criminal feelings break into the open, they should be quickly
banished through apologies, rationalizations and punishments Dr. Neelam Tikkha
designed to restore a mere neutered state of affairs. Emotional MMV, RTMNU
quotient needs to be inculcated by parents and teachers in the Founder and Editor CFTRA- Global
schools so that a child grows into an honest citizen. Ethical,
practices can be infused by tapping on the emotional quotient. Cell: + 91-9422145467
Many organizations have understood that to be successful one has
to develop a 'social radar' that is learning to read the weather Winner of British Council's award
system around individuals or groups of people. Similarly, at homes for Anecdote writing.
also parents need to give good lessons so that people turn out to be
better individuals. We look before and after,
And pine for what is not:
Notes and References: Our sincerest laughter
1. Thakurta, Paranjoy Guha , Satyam Scam Questions Corporate With some pain is fraught;
Governance IPS articleMonday, 09 February 2009 04:20 Our sweetest songs are those that tell of saddest thought.1
NEW DELHI, Jan 9, 2009.Downloaded on 25th December,
2012. From internet. Key words: Air, brain, nano, nanoparticle, pollution, traffic corridor
2. Eliot, Thomas Stearns , The Wasteland, New York: Horace Man in his quest to explore the universe for his
Liveright, 1922. ON-LINE ED.:Published August 2011 by advantageIntroduction: It is believed that high levels of IQ, that is intelligence quotient, may give you an interview but high levels of
EQ , emotional quotient, will reward you with a job and life long
3. Shakespeare , The Merchant Of Venice. altitude. But, It is a sad reality that Education curricula in India and other developing countries lay more emphasis on the development
ew.php?WorkID=merchantvenice&Act=3... of ( IQ) but do not focus on developing Emotional quotient (EQ ) .
Emotional quotient has discovered power packed units like
4. Plato, Plato's Ethics and Politics in The Republic First nuclear bombs and nanoparticles. Man has been transformed into a
published Tue Apr 1, 2003; substantive revision Mon Aug 31, scorpion biting his own tail. Research and industrialization may be
2009 highly essential for the growth. But, in the course of the golden
goose chase, he forgot these very power units have become the
growth game, making him a game of these toys designed by him
which threatens his survival.

Nano technology has taken all of us by an amazing sweep. We are

heading with a vigorous speed to make the use of nanoparticles in a

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variety of industries. A person can become very fair instantly or Control of water Pollution:
remove wrinkles by applying cream with nanoparticles but when
the face is washed nano particles would go in the waste water and Nanoparticles can be used for removal of industrial water
create pollution. Nano technology's prolific use should be of great pollution, such as a cleaning solvent called TCE, from ground
concern to anyone concerned with sustainable development since it water. Nanoparticles can be used to convert the contaminating
is posing a new risk to sustainable growth because of its robust chemical through a chemical reaction to make it harmless. Studies
negative impacts on human health and ecosystem. This paper have shown that this method can be used successfully to reach
attempts to highlight the various applications of nanoparticles and contaminates dispersed in underground ponds and at much lower
the caution that has to be exercised while disposing nanoparticles cost than methods which require pumping the water out of the
for sustainable growth. Nano technology is used in medicine, ground for treatment.3
manufacturing industry, electrical manufacturing, cosmetics and a
number of them. Use of Nanoparticles in Medicene:
The use of nanoparticles is ever increasing, in fact it is becoming a Researchers have explicated the use of nanobubbles that form
part of our life and can be exemplified by a look into the uses of around gold nanoparticles, when heated are capable of destroying
nanoparticles in various fields. It is a proof that our dependence is cancer cells. Autoimmune diseases can be tackled by the use of
going to ever increase as far as usage of nanoparticles is concerned. nanoparticles by delivering antigens into the blood stream . This
prevents white blood cells from attacking healthy cells. It has been
found to be useful in tackling sclerosis in mice and research is
Use of Nanoparticle in Energy and Electronics: ongoing for treating human being similarly. Nano particles that
release biomarkers would be useful in detecting cancer in the early
Nanotetrapods studded with nanoparticles of carbon are used to stages. The use of gold nanoparticles with RNA molecules
produce low cost electrodes for fuel cells which is capable of attached can be used to control skin cancer. Mesoporous
replacing the expensive platinum needed for fuel cell catalysts. nanoparticles are used to fight aging. Aluminosilicate
NOMFET Transistor has been created by combining gold nanoparticles can reduce bleeding in trauma patients. Ironoxide
nanoparticles with organic molecules. A catalyst which has nanoparticles are used to improve MRI of cancer tumor.
platinum cobalt nanoparticles is developed for fuel cells that Nanoparticles with protein coating could carry drug to damaged
produces 12 times more powerful catalytic activity then pure
region to fight cardiovascular disorder.4
platinum. Another wonder of nanoparticles is of producing steam
with high energy efficiency by concentrating solar energy on Use of Nano particle in Manufacturing and Materials:
nanoparticles. The solar steam device" is a boon for resource poor
developing countries without electricity for applications such as Synthetic skin5 which is used in prosthetics can be made from
purifying water or disinfecting of dental instruments. nanoparticles. The skin has self healing capability and the ability to
sense pressure. Silicate nanoparticles serve as barrier for gases and
Recharging time can be drastically reduced and battery power can can be used in packaging industry. Zincoxide nanoparticles are
be tremendously increased by coating silicon nanoparticles on used in industrial coatings to protect wood, plastic and textiles from
anodes of lithium-ion batteries. Low cost solar cells can be exposure to UV rays. Silicon dioxide nanoparticles can be used to
manufactured by the use of semiconductor nanoparticles. fill gaps between carbon fibers thus strengthening tennis
Palladium nanoparticles are being used in a hydrogen sensor. 2 racquets.Silver nanoparticls can kill bacteria in cloth and make it

119 120
odor- resistant. Nanoparticles are used to breakdown organic Furthermore, Nanoparticles engineering is usually subject of
pollutants in the air. Iron oxide nanoparticles are used to clean exaggerated media optimism, but in reality nanoparticles' first
arsenic from the wells. major impact is in making people literally less bright. Or more
stupid, depending on one's view of the human condition.)
Damaging effects of Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles air pollution (probably metallic) appears to increase
Air pollution is a major cause of human disease and has a particular deposition of amyloid-beta and alpha-synuclein in the human
impact on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Air quality brain. These deposits are customarily associated with Alzheimer's
issues have received much attention worldwide, and many and Parkinson's. Young brains are especially vulnerable, but older
countries are making concentrated efforts towards improvement. people are affected, too.
For example, China labored hard to reduce air pollution in Beijing
for 2008 Olympic Games, but how far they were successful is a Tests of sample populations living along the most polluted traffic
debatable issue. corridors suggested that nanoparticles that cross the blood-brain
barrier result in lower IQs and lower scores on memory tests.6
Nanoparticles are potentially highly carcinogenic and have
harmful effects on DNA through skin applications, interaction with Stop, look, listen, before you go to dispose such waste, lest we'll
microbes in the soil and in water, uptake through the food chain and look back and we'll say, you know, we had all the warning signs to
exposure to people in the workplace. put some kind of regime in place and we didn't take advantage of it.
The mammoth of industrialization is so dynamic, that it appears, as
Mechanistic researches have highlighted the ability of PM10 and if we are riding a mythological chariot of Sun god. But, as far as
ultrafine / nanoparticles in inducing the production of reactive sustainable growth is concerned, it is getting crushed under the
oxygen species and free radicals leading to oxidative stress and the wheels of this chariot. The grey clouds are looming large on the
initiation of intracellular signaling pathways leading to the altered blue planet we live in. There are heavy dark and gloomy footprints
expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. These research being created on the mother Earth.
studies on PM10 and ultrafine particles have categorically pointed
out the potential hazard and therefore risk of such pollutants. In fine, nanotechnology should be developed more and more. But,
at the same time ways are to be devised by finding solutions for its
The release of nanoparticles into the environment intentionally disposal for sustainable growth or else we are going to repent that
(e.g. by remediation of polluted land) and unintentionally (e.g. we knew, but we did nothing to save our blue planet.
from waste water sources) has distressed the environment. One Notes and References:
such study on Daphnia magna has brought to notice lethal impact
on Daphnia magna. There is also an urgent need to investigate the 1. Arthur Quiller Couch, Thomas, Sir. ed, The Oxford book of English
impacts of nanoparticles on the environment and other phyla. The Verse, Oxford: Clarendon, 1919, [c1901];, 1999.
properties of many conventional materials change when formed ON-line ed.:Published January1999 by, 1999
from nanoparticles. This is typically because nanoparticles have a,Inc.
greater surface area per weight than larger particles which causes 2.
them to be more reactive to some other molecules. 4.

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References: A Mile for Several Smiles -CSR, Sustainability and
Inflammatory effects of coarse and fine particulate matter in Local Community Development
relation to chemical and biological constituents. Schins, R.P.F., Professor, Neelam Tikkha
Lightbody, J.H., Borm, P.J.A., Shi, T.M, Donaldson, K. & Stone, V.
(2004). Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 195, 1-11. MMV, RTMNU,
Calcium and ROS-mediated activation of transcription factors and
TNF-cytokine gene expression in macrophages exposed to
ultrafine particles. Brown, D.M., Donaldson, K., Borm, P.J.,
Schins, R.P., Dehnhardt, M., Gilmour,P., Jimenez, L.A. & Stone, V. Abstract
(2004). American Journal of Physiology Lung Cellular and
Molecular Physiology. 286, L344-L353. A small village, Raghurajpur in Puri in Orissa, has occupied a
prominent space in the world map because of the social
The effect of oxidative stress on macrophages and lung epithelial responsiveness and intervention of an American lady, Mrs Halina
cells: The role of phosphodiesterases 1 and 4. (2007). Brown, D. Zealey. The village has acquired the status of Heritage village.
M., Hutchison, L.., Donaldson, K., MacKenzie, S. J., Dick, C. A. J. Chitrakaras ( community of artists) have been infused with new life
& Stone, V.(2007). Toxicology Letters 168, 1-6. and India has been bestowed with honor and glory.CSR can bring
phenomenal changes in the society.
Ulrich Ranft et al., Long-term Exposure to Traffic-related
Particulate Matter Impairs Cognitive Function in the Elderly, In this paper, the efforts of UNGC and the impact of CSR activities
Environmental Research 109(8):1004-1011 (November 2009). by some organizations like ONGC, Nestl, Azim Premji
Foundation and Vodafone towards inclusive development and
Michelle L. Block & Lillian Calderon-Garciduenas, Air Pollution: millennium development goals are highlighted in the backdrop of a
Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation and CNS Disease, Trends in heritage village.
Neurosciences 32(9):506-516 (September 2009).
If the companies build up congenial relationship with the local
S. Franco Suglia et al., Association of Black Carbon with Cognition communities and work in their interest then tragedies like Tata
among Children in a Prospective Birth Cohort Study, American Nano plant would be averted and the proverbial golden siren would
Journal of Epidemiology 167(3):280-286 (2008). sing the merry tune of prosperity and positivity of India Globally.

J. Sunyer, The Neurological Effects of Air Pollution in Children, Key words: CSR, Sustainability, local Community, Chitrkaras,
European Respiratory Journal 32:535-537 (2008) Millenium development goal, Female gender empowerment.

Janet Raloff, Destination Brain: Inhaled Pollutants May Inflame Introduction:

More than the Lungs, Science News 177(11):16-20 (22 May 2010).
Abraham Lincoln said, government cannot endure half slave
and half free similarly a country cannot be considered
developed or economically stable if there is a disparity between
rich and poor . India is reflecting the same disparity. There are a

123 124
number of people who can afford imported cars like Mercedes, Case study- I: Raghurajpur, a small village in Puri district in
Audi and on the other hand there are people who do not have one Orissa has occupied the status of Heritage Cultural village. It is the
time proper meal. Some of the companies have come up to help strangest village in the world where everyone is an artist and every
reduce this disparity. house an art studio. These artisans are called Chitrakaras. The
artisans of this village have been involved in producing melodious
Now a day, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a growing poetry on pieces of treated cloth, dried palm leaf or paper. The
concern for organizations combining their desire to protect village has a community of artisans, who produce different
environment and invest in communities. Increasingly, corporate varieties of handicrafts items such as Patta Chitra, (paintings on
executives must find new ways to address the social, economic, and treated cloth), Talapatra Chitra (palm leaf engravings),Ganjapa
environmental effects of doing business, while balancing (paintings on Playing cards) stone carvings, papier mache toys and
conflicting demands on their attention, time, and resources. This masks, wood carvings, wooden toys, cow dung toys and tusser
study aims at highlighting the efforts of UNGC and the impact of paintings called Mattha Chitra. Some of them are winners of
CSR activities by some organizations like ONGC, Nestl, Azim National Awards and are involved with the ritual performed in the
Premji Foundation and Vodafone towards inclusive development temple of Lord Jagannatha . At the dawn of the 20th century their
and millennium development goals. A special reference is made to fortunes had started falling down which made a number of
Raghurajpur a heritage village in Orissa to show how social Chitrakars to leave this art form and digress to other professions.
sensibility can bring dynamic change in the lives of poor artisans in Ileana Citaristi, an Italian researcher observed :
making them economically independent and famous. The village is
important because the help provided by an American lady and "By the late fifties only a few old men among the
government of India led to the revival of cultural stream of India. 90- odd chitrakara families of Raghurajpur were
still painting, whereas all the youths had deserted
the profession; it was only around the year 1953
that, with the intervention of an American lady,
Mrs Halina Zealey, a new future opened up and
the artists once again took out their brushes and
colours." i

Painting on House wall

Halina Zealy, a Polish-American lady and a member of the

American Friends' Service Committee (AFSC), spent a year or so
Entrance of the Village View of the Village in Puri with a few of her associates before going to Barpali, where

125 126
they were planning to undertake experiments in rural The two side effects of globalization are the use of synthetic colors
reconstruction. She noticed that patta painters are poor because for painting patta chitra and mushrooming of a number of huge
marketing for their artifacts is a problem. She put in herculean shops selling Patta Chitra, Matha Chitra's, toys and paper mache
efforts to find a market for their art. She had approached Bengal work. Villagers stand turn by turn to pull the crowd to their village
Home Industries Association and the Indian Institute of Art to sell their art work directly.
Industry. She had also investigated the possibility of showcasing in
the B.N.R. Hotel and Raghunandan Library in Puri and had put up a According to me corporate houses should encourage the use of
temporary stand on the bada-danda. In March 1953, she sent a natural colors by providing suitable market so that the science of
detailed report narrating her experience to the AFSC headquarters, manufacturing natural colors does not die out. It is very important
and Philadelphia had immediately responded. She had also to develop it as a tourist destination by constructing proper roads
attempted to promote this art form by giving Mrs B.K. Nehru, the and railway station.
wife of the then Indian ambassador to US, few samples to take to
New York with a view to promote sales there. The demand for their The support and sustainable growth model that was provided to the
paintings increased so much that women also got involved in Patta local artisans is a constructive example of positivity in
and Mattha paintings. This led to ameliorating in living standards globalization which has given a local village a chance to stand up to
and building of confidence in female gender. Not only this , the challenges of the globalization.
women who were treated as second fiddle to man got chance to
see mythological dramas in the nautanki's performed in the Yet, another art form these villagers are involved in is performing
villages because these dramas provided them subjects for art Gotipua, the earlier form of Odissi dance. Guru Kelu Charan
paintings. Government and NGO's are also promoting female Mohapatra the famous Odissi dancer had his training here. A dance
gender by organizing art and craft fare. In these fares women are school has been started called as Gotipua Gurukul, called Maa
given preference while booking the stalls. This also has helped Dasabhuja under the guidance of Maguni Charan Das. Chitrakars
women to come out of houses and experience independence. The believe that unless a person is well versed with performing art, one
women are in turn contributing to the building of strong household cannot be a good artist. The trainees of this school present their
and equally strong nation. performances in different cultural events, in India and abroad.
Some NGO's are involved in taking these Odissi dancers to perform
Another major change that Globalization brought was that in other countries. The performers and their families get very less
Chitrakars in their earlier paintings would have Indian deities but money as compared to the whopping money the NGO's bring to
now according to the taste and preference of the buyers, the themselves. Dr Dinanth Pathy, recipient of the President of India
subjects in the paintings have changed. Silver Plaque for Painting, Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship for
Research and Orissa Sahitya Academy Award for creative writing
observed that:

Odissi has come to symbolize Oriya cultural

identity and is now danced by members of an
international community which is multilingual,
multi-religious and multicultural and is watched,
appreciated and patronized by an equally
Paintings at Raghurajpur.
Painting on House wall user Damien [] impressive global audience.

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The role multinational companies can play is organizing cultural reduce the role of the non structured middleman, who takes the
events in their chains abroad where a sort of cultural exchange can lion's share without putting much of labor.
take place. The mutual exchange would benefit both countries and
help artists grow. It is very easy for any company to give profit but These efforts would also provide instructive examples of the locals
the loop can be completed only when it is structured properly with measuring up to the challenges of the global.
support and sustainability.
Case Study II:
The structured approach has made the village a living museum of Vodafone has started empowering village women by giving them
art and culture. Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage SIM recharge centres without taking any deposits. This has given
INTACH has identified this village to revive the ancient wall female gender a chance to liberate themselves from the clutches of
paintings of Orissa. ignorance and have made them occupy a front seat in the
development of household. It has given birth to a number of small
The efforts of foreigners to reconstruct and assign the village a female entrepreneurs.
global presence, was an eye opener for Indians and thus on June 27,
2002,Shri Jagmohan, Hon'ble Union Minister of Tourism and Case Study III: Azim Premji Foundation
works towards
Culture, declared that this village would be developed as a model providing education to the poor It has an;
for rural tourism in India. INTACH developed a Project Report for
this village to see that basic tourist amenities such as road, drinking overarching goal to contribute to a just,
water, sanitation, interpretation centre and rest house are equitable, humane and sustainable society in
developed. It is a thing to be admired that this is the first village to India. strive to facilitate deep, large scale and
be provided with rest houses for tourists. The day is not far with the long-term impact on the quality and equity of
support of UNICEF and other agencies Raghurajpur will come in education in India, along with related
the National Travel Circuit of the Government of India. development areas such as child health, nutrition,
governance and ecology.
India is full of such famous art work popular all over the world. To
echo in words of the famous poet Chaucer, here's god's In Vidarbha region there are a number of schools run by corporation
plenty. A few popular art work which is famous for its which are on the verge of closing down because of the decline in the
uniqueness and fineness are : Bidri work and stone bangles from students' enrollment since the quality of education is poor . If
Andhra, Banarasi sarees from Varanasi, Bandhani from Rajasthan , corporate houses in Vidarbha region come up with restructuring the
Batic and mirror work from Gujarat ,Thanjavur paintings from quality education in corporation schools it will definitely help poor
Tamil Nadu, Sambhalpuri sarees from Orissa, Chikan work from to get good quality education and will help reduce poverty.
Lucknow, Brass work from Moradabad, Glass bangles from
Firozabad and wooden and bamboo decorative artifacts from tribal v
Case Study IV: Nestle has been recognized by United Nations'
areas of Chhattisgarh. If these small artisans are given support and Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for its
provided a global market they would become economically efforts in providing help to cocoa and coffee farmers to adapt to
independent and lead to economic growth of India at large. So it is environmental challenges.
very important for corporate houses to identify the villages close to
their working zone and adopt them to provide support and also Nestl trained more than 16000 coffee farmers all over the world in
provide help to market their produce. This strategy would help 2011 to adapt to changing weather patterns such as temperature

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increases and limited rainfall, since coffee plants require very and sustainable growing techniques such as how to prune trees and
reliable rainfall patterns for growth. The farmers had been facing ferment and dry beans more effectively.
challenges associated with climate change such as heat stress, pest
pressure and water scarcity. The training included the methods to Nestl has displayed its commitment to climate change by
improve soil quality and prevent erosion, responsible use of participating in an event at the UN Climate Change Conference in
fertilizer, water conservation and ways to develop community Doha, Qatar to explain how it is helping farmers to adapt to
nurseries to grow young coffee plantlets. Nestl also provided environmental challenges. Worldwide, more than 680,000 farmers
information and distributed disease and drought resistant quality of are part of Nestl's supply chain, mainly smallholders in more than
crops for sustainable growth. 50 countries. Nestl recently topped a list of global companies in
efforts to disclose and cut greenhouse gas emissions. It is now the
Nestl is propagating and distributing coffee plant varieties that leading company in the Carbon Disclosure Project, an annual
produce more beans and have a greater resistance to drought and ranking based on data supplied by the 'Global 500' companies.
certain diseases. In Colombia, the company distributed more than
four million disease-resistant coffee plantlets to farmers in 2011 Case study V: ONGC contributes 2% of its net profit for CSR
through its partnership with the Colombian Coffee Growers activities. It shoulders support for 12 activities mentioned below:
Association. The plantlets are particularly resistant to leaf rust, 1. It provides support for education and vocational training.
which has had a significant impact on Colombian coffee 2. Health care facility for destitute, under privileged and
production over the past few years as a result of increasing abandoned old age people (Varishth Sahyog yojna).
temperatures and excessive rainfall. 3. Entrepreneurship program for self help and livelihood
generation for youth.
A number of farmers commit suicide every year in Vidarbha 4. Infrastructure support.
because of drought. If some company also takes up a project like 5. Environmental protection and ecological conservation.
Nestl it would save a number of life. A disturbing fact is that Nestl 6. Protection of heritage site for example ONGC is helping
has adopted to help only the farmers involved in coffee and coco in protection of remains of the Auhm's kingdom in
bean. Nestl India should focus on Vidarbha region farmers. It association with Archeological society of India. Around
should provide farmers with training and higher yielding crops to 3.96 crores have been invested by ONGC for the
promote sustainable agriculture. restoration and protection of Auhm in Sibsagar Assam
called Dharawar project.
Furthermore, according to a recent study by the International 7. Protection of artisans, musicians and craftsmen.
Center for Tropical Agriculture, cocoa farmers in west Africa will 8. Women's empowerment and girl child development
be greatly affected by climate change, as areas of land suitable for program .
growing the crop are predicted to shrink considerably in certain 9. Promoting sports and sportsmen.
parts of Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana by 2050. 10. Water management and water recharge.
11. Physically challenged and mentally challenged welfare
One of the ways Nestl is supporting cocoa farmers through its scheme.
Cocoa Plan is by distributing higher-yielding, disease-resistant 12. Sponsorship for seminars and conferences.
plantlets to improve productivity and minimize the amount of land
required for farming. Nestl had also trained more than 21,000 UNGC: The biggest global corporate sustainability initiative to
cocoa farmers, including 9,900 in Cte d'Ivoire, in more efficient social responsibility, sustainability and local community

131 132
development is of United Nations Global Compact's Initiative. l
Principle 2: make sure that they are not complicit in human
There are 10,000 signatories based in more than 140 countries, and rights abuses.
Local Networks existing or emerging in over 100 countries. Indian
head is the Chairman of ONGC Mr. Vasudeva. The contributions of Labour
Private sectors provide vital support to United Nations Global
Compact projects, helping advance corporate change and l
Principle 3: Businesses should uphold the freedom of
innovation around environmental, social and governance issues. association and the effective recognition of the right to
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon defines it as: collective bargaining;

The Global Compact asks companies to embrace l

Principle 4: the elimination of all forms of forced and
universal principles and to partner with the compulsory labour;
United Nations. It has grown to become a critical
platform for the UN to engage effectively with l
Principle 5: the effective abolition of child labour; and
enlightened global business.
Principle 6: the elimination of discrimination in respect of
The UN Global Compact calls companies to follow the Ten employment and occupation.
Principles mentioned below:
(1) voluntarily align their operations and strategies with ten
universally accepted principles in the areas of human rights, l
Principle 7: Businesses should support a precautionary
labour, environment and anti-corruption and (2) take actions in approach to environmental challenges;
support of UN goals, including the Millennium Development
Goals. By doing so, business can help ensure that markets advance l
Principle 8: undertake initiatives to promote greater
in ways that benefit economies and societies everywhere. Endorsed environmental responsibility;
by chief executives, the UN Global Compact is a leadership
platform for the development, implementation, and disclosure of l
Principle 9: encourage the development and diffusion of
responsible corporate policies and practices. The initiative brings environmentally friendly technologies.
companies together with key stakeholder groups including:
Government, civil society, labour, investors, educators and the Anti-Corruption
United Nations.
Principle 10: Businesses should work against all forms of
The Ten Principles vii corruption, including extortion and bribery.

The UN Global Compact asks companies to embrace ten A number of birds and animals die during summer because of
principles: drought. There is a need for the companies to take up projects in
consideration of protection of birds, wild animals and preservation
Human Rights of bio diversity. Sustainable growth and respect for local
l Principle 1: Businesses should support and respect the community is the right path to success and it also implies following
protection of internationally proclaimed human rights; and business ethics in true spirit. Exploitation of one will lead to the

133 134
failure of another, for example Mahegenco Plant ended up paying Professor, Neelam Tikkha
compensation to the locals. It also ruins a company's image and
poses a threat for its survival. If the giant corporate houses build up Director
congenial relationship with the local communities and work in Confidence Foundation
their interest many more tragedies like the Tata Nano plant, and Corporate trainer for Soft Skills and Communication Skills
agitation against construction of dams on Brahmaputra would be
averted. The steps taken so far are only a few baby steps towards Winner of British Council's award for best paper presentation.
inclusive growth and millennium development. A time will soon,
come when the proverbial golden siren would sing the merry tune
of prosperity and positivity of India in Global and Glocal scenario. cell:09422145467

Raghurajpur The Crafts Village, Orissa review, November, 2004.

magazine/Orissareview/nov2004/englishPdf/raghurajpur-craftvillage.pdf, downloaded on Abstract
3rd May 2013.
Jatindra K Nayak ,The Telegrph Calcutta , Monday , May 16 , 2011.
The boom of Innovation and research marks this century . But the, downloaded
major questions that arise are: Is it sustainable? Is it conducive to
on 4th May 2013.
the mother earth? Very late human being realized, in his quest for, downloaded 4th May,2013.
easy life, comfortable life, and greed for achievement that he has
Ibid. actually made the parable of The Goose With The Golden Eggs,
Nestl Helps Farmers Adapt To Climate Change - News - CSR Europe come true., downloaded 4th
May,2013. Objective: This study investigates, the various sources of air
Foundation For Global Compact,
pollution, land pollution, solid waste pollution and water pollution.
The study will also highlight the impact of various types of
The Ten Principles - United Nations Global Compact, downloaded 4th
pollution in Nagpur as an example, since more or less, the impact
May,2013. remains the same in every part of India. Also, a light will be thrown
on sustainable development, which happens to be the only ray of
References : hope for mankind's survival on the Earth.
1. A Destination in the Making." OrissaReview, September 2002.
Man is the creator and the destructor of the environment since the
2. Citaristi, Eleana. The making of a Guru : Kelu Charan Mohapatra, environment is the sum total of all biological, chemical, physical,
His Life and Times (Delhi : Manohar 2001). and economical activities of mankind.
3. Mohanty, B. Pata-Paintings of Orissa, New Delhi : Publications
Division, Government of India, 1984. Recent times, has witnessed the consequences of digressions of
4. Nayak , Jatindra K. The Telegrph Calcutta , Monday , May 16 ,
mankind, with the environment and the disrespect that he had
2011. shown for the planet Earth, of which he is an inhabitant. The
various types of pollution quite common now days are: Air
5. Special thanks to ASC Jawaharlal Nehru University and Prof. pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, land pollution, and
Minnati Panda for lecture on Patta Chitra. solid waste (bio- medical and e- waste).

135 136
There are two major kinds of air pollution: Natural and Artificial Lesson from Mahabharata:
i.e. man made. Natural pollution is due to: Volcanic activity,
electrical discharge during storms, marsh gas production, and Yudhishter after leaving his body left for heavenly abode. On the
forest fires. Man is yet again a major source of creator of air way a street dog started following him. Lord Indra came and
pollution: Agricultural activities like crop spraying and burning, greeted him to take him into his Kingdom. He said, Oh, great king
automobile fuel emission, aero plane emission, nuclear tests, fire please step in the chariot I'll take you to my kingdom where you will
works and solvent usage like hydrocarbons. live forever. Yudhishter stepped up along with the dog. Lord Indra
said, I am sorry, but dogs are not allowed in my kingdom.
There are various sources of water pollution like industrial waste, Yudhister promptly, stepped back and said, Lord Indra please send
plastic bags disposed in water.These activities lead to global me to hell along with this dog since as a king, I owe him a
warming, ozone layer depletion and acid rain that are hazardous to responsibility. I must take care of the people of my kingdom,
biodiversity. Only sustainable growth can salvage us from the downtrodden ones and even animals, before I look for my well
denigration of the earth. being.

Key Words: Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Noise Pollution, Solid The above example is a proof that man has not been a good leader
Waste, e- waste, global warming, ozone layer depletion and acid but has expressed himself as an exploiter and highly an indulgent
rain being.

Introduction : Another, basic feeling empathy, which was necessary for

sustainable growth, was also dumped by man. The illustration from
The whole world was shocked with the news that a conference on The Bhagvad Geeta, given below is a clear indication of it.
environment was being held under water since the earth will be so
polluted that it would become un fit to live. The boom of Lesson From The Bhagvad Geeta:
innovation and research marks this century. But, the major A group of Brahmins gathered to sacrifice a goat. A goat was made
questions that arise are: Is it sustainable? Is it conducive to the ready for the sacrifice. It was cleaned, washed and garlanded.
mother earth? Very late man realized, in his quest for easy life, When, they were about to start the sacred fire ritual (yagya). They
comfortable life, and greed for achievement, he has actually made heard the goat laughing. The Brahmins were surprised and asked,
the parable of The Goose With The Golden Eggs, come true. What's the matter? Goat said, What is the use of these yagyas?
Brahmins replied, This yagya is for the well being of our family.
An innovator while looking for innovation looks at the target Goat again guffawed and said, The fruits of these yagyas would be
customers, the way his organization and he would be benefited by destroyed. And it will also be the cause of the vicious chakra of life
his innovation and research, but he keeps a blind eye to the people (life cycle of birth and death). I did all this in my previous birth and
who would be affected, the environment and the geographical see my condition now.
space of the animals that he is going to destroy. Our religious
scriptures have been teaching us a lot of lessons for living on this People who were gathered there, were surprised and said, What do
blue planet for example an insight into the following two examples you mean by all this; please explain it to us in detail? Goat replied,
from The Mahabharat and The Bhagwad Geeta will indicate how I was a Brahmin in my previous birth. Once, my son fell sick. My
callous man has been in dealing with the mother Earth. wife, to please God, sacrificed a goat for my child's fast recovery.
The mother of the lamb cursed me. She said, In your next birth,

137 138
you'll be born a goat and would be similarly sacrificed. Moreover, Natural Sources
you will have the memory of previous birth so that you feel guilty
for your deeds. Forest fires, volcanic activity, dust and gases emitted from animal
excreta and marsh gas production are major causes of air pollution.
Man is the creator and the destructor of the environment since the Forest fires and volcanic eruptions generally emit large amounts of
environment is the sum total of all biological, chemical, physical, sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere, disturbing its
and economical activities of mankind. Recent times, has witnessed ecological balance. Man is yet again a major source of air pollution:
the consequences of digressions of mankind with nature and the Agricultural activities like crop spraying and burning, automobile
disrespect that he had shown for the planet Earth of which he is an fuel emission, Aeroplane emission, nuclear tests, fire works and
inhabitant. The various types of pollution which are quite common solvent usage like hydrocarbons
now a days are: Air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, land
pollution, and solid waste (bio medical and e -waste). These Artificial Sources:
pollutants have led to great health hazards like birth of high risk
neonates, children with malnutrition, increase in cancer and Still Sources
respiratory disorder.
Stationary sources of air pollution are industrial factories, power
AIR POLLUTION: plants and furnaces. These sources emit into the atmosphere large
amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). Even though, CO2 is a natural
A) Definition: The introduction of various toxins, chemicals, component of the earth's atmosphere, increased levels of it is one of
biological materials or particulate matters into the the major causes of global warming.
Moving Sources
The atmosphere protects us from
harmful radiations of sun by Automobiles and aircraft are the mobile causes of air pollution.
forming a blanket and supports Fuel exhausts from the vehicle is one of the most common sources
life. The pollutants in the air of air pollution, accounting for about 40 percent of all the sources of
cause tremendous health hazards air pollution worldwide. Vehicles generally emit large amounts of
among all the species on planet carbon monoxide (CO) that leads to serious health problems such
Earth and also damages the as asthma, bronchitis and other respiratory disorders.
natural environment.
Waste Disposal

The disposal of wastes in landfills is another major source of air

pollution. Waste depositions emit methane gas. Methane though
not harmful in nature by itself, it combines with other gases in the
atmosphere and converts into harmful free radicals which may
contribute to breathing problems and infection.
B) Causes Of Air Pollution: There are two major kinds of air
pollution: Natural and Artificial i.e. man made.

139 140
Other miscellaneous sources of Air Pollution:
Various other factors such as wind erosion, pollen dispersal,
burning of fossil fuels and gases emitted from radioactive decay
from inside the earth's crust also contribute to air pollution.

Pic from Open source

Common Problem at Home: Drinking water pool and swimming

pool water.

Point -Source pollution : When water pollution is from a single

source, for example an oil spill.

Non point-source pollution: If the pollution comes from many

2. Land Pollution:3
Activities like littering, improper industrial waste disposal, Trans boundary pollution: When the pollution may affect the
agriculture-generated wastes, oil refineries, mining and human environment hundreds of miles away from the source, for example
sewage are the major sources of land pollution. It is a hideous site to nuclear waste, burning of oil wells during war.
see land pollution and not only this, it is has adverse effects on
human health, wildlife and the ecosystem. Toxic substances may Effects Of Water Pollution: Surface water gets polluted that leads
seep into water bodies and cause groundwater pollution. to oxygen depletion. Ground water gets depleted reducing the bio
diversity and thus the nutrients present in it. Microbiological
3) Water Pollution: The various sources of water pollution are : pollution leads to the depletion of microbiological feed of fishes
Marine dumping , sewage and waste water, like industrial thus reducing their number.
waste, plastic bags disposed in the water , Radioactive waste ,
Oil pollution , underground storage leakages, atmospheric Another major cause of water pollution is chemical waste coming
deposition , global warming and eutrophication . out from factories.

141 142
Prevention of Water from Pollution: Avoid littering: Excessive littering is one of most common reasons
for land pollution.
Conserve water by turning off the tap when running water is
not necessary. This helps prevent water shortages and reduces Spread a word: Initiative should be taken to spread a word to as
the amount of contaminated water that needs treatment. many people as you can about the harmful effects of littering.
Organic wastes must be disposed off in the areas that are far from
Be careful about what you throw down your sink or toilet. human or animal habitation. Waste like plastic, metals, glass and
Don't throw paints, oils or other forms of litter down the drain. paper must be recycled and reused.
Use environmental freindly household products, such as Improve fertility: Land fertility may be improved by reforesting.
washing powder, household cleaning agents and toiletries. Soil in forested lands is far more fertile than soil without trees,
suggesting that trees have the ability to fertilize land.
Take great care not to overuse pesticides and fertilizers. This
will prevent runoffs of the material into nearby water sources. Dumping of the Waste: The land far away from natural
environments should be utilised to dump wastes that cannot be
By having more plants in your garden you are preventing disposed off and are essential to industrial processes.
fertilizer, pesticides and contaminated water from running off
into nearby water sources. 4. Solid waste: It comes from hospitals like syringes, tubes, and
apparatus. The e-waste comes from discarding of mobiles,
Don't throw litter into rivers, lakes or oceans. Help clean up electronic gadgets and other non disposable e- waste.
any litter you see on the beaches or in rivers and lakes, make
sure it is safe to collect the litter and put it in a nearby dustbin. A number of countries have made a move to reduce the ever
increasing environmental problems by forming meaningful
Instructions: legislation. Yet global climate change, rapidly decreasing
Prevention Of Land Pollution: biodiversity and growing extinction rates, dwindling resources,
deforestation, worldwide over fishing, and pollution still remain a
Reduce toxic materials: While disposing waste ensure that it has challenge and a serious threat to the environment.
minimum toxic waste materials. This can be done by treating the
waste materials with various chemicals to make them less toxic. Environmental issues are closely linked to human rights, animal
Once the waste is treated, it can be disposed of using sensible protection, and economic and political issues. For example,
methods. Harmful chemicals can also be replaced with less toxic, starting polluting industries in poor neighborhoods is both an
biodegradable materials. environmental and social justice issue. Another, global issue is the
burning of fossil fuels which leads to pollution, acid rain, and
Recycle waste materials: Reduce garbage as it requires land fills, climate change. These problems, in turn, lead to poor human health
which takes up large amounts of land. and increase in weather-related disasters. Natural resources
ownership by multinational corporations, e.g. water, causes
Buy organics products: Organics products are friendly to the shortages for humans and animals alike and contributes to
environment as they are biodegradable for example, organic poverty. Spreading of urban boundaries leads to decreased
cleaners, pesticides, insecticides and fertilizers. biodiversity and habitat which in turn, increases competition for

143 144
limited space and resources. All of us depend on the natural treatment operations, lack of flood control and monsoon water
resources for our survival, so every environmental issue becomes drainage system, diversion of consumer waste into the rivers,
an issue for both humans and even of animals. cremation practices near major rivers, highly polluting old public
transport, and continued operation by the Indian government of
Humane Education invites people to explore more complex and government owned, high emission plants built between 1950 to
far-reaching solutions to these either/or scenarios. Environmental 1980.
concerns are frequently pitted against human rights, inhibiting the India's water supply and sanitation issues are inextricably linked to
search for solutions that benefit both people and the natural world. many environmental issues. Environmental issues are one of the
For example, we are given to choose between loggers and owls, as primary causes of disease, health issues and long term livelihood
if there is no way to protect jobs and other species. And species impact for India.
viability is often pitted against individual animals, so that we
choose between trapping and killing certain animals to protect an Sustainable growth: Man paid no heed while destroying the niche
ecosystem. of the native people, who thrived on the natural resources. He even
denigrated the natural resources and restricted the geographical
space of the animals; His innovations have resulted in massive
break down of the system and also of the blue planet the Earth. The
recent times have started to show the impact of such negative
growth by taking man in his loop of destruction by indirectly
affecting him. Man should have had a plan for maintenance but
now is on the run for break down maintenance because of his over
indulgence and negligent attitude towards environment and
sustainable growth.

Summits such as the Earth Summit in Rio, Brazil, 1992, were major
international meetings that brought sustainable development to the
mainstream. However, the record on moving towards
sustainability, so far appears to have been quite poor since the
Pic. From open source concept of sustainability has many different meanings to different
Challenges Being faced by India: Major environmental issues are people, and a large part of humanity around the world still live
forest and agricultural degradation of land, resource depletion without access to basic necessities.
(water, mineral, forest, sand, rocks etc.) environmental
degradation, public health, loss of biodiversity loss of resilience
in ecosystems, livelihood security for the poor.

India must wake up to face the challenges to control the pollutants

coming from the rampant burning of fuel wood and biomass such
as dried waste from livestock as the primary source of energy . Poor
organized garbage and waste removal services, poor sewage
Graph from open source

145 146
Sustainable growth can salvage us from the denigration of the
earth. Every individual should become responsible and take steps
to reduce carbon footprints. Innovation and research before its
implementation should focus first on the negative impact that it will
have on the environment, the people and the animals and

References :
Resolution :
"The Mahabharata (Electronic text)". Bhandarkar Oriental
? I will put a water saving device in my toilet cistern. Research Institute, Pune. 1999.
? I will turn off the tap when I brush my teeth.
Vyas Ved, The Bhagwad Geeta, Geeta Press Gorakhpur, UP ,
? I will use rechargeable batteries. sambadh 2010.
? I will take a five minute shower not a bath.
? I will use a 'bag for life' instead of plastic for shopping. 1. Major Causes of Air Pollution |
? I will dry my clothes in sun rather than in the tumble pollution.html#ixzz28bvX19lD
? I will boil only the water I need, rather than filling the 2. Major Sources of Land Pollution |
kettle every time.
? I will do car pooling to work with a colleague.
? I will use cycle for places close to my house. 3. http// wiki /environmental issues in India.
? I will move in public transport as far as possible.
? I will use a climate payback scheme to reduce the
impact of my air travel.
? I will organize or volunteer an environmental project
in my Community.
? I will use both sides of the paper.
? I will think twice before printing the paper.
? I will use natural light and try using solar light.
? I will make use of Air conditioner less.
? I will replace my electronic gadgets only when I think
they are so outdated that no more I can use them.

147 148
Dust to Gold A Remedy for Mahagenco Power Plant Reasons for Mass Production of Fly Ash:
Dr. Neelam Tikkha, MMV, RTMNU, There is abundance of coal production all over the world. China has
CEO Confidence Foundation the largest reserve ie. 3,520.0 million Of tons. The United States, alone sits on a quarter of the world reserves which is 922.8 millions
Cell: + 91-9422145467 of tons. India ranks third in coal production with 588.5 millions of
Winner of British Council's award for Anecdote writing. tons, making it a cheap and abundant energy source. Coal provides
more than half of the nation's electricity and will continue to be the
fuel of choice for generating power.
Keywords-Fly ash; environmental hazards; thermal power
plants, Fly ash utilization, Aluminum recycling, concrete, But as demand increases, there is proportionate increase in the
chemical and physical analyses byproducts from burning coal. Millions of tons of "fly ash" - a
powdery substance laced with heavy metals such as arsenic,
Introduction: mercury and lead - have piled up in the landfills. For power
companies, these are costly disposal options, because the fly ash
Industrialization is a symbol of growth and development placed there must be treated as a potentially toxic industrial waste.
worldwide. The mammoth of industrialization is so dynamic, that it 2
Mahagenco plant at Koradi near Nagpur in India is one such
appears, as if we are riding a mythological chariot of sun God. But, example that is excreting toxic fly ash in Kanhan river which is a
as far as sustainable growth is concerned, it is getting crushed under life line for people around Kanhan river.
the wheels of this chariot. The grey clouds are looming large on the
planet we live in. There are dark and gloomy footprints being Similarly, in The US, the government has given coal industry a free
created on the mother Earth. ride on the fly ash disposal and also to the municipal solid waste
incineration sector. Tons of garbage is burned down using coal as a
The foremost, disadvantage of this ill effect is the production of fuel supplement and the fly ash remnant as landfill cover. This is
large quantities of industrial wastes and the problems related to its being allowed despite concerns that the same heavy metals
management and safe disposal. Another, major issue is the scarcity (arsenic, lead, and aluminum) could contaminate groundwater and
of land, materials and resources required for ongoing soils in the vicinity of landfills. Similar, is the state of affairs in
developmental activities, including infrastructure. Fly ash is one India, China and other countries. It is a sorry state of affairs that ,
such baby of industrialization. This has resulted in news papers sustainable use of natural resources has not been the principal
round the globe, sometime or the other, flashing with one news - focus around the globe, and our attempts to deal with our waste
Coal Ash Cloud Looms Large Over China1 products have emphasized preference for convenience over
environmental responsibility. We need to think to save our mother
earth. Coal-power producers and environmental regulators need to
Definition: form a partnership, trying to figure out a cheap and safe way to
dispose of the residue.
Fly ash is a superfine, powdery by product of burning coal for
electricity. It can contain heavy metals such as arsenic, lead and Laws and Legislation of Disposal of Fly ash:
mercury, which pose risks to the environment. (Bill Tiernan | The
The problem of fly ash disposal has acquired a mammoth status that
the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) issued a

149 150
regulation on 14 September, 1999, specifying normative levels for (ii) Problem In India : The drop in temperature has made life
progressive utilization of fly ash. According to the regulation, it is difficult for people staying around Koradi and Khaparkheda
mandatory for the existing (old) and new coal based thermal power power plants as thick layers of fly-ash gets deposited on their
plants to utilize 100% of the fly ash produced in a stipulated time farms and houses. Persons with respiratory ailments find it
horizon. The new coal thermal power plants are required to use difficult to breathe. Farmers are the worst affected as they
100% of the fly ash produced within nine years of commencing suffer financial loss too. A lot of them grow vegetables in the
operation. The old power plants, however, are required to achieve fields near the power plant. The produce does not fetch enough
100% fly ash utilization goal within 15 years from the date of issue price as repeated fly-ash deposition has affected the quality
of the regulation. adversely. Mahagenco plant is ruthlessly flouting the norms.
Maharashtra Pollution and Control Board (MPCB) knows
Problems Caused by Fly Ash: about it but has failed to do anything.
i) Problems in The US: With nearly 20 major coal-fired power
There were more disastrous effects noticed two years ago,
plants in Virginia, the disposal of coal ash had become a
when a sudden increase in fly-ash emission from Koradi plant
problem. It was dumped in pits, old mines or landfills. In York
had caused widespread damage to crops in many villages. A
County, fly ash placed in abandoned sand and gravel mines
joint survey was done by Mahagenco and agriculture
between 1957 and 1974 polluted groundwater, and the dump
department officials. Lonkhairi village was one of the worst
site later gained Superfund status."Water in the adjacent
affected villages. Sarpanch of this village stated that;"Crops in
residential wells actually turned green," according to a
150 acre near the village was damaged badly. The survey
National Research Council study requested by Congress.
officials had agreed to provide compensation at Rs25,000 per
acre but even after two years we are yet to get a single penny.

Providing compensation is not the correct solution. A company

still carries a stigma of being socially, environmentaly callous.
Mahagenco power plant is doing the same thing. It is also
acquiring a status of irresponsible and unsustainable growth.
The negative image will threaten its survival.

Sheshrao Anjankar, who owns eight acres, said the agricultural

output has gone down sharply due to heavy fly-ash emissions.
"Some 25 years ago, there were orange orchards in 100 acres.
Now, only they remain on five acres and the owners are
thinking of chopping down the trees as the number of fruits has
reduced sharply." Many villagers who had consumed
vegetables grown in this area have developed chronic ailments
and respiratory disorder. Teak plants have also suffered the
damage due to heavy ash deposition on the leaves."The
suburban areas of the city close to the plants have also been
affected by the pollutants. The fly-ash in Godhani an area in the

151 152
suburb of Nagpur has also been facing severe problems, since of our fly ash expert that vanadium is an element associated with
the plants have stopped flowering and have started to wilt. and found in fly ash."
Piped water supply is not available in the area and people are
solely dependent on wells. But, this water will soon become The levels of other contaminants - arsenic, lead, manganese and
unfit for drinking. chromium - also were high, exceeding municipal drinking water
standards. The 217-acre golf course is among the largest known
Stop, look, listen, before you go to dispose of this kind of fly-ash projects in the state of Virginia - bigger than Dominion's
waste, lest we'll look back and we'll say, you know, we had all regulated fly-ash landfill in Deep Creek, which has about 1.1
the warning signs to put some kind of regime in place and we million tons of ash. The ash placed there was mixed with a binding
didn't take advantage of it. agent, either cement kiln dust or lime kiln dust that prevents
The Effects of the Uncontrolled Use of Fly ash:
Dominion's Chesapeake plant no longer has a need to landfill the
The effects of Fly ash are well documented on air and groundwater. fly ash it generates. An on-site vendor further processes virtually all
Cases involving fly-ash contamination of groundwater have been of the fly ash and markets it to regional companies that use it to
cited in Indiana, Maryland, Montana, Wisconsin and Virginia. The make concrete products.
constituents in fly ash can vary widely and can soil conditions like
hydrology and other environmental factors. Every fly-ash disposal This year, the company has won two environmental awards, one
site presents a unique puzzle. To see one coal-waste site is not to see from Gov. Timothy M. Kaine and another from the EPA.
them all, but only the one you're looking at. Burke, the Johns
Hopkins professor, told the recent congressional panel. "You need The Chesapeake City Council unanimously approved the
to have the tools to be able to evaluate them...The Battlefield Golf Battlefield Golf Club project in June 2001 and, in April, after a
Club at Centerville was sculpted from fly ash that Dominion
Virginia Power paid to have trucked from its Chesapeake Energy Solution to Fly ash Menace in The US:
Center. The deal was signed for an initial fee of about $4.50
perIntroduction: It is believed that high levels of IQ, that is Recycling of fly ash through "beneficial uses," should be
intelligence quotient, may give you an interview but high levels of encouraged. The US has started various uses of fly ash, ranging
EQ , emotional quotient, will reward you with a job and life long from concrete block and wallboard manufacturing to a variety of
altitude. But, It is a sad reality that Education curricula in India and in-ground, structural fill uses that include such local projects as
other developing countries lay more emphasis on the development Norfolk's Harbor Park baseball stadium and embankments on parts
of ( IQ) but do not focus on developing Emotional quotient (EQ ) . of the Chesapeake Expressway and the Southwest Suffolk Bypass.
Emotional quotient ton for the fly ash to be placed on the golf Battlefield Golf Club at Centerville, a course in Chesapeake built
course. At that rate, the deal would have cost the utility nearly $7 with 1.5 million tons of fly ash is the biggest of them all - one of the
million. largest ash reuse projects of its kind in the nation.

"It is his opinion that levels of constituents of concern are high," Agglite Corp, conducted an operation on the grounds of
wrote City Manager William E. Harrell, in a July 16 letter to the Dominion's coal-fired power plant, in the city, in the year 1993. The
EPA. "Further, high levels of vanadium were detected in the company used fly ash generated at Dominion's operation, where it
groundwater recovered from the monitoring wells. It is the opinion was mixed with cement. Agglite started a massive project of using

153 154
fly ash in place of dirt for fill projects. In the early 1990s, Virginia
regulators were forced for changes in the state's solid-waste
regulations that would allow beneficial uses of fly ash in
construction projects.

These regulations supported Chesapeake golf course project which

eventually moved forward. Agglite was then involved in plethora
of beneficial-use fly-ash projects in Hampton Roads, including
Harbor Park, Tidewater Community College's Virginia Beach
campus, Portsmouth Naval Hospital, a stretch of Providence Road
in Chesapeake and DEQ's offices in Virginia Beach.

Solution to Fly Ash Menace in India:

Utilization of fly ash has become very popular in various
construction and waste solidification and stabilization process for
example, approach embankment for the second Nizamuddin Compaction of Pond Ash ( Pic. Sudhir Mathur, Chief scientist,
Bridge at Delhi was made from fly ash which became operative for CRRI N.Delhi)
traffic flow in the year 1998.The use of fly ash in this project alone
saved Rs.1.00 crore approximately. Another, example of use of pond ash for road embankment in India
is that of four-lane work on NH-6, Dankuni to Kolaghat, Km 17 to
72, West Bengal. A number of new projects are coming up in India
like Okhala approach embankment in New Delhi, Sarita Vihar
reinforced flyover approach embankment at Greater NOIDA
express highway, Hanuman Setu Flyover Approach Embankment
made from geo grid reinforcement.

Photo of second Nizamuddin Bridge approach embankment. ( Pic.

Sudhir Mathur, Chief scientist , CRRI N.Delhi)
(Four-lane work on NH-6, Dankuni to Kolaghat, Km 17 to 72, West Bengal)

155 156
In India bricks are also being manufactured from fly ash. Fly ash is
being converted into bricks. Another use of fly ash could be in
making cement .Cement industry has huge capacity to absorb
voluminous amount of fly ash.

The picture below gives the machines used to convert fly ash into

Picture - Okhla Flyover Approach Embankment. Erection of facing

panels. ( Pic. Sudhir Mathur, Chief scientist, CRRI N.Delhi)

Minimum requirement for making Bricks from Fly ash is as


lFLYASH - 30%


Hanuman Setu Flyover Approach Embankment ( Pic. Sudhir

Mathur, Chief scientist, CRRI N.Delhi)
Geo Grid reinforced fly ash projects.

157 158
In fine, it is highly essential to control the menace of Fly ash since it
can create a lot of problems. It has highly disastrous impact on
human being and plants alike. If norms are flouted it may even
bring about criminal action. And if Fly ash is widely used and
disposed it is like gold. The cement industry should be partnered
with, since cement can be manufactured utilizing a large volume of
fly ash. But, the only impediment that might come in the way would
be the addition of transport cost from power plant to cement

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Looms Large Over China, Sun Oct 3, 2010 8:41am.

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161 162
Professor, Neelam . G. Tikkha SOFT SKILLS FOR THE GEN Y
Introduction: It is believed that high levels of IQ, that is
Affiliation : MMV, RTM Nagpur University intelligence quotient, may give you an interview but high levels of
Corporate trainer for MNC's EQ , emotional quotient, will reward you with a job and life long
altitude. But, It is a sad reality that Education curricula in India and
WTC , HUL, HPCL, ONGC and Mercedez other developing countries lay more emphasis on the development
Prof. Dr. Neelam Tikkha of ( IQ) but do not focus on developing Emotional quotient (EQ ) .
Emotional quotient relates with the development of soft skills. The
world is becoming global and piercingly competitive every year. To
ABSTRACT have a competitive edge one needs to have an edge over others by
having interpersonal skills.
The world is shrinking day by day and the products are moving
Interpersonal skills are very important since individual may be a
great miles . It has become very essential to understand cultural
good worker but may not be a group worker and the demand of the
differences. Moreover, the demand of the day is increasing and the
day is group worker, because real growth of the organization takes
world is becoming more and more competitive. Corporate houses
place only when a person is able to work in a group. These
prefer people with good soft skills since they would have a good
interpersonal skills which help to function in a group are termed as
team that would lead them to progress.
Soft skills.
It is believed that high levels of IQ, that is intelligence quotient,
Definitions: A look into Wikipedia's definition, of soft skills, will
may give you an interview but high levels of EQ , emotional
lucidly explicate the meaning and the use of the term in modern
quotient, will reward you with a job and life long altitude. But, It is a
sad reality that Education curricula in India and other developing
soft skills as a sociological term relating to a
countries lay more emphasis on the development of (IQ) but do not
person's "EQ" (Emotional Intelligence Quotient),
focus on developing Emotional quotient (EQ) . Emotional quotient
the cluster of personality traits, social graces,
relates with the development of soft skills. The world is becoming
communication, language, personal habits,
global and piercingly competitive every year. To have a competitive
friendliness, and optimism that characterize
edge, one needs to have an edge over others by having [1]
interpersonal skills. relationships with other people. Soft skills
complement hard skills (part of a person's IQ),
Interpersonal skills are very important, since an individual may be which are the occupational requirements of a job
a good worker, but may not be a group worker, and the demand of and many other activities. 1
the day is group worker. The real growth of the organization takes
place, only when a person is able to work in a group. These Another elaborate definition has been given by Mohan Rao,2 a
interpersonal skills which help to function in a group are termed as technical director with Emmellen Biotech Pharmaceuticals Ltd,
Soft skills. Mumbai [Images] defines a 'good attitude: "It is a behavioural skill,
which cannot be taught. However it can be developed through
continuous training. It represents the reactive nature of the
individual and is about looking at things with the right perspective.
163 164
You must be ready to solve problems proactively and create win- Top 60 soft skills
win situations. And you must be able to take ownership that is the
responsibility for your actions and lead from the front without The Workforce Profile defined about 60 "soft skills", which
calling it quits at the most critical moment." employers seek. They are applicable to any field of work,
according to the study, and are the "personal traits and skills
Hence, it is observed that, a number of CEO's and human resource that employers state are the most important when selecting
managers prefer to hire people with high levels of soft skills and
train them for the specific jobs that are available. They are looking
employees for jobs of any type." 5
for learning to learn . They are also looking for competence in
listening, reading, writing and computing skills. According to the 1. Math.
Managers and CEO's, hard-skills do not matter much, at the time of 2. Safety.
the interview, since the ever-changing impact of the technology has 3. Courtesy.
given the workers , a short shelf life as far as hard-skills are 4. Honesty.
concerned. 5. Grammar.
6. Reliability.
It is easy to find people with hard skills that have the capability to 7. Flexibility.
operate machinery or fulfill other tasks but there is a scarcity of 8. Team skills.
people with soft skills, which are highly required by the most 9. Eye contact.
companies as has already been mentioned that in India and other
developing countries, 'soft skills' training has become even more
10. Cooperation.
important since the education system does not include personality 11. Adaptability.
development or any of the soft skills required for future jobs, 12. Follow rules.
anywhere in its stream of academic curricula. Corporate houses 13. Self-directed.
invest a lot of money on soft skills training in order to groom their 14. Good attitude.
employees to help them develop interpersonal skills so that they 15. Writing skills.
can present themselves in a better manner and improve their 16. Driver's license.
performance. 17. Dependability.
18. Advanced math.
A survey was conducted by the Workforce Profile, (source: 19. Self-supervising. , who concluded in to believing that , the 20. Good references.
more valuable is the employee , who can grow and learn as the
business changes. 3
21. Being drug free.
22. Good attendance.
Soft skills "are as important, if not more important, than traditional 23. Personal energy.
hard skills to an employer looking to hire -- regardless of industry 24. Work experience.
or job type. This could offer a major breakthrough as educators and 25. Ability to measure.
training providers seek to develop and cluster training courses to fit 26. Personal integrity.
business and industry needs."4 27. Good work history.
28. Positive work ethic.

165 166
29. Interpersonal skills. According to me some more could be added to this exhaustive
30. Motivational skills. list like
31. Valuing education. Negotiation Skills
32. Personal chemistry.
33. Willingness to learn. Tackling Mercurial Mavericks Adapting to Change
34. Common sense. Mentoring
35. Critical thinking skills. Ability to lead through precepts
36. Knowledge of fractions.
Walk the talk
37. Reporting to work on time.
38. Use of rulers and calculators. Willingness to take initiative in community work
39. Good personal appearance. Being responsible for creating good image of organization in
40. Wanting to do a good job. the community and society at large.
41. Basic spelling and grammar. Willing to change attitude and approach.
42. Reading and comprehension.
43. Ability to follow regulations. Technical competence
44. Willingness to be accountable. Computing competence
45. Ability to fill out a job application. Ability to undertake learning all life
46. Ability to make production quotas.
47. Basic manufacturing skills training. Good interpersonal skills both transmitting and receiving
48. Awareness of how business works. information.
49. Staying on the job until it is finished. Working with multilingual teams.
50. Ability to read and follow instructions. Interdisciplinary knowledge and ability to work with such
51. Willingness to work second and third shifts. teams
52. Caring about seeing the company succeed.
Ability to work with multilingual teams
53. Understanding what the world is all about.
54. Ability to listen and document what you have heard. Thinking laterally and creatively
55. Commitment to continued training and learning. Flexibility to tackle and solve wide ranging ill defined
56. Willingness to take instruction and responsibility. problems
57. Ability to relate to coworkers in a close environment. Ability to interact with other discipline and cultures should be
58. Not expecting to become a supervisor in the first six well developed.
59. Willingness to be a good worker and go beyond the Problem solving based learning ability.
traditional eight-hour day. Empathy
60. Communication skills with public, fellow employees, But, The most important one is communication,
supervisors, and customers. communication and communication.

167 168
The following case studies will illustrate the importance of Any organization with its good intentions of helping customers will
soft skills: fail to get the desired results even with highly effective catch lines
like Khayal Apka if people on the lower rung are not educated
Case Study : 1 enough for soft skills.
A teacher's handbook was bought from Flipkart .com . Before What we find missing in this case was empathy and
making a purchase a clear cut information was given on phone by a Communication Skills.
very helpful executive. But seller and purchaser both did not realize
that book is useless without students book. When the customer Case study : 4
mentioned this problem, Flipkart immediately refunded the money
O General's inverter Ac was a total failure in 49 C temperature in
along with postal charges on the return of book. Nagpur but the service engineer kept on forcing the customer to
This case reflects a helpful approach, good communication skill believe that it is perfectly OK. The customer was not satisfied but
and empathy which is very essential in furthering the business and still service engineer was forceful and kept on insisting. He was
retention of old customers. over confident about his product and would remark My company
is so big that if one or two customers are not satisfied with our
Case Study :2 product than that would not harm my companies image or profit.
After a lot of experiments at the cost of the customer the product
An individual paid for hotel booking through ICICI credit card. The
was taken back after deduction of INR 6500/= The customer care
individual was overcharged because of some technical error at the
was also too irresponsible
website .The matter was reported to the Credit Card department .
An executive from the department said , Don't worry even if the
Another major attitude, that company employees reflected, was
payment has been done we would support you and take up the case
that they would neither respond to the mails nor phone calls and
for you and immediately interim cash was credited to the account.
throughout the organization from top to bottom, same work culture
Without any reminders things were done. It had built up an image of
was reflected.
the service provider and it also helped in giving confidence to use
the card more.
This case reflects that empathy and good attitude are missing out
and Communication Skills are poor. The company has ruined its
The above mentioned case reflects very powerful communication
image by tackling the issue pathetically.
skill and empathy.
When the company spends so much money on the advertisements
why does it not spend money and a little thought on tackling with
Case Study : 3 the customers?
An individual escalated the complaint to the MD of ICICI Lombard
and the case was directed to the executive and the executive replies The Smyth County Industry Council, a governing body based in
that since the file has been closed now whenever you meet with the US, conducted a survey recently. The results of the survey was
another accident then I will get the repairs done that have not been called the Workforce Profile which found "an across-the-board
done this time. And further, there are mails being sent again and unanimous profile of skills and characteristics needed to make a
again, that ask for same information. good employee."

169 170
The most common traits, mentioned by virtually every employer, Soft Skills@21st Century
~ Positive work ethic. Kurapati Malati Latha
~ Good attitude.
~ Desire to learn and be trained. 6 Associate Professor
CONCLUSION: J.b.i.e.t (joginapally Bhaskara Institute
Of Engineering & Technology)
In fine, it takes time for soft skills to sink into one's behavior pattern Moinabad, Yenkapally Hyderabad, India
and hence the soft skills training must be given at school and Email:
college level so that when an individual takes up any job , he will
be able to take up responsibilities effectively at later stages.
Phone: 9652114711

Notes and References: Abstract

1. To be productive contributors to society in our 21st century
2. students need to be able to quickly learn the core content of a field
softskills.html of knowledge while also mastering a broad portfolio of essentials
in learning, innovation, technology and career skills needed for
001/ese20090534_soft-skills.php work and life. Teachers need to move away from traditional method
5. of teaching and bring into the classroom new and innovating
approaches to teach the content and life long skills.
Soft skills is a sociological term relating to person's "EQ" Emotional Intelligence Quotient. Soft skills complement hard skills
ills.html which are the occupational requirements of job and many other activities. Soft skills have a lot to do with career opportunities
df development. Soft skills refer to abilities that make people better employees and open doors to opportunities. With campus
.pdf recruitments underway in several Engineering Colleges across the state, one of the key criterion for selection of students by IT firms is based on their Soft Skills, which include communication skills,
personal effectiveness and problem solving ability. Several
Bibliography leaders from the IT industry have repeatedly mentioned that there is
a huge gap between the requirements of corporate sector and
Ivey Andrew, Time To Market,, e-book, 2010. quality of students churned out from Engineering Colleges.
Goleman Daniel, Emotional Intelligence, Bentam Books, New
York,1995. Job seekers with the necessary academic qualifications and
experiences are aplenty. But are ideal job seeker with
complimentary soft skills is almost like finding a needy in a hays.

171 172
So, soft skills are identified to be the most critical skills in the technology. Vast research and expert opinions have been sought in
current global job market. Vast research and expert opinions have the effort to determine the specific soft skills to be implemented and
been sought in the effort to determine the specific soft skills to be used in higher institutions of learning. Where as hard skills refer to
implemented and used in higher institutions of learning. So things such as academic qualifications and set ability to perform a
teachers need to prepare students for the jobs that have not yet been certain type of task or activity. Hard skills will get an interview but
created, and for the new skills to build towards creativity and you need soft skills to get the job.
Soft skills have a lot to do with career opportunities development
Key words: Leadership qualities, Decision making , and refer to abilities that make people better employees. A person's
Conflict management, Creative thinking , Time soft skill 'EQ' is an important part of their individual contribution to
management etc. the success of an organization. Particularly those organizations
dealing with customers face to face are generally more successful if
Soft skills is a sociological term relating to person's "EQ" they train their staff to use these skills. For this reason soft skills 'are
Emotional Intelligence Quotient, the cluster of personality traits, increasingly sought out by employers in addition to standard
social graces, communications language personal habits, qualifications. .
friendliness and optimism that characterize relationship with other
people. Soft skills complement hard skills (part of a person's IQ) It has been suggested that in a number of professions, soft skills
which are the occupational requirements of job and many other may be more important over long term than other skills. For
activities. Soft skills have a lot to do with career opportunities example, the legal profession is one where the ability to deal with
development. Soft skills refer to abilities that make people better people effectively and politely more than their occupational skills
employees and open doors to opportunities can determine the professional success of a lawyer. Based on
research findings obtained soft skills are
With campus recruitments underway in several Engineering Contents of soft skills:
Colleges across the state, one of the key criterion for selection of
students by IT firms is based on their Soft Skills, which include 1. Conflict Management
communication skills personal effectiveness and problem solving 2. Creative thinking
abilities. 3. Decision making
4. Goal setting
Several leaders from the IT industry have repeatedly mentioned 5. Interpersonal skills
that there is a huge gap between the requirements of corporate 6. Problem solving
sector and quality of students churned out from Engineering 7. Team building
Colleges. 8. Leadership qualities
9. Time Management qualities
Job seekers with the necessary academic qualifications and 10. Motivating Others
experiences are aplenty. But are ideal job seeker with 11. Teach and guide others
complimentary soft skills is almost like finding a needy in a hays. 12. Active listening
So, soft skills are identified to be the most critical skills in the 13. Coach others
current global job market, especially in past moved era of 14. Provide services
16. Behavioral skills

173 174
Conflict Management: Time Management:
Negotiation intended to produce an argument for the right reasons 1. Planning the day
and that can be learned or mastered. A conflict situation is one in 2. Importance of managing time
which there is a clash of interests. A competent and sensible 3. set a schedule
individual should be able to take conflict situation in his stride and 4. Preparing a weekly schedule
resolve them. All conflicting situations need not be negative or 5. Action Plan
destructive. 6. Important points about priorities.

Creative Thinking: Leadership skills

Creativity is mental process involving the generation of new ideas The ability to lead in various activities and tasks. This is an
or concepts. important criteria for planning and implementing ideas in a group.
This skill is also important to lead in discussion and make decision.
Techniques for creative thinking: Interpersonal skills:
i) Analogical thinking Basic features of relationships:
ii) .Brainstorming 1. Attitude towards others in relationships
iii) Attribute listening 2. The requisite of social skills including interpersonal
iv) Mind mapping communication.
3. Trust is the key element in maintaining the relationships.
Decision Making:
It can be defined as a wise choice made between various To obtain these soft skills ,students can develop many kinds of
alternatives. activities. The most common activities include Organization of
events, Internship in Enterprises, development of Software or
Kinds of decisions: Websites to customers, Sports, Cultural activities in order to
develop different skills. Internships provide invaluable soft skills .
a) Simple decisions Internships are unique opportunity that you will never again
b) Strategic decisions encounter through out the career, Ideally our internship will
c) Tactical decisions provide with work experience.
d) Operational decisions.
All internships teach students soft skills and every employer is
Goal setting: looking for soft skills. This internship useful for students to leave a
For the development of professional organizations or institutions bit wiser, more mature, more confident, and a better candidate.
motto have to be there.
Benefits Of These Internships & Corporate Training.
1) Visualization 1. Students can understand how rigid behaviour affects
2) Ideal Personality relationships.
3) Evaluation of aspirations are the functions of goal setting. 2. Becoming open to different view points.

175 176
3. Practicing being assertive while remaining cordial. What they don't teach us in college!
4. Understanding how negative attitude affects the team work.
5. Overcoming the feeling of frustration and or anger at the Kiran Bableshwar
work place.
Affiliations: Consulting Principal, KeyJobSkills India
6. Developing a positive attitude.
7. Creating a positive impact on their career growth. Former Director (L&D), Saggezza India
8. They can improve their image in the eyes of colleagues and
seniors.' Abstract
9. They can enhance self-esteem and by practicing three word
mantra Act, never react, they can develop poise. Employability is a huge issue in India today. While millions of
students pass out every year, there is a wide "skill gap" which exists
Most of the technical fests organized these days, include these due to what colleges teach and what corporate need. There is an
sessions, not only these, in order to touch the technical urgent need to bridge this gap if India wants to retain its position as
development, paper presentation, PowerPoint presentation, a promising pool of young talent. This article is an attempt to
seminars play a very important role. It is always good to involve in capture a real scenario from our hostel almost 20 years back. The
co-curricular activities to cheer-up Engineering lives. Now a days same problem exists even today due to outdated curricula, student
industries are looking for a person who has both technical skills and attitudes and corporate expectations.
soft skills in-adequate proportional.
Few Companies like., Infosys, TCS, Wipro, BHEL, ECIL etc., are
concentrating on people who have a mixture of both. It is not only Time and again we see media reports that India is facing a talent
important to maintain distinctions in University Standards, but it is crunch, while there is no dearth of jobs!
equally evident to know how to maintain relation with others. Something is seriously wrong and our youth is paying the price. Let
me go back 20 years.
Conclusively, in order to meet the requirements to combat the
competition, many Multinational Companies are switching to this Year 1992, a motley group of fresh faces with a twinkle in their eyes
exercise of selections. Technical abilities and soft skills design a entered an NIT (National Institute of Technology-a premier college
person in a well defined manner which market is looking for. for Engineering). The Indian dream had begun. We wanted to have
good marks and a job in our pockets. The economy had just started
ABOUT THE AUTHOR to unfold, thanks to the Liberalization initiatives. The IT industry
Kurapati Malathi Latha (Ph.D) has been working as English faculty since was already taking some baby steps with Infosys and other
last 18 years and presently working as Associate professor of English entrepreneurs testing their business ideas.
department in JBIET (Joginapally Bhaskara Institute of Engineering & Come 1996, we all had just a handful of companies visiting us for
Technology) in Hyderabad . She has published 10 national articles and 12 Campus drives. Only about 20% must have been placed though.
International online articles, and also attended many workshops and
The rest were left to fend for themselves. This was the scenario for a
conferences and presented papers on topics 21st century English skills for
employability and Importance of English in today's world in India and good Government college with meritorious students!! We were
also having intention to get another doctorate , by doing Ph.D in soft skills scared about what awaited us in the job markets. Strangely, none in
to ful fill the aim of creating placements for students, by giving soft our colleges told us what exactly the companies looked for!
skills training, which is very essential in student's career .

177 178
First came the cut off marks for eligibility - Are you having less Tech start ups are venturing in Education sector alone! That too
than 60% average? Do you have backlogs? Sorry, you cannot sit or only in Bangalore. The focus is on many things Assessments,
the written test. Employability skills non-technical skills and knowledge
Next, all we did was write a test paper for an hour, and stood eagerly needed to participate effectively in the workforce.
outside the placement office to hear our names being announced. I only wish many Engineering and degree colleges realize this and
70% were disappointed and told politely Sorry! But All the Best start investing in our youth. These are essential skills which prepare
for your career No feedback, no counseling. Some were the country to build capacity. The gap is already alarming! Demand
frustrated, some angry and some heartbroken. for skilled labour is 11 Million per year and the supply is only 4
How is the scenario different today? Circa 2013 I reminisced Million! By the year 2022, we need about 500 Million skilled
about those times and checked back with my batch mates, over a people to satisfy our growth needs!
few drinks one Friday. Typical challenges for the colleges today are lack of motivated
Yaar! How are you doing? Kya kar rahe ho aaj kal? (what are you faculty, mediocre infrastructure, old curricula and obsolete
doing nowadays?) thinking. We need the best in this ecosystem to make a
transformation, to realize that India of our dreams.
Arrey! I am with the top ERP Company, doing fine, making about
50 Lakhs a year It is time our Government, colleges and industry started supporting
these entrepreneurs to achieve this goal.
Accha, how about you?
Just became the COO for a start-up, aur tu (how about you)? Notes/References
I had enough of working for somebody, so opened my own 1. 'India's Demographic Dilemma', by CII & BCG
company! I want to enjoy what I like doing 2. National Employability Report 2012
3. The National Skills Development Commission Report of
So what was wrong with these guys in the first place?? Everyone is March 2009
well placed; they are financially and professionally just fine
maybe belonging to the top 2% of the upper class population Author Profile:
paying Taxes.
Kiran Bableshwar
You get the picture India has enough talent, what is needed is Has a B.E. degree from NIT, Jaipur and with a Marketing
unlocking it. Every year, about 6 Lakh Engineers graduate from a from ITM, Bangalore.
plethora of colleges that have mushroomed in every nook and He comes with 15+ years of corporate experience across
corner of this great country. For onece, our population is a boon Marketing, HR in IT, Management Consulting and Manufacturing
waiting to be harnessed. verticals.
But unfortunately, when I visited colleges last year for Campus In his earlier assignments as Director & Asia Pacific Head for
drives (now being in HR), I still saw the same issues! Of course, Global companies, he has designed and delivered training
Companies that visited look for the top talent, others be damned. workshops in India, China, Japan and USA for students, Leaders
Ditto with the colleges too. They still focus on same old outdated and companies.
curricula and churn unfit graduates. An Entrepreneur at heart, he also actively contributes to student
counseling, Faculty Development, Life skills workshops for kids
Hopefully, I see a ray of light a lot of people from my generation
and supports NGOs through his passion Palette knife Oil painting
have realized this skill gap and are taking action. About 10,000

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Oh ! Where have my Cindrella and The foremost advantage that reading provides is that it engages the
Red Riding Hood disappeared??? mind, and exercises it, much more than any other form of
entertainment . The habit of reading books helps to gain multifold
Dr. Neelam Tikkha benefit. It is not only entertaining but also provides with
tremendous information and helps increase the communication
skills. Anthony Robbins, who was rated one of the most intelligent
Today a reader, tomorrow a leader! person on the globe opines:
Video games, chatting on social sites have started creating a
magical world that has murdered the magical and mystical world of The quality of your communication determines the Altitude you
Cindrella and Red Riding Hood. Earlier days, the only source of will reach.
entertainment was books so people loved to read and turned to
bibliophiles but there is a tremendous decline in the readership of Peter S. Jennison also comments on the poor communication skills
books since children are hooked to video games, internet social of the poor because of lack of availability of books. He brings
sites and television. forth a very poignant difference in rich and poor's communication
skills and its impact on social behavior of the poor.

He says:

The poor and the affluent are not communicating

because they do not have the same words. When
we talk of the millions who are culturally
deprived, we refer not to those who do not have
access to good libraries and bookstores, or to
museums and centers for the performing arts, but
those deprived of the words with which
everything else is built, the words that open doors.
Children without words are licked before they
start. The legion of the young wordless in urban
and rural slums, eight to ten years old, do not know
the meaning of hundreds of words which most
middle-class people assume to be familiar to
much younger children. Most of them have never
The children will soon forget the characters like Alice, Red Riding seen their parents read a book or a magazine, or
Hood, Tom and Cindrella. Indian children will lose stories like heard words used in other than rudimentary ways
Vikramaditya Batisi, Akbar Birbal Ke Kisse and Tales from various related to physical needs and functions. Thus is
regions. It is high time that rescue work should start by the parents cultural fallout caused, the vicious circle of
and the schools to develop reading skills in the children. A great ignorance and poverty reinforced and
emphasis has to be laid on making the children realize the perpetuated? Children deprived of words become
importance of reading since it is a very advantageous exercise. school dropouts; dropouts deprived of hope

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behave delinquently. Amateur censors blame Increases the child's flair for writing: All good authors are also
delinquency on reading immoral books and avid readers! Reading leads to good writing too and not just for a
magazines, when in fact, the inability to read writer good writing skills can be useful in any profession today. If
anything is the basic trouble. (Jennison, 26th, a child is fluent in a language, then the thoughts flow more easily
August,2012), and it adds tremendous advantage to a child's oral and written communication skills. You will see that almost all famous people,
or leaders across the world, are also ardent book lovers! Take the
True said , it is highly important to mention about being deprived of example of Gandhi or Nehru both had a passion for books!
books while mentioning about the social and cultural deprivation (Ruskin, 5th, February 2011.)
since it is the root cause of all delinquencies and immoral
behaviour.The government and the NGO's should also think of The schools can also play a vital role by providing the children
providing reading experience when trying for other basic needs It is with different language and reading experiences. There should be
essential to teach children how to read for their day-to-day survival, one period allotted for reading story books in the school library at
but if we develop a passion to read opens new worlds for the least thrice a week. The schools should also motivate and make
children. By reading, children can acquire all the knowledge, skills their children participate in competitions like Read and Grow and
and values essential for their success in school and in their life. Spell Bee that help to improve reading skills and vocabulary.

Ruskin Bond , the famous writer suggests that the parents and the The parents' role can play the most crucial role in the life of their
schools should focus on developing reading skills at junior level. children by providing them with multi language learning
This is where they build a foundation for reading and gain experience. No doubt, children should learn to read the books in
command over a language. All good schools, therefore, encourage English but also in the regional language and the mother tongue.
reading in a very proactive way, as they realize how it can impact The parents should make their children members of the nearest
several other skills a child can develop in the years to come The library and bring them to the library every week. Now a day, the
parents' role is to further this emphasis in a child's life, and libraries have become more digitalized and can provide rich
encourage the child to read as much as he can, and learn to reading and learning experience to the child. The child's weekly
appreciate and enjoy the habit. visit to the library would develop an addiction in him for reading of
the books. Once the child gets addicted nurture and let the addiction
He feels that reading habit helps in following ways: magnify by buying one book for him every month. Make a promise
to yourself that you would gift your child on his birthday with a
Broadens the child's horizons: While reading does not make book so that the child can have a mini library of his own. This will
children more intelligent, what it can do is increase their help him to develop a kind of euphoric love for the books.
imagination, help broaden their outlook towards life and help them
to be more open minded. If the child does not like to read books the parents should read one
story during the bed time. This would be a nice way for the parents
Increases the child's awareness: Reading of any kind can add to a to spend a rewarding time with their children. They can teach their
child's knowledge irrespective of the kind of book your child is children phonemes with the help of computer technology or the use
reading. Yes, even a comic book! It can also help the child become a of flash card. Whenever you are driving you can play a spy game
good judge of character over time. It gives a child greater depth in by asking the child to spot some words or letters around him.

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It is very important to provide the child with a good space and hand to choose the kind of books he would like to read and then, see
comfortable furniture to sit and read his favorite books in the house. the habit bloom on its own.
Every night the parents should tell the child one story and then give
him few words and ask him to develop a new story from these A word of caution, parents must not push or impose the habit at any
words. This will help child's imagination run wild. The parents point. Make the habit seem like a hobby, something that a child will
must also set example by reading a book daily and then sharing the enjoy, and not as a task, which will make him want to run away
information with the child from their own reading. Children love to from it. The parents can relax and have fun with their children and
imitate their parents. The parents should postpone television time , books! It is a life long habit, that you child is likely to enjoy forever!
to read books with their children. The parents can also provide with To raise a reader, you don't need to overstress, or over work. These
animated books or ask children to develop animations to support are some simple tips that would help in raising a happy reader.
the stories they read. The need of the hour is to refresh the fairy tales
and folk tales by making animations and making them more lively In my opinion, there is nothing wrong in a child enjoying other
and peppy or we will soon see the death of the reading habit and the sources of entertainment. I am a huge movie buff, but at the same
books. time I read hundreds of books and so my daughter has a habit of
reading books. In fact, she has read almost all motivational books
The children should be offered books (or time to read) as a reward available in my library. So be assured, that even if your child has
for achievement or chores. other interests besides reading, his reading habit once formed won't
be easily deterred.
The children can be motivated further by giving some pocket
money every month, especially to buy books. Suggest the children Notes and References
to take books with them wherever they go, on vacations, or on
long road trips. 1.
skills_are_important Jennison, P. S. ( 26th, August,2012).
Reading is not a passive activity like playing video games or Quotes on Reading and Literacy. internet , 2012.
listening to music or watching television but involves a
considerable amount of active participation and effort from the 2. Inculcating the habit of reading in children: Ruskin Bond
part of the reader since a reader must have a good command over
language and must have the capacity to absorb what he reads. Bibliography
Most parents know of these advantages already but what most Jennison, P. S. ( 26th, August,2012). Quotes on Reading and
parents are stumped by is how to inculcate the habit of reading Literacy. internet .
within a child. What's more, with information being disseminated
from a variety of mediums, in today's day and age, the job becomes Ruskin, B. (5th, February 2011.). Inculcating the habit of reading in
much more difficult. But the important thing to somehow hook the children: Ruskin Bond Expert's view . Internet .
child and get him addicted to reading and once a child is hooked
on to reading, it is very unlikely, that he will give it up, irrespective
of other forms of entertainment. So, it is highly essential for the
parents to introduce reading at the right age, give the child the free

185 186
Profile Yogesh V Kshirsagar1,
Dr. Neelam Tikkha Lecturer &
Navnath S. Randhave2
MA( English) , MBA & Team Building ( XLRI) , Ph.D ( American Lecturer,
Literature ), TEFL ( US Florida Tampa ) K. K. Wagh Polytechnic, Nashik
09 November, 2012
Professor at MMV ,RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur .

Examiner for Cambridge ESOL Exams . Writer of 28 E books on Soft Skills Training for Young Graduates
Communication Skills, Soft Skills and Essays for International
Key Note presenter for a number of international Conferences and
seminars around the globe. It is observed by Dr. Kalam that almost seven million 10 + 2
students and three million graduates every year become
Won several awards for best paper presentation. employment seekers and many of them are deprived of it.3 This
paper discusses the importance of soft skills in students' lives, both
Award for best trainer at Hindustan Unilever Limited while pursuing their education and after that. It discusses how soft
skills complement hard skills, which are the technical requirements
Counseled senior manger ONGC for Scholarly paper on of a job the student is trained to do. The paper exhorts educators to
Knowledge Management that won the best paper award of the year take special responsibility regarding soft skills, because during
2011- 2012. students' university time, educators have to pay a major role in the
development of their soft skills. Embedding the training of soft
Consultant for Corporates like World Trade Centre Mumbai , HUL, skills into hard skills courses is a very effective and efficient method
Acer, ONGC, CIPLA, Visaka Industries, Space wood , PEE VEE of achieving both an attractive way of teaching a particular content
TEX, HPCL, Blow Plast , Space Wood , Mercedez and a number of and an enhancement of soft skills. Soft skills play an important role
organizations. in shaping an individual's personality. It is of high importance for
every student to acquire adequate skills beyond academic or
Gave talk shows on Radio and participated in discussions on technical knowledge as it will cater to the requirements of the
CNBC TV, Network 18 in prestigious programs like All for This country. Besides, many universities have started incorporating the
Moment with business tycoons like Adi Godrej and Tata. subjects related to the soft skills development in order to develop
personality of large young population.

Key Words: Soft Skills Training, Graduation, Industrial Needs,


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What are Soft Skills? Here we can classify soft skills as following:
l Personal qualities, and
The basic question about soft skills is not easy to answer as their l Interpersonal skills
definitions change according to context. We can see a variety of
definitions of a soft skill. A subject may be considered a soft skill in We are in a constant pursuit of our goals and objectives and when it
one particular area, and may be considered a hard skill in another. comes to their achievements, a set of skills is prerequisite. For that,
Knowledge in project management for instance is nice to have bringing balance between our physical, mental, emotional and
for an electrical engineer, but it is a must for a civil engineer. A spiritual needs, that is, inner harmony, and the other hand, social,
chemist may get benefitted by training in cultural awareness, but material, family and career level objectives, that is, outer balance,
such training is an absolutely necessary for public or human is necessary. In other words, our personality is complete symmetry
resources management in societies of diverse cultures. Many of inner harmony and outer balance. We will discuss next how these
encyclopedias have little to say about soft skills. The online skills are important. But before that, let us take a glance at the
encyclopedia Wikipedia gives a very broad definition of soft current scenario at graduation level in Indian context and at what
skills, backdrop the soft skills are necessary.
Soft skills refer to the cluster of personality traits, social graces,
facility with language, personal habits, friendliness, and
What is the Scenario at Graduation Level?
optimism that mark people to varying degrees. Soft skills Why do graduates need Soft Skills?
complement hard skills, which are the technical requirements of a
job. (Wikipedia, 2007) In an interview given to 'Team Careers 360', Dr. Kalam talks about
the current education system that Indian graduates are unable to get
Whereas according to its definition by Moss and Tilly, employed when they pass out. He says that almost seven million 10
+ 2 students and three million graduates every year become
these subjective requisites as soft skills, which are defined as employment seekers and many of them are deprived of it. The
skills, abilities, and traits that pertain to personality, attitude, and major reason behind this is, they lack in soft skills, particularly
behavior rather than to formal or technical knowledge. business skills. He quotes the example of the Waterloo University
(Moss and Tilly 2001, p. 44) of Canada, wherein engineering graduates, after studying their first
year in classroom, go to the industry for on-the-job-trainings for the
The definitions above focus on and express how the basic skills, next two years. In this method when they come back for the project
traits and abilities help us to make our work or task easy-going, in reports at the final year, they have sound knowledge of soft skills
other words, 'soft'. These skills are complementary to technical accompanying the hard or technical skills. Although Dr. Kalam is
knowledge. In the classical sense and according to the Wikipedia not criticizing the education system in Indian context, he clearly
definition the term soft skills primarily refers to the two mentions the significance of developing Soft skills in the lives of
categories of personal qualities and interpersonal skills including students during and after graduation to enhance their
language skills. employability.

The Human Resources Glossary even limits the definition of soft It is also observed in a survey that the graduates lack in the
skills to interpersonal skills (Tracey, 2004) following skills necessary and they need to develop them during
their graduation. The percentage of skills the employers look for
from the young graduates is as:

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99% Work Ethics technical requirements of a job. As such, soft skills stand with equal
96% Spoken English Language Skills importance beside hard skills, but they should not be misused to
95% Reading & Writing camouflage a person's lack of expertise in particular areas. At this
94% Problem Solving & Critical Thinking backdrop, countries like India have an opportunity to build the
94% Interpersonal Skills nation with the help of skilled manpower in order to meet the
90% Mathematics and Logical Reasoning challenges of globalization.
68% Computer Software
68% Leadership Recently, in training workshop on curriculum revision in
58% Manual Labor Maharashtra, it was discussed and frequently referred to how the
persons from industry all the way complain that not only diploma
(Oregon Employment Department Employer Survey 04/08) holders but the graduates lack in soft skills and there is great need to
pay attention to it. Even the Training and Placement Cells in many
Moreover, in the view of globalization today's graduates are engineering institutions grudge about the inability of the students
required to fulfill the needs of the industry on the one hand and to be to fulfill the requirements of industries in campus drives. Therefore
effective learners on the other hand. The age of globalization has many technical institutions have established Institute Industry
also brought with it something that can be termed as 'Cut-Throat Partnership Cells (IIPCs) to provide a platform for the young
Competition'. Even it is believed by scholars that India has became students to get well familiar well familiar with the work culture in
a trillion dollar economy, that is, there is an immense demand for industry. They organize industrial visits, guest lectures by experts
manpower all over the world due to open market policy adopted by from industry and arrange workshops and seminars for the
the country.4 One straightforward reason behind why soft skills are students.
needed is today's job-market, which in many fields is becoming
ever increasingly competitive. All the above mentioned skills are The educational institutions have started taking responsibility to
required for the students during their education period so as they develop the soft skills and in order to equip the graduate students
can cater to the future needs. with the necessary soft skills the universities in India esp. in
Maharashtra have stared incorporating subjects like 'soft skills' in
Let's consider the situation of campus interviews. Understandably, the curriculum. For example, in the curriculum of engineering a
employers prefer to take in job candidates who will be productive subject, 'Soft Skills' is included at the second year level in
from a very early stage on. If a graduate from university first has to University of Pune, Maharashtra. It is obviously a positive move
be trained on putting more than three sentences together, how to do towards it, but its presence in the curriculum is not sufficient. What
a proper presentation, or how to chat in a pleasant and winning is required over here is ample training and even it is evident from
manner with colleagues and customers, this graduate will not the above cases there is need for training of soft skills apart from
qualify as a quick starter. Also basic knowledge in business formal training or teaching.
management, project management and general economy will
improve the chances of a job candidate considerably. Good hard How to develop Soft Skill among Graduates?
skills alone are not necessarily enough anymore to be a first choice
when it comes to promotion. So, during the last decades in many Here we will go through some of the soft skills and try to
societies the opinion on soft skills has changed. Soft skills are understand how they can be developed better. For example,
playing an important role in shaping personalities, enable social Communication Skills are the most important property of soft
competence, and also complement the hard skills, which are the skills. And indeed, it is the talent of communication skills, which is

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mostly lacking among graduates from colleges and universities. whereas in the science or business arena only structured logical
When asking people what exactly they understand to be thinking should be applied. However, this perception is wrong.
communication skills, one will receive a wide range of answers, Applying creativity results in thinking out of the box, which
because communication skills include a lot of different aspects. means that given conventional rules and restrictions are left aside in
Basic Language skills are at the base of Communication skills as order to find innovative approaches to problem solving. If Albert
most of our communication takes place with the help of language Einstein had not bypassed the guidelines of Newton's old
either at spoken or written level. Minimum requirements for a established physics, and even discarded a bit of common sense, he
graduate of a tertiary institution should be ample proficiency in probably would not have arrived at his revolutionary new view on
spoken and written language, a certain amount of self-esteem that physics. Brainstorming and mind mapping are well known
will be reflected in conversation skills and body language, applications of creativity in the business world.
adequate discussion skills, and of major importance, good
presentation skills in order to be able to market oneself and one's The question about inculcating the necessary soft skills among the
ideas. However, communication skills are not only necessary for a young graduates is answered by a corporate trainer and
person's professional career, but are even more contributing to instructional designer Rukmini Iyer in a simple way:
one's so-called social competence, a fact which applies to many
other soft skills, too. Good social skills are also reflected at the There is a lot of argument in industry as to whether it is possible to
working place and hence recursively further the career. enhance soft skills in a few hours of training, especially when one
considers the fact that a person has lived with those traits all his
However, if we continue drilling down deeper into Communication life. To this, the answer is harsh but real -- a professional who wants
skills the issue will become even more complex. In the English to do well in his / her career does not really have a choice. (Iyer,
speaking world 2005)

Language proficiency is the ability to speak, read, and write As an initiative, the educational institutions and universities have
Standard English in a businesslike way. One may have the 'hard' included subjects like soft skills in their curriculum to improve soft
skill of knowing what usage is correct and what is incorrect, but skills. But, it is not always guaranteed that a certain formal course
lack the 'soft' skills of knowing when to use only standard forms and actually successfully enhance a person's soft skills.
in what tone to use them. (Waggoner, 2002)
As a German proverb states: Self-recognition is the first step
In this definition our basic soft skill Communication Skills itself towards improvement.
is divided into a soft and a hard part. Furthermore, adequate
communication skills are a prerequisite for a range of other soft As soon as a deficit has been identified, one can start working on its
skills like moderating discussions or conflict management. elimination. For example many people are not able to present their
Another pair of soft skills frequently lacking in graduates is critical ideas in appropriate language, esp. people working in a scientific or
thinking. It along with communication skills goes hand in hand technical environment. However, small talk is an important part of
with problem solving abilities. In this way, the soft skills are useful communication skills necessary to display social competence.
in a person's professional and private life. Once having acknowledged this truth, a person can undergo a
simple self-training or guided training to improve the lacking
One more soft skill that should be highlighted here is creativity. skills. There are for instance many books available on the issue of
This skill is often misinterpreted as being only useful for artists, Small Talk. Forthwith, the person can make it a habit at parties or

193 194
social gatherings to initiate a conversation with at least three Hopefully, at most education institutions at all levels teaching
strangers. While the first times might require quite an effort, after a methodology has been changed or will be changed towards more
few months the frequent chatting with strangers will become a student centered learning. Such a shift goes hand in hand with
second nature. With such and similar easy exercises even a very embedding soft skills into the teaching of hard skills. In other
introverted person can appear reasonably sociable. In summary it words: students participating in a lecture with the aim of learning a
means that negatively perceived personal traits could be changed or hard skill will inevitably and unconsciously practice a range of soft
successfully covered by undergoing self-imposed training. Only skills. This comes very close to an ideal way of lecturing.
prerequisite is that one acknowledges one's weakness and takes the
decision to change it. Training will most likely be unsuccessful if However, very often the curricula are already overloaded with hard
one is not fully convinced that it will lead to any improvement or skills courses, making it almost impossible to add or substitute
that the improvement will be beneficial. In other words, formal courses. Furthermore, other lecturers might be ignorant of the
training or classroom teaching will not achieve the desired result. importance of soft skills and hence, do not support dedicated
The social and conducive atmosphere on the contrary made courses in this regard. A very elegant way of offering soft skills
available for them by the educational institutions would be more training to students is to embed it into the teaching of hard skills.
effective for the expected way to inculcate soft skills among the This way, no changes to a programme's curriculum are necessary;
graduates. instead the change will be reflected in the lecturers' teaching
methodology. An increase in group discussions, letting students do
A first step in improving soft skills of students is to raise their presentations, and using special methodologies like Neuro-
awareness about the importance of soft skills and the consequences Linguistic Programming (NPL) can be applied throughout a
of shortcomings in this regard. Students should be encouraged to course. This approach to practicing soft skills requires some re-
enhance their soft skills by applying the methods we mentioned thinking and re-planning of existing hard skill courses. An example
before, e.g. reading dedicated books, attending courses, and joining would be a mathematics teacher who plans a lecture by firstly
clubs or societies to broaden their horizon, like debating societies determining what soft skills s/he wishes to enhance on that day, and
or scientific societies who offer presentations and discussions. then secondly considers how the required mathematics content can
be arranged to support this goal. Correctly applied, such an
On lower levels a course that requires students to do a bit of approach to teaching will automatically increase the attractiveness
research and to present their results to the class afterwards has been and effectiveness of a course regarding both, hard skills and soft
proven as being quite effective. On graduate level a course on skills.
management skills, including e.g. some communication skills
together with the management of time, conflict, cultural issues, and Finally, the most important method always has been practiced is
of major importance, oneself, has in practice been well received by upliftment through spirituality. Spirituality refers to inner
students. The better way of acquiring soft skills is self-training. As transformation of a practitioner in order to self-actualization
changing of personal traits often requires long-term practice and through regular practice. It enhances among the graduates the soft
therefore self-training might be more useful regarding the skills like concentration, clarity of thoughts, emotional
improvement of the soft skills. Additionally, during the last decade intelligence, positive thinking, self-discipline, motivation and
another method of self training has become increasingly popular. A decision-making, confidence, problem solving, etc. This approach
very pleasant way of self-training one's soft skills is frequent could be a very useful and proved alternative as spirit refers to 'self'
socializing with friends, colleagues and other members of society. in the real sense.

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Conclusion Notes:
Taking into consideration the need and importance of soft skills, it 1. Yogesh Kshirsagar, Lecturer in English, Communication
is prerequisite for technical educational institutions and industries Skills, and Development of Life Skills, has experience of
to come forward for providing opportunities of training in soft seven years in the field of teaching. He is also associated
skills to the young graduates. These trainings can be organized in with and undergone through many soft skills development
association with academic or technical education practices. It can programs. He also has conducted soft skills training
begin with need analyses of soft skills at various levels, and further programs for students and faculty members at different
can be fulfilled by rectifying deficiencies during students' School educational and industrial institutions.
and University time. It has major impact on the development of 2. Navnath Randhave, Lecturer in English, Communication
their students' soft skills. Even raising awareness regarding the Skills, and Development of Life Skills at K. K. Wagh
importance of soft skills and encouraging students to improve their Polytechnic, Nashik (Maharashtra) since last 06 years. He
skills, lecturers should actively practice soft skills with their has attended training programs on soft skills and also a
students. Soft skills fulfill an important role in shaping an trainer in it.
individual's personality by complementing his/her hard skills. 3. Interview of Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam in a textbook of English
However, excellence through spirituality is very effective and (at diploma in engineering, MSBTE page no.30)
widely accepted way to build competency in soft skills. Spirituality 4. Dr. Vijay Bhatkar discussed the issues related Challenges
is more than an intellectual exercise or mental imposition. It is before Today's Engineers, in his speech at K. K. Wagh
something which has to be practiced, evolved and actualized Education Society, Nashik (Maharashtra) on 08 September
through inner transformation through right spiritual practice to 2010.
enlighten the life of a person with virtues, creativity and aesthetics.
Works Cited
Acknowledgement Dr. Vijay Bhatkar, Challenges before Engineers, a speech at K. K.
Wagh Education Society, Nashik, 08 September 2010.
The authors would like acknowledge the support of K. K. Wagh
Education Society, Nashik and valuable guidance of Prof. P. T. Tracey, W.R. The Human Resources Glossary, USA: CRC Press,
Kadave, Principal, K. K. Wagh Polytechnic, Nashik. We are 2004.
grateful to persons, agencies and organizations for their direct or
indirect contribution in the respective subject areas without which McShane, S. L. & Von Glinow, M. A., Organizational Behaviour,
this paper would not have been possible. We express our sincere New Delhi, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2005.
thanks to Faculty of English, MGTI, and ELT@I, Hyderabad for
giving us an opportunity to present our views through this paper.
Internet Resources
We also propose vote of thanks to all the members involved in Wikipedia:
organizing this event. And at last, we admire the cooperation of Dr. Kalam's Interview, interview-
Head of Department, Faculty members and staff of our institute. dr-kalam
British Association of Graduate Recruiters (AGR):
Iyer, Rukmini:
Waggoner, Jaqueline:

197 198
that embody ecofeminism. Initially ecofeminism arose as a protest
Promise of Ecofeminism- An Ecofeminist Reading of against nuclear activities that posed a threat to human existence.
Gita Mehta's A River Sutra. Noel Sturgeon, an ecofeminist author who attended the Nevada
nuclear protest in 1970, wrote in this political context, 'the
environment' served feminists as a medium for the connection of
Message of passing Time, critiques of militarism, capitalism and neocolonialism. As the
Sanctuary and Salvation, movement grew it started incorporating other voices which
You dissolve the fear of time included equity of more pressing concern to the impoverished and
O Holy Narmada . socially marginalised; to landscapes of urbanization, racism,
poverty and toxification.
A River Sutra.
Ecofeminism have always raised their voices against man's The fundamental concepts that emerged were connected to nature
ruthless destruction of nature in the name of development, and, the woman relationship, Geopiety, green paradise lost, reweaving the
parallel victimization of women to suit the interest of man. As a world and healing the wounds. All these concepts are explained
movement ecofeminism started in 1970s and acquired significance succinctly by Irene Diamond and Gloria Femen in their work
in 1980s and 1990s. The focus of ecofeminism has been the Reweaving the world. The first is the concept of Geo-piety which
domination of women and the destruction of the nature. means that the earth is sacred. It relates with nature worship and is
often reflected in novels and several writings, specially in
In India, Vandana Shiva has highlighted the need to protect earth ecofeminist 'pagan activist' Starhawk. Such literature often
and nature so that environment can be saved. Apart from Chipko presents a spiritual view of nature. Here, the goal of ecofeminism is
Movement in U.P., there has been an active concern to save the holy to restore and preserve earth's wholeness.
river Narmada. Megha Patkar has been a dynamic environmental Ye-fu Tuan had expressed that man was shaped out of this land by
activist with her 'Narmada Bachao Andolan'. Among the supporters the hands of God. 'Geo-piety' cover a broad range of emotional
of the Narmada Bachao, the most prominent voice is of famous bonds between man and his terrestrial home He feels that since
writer Arundhati Rao. She has not only expressed her views on nature nourishes man so much it becomes necessary for man to give
saving the river, but has also expressed active concern about the reverence to nature and protect the beautiful nature from those who
lives of people who dwell near the river bank. Thus, she is a true intend to harm it.
ecofeminist who has regard for the principle of life- be it human, be
it nature. Indian religion also venerates the feminine aspect of nature. Earth
The essence of Narmada and her deep impact on the lives of Indian goddess is known as Prithvi and jaggaddharti. The Vedas and
masses is beautifully captured by Gita Mehta in her, A River Sutra. Puranas have described many natural resources like mountains,
The novel interestingly reflects ecofeminist concerns and weaves a rivers, trees, herbs, forests in feminine terms and even mythical
pattern to indicate what the promise of ecofeminism can be. The stories have been created around them. For instance the Rigveda
most important feature of ecofeminism Geopiety seems to form presents the crimson streak of day break as Usha, the Mistress of
the spinal column in this novel which presents the multifaceted dawn, whose brilliant effulgence spreads out piercing the farmless
Narmada. black abyss.(Madhu Khanna, 127) Food is personified as
Annapurna, Sakhambari. The herb Tulsi also has a myth woven
Before proceeding on an ecofeminist reading of Gita Mehta's A around it. Similar are the tales of river Ganga, Yamuna and
River Sutra, it becomes essential to understand the characteristics Saraswati who have been worshipped down the ages in India. So

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simple is the logic in these religious beliefs what is regarded as is advocated by Vandana Shiva. The feminine principle is based on
divine will automatically be preserved. inclusiveness and its recovery in men, women and nature is the
recovery of creative forms of being and perceiving (Shiva,
This profound concept of Geo-piety has led to the concept of earth Staying Alive, 53).
as 'Green paradise' which is so rich in its mineral wealth that it is
indeed a gift of God to mankind. However, man in his lust for more Once it becomes possible reweave the fabric of life all wounds can
has forgotten to look after this treasure. The consequence of man's be healed. Not only will women gain her status, voice, freedom, but
ambition, greed, desire to control nature and women has led to an nature also will thrive and again the world will look green and
acute crisis, that is, the loss of this Green paradise. Ursula K. Guin vibrant. This is the promise of ecofeminism a world that is full of
in A Very Warm Mountain explains how the earth is almost on the happiness in human relationships and a world that is free of
verge of an end due to what the human have gone on doing to the pollution and environment degradation.
earth destroying vegetation, experimenting on every living and
non-living things and taking away all her mineral wealth. It has led Gita Mehta's A River Sutra is a refreshing novel because it presents
to volcanic eruptions, global warming and acid rain. The face of the splendor of nature and tries to relate man to the song of nature.
green earth is entirely disfigured. The most positive feature of ecofeminism, that is, Geo-piety forms
the foundation of this novel. All the characters in the novel are
Elizabeth Dodson in Green Paradise Lost (1989) unearths the flaws associated with the Holy River Narmada and she is the source of
in the initial chapters of genesis: with its command to 'subdue the comfort for them. Many come to her banks to seek solution for their
earth' at the bottom is posited by genesis. problems and return back with satisfaction.

Thus, patriarchy steps in and with it comes the shift in soil linked The narrator is a bureaucrat who now works as a manager of a guest
communities where earlier the country as Motherland is now House situated amidst hills and forests overlooking the river
masculine nation state. Ecofeminists indicate how oppression of Narmada. The tourists who visit the area share their lives with him
women is linked to subjugation of land and often terms like 'rape and turn to River Narmada for solace and directions in their lives.
the land', 'tame nature' are used in common parlance. All this This is the 'sutra' or the thread that connects the river to each
clearly shows how the balance of life is disturbed and the Green character.
Paradise is degenerating.
The reverence towards nature, specially towards the Holy River
To regain the Green Paradise and maintain the ecological balance Narmada clearly reveals Geo-piety. The narrator shares what he has
the Ecofeminists state that instead of conquering nature, man must heard about the sacred river:
start to co-operate with nature. There is a dire need to reweave all
the basic requirements that will regenerate life and promote the The river is among our holiest pilgrimage sites,
welfare of the earth. Even the Man-woman relationship will Worshipped as the daughter of the god Shiva. (A River Sutra)
demand a new insight where men learn to respect women. In
Reweaving the world; the Emergence of Ecofeminism (1990) Irene As the narrator describes the area where he lives, he sketches the
Diamond and Gloria Feman Orenstein insist on correcting the beautiful landscape and also covers the beliefs and lifestyles of the
culture-nature dichotomy. An ethic of care, compassion and different communities that surround the spot. An interesting tale is
nurturing of life is needed to lead to healthy interactions between about the tribals of the Vano village who were known for their
man and women and also between man and nature. Similar thought strength as they could prevent Aryans from invading their areas for

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a long time. The tale goes thus: However, this state came to an abrupt end when he was called back
to Calcutta by the company. Rima was heartbroken. But, she
Indeed the Vano village deity is a stone image of a expected him to return. Nitin was shocked when he learnt that Rima
half-woman with the full breasts of a fertility was the wife of a coolie. Suddenly he felt that she was ugly and felt
symbol but the torso of a coiled snake because the ashamed of his behavior. Later when he was sent back to the tea
tribals believe they once ruled a great snake garden to organize things he dreaded seeing Rima. Though she
kingdom until they were defeated by the gods of didn't come to him yet every night he felt she is outside, singing
the Aryans. Saved from annihilation only by a songs of love. All this filled him with guilt. Finally on the night of
divine personification of the Narmada River, the the eclipse she calls him outside by his name. When he faced her,
grateful tribals conferred on the river the gift of she performed a magic by breaking a coconut. After that Nitin fell
annulling the effects of snakebite, and I have often unconscious. When he regained consciousness he repeated Rima's
heard pilgrims who have never met a tribal name several times and sang the tribal song sung at marriage.
reciting the invocation
The local priest tried some tricks to treat Nitin and asked him to
Salutation in the morning and at night to note everything he remembered in a diary. The priest told Nitin
Thee, o Narmada! 'Someone has taken possession of you. The magic you are under is
Defend me from the serpent's poison. (p6) stronger than my powers. Your memory will be affected. You
will believe yourself to be someone else.' Thus we see that the
The belief that their goddess curse people who were possessed is Green Paradise of love, life and health for Nitin Bose are lost as he
also widely prevalent among the tribals of Vano. had exploited the woman. He didn't show regard for the women and
even nature. He tried to settle things by sending money for Rima,
As the novel progresses, the reality of this belief is tested The reducing the nature of their relationship to consumer-commodity.
Executive's story in the novel depicts apathy how a young Hence, nature and women conspired to take away his sanity.
executive in Assam's tea-estates, one Mr. Nitin Bose, is afflicted
with a madness which is incurable. The state of Nitin is such that he Yet, a chance is given to Nitin to heal the wounds and reweave his
has forgotten his own name and presents himself as 'Rima Bose' His life. The priest advises, 'If your sahib wants to recover his mind he
uncle send him to the narrator for treatment as per belief that only must worship the goddess at any shrine that overlooks the Narmada
river Narmada has been given the power to cure him. The River. Only that river has been given the power to cure him. (p137)
investigation of his diary by the narrator unfolds the reasons behind
his insanity Thus, Nitin reaches the guest house that faces the Narmada. There
he is taken to the shrine of the goddess by the tribals. Mr. Chagala
Nitin Bose was posted to the tea-estate in Assam. Initially he led a tells the narrator, The tribals will beg the goddess to forgive Mr.
life that was aloof from drinks and women and immersed himself in Bose for denying the power of desire. (p141) He explains further,
reading books of his grandfather. Later he related for a full year 'This is just the principle of life. She is every illusion that is
with Rima, a labourer on the tea-estate. She taught him the secrets inspiring love. That is why she greater than all gods combined. Call
of love ad made him appreciate the 'secret rhythms of nature,' until her what you will, but she is what a mother is feeling for a child. A
he understand why his 'grandfather's books called these hills man for woman. A starving man for food. Human beings for God
Kamrupa, the kingdom of the God of Love., (p129) .And Mr. Bose did not show her respect so he is being punished.
(p142) To make amends for his mistakes Nitin Bose is asked to

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make a mud image of the goddess. He joins the procession and constantly warring on the banks of the Narmada. I,
carries the idol to the banks of river Narmada and chants the lines, mean even the war between the Aryans and the
Salutations in the morning and at night to thee, O Narmada. pre-Aryans is still unresolved here. (P152-153)
Defend me from the serpent's poison.' As the idol is immersed in the
holy waters of Narmada, it begins to disintegrate. Nitin stays in the All the mythology and astrology about Narmada points about geo-
bungalow for three weeks and goes to the river daily, 'standing piety.
waist deep in the water' (p147) and prays to Narmada. Finally, it is
geo-piety that restores his mental health and he returns back to life. The 'Courtesan's Story' throws light n how nature and women are
Thus, reweaving of the world is possible and the wounds are healed ill-treated resulting in the loss of the Green Paradise, Here, an old
when the principle of geo-piety is followed. The narrator discusses lady who was formerly a courtesan comes to the narrator in search
the case of Nitin with a medical practitioner Dr. Mitra. The doctor of her daughter who too had been a courtesan and had been
admits that such cases are possible. He comments: abducted by the dacoit Rahul Singh and taken to the jungles. As she
narrates her story one discovers the change in public opinion
A mere glimpse of Narmada's waters is supposed towards the courtesans and also the change in situations. She says:
to cleanse a human being of generations of sinful
births. (p151) Oh friends, how shabby has changed in my
Being a scholar on Narmada, he gave more information about Where there used to be gardens now we have
Narmada to the narrator. He said: factories. Our gracious old buildings have been
torn down to be replaced by concrete boxes named
You know, the great Alexandrine geographer after politicians. (p167)
Ptolemy wrote about Narmada's holiness and the
religious suicides at Amarkantak- people fasting Adding further she comments:
to death or immolating themselves on the
Narmada's banks, or drowning in her waters in The city is owned by men who believe every
order to gain release from the cycle of birth and human being has a price, and a full purse is power.
rebirth. (p152) Trained as scholars, artists, musicians, dancers,
we are only women for them. (p167)
Dr. Mitra also spoke about astrological beliefs about River which
were as follows: All this account reveals how the Green Paradise is lost. Later the
old woman's daughter arrives and tells the narrator how the dacoit
On top of all that mythology, there's the river's Rahul Singh was basically a good man, how life made him a dacoit,
astrology. Her holiness is believed to dispel the yet he was kind to the poor. . He had treated her well and married
malevolent effects of Saturn so all manner of her. But he died in a police encounter and she had no desire to live
epileptics, depressives and other unfortunates rush without him. As a courtesan and a dacoit's wife she would be put in
to her banks. And yet, the Narmada is also a jail by the police for the rest of her life. Hence she decides to end her
magnet to scholars. Towns on the banks of the river life by drowning in the Narmada. She convinces her mother about
are now renowned for the learning of their it.
Brahmins. It is as if reason and instinct are

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The narrator is told about this incident by Mr. Chagla thus- singing in temples during festivals. People started calling her
'Singer Saint' and the Naga Baba allowed her the freedom to live
Only that she was happy her daughter had died in alone because he too needed to work for his enlightenment. Uma
the Narmada because she would be purified of all becomes a famous river minstrel. A hint is dropped as the Naga
her sins. (p190) Baba comments about her future-
To find a husband, like the Narmada found her Lord of Rivers .
Here the belief that even suicide in Narmada isn't considered a (p280)
crime; rather a libration from the cycle of birth is proved right.
However, one wonders if this is indeed the right path. The transformation of 'Chand' to 'Uma' is indeed 'Regaining the
Paradise.' Geo-piety is clearly established when the narrator co-
The story of Naga Baba and Uma is the culmination in the promise relates 'Uma's song of Narmada with her own personality. Let us
of Ecofeminisism. The girl who was given the name 'Uma' by Naga read the lines-
Baba was barely seven or eight years old when he saw her at a
brothel. She was being exploited and forced into prostitution at It is written in the scriptures
such a tender age. The sight made him take a big decision, that is, to That you were present at the birth of time
rescue the child from such a miserable plight. He demanded from When Shiva as a golden peacock
brothel keeper to give the child to him as alms on 'Shivaratri'. The Roamed the ocean of the Void.
woman agreed out of respect and also fears to hand the child to him
for ever. Yet she remarked You reminded the Destroyer
Creation awaited His command
And do not curse me later when you find what
trouble she brings. She doesn't even have a name. You were present at the Creation
Her own father calls her misfortune. (p246) By Shiva's command you alone will remain
At the destruction.
The fact that her own father sold her to the brothel keeper indicates
the victimization of women. Not only man ruining 'Green Paradise' She turned to face me and she no longer seemed young. Perhaps it
but even women are accomplices in the act. The girl has no name. was unlit bungalow rising like the shadow of a deserted temple
The customers call her 'Chand'. behind her that made her now seem ageless. (p277)

However, an effort is made by Naga Baba to restore the dignity of The ageless River Narmada and her flowing waters of life are
women. He tells her,'you will never have to fear such men again.' worshipped in the river minstrel's song. Uma's devotion to
(p250) He take s her in the forest and makes her grow amidst Narmada makes her appear 'ageless' to the narrator. This unique
nature. She learns chanting and meditation under the guidance of blending of nature and women is certainly the promise of
Naga Baba. They live near the river Narmada and told her,' Tonight Ecofeminism.
you become a daughter of the Narmada.' (p254)
Gita Mehta has used her pen deftly to bring her readers close to
Uma stayed near the banks of River Narmada with the Naga Baba view nature worship which is and inseparable part of Indian life.
for three years. She observed him singing songs in praise of The stories that depict women sensitize the readers to wards their
Narmada. She learnt the songs and when she grew older she started sufferings and degradation. But, there is always hope and

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regeneration when women and nature work to restore happiness to Changing Identities of Women A Refection of Culture
mankind. Ecofeminism finds firm footing in Gita Mehta's A River Dr. Neelam Tikkha
Sutra as each tale mesmerizes us with its message of Geopiety.
Works cited
Diamond, Irene and Orenstein, Gloria Feman. (1990) ed.
Reweaving the World : The Emergence of Eco-Feminism. Women identity has always been a representation of culture. Any
SanFransisco: Sierra Club Books. change in the identity of women reflects the cultural change. This
is true in any country round the globe and is timeless and yet
Gray,Elizabeth Dodson.(1979). Green Paradise Lost. Wellesley temporal. The recent Nirbhaya rape case of 16th December in
MA: Roundtable Press. Delhi has brought forth an identity of a woman strong enough to
challenge the male dominance. This is reflective of a cultural
Khanna, Madhu (1995) 'Nature as Feminine: Ancient Visions of change which was voiced by a number of women on street in their
Geo-Piety and Goddess Ecology,' Man in Nature .ed. Baidyanath slogans My body my right. The wearing of religious symbol like
Saraswati New Delhi : D.K.Print. hijab by Muslim women and terrorizing of the two girls who were
chatting on mobile in Kashmir are yet another example of the
Le Guin, Ursula (1989) 'Women and Wilderness,' Healing the reflection of culture. In this paper an attempt is being made to study
wounds: The promise of Eco-Feminism. Ed. Judith Plant. the various changes in the society being reflected through the
Philadelphia: New Society Publishers. identity of women.

Mehta, Gita. (1993). A River Sutra, New Delhi: Penguin books The reading of Kalidas's classic drama Abhijanana Shakuntalam
India (P) Ltd. All textual citations are from this source. (Kalidas ed.Narayana Rama Acharya) and the Shakuntala of The
Mahabharata are projected with striking difference. Shakuntala is
Shiva, Vandana.(1988) Staying Alive : Women, Ecology and the mother of the first king called Bharata of Bharata the Sanskrit
development in India. London; Zed Press. name for the Indian sub- continent. She is half -nymph and half-
Brahmin. She was left when a small child by her parents at
Sturgeon, Noel.(1997) Ecofeminist Natures: Race, Gender, hermitage of Rishi Kanva where she was brought up by the Rishi
Feminist Theory and political Action. New York: Routledge. Kanyas. One day when Rishi Kanva is out on a pilgrimage. King
Dushyanta, the ruler of Hastinapur, was on his hunting expedition
Tuan, Yi-fu.(1976) Geo-piety: A Theme in Man's Attachment to and he came across Shakuntala. He was enchanted and spellbound
Nature and to Place. by her beauty so much that he proposes her for Gandharva Vivah. A
marriage, where in the mother Earth is the witness to a mutually
In Geographies of the Mind. ed. David Lowenthal and Martyn consensual marriage.
Bowden. New York: Oxford University Press.
Shakuntala was first written by Rishi Vyasa in Mahabharata and

Dr. Nidhi Tiwari later adapted by Kalidas in his drama Abhijanana Shakuntalam.
Associate Professor of English The great poet Kalidas has projected her to be meek and a loving
RIE, (NCERT), Shyamla Hills Bhopal (M.P.) woman. She is a shy daughter, a beloved and a gentle mother. When

209 210
she meets Dushyanta, the king of she does not look at him directly Kim nu khalviman preksya tapovanavirodhina vikarasya
but through furtive glances. She is incapable of independence and gamaniyasmi samvrttaiv which when translated into English reads:
is always accompanied by her two female friends Primvada and Why do I get emotions that forest forbids?
When the black- eyed damsel saw the king Dushyanta, she
She is described as: instantly bade him welcome and worshipped him in due form.
After wooing king Dushyanta to marry in Gandharva style ; she
adhrah kislayragah komalavilapanukainau bahu, even goes to the extent of making profitable pre nuptial
Kusumamiva lobhaniyam agreement .In Mahabharat Shakuntala is strong woman seeking her
Yauvanamangesu samnaddham son's political power. At length she says that she does not desire any
material wealth for herself but for her son born from him she
Her lips are fresh red buds, her arms are tendrils. Impatient youth is desires the crown. She thus states:
poised to blossom in her limbs. Shakuntala has been introduced
through comparison with nature which symbolizes her purity. Satyam me pratijanihi yatlwan vaksyamy aham rahah mam jayate
Fresh buds are a metaphor for virginity and the tendril describe her yah putrah sa bhavet tvad anantram yuvrajo maharaja satyam etad
longing for support and emotional dependency. Impatient youth is bravihi me yadi etad evam dusyanta astu me sangamas tvaya.
poised to blossom in her limbs are indicative of her virginity and
achieving fulfillment with the company of a man in her life. She is admired by her wit rather than by her delicate beautiful sexy
body as is the case with Kalidas's Shakuntalam.
This is a typical Indian psyche of the time when Kalidas was
writing where women were considered second fiddle to man and One Shakuntala can only have two identities because Kalidas was
would be considered complete only with the presence of a man in writing at a time when women were considered as beautiful artifact
life. In striking contrast, in The Mahabharat written by Vyas, to decorate the life of a man.
Dushyanta never speaks of Shakuntala's purity or project her as
weak and dependent on any man for identity . He calls her If we go back to look at other female characters during the time of
rambharu (you of tapering thighs).ii The phrase tapering thighs The Mahabharata we find the women capable enough to challenge
sexualizes Shakuntala. Shakuntala accepts such praises from the patriarchy. For example, Satyawati was an example of a strong
Dushyanta boldly without any inhibition is highly symbolic of her headed, assertive figure, in Mahabharat, who saved Bharata
audacity. dynasty. Satyawati was Devavrata Bhishma's step mother.
Bhishma was Shantanu's eldest son. Bhishma would have become
The Mahabharat written by Vyas projects her as confident and bold the king, had not for his father, who had fallen in love with
woman character. When she meets Dushyanta for the first time she Satyavati, the daughter of the chief of a tribal fisherman. Satyavati
herself initiates and welcomes him. The text states : had put a condition to their marriage that unless her children are
promised the throne, she would not marry. Bhishma to fulfill his
sa tam drstavawa rajanam dushyantam asitekasan svagatam ta iti father's desire vouched to remain celibate all his life. She had two
ksipram uvanca pratipujyl caiii sons from Shantanu. Bhishma loved them intensely but they died
young. Satyavati requests Bhishma to impregnate her widowed
In complete contrast, Shakuntala hides her feeling of love for King daughters in law by the law of levirate to produce an heir.But,
Dushyanta, at first sight and ponders : Bhishma refuses to go back from his vow of celibacy. She

211 212
summons her illegitimate son, Vyasa, to impregnate her daughters inevitable. The prophecy that Draupadi would bring the doom of
in law to get heirs to save Bharata dynasty. Kshatriya's was bound to come true is evident from the following
snippets of moment of molestation of Draupadi:
Another, example of a powerful character in Mahabharat was
Kunti. Kunti when became aware of her husband's inability to have Duryodhan is warned and dissuaded from claiming Draupadi as his
sex, found a solution to continue the family line. She invoked the prize, won by deceit in the game of dice, by Vidur his half brother
gods and had five godly Pandava children from four different Gods. who has been born from low caste maid.
Despite their vague parentage they are called Pandavas' or the sons
of Pandu's. They are also referred more correctly in the epic as He says:
Kaunteyas, the Sons of Kunti. Another, interesting thing which
gets unfolded is that though Kunti had all the children through You don't know it, fool, you are tied in a noose!
different Gods yet her illegitimate son Karna does not get affection You are a deer provoking a tiger's wrath
and love and on the contrary she coerces him to promise that her She is not a slave yet. Bharata! I think she was
five Pandava children survive in the battle. Why does not she ask staked
for the same promise to Arjun and her other children? The answer is When the king was no longer his own master.
evident that Pandavas were her legal children where as Karan was
her illegitimate child. The attitude of mother exhibited here is very But, Duryodhan pays no heed he orders the royal messenger to
biased and shows the criticism and ostracism a woman with bring Draupadi in the assembly. The messenger speeds off and
illegitimate child would get if the secret gets disclosed. enters like 'a dog in a lion's den, crawling up to the queen of the
Pandavas'. He softly speaks:
On the same lines, the marriage system favored a man having many
wives but polyandry was quite uncommon. There was hardly any Intoxicated on dice, Yudhishtra has lost you, O
acceptance of polyandry as highlighted by remarks of Karna Draupadi
,Dushasan and Duryodhan since they called Draupadi a harlot, a You must come now to Dhritrashtra's house
slut since she had five husbands. Polyandry is a custom in some
communities so that the land holding does not get divided. Kunti Listening to these words Draupadi goes mad with anger:
must have also thought the same that Pandavas are quite weak in
comparison to Kauravas so if they also get divided than they would What son of a king would wager his wife?
become more vulnerable. Hence, she asks her rest of the four sons The king is befooled and crazed by the game?
to get married to Draupadi and retain whatever strength they have
to sustain in front of Kauravas. It has been referred in the epic that She tells the messenger to go back to the assembly and ask her
Pandavas were forewarned about Draupadi being born through a husband :
powerful sacrifice in order to wipe out their Kuru race, but they
went ahead and marry her anyway. The Kauravas had become Whom did you lose first, yourself or me?
perpetrators of immorality and their decadence is seen in the
incidence when Dushasan drags Draupadi when she is The messenger returns and puts the question, Yudhishter does not
menstruating and disrobes her in front of the assembly. It can be stir, as though he is a stone statue. Since he doesn't reply Duryodhan
perceived clearly that the degradation of Kauravas' morality has says ' Let Draupadi come here and ask the question herself. All the
reached its nadir and the destruction of entire Kuru race is people want to hear what she has to say.' The messenger returns to

213 214
Draupadi and says: As much as did her sidelong glance.

The kings in the hall are summoning you it seems Despite Draupadi being dragged while she is menstruating does not
the fall of the Kurus has come ! Princess , when you lose courage to protect her dignity and raise a question on Dharma
are led into that hall , the king will be too weak to and lawfulness of the wager by Yudhishter since Dharm is subtle as
protect our fortunes? Bhishma puts it:

Meanwhile, Duryodhan gets impatient, and orders his brother to As dharma is subtle, my dear, I fail
bring Draupadi to the court. To resolve your question in the proper way.

And quickly angry Dushasana Karna puts forth his argument that no one objected when
Came rushing to her with a thunderous roar; Yudhishter made the bet , and everyone saw him lose the bet.
By the long teressed black and flowing hair Moreover, while staking Draupadi's name was mentioned and none
Dushasana grabbed the wife of a king . of the Pandavas objected to it so Draupadi was won fairly.
And as she was dragged she bent her body Besides a virtuous woman has only one husband and Draupadi
And whispered softly,'It is now my month! has five Pandava brothers making her a slut who ought to be
This is my sole garment, man of slow wit, stripped in public.xvii Karna 's argument smells of avenging his
You cannot take me to the hall you churl! insult by Draupadi who had refused to marry him since he was a
charioteer's son: Draupadi says: naham varyami sutam I do not
But, Dushasana continues to drag her by the hair. She appeals to his choose a Charioteer The brave little Draupadi snubs openly
sense of Dharma not to debase her but Dushasana answers her: the semi divine bastard, the unwanted suitor'.xix

Come, come you are wonenjoy the Kurus Draupadi does not give up. She turns her legal challenge into a
With slaves one delights as one wishes. moral one. Being aware of the fact that dharma can mean both what
is lawful and what is right, the real question she leads to is : Is it
Draupadi warns him that he has lost his mind. right or fair that that a woman , let alone a queen become a slave
because her husband staked her in a gambling game? She assumes
Assembly is shocked at the sight of Draupadi being dragged thus. that law is reflective of the desires of the powerful in the society and
She contemptuously looks at her husbands and questions drifts away from what is right thing to do. That is to be concerned
Yudhishter: with the well being of the low castes, poor , slave and women- and
historically it is essential for the deprived and vulnerable one to
'Whom did you lose first, yourself or me?' fight for the change. This is the extension of her second question,
'What is the dharma of the king ?
Her question points to a confusing, eventually insoluble
crystallization of conflict expressed along opposing lines of The massive destruction of Kshatriya race takes place because of
explanation since prashna can also mean a riddle in Sanskrit.xv the humiliation of Draupadi. If the five brothers had not been
married to Draupadi, who knows Mahabharat would have taken a
Not the kingdom lost, nor the riches looted different recourse. Like Karan there would be possibility of
Not the precious jewels plundered did hurt differences amongst the five Pandavas and some might also

215 216
support the Kauravas for some bounties. Kunti must have thought presents a challenge before man in a man's world. The story of Red
of strengthening the ties between brothers by way of getting them Riding Hood has been given a twist in this parable by Thurber:
all married to one woman. There is another possibility that in those
days male female ratio must have been a problem and getting When the little girl opened the door of her
suitable brides for the rest of the four Pandavas' must have been a grandmother's house she saw that there was
problem so immediately Kunti came out with this solution. somebody in bed with a nightcap and nightgown
Moreover, while battle of Mahabharat was going on she on. She had approached no nearer than twenty-
approaches Karan, If you and Arjun are united nothing would be five feet from the bed when she saw that it was not
impossible in this world.asadhyamkim nu loke syad yuvayoh her grandmother but the wolf, for even in a
sahitatmanoh. Kaurva's would be defeated and Karan would be nightcap a wolf does not look any more like your
crowned the king instead of Yudhishter since he is the rightful grandmother than the Metro-Goldwyn lion looks
claimant to the throne. Kunti is not only assertive but strong like Calvin Coolidge. So the little girl took an
headed and witty. She does not disclose to Yudhishter that Karan is automatic out of her basket and shot the wolf dead.
his illegitimate brother since she knew very well Yudhishter might
become weak and surrender which would mean the Kuru's victory (Moral: It is not so easy to fool little girls
would be ensured. Draupadi is also another strong woman like nowadays as it used to be.)
Kunti who performs a major role in the war of Mahabharat. She
raises a subtle question on dharma and saved the Pandavas from Thurber had the genius and wit to draw weird drawings where
slavery and the kingdom that they had lost. Secondly, she goads women have their own exposed nerve endings radiating from their
Yudhishter to fight for the kingdom during thirteen years of their heads. They were neither prosaic hair nor celestial haloes, but
exile. Another brilliant example in the literary world is that of rather their own exposed nerve endings, as though they suffer a
Portia, the female protagonist, in the play, The Merchant Of Venice, vitality that cannot be contained. In Men, Women, and Dogs by the
written by William Shakespeare, who saved Antonio of pound of same author, atrocious confusion arises out of remarkably
flesh, by her wit and logic. commonplace scenes: in a drawing of a middle-aged group playing
table tennis, a woman suddenly dis- ' robes' and needlessly asks,
Kunti tries to stop the war so she goes to Karan, her illegitimate son "Do you people mind if I take off some of these hot clothes?"; At a
from the Sun god, to coerce him to change sides and join Pandav Thurber cocktail party, filled with his pathetic people, we overhear
camp. Draupadi, Kunti, Shakuntala and Satyawati are all depicted this introduction: "This is Miss Jones, Doctor. . . . She's been
as very strong women characters in The Mahabharata. The women through hell recently," and we see a plump, middle-aged nude
play an active role in politics which has been clearly seen in the woman play the piano while two men whisper, "I'd feel a great deal
efforts made by them. None of the women are meek. On the easier if her husband hadn't gone to bed." Her presence creates
contrary, they perform a great role in saving their dynasty. They such a powerful image that the two men wish her husband to be
enjoy great liberty. The kind of freedom enjoyed by women would present so that they could be protected from her. This is the kind of
be a feminist desire. The freedom they enjoyed is reflective of the fear she has created.
society's approach towards women in those days.
The nakedness of the woman and the ease with which she plays
James Thurber and Eliot, the two American writers have projected piano are symbolic of her confidence in man's world. The nudity
a modern woman so strong that men change into legendary also symbolizes her down to earth attitude without any hypocrisy.
Prufrocks in her presence. The parable, The Little Girl and the Wolf

217 218
What is to be done with the lady on the bookcase, Do I dare
a live, but shelved, former wife who peers down Disturb the universe?
on her equally drab substitute and a horrified In a minute there is time
visitor? Or about "the room where my husband For decisions and revisions which a minute will
lost his mind," with its extra, ancient furnishings reverse.
and tiny, obscure drawings on the walls? Or for the
respectable couple that desperately hopeswhen He prepares himself to propose but every time he fails to gather
confronted with a man standing on the back of a courage to propose the lady whom he
woman, who is at the same time balancing a lamp Loves and wishes to be:
on her head.
I should have been a pair of ragged claws
In each of these frames Thurber has managed to freeze a moment of Scuttling across the floors of silent seas.
perfect power and the strength the females have acquired and the
feminine dominion which is so powerful that man is seen standing In this dilemma he has turned into a fool and utters in despair:
on the back of a woman. The Bollywood film Welcome also
projects a similar scene where Katrina Kaif saves Akshay Kumar I grow old . . . I grow old . . . 120
from the fire. She is seen walking out from the fire with Akshay I shall wear the bottoms of my trousers rolled.
Kumar on his shoulders. This film shows the reversal of role of men Shall I part my hair behind? Do I dare to eat a peach?
and women in the society quite reflective of the change happening
in and around the society. This is all reflective of a cultural change where women have
become more powerful and stronger than man. This notion saps the
TS Eliot in his poem The Love-Song of J. Alfred Prufrock shows man out of courage even to propose any woman and in this
the dilemma of a man who grows middle aged observing women of dilemma he grows old with the desire of getting married only in his
high class engaging in snobbish talk. dream and utters in despair:
In the room the women come and go
Talking of Michelangelo. I shall wear white flannel trousers, and walk upon
There will be time, there will be time the beach.
To prepare a face to meet the faces that you meet; I have heard the mermaids singing, each to each.
And indeed there will be time I do not think they will sing to me.
To wonder, "Do I dare?" and, "Do I dare?"
Time to turn back and descend the stair, This poem reflects the societal change that had ameliorated the
With a bald spot in the middle of my hair 40 position of women in the west. The technological advancement ,
[They will say: "How his hair is growing thin!"] modernization and globalization uplifted the quality of life of
My morning coat, my collar mounting firmly to the westerners and it also gave female gender a lot of leisure time and
chin, the power to work that granted a lot of economical and societal
My necktie rich and modest, but asserted by a liberty and they were cast out of the frames of Tennyson's
simple pin stereotypical women, Man for earth and woman for hearth. The
[They will say: "But how his arms and legs are liberty they enjoyed and the independence they acquired made
thin!"] them equal to men in all respects.

219 220
Women found it difficult to bear with unreasonable dominance of The marriage institution appears to have been transformed into a
man and some women became so much dominant that they turned game of dice and a battle ground where husband and wife are the
into tormentors and the men wanted to get rid of such women. For competitors to each other. Individual goals are on the driving seat
example, James Thurber's story The Unicorn in the Garden where love and emotions are not even retained on the back seat.
wonderfully presents the trick played by a husband to get rid of his The only time when the man and woman come together are for
wife's over domineering torture. He tells her one fine morning that carnal pleasures. The story, The Seal in the Bedroom describes a
a unicorn with a golden horn has entered the rose garden. The wife funny situation. A seal peers over a strangely amorphous couple in
thinks it to be an opportunity to send him to asylum: bed, benignly barking as it keeps them company. Seal is a metaphor
for animal instinct and the barking of seal is indicative of man and
And as soon as the husband had gone out of the woman becoming animals. The craving of the girl in the fable The
house, the wife got up and dressed as fast as she Last Flower to protect the last flower and love is fruitless in the
could. She was very excited and there was a gloat world full of selfishness. The awareness that we experience
in her eye. She telephoned the police and she throughout Thurber's work is of that large chaos in which human
telephoned the psychiatrist; she told them to hurry beings attempt to form groups, institutions, and systems in hopes of
to her house and bring a strait-jacket. When the somehow organizing and ordering life.
police and the psychiatrist looked at her with great
interest. My husband, she said, saw a unicorn The Shrike and the Chipmunks also shows that husband and wife
this morning. The police looked at the are no longer company to each other but their togetherness leads to
psychiatrist and the psychiatrist looked at the misery. Chipmunk alone is able to save himself from all external as
police. He told me it ate a lily, she said. The well as internal threats but as soon his wife returns he is killed:
psychiatrist looked at the police and the police
looked at the psychiatrist. He told me it had a A few days later the female chipmunk returned and
golden horn in the middle of its forehead, she saw the awful mess the house was in. She went to
said. At a solemn signal from the signal from the the bed and shook her husband. What would you
psychiatrist, the police leaped from their chairs do without me? she demanded. Just go on living,
and seized the wife. They had a hard time subduing I guess, he said. You wouldn't last five days,
her, for she put up a terrific struggle, but they she told him. She swept the house and did the
finally subdued her. Just as they got her into the dishes and sent out the laundry, and then she made
strait-jacket, the husband came back into the the chipmunk get up and wash and dress. You
house. can't be healthy in you lie in bed all day and never
get any exercise, she told him. So she took him for
Did you tell your wife you saw a unicorn? asked a walk in the bright sunlight and they were both
the police. Of course not, said the husband. caught and killed by the shrike's brother, a shrike
The unicorn is a mythical beast. That's all I named Stoop.xxix
wanted to know, said the psychiatrist. Take her
away. I'm sorry, sir, but your wife is as crazy as a It is a metaphorical death of his identity. He knows the answer to
jay bird. So they took her away, cursing and his wife's question; What would you do without me? she
screaming, and shut her up in an institution. The demanded. Just go on living, I guess, he said. The answer is
husband lived happily ever after.xxvii clearly indicative that he would have a perfect life without his wife.

221 222
Coming together is exhibitive of the animal instinct and decadence society. They do a wonderful presentation of voicing the culture
and fragmentation of the society where family system would soon through the voice of their characters. Beginning from Rishi Vyas
vanish. later Kalidas, Jhumpa Lahiri , Bharati Mukherjee , Shobha De,
Arundhati Roy have been successful in projecting the societal
In complete contrast, the American society has slowly started to attitude and sensibility towards female gender through their
witness a change in the attitude towards family and that is literary work.
perceived and portrayed in Jhumpa Lahiri's book, Unaccustomed
Earth. American women are more devoted and trying to hold on i
Sonya Davey, One Shakuntala Two identities, Bhavan's Journal,
more to the marriage rather than men. It is a tour de force that has March,2013, p.33.
been observed in the American society. The story, Hell- Heaven Ibid36.
brings out this fact very clearly. Deborah an American woman has Ibid36.
a lovey dovey relationship with Pranab a Bengali Indian. They Ibid.37
seemed to be in so much love that they felt no awkwardness sharing Ibd37.
it in front of others; Sometimes they ended up feeding each other He calls him 'Bharata' after the name of the clan to which the Kauravas
allowing their fingers to linger in each other's mouth, causing my and Pandavas belong. ( Paul Wilmot's translation of book Two of the epic
parents to look down at their plates and wait for the moment to pass. in clay Sanskrit series , represented by CSLII 66.4: Vyaghran mrigah
kopayase tivelam!)
At larger gatherings, they kissed and held hands in front of vii
Mahabharata II.67.4 CSL.
everyone, ... Narrator's mother would remark ; He used to be so viii
different It's just hell- heaven , the difference, . After twenty- ix
three years of marriage, Pranab and Deborah got divorced. It was x
he who had strayed, falling in love with a married Bengali woman, xi
destroying two families in the process and Deborah keeps xii
II .60.22
wondering despite her loyalty How could he do something like xiii
II .60.20
this ? xxxi It very clearly mirrors the rapidly changing culture in xiv
II.60.20- II.60.22-27
America where American women are getting more loyal and xv
David, Schulman, The Yasaka's Question in Galit Hasan- Rokem and
devoted to the marriage institution. David Schulmen (eds.), Untying the Knot : On Riddles and Other
Enigmatic Modes, New York : Oxford University Press,1996,153.
Conclusion: xvi
The role women played had been very important since the dawn of II.67.47 CSL
Draupadi had five husbands not only because of Kunti but multiple
civilization. Recently, Globalization has given a great boost to the
layer in the text.
status of women. They are competing and at times challenging the xix
V.S. Sukthankar, Critical Studies in the Mahabharata, Mumbai:
man. Earlier automization, mechanization had also brought Karnataka Publishing House, 1944, p.77-78. ( I.127.15)
shocking change in the society. Women went to work which gave xx
her tremendous economic, political and social independence. The xxii
Asadhyam kim nu loke syad yuvayoh sahitatmanoh (V.143.10).
place woman occupies in the society is reflective of the culture T.S Eliot, The Love-Song of J. Alfred Prufrock
prevalent in the society and happens to be an indicator of the downloaded on
attitude and the degree of patriarchy existing in the society at a 17th April,2013.
particular point of time. Every literary writer, poet or critic presents Prufrock may represent a man wearing a frock that is he is so weak
it in various shades and colors that would gel with the taste of the emotionally that he is devoid of all masculinity.

223 224
J a m e s T h u r b e r, T h e L i t t l e G i r l a n d t h e w o l f , Iravati Karve, Yuganta : The end of an Epoch, Hyderabad: Disha Books/Orient Longman,1991,15-16. Print
James Thurber, Men, Women, & Dogs, Ballatine NY:Publishers,1970. Kalidasa , Abhijanan Sakuntala, ed. Narayana Rama Acharya,
James Thurber, th
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T.S.Eliot ,The Love- Song OF J Alfred Prufrock downloaded on
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Lahiri, Jhumpa, Unaccustomed Earth, Delhi:Random House,
James Thurber, The Unicorn in the Garden 2008. Print. downloaded 19th April 2013. downloaded 19th April 2013. Martha Nusssbaum, The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in
Greek Tragedy and Philosophy , Cambridge: Cambridge
James Thurber, The Last Flower, University Press, 1986. Print.
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J a m e s T h u r b e r, T h e C h i p m u n k a n d t h e S h r i k e , Sukthankar,V.S. Critical Studies in the Mahabharata, Mumbai: downloaded 19th April 2013. Karnataka Publishing House, 1944.Print.
Jhumpa Lahiri, Random House India Private Limited , 2008,p. 60. Thakur,IM, Thus Spoke Bhishma, Delhi : Motilal Banarsidas,
Ibid 68 , 81. 1992,141-47. Print.
BIBLIOGRPHY Thurber, James, Wilfred Sheed( Introd.) Men, Women & Dogs A
Amartya Sen, The Argumentative Indian. Writings on Indian book of drawings by James Thurber. NY : Ballantine Books,1940,
Culture, History and Identity, London: Penguin Books, 2005.Print. reprint 1970.

Basham, A. L., The Wonder That Was India: A Survey of the Culture Thurber James, The Thurber Carnival, New York: Harper and
of the Indian Sub-Continent Before The Coming of the Muslims. Brothers, 1945.Print.
New York: Grove Press, 1954. Print.
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The Mahabharata
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Institue, Baroda,35 (1985), 3-4, 194. Print.
Der-huey,Lee, Indian Budhist Literature And Chinese Moral
Books- A comparative Analysis, Delhi: Vidyanidhi Vaughan, Pilkian. 'Like Suns Risen at the End of Time : Metaphor
Prakashan,2005. Print. and Meaning on the Mahabharata', Journal Of Vaishnava
studies,14.2 Spring 2006. Print.

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Humor and the Language Classroom: English language teaching in many real and practical contexts still
Wedding Possible? remains a mysterious maze. Its history begins somewhere in the
1400s, (Howatt, 2013) and is now in its Post- Method era
(Brown, 2011). During this voyage of sorts, all kinds of syllabi, materials, methods, approaches, genres, tasks, exercises were seen,
studied, taught and learnt and continue till today. The present
Dr Shree Deepa classroom is especially challenging like never before with the
Centre for English Language Studies advent of the internet, social networking sites, media and the like.
University of Hyderabad In such a scenario, teaching and learning English has become a big
question and a bigger issue. On one hand many theories teach us
how to teach English and on the other the learners' profiles keep
+919885130176 changing. Bridging the gap between what is to be taught, learnt and
how to teach and what to teach has become a greater distress among
Abstract: the teaching community. Sustaining the attention and motivation
levels of the cyber age learners that wallow in a 'googling',
This paper discusses the possibilities of consciously including 'facebook' world and that equate at the worst or at the least interpret
humor in the classrooms in general and the Integrated Masters' learning as cut-copy-paste-edit has become an ever greater
program in particular. It briefly traces the study of the history of obsession and apprehension. To add to this we have different,
humor in the ELT classrooms. The paper lists the issues that these uninteresting, disengaging, unusable, complicated, disconnected
students face and how humor can help overcome most of them. The materials, textbooks, and syllabi that are forced upon the teaching
paper provides samples of tasks that were done and discusses its community by people of authority. With such learners and such
relevance at different levels. The realistic possibility of a wedding materials, the teacher has to straddle on these two volte faced
between the ELT classroom and humor is explored thoroughly. It horses and train the students in the skills through tasks in the
informally records and consolidates the experiences of about eight language and 'prepare' them for a real life of language use. Various
years of teaching on the program at the University of Hyderabad. studies have shown that the present generation students and
The strong argument is made for the inclusion of humor in the learners need something that's funny, usable, and immediately
language classroom is made and substantiated with the results appealing in the classroom to even sit patiently through those 'cruel'
reaped with such a conscious inclusion. It is also a plea to the minutes that figure in the time-table. Many students of other
teachers to try it out to loosen and ease the tension in the language teachers that I have seen and interviewed confessed that they had to
classroom and foster learning in a threat free, positive be physically present in the classroom only for the sake of
environment. It concludes with a section on the merits and attendance. Fortunately in my classroom I never had to face such a
challenges of such inclusions. situation, and that set me thinking and the reflection and
introspection has led to this paper. The difference was that my
Key words: humor, language learning, integrated masters' classes were full of laughter, humane, practical and seemingly
program, ELT more useful to the learners than the other similar classes taught by
other teachers. The feminist pedagogy wedded with humor
smoothly led to effortless and open learning.

229 230
choice. In the program and in the particular course classrooms that
In this paper I heavily draw from the experiments conducted on the included humor were more open and more productive than the
students of the Integrated Masters' Program over a period of 6 and other classrooms/ groups. The conclusions are yet to be formalized
half years. During the course of teaching English, humor was used in the form of an in-depth and tangible study. Further experiments
in various forms and contexts in the classroom. will be conducted and more results will be discussed in a future
Program profile: In the University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad,
India, every year over 200 students join various streams to earn an The sources and resources for humor as materials ranged from
integrated masters' degree in various disciplines. They join newspaper clippings, stories to pictures from the internet.
immediately after completing their 12'Th standard. Initially (2006, Deliberate attempts were made to include humor in teaching every
2007), they studied English for 4 semesters and it later was reduced skill, ranging from spelling to essay writing. The choice of the
to just 2 semesters of formal study. The students were/are put into sources came from the youth dominated portions of the sub pages
groups of 100 (in the year 2006) to 45 (years 2007 to 2009) to 25 of the social networking sites such as Facebook, ROFL, ROFL
(year 2012). The criteria for grouping ranged from random to India, etc. Such a choice was made so that it automatically
discipline based to the latest proficiency based. The syllabus fascinated the youth community and was declared funny judged by
outline was always decided by the department and the school the comments and the number of likes each item got in the
board. However the teachers have always had the freedom to community. As before extreme caution was exercised in the
decide the method of instruction, actual pedagogy and, slightly selection so that the item was funny yet appropriate.
alter the syllabus based on justifiable, concrete and specific needs
of student groups if necessary. There are a lot of theories that explain humor as a concept, reaction,
action, culture, context, sensory, degrees, stress buster and the like,
This freedom has allowed the teachers to use materials of their based on what it is and what it does and how it does evoke laughter.
choice and many teachers opted to use similar kinds of materials While many studies vouch for its benefits when included in the
that were categorized as uninteresting and disconnected from the classroom, unfortunately the English classes and teachers
students' world. In my case the first and useful choice is/was humor particularly are categorized as being humorless, boring and
in its many forms except the attack kind. Humor in my classroom monotonous (as in mono tone too, though they claim to be teachers
was defined as anything or saying or doing or seeing or listening or of phonetics). Many teachers are creative with the methods and
reading etc that let to instant outburst of laughter or at least resulted materials but often without a tinge of humor, creativity is somehow
in a drawing of the lips into a faint smile. Utmost care and caution rendered, condemned to 'high seriousness'. A teaching learning
was/is taken to keep the materials and incidences away from with humor setup keeps the language classroom happy and lowers
personal attack and degradation of a person/ religion/ belief the 'affective filter' and creates a more conducive, appealing, open,
system/ culture etc. positive, receptive, supportive and joyful atmosphere in the
language learning classroom. Humor can come out of jokes,
The paper discusses how, when and what kind of humor is suitable riddles, puns, funny stories, humorous quotations and other
in the integrated masters' level classroom. It exhibits the humorous items (Bryant et al, 1979). Many times the students were
experiences of such a teacher and explores the possibilities of encouraged to bring in their contributions to the classroom and
changing/adapting/ adopting such materials. All attempts after careful selection, the materials were used.
regarding the materials and humor used were towards making them
multicultural and multi-disciplinary in nature. It was a deliberate

231 232
Shade (1996) has classified humor as: 1977; Wanzer & Frymier, 1999). However, some researchers have
noted that sometimes humor may have negative consequences as
1. Figural humor that includes comic strips, cartoons and well (e.g., Gorham & Christophel, 1990; Harris, 1989; Stuart &
caricatures. This form of humor appears in a variety of Rosenfeld, 1994; Torok, McMorris, & Lin, 2004). Further,
media and involves the use of drawing to deliver the methodological and conceptual discrepancies in instructional
humor. humor research have often prevented clear conclusions about how
2. Verbal humor that consists of jokes, puns, riddles, satire, humor functions in the classroom (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen,
parody, irony, wit, limerick and anecdote. This form Gray, & Weir, 2003; Teslow, 1995; Ziv, 1988). For example,
involves the use of language and often depends on the Teslow concluded his review of instructional humor research by
use of incongruity as demonstrated through noting that much of the empirical evidence is old, equivocal,
contradiction, understatement and exaggeration. lacking replication and manipulation checks, and frequently
3. Visual humor that includes sight gags, practical jokes, involves only young children.
clowning, impersonation, impressions, etc. this category
depends on visual cues for the humor to be effective. If humor is part of the learning setup then studies prove that the
4. Auditory humor that includes impersonations, language output, productivity, general mood and creativity is
impressions, noises and sounds. This form depends on enhanced and thereby the educative process is smoother and more
auditory cues for the humor to be effective. effective.

Hativa (2001) provided classified humor in three main categories. How was and can humor (be) used? Humor was used in different
The first category is verbal humor that consists of jokes, anecdotes, ways; in selection of materials in different tasks and task types.
language play, etc. The second one is nonverbal humor such as Different media in the form of pictures, texts, combination of text
cartoon, caricature, photon and visual pun. The last one is and pictures, videos, movies, movie clips, gestures and general
combined verbal and nonverbal humor that consists of behavior were used in the course of a majority of teaching learning
impersonation, parody, satire, monologue and skit. Chee (2006) hours. The sources were the internet, student sources and teacher's
has classified humor in teaching into four major categories: personal sources. Humorous materials were used to teach,
Textual: stories, jokes; Pictorial: cartoons, comics; Action/Games: enunciate and test language skills (example see appendix-1). But
theatre, video, role play, simulation, contests; and Verbal: Puns, extreme caution has to be exercised in the selection. In fact any skill
word games, acronym can be taught using humorous materials. The picture and text
combination works well even with the visually challenged students
Why is classroom humor important? John A Banas (Jan 2011) in his because text can be read out to them and with normal students it
study starts with precisely this pertinent question and attempts to foregrounds the ideas presented. A few tasks were framed on the
trace four decades of study on it. Cornett (1986) argues that humor item and the students felt instantly connected with the idea as it
is educator's most powerful resource and undoubtedly facilitates stemmed from their world, and it also served the purpose of
foreign language acquisition. (8) A lot of research studies endorse highlighting and correcting and replacing the cyber usages of
the fact that humor does benefit the learning processes (Aylor& English spelling in them into ordinary academic spelling. Skills
Opplinger, 2003; Bryant, Comisky, & Zillmann, 1979; Bryant & such as writing, speaking were also taught using the picture text.
Zillmann, 1989; Conkell, Imwold, & Ratliffe, 1999; Davies & For example:
Apter, 1980; Frymier, Wanzer, & Wojtaszczyk, 1999; Frymier &
Weser, 2001; Gorham & Christophel, 1990; Kaplan & Pascoe,

233 234
1. Look at the picture and jot down any incident that is This is in no way exhaustive and many more useful, meaningful
similar in your life. Using the notes write 2 to 3 tasks and questions can be framed with a complete exploitation of
paragraphs describing the incident. (advanced learners) the picture text.
(This connected the students to their everyday life and When was /can be humor used? Of the 40 contact teaching hours
content was not a hard thing to find nor was it about 30 hours had humor content. 10 hours were spent in
uninteresting or boring. The students loved to respond examination, model paper discussion, clarification and specific
and a language production was at its maximum and instruction. In the 30 contact hours all materials and methods of
effortless. The discussions fostered a lot of laughter and learning involved the use of humor, ranging from gentle humor to
the learning mood was elevated. Though this was used for discussing particular mannerisms. But care was taken so as not to
the learners at the advanced proficiency levels, it can still assassinate any specific individual. In rare cases where a
work well with the basic and intermediate levels, but, the mannerism was found generally funny care was taken to involve
production would need facilitation by the teacher in form the owner of the mannerism and they were taught why it seemed
of sample sentences written on the black board.) funny. (Specifically during group presentations-For example if a
2. In pairs discuss the picture and relate it to your own learner was found touching his/her hair too many times during the
experiences. Then declare it to the whole class. presentation the teacher would gently highlight and ask him/her if
(Speaking, intermediate to basic learners' level) there was a reason why this was done. Similarly if someone was
(Here the students had a lot of experiences to share as found chewing a pen or pencil, the teacher would highlight it and
almost all of them had such experiences. In rare cases then tell him/her that plastic is not food and a pen/pencil should not
where they found it a bit difficult the idea of a smart replace breakfast. The class and the concerned individual would
phone was replaced by a computer. The students did not have a good laugh over it.) During instruction, testing and learning
have to own either a smart phone or a computer to share care was taken to use funny materials (Appendix 1) wherever
experiences because they were technically well aware of possible. The first few classes dedicated to ice-breaking involved
the features of the said phones, tablets and computers as humor (Appendix 2). The introductory classes are very important
they kept themselves aware through the advertisements for both the teachers and the students to get to know each other and
and related to the real and projected features of the one another. (In these sessions a deliberate confusion as to the
gadgets. The fortunate learners however will have many teaching style was used. The learners were instructed in an
more such similar gadgets to discuss.) authoritative tone and teaching style. The learners were tricked to
3. The texts have a few punctuation errors. Correct and believe that the very first class was a test and the appropriate mood
rewrite them against each blurb. (grammar, all levels) was set in. The high seriousness maintained where in the teacher
(This task was essential as many academic answers were gave strict instructions about copying from fellow students and the
written in the cyber spelling and the students almost importance of silent work emphasized. After the oral instructions
always felt that it was easier to write in that spelling and and setting of an authoritative teaching style was established the
did not want to at the worst and at the least problematic worksheet was given. Many took the style unwillingly but were
did not notice the difference between academic and cyber found smiling after the reading, reception and comprehension
spelling. This question highlighted the difference and began. The teacher can judge the speed of the readers individually
enunciated; fore grounded it and paved way for fixing it.) and infer from the time delay in the smiles blooming in the learners
in comparison with their fellow students. Some might end up being
straight faced, confused and bummed. This was deliberate and then

235 236
the teacher loosened up the class and told the class that laughter was A speaking task was done on this joke first.
expected out of them. Many students did not expect that they were
permitted to laugh in an academic setting and that laughter and Discuss in pairs why the students responded in this way and let the
learning could go together. This was their dream class, many other groups know of your opinions. Try to think creatively and
confessed: A complete education and an entertainer. They never different from what your classmates could think of.
wanted to miss their classes and looked forward to newer
experiences. This set the mood to the classes and kept the learning The students instantly connected to the ideas and language
environment happy and cheerful and open. The learners were generation was almost automatic and the teacher only needed to be
encouraged to bring similar materials in the next class. The best a facilitator in providing very minimal structures or vocabulary
option was run through. items when necessary. There were two groups, one that sided with
Newton and the other that spited him. A lot of discussion and
What kind of humor was/ can be used? David Sudol (1981, 27) spoken language use was found. The students either furiously
cautions teachers against using teasing and sarcasm defended Newton or cursed him but used language anyway. The
indiscriminately. He says it will be beneficial if it exudes or leads to students felt empowered because they were allowed to pick sides
a better warm rapport in the learning classroom. He also talks of and disclose their opinions and were provided opportunity to
jokes, exaggerations, fooling, clowning and amusements. He negotiate, convince, and persuade the others.
believes that a class can be fun (filled with humor) and still be
quite serious; Serious and humorous are not mutually exclusive Later they were required to write a letter. This time and point of
termsthere can be a balance.(28) He believes that if a teacher time was used to teach/remind them the conventions of letter
can highlight that both are possible at the same time then the writing in a subtle way.
equilibrium is achieved. This he calls entertaining teaching. He
cautions that the students be made well aware of the reason and Writing task: Write a letter to Isaac Newton and
personality of the teacher before using humor seriously in the tell him how his discoveries have helped/bothered
classroom. Many such jokes became a part of the materials used you in your science classes.
and a particularly popular one was as follows:
This was also interesting and funny for them because many times
Various jokes are available and can be used in a variety of ways in they were allowed to write bizarre responses as long as it was in
the language learning classroom. A few sample tasks are given appropriate English. The flexibility and creativity encouraged
below. The joke may be printed out in a handout format and handed them to open out their minds and the result was that the class was a
over to students in groups. (For more see appendix 3) completely productive and the students were left with a feeling of
importance and as it allowed them to be their true selves and most
Source: importantly they were allowed to laugh and learn at the same time.
Physics Teacher: Isaac Newton was sitting under a This could work with all levels of proficiency.
tree when an apple fell on his head and he
discovered gravity. Isn't that wonderful? Many times humorous short stories were used to teach different
skills. One such story is recorded in appendix 6. This worked well
Student: Yes sir, if he had been sitting in class because it had an Indian context in it and the characters are a few
looking at books like us, he and so easily comprehensible. Many of the students frequently
wouldn't have discovered anything. travel by buses, buy tickets or subscribe to bus passes or at least

237 238
know friends that do. The actual humor in this story comes only in in their own words. This positive feeling for the teacher they
the end as an element of surprise, and added to the humor is a maintained even after they graduated the course. And one of the
humorous moral that the youth live by. After the story was read a main reasons is the use of humor in the classroom and outside. A
discussion and reading comprehension questions were created and few of them found it difficult to digest the fact that there can be
answered. Created, because the students were allowed to frame humor in the language classroom. Nevertheless they confessed to
questions for their partners and the thrill of playing teacher was have enjoyed the learning sessions.
exhilarating for them. The initial laughter at the point of discovery
of humor was sustained, addictive, infectious and affective through Limitations of the study include the difficulty to adopt/adapt such
the session. materials for the visually challenged and specially-abled students.
Secondly, if the teacher is not alert the whole course may become a
In the integrated masters' program, classroom generated humor joke. Thirdly, the students may take the course and the teacher for
was always a part of the author's teaching learning system; it was granted. Fourthly, such an inclusion may be questioned by the stake
encouraged as long as it was productive and contributive to holders and if the teacher is unable to convince them it may turn
language learning. Sufficient care was taken so as not to use acidic into a disastrous situation. Lastly, if the teacher herself is not
individualized sarcasm or personal attack. In case of distraught convinced then the inclusion may become a joke by itself.
distress teacher intervention and clarification was provided
immediately and the issue resolved and understood. Any material Conclusion: If a teacher is convinced, wise, balanced and
that was used had the option of being entertaining unless it was not innovative then humor can become a useful, creative, constructive,
an option due to various reasons beyond control. Even exams and functional, and efficient tool. It is possible to include humor in the
tests had humorous pieces in them as an aid to tasks. (Appendix language classroom irrespective of the level of proficiency or age
5it was a part of the end semester examination question paper) of learners. Humor has a positive effect in learning if it is used
The idea was to make the students think and respond. Funny tactfully and wisely. It can enhance the learning experience of the
responses were welcomed and encouraged so as to give them the learners and can break the monotony of the classroom. This train of
freedom of expression while language was in use. The responses thought could concretize as a research topic and more exhaustive
were varied, creative, open ended, and funny. The students were studies are possible and will be attempted.
delighted to find something amusing to read and write about in an
examination. The final argument is that a wedding of the ELT classroom and
humor is very much possible and will produce, foster, nurture,
The experiment of including humor was conducted on every batch enhance and contribute to learning in a positive, threat free,
of students that studied with me in the University of Hyderabad and conducive, and happy learning environment. It must be attempted,
informal interviews were conducted 3 to 4 times every semester included and integrated into the ELT classroom by every teacher,
during their study in the course and after they had finished their the learning teachers.
course. In the interview they were asked questions (appendix 6)
that were both open ended and close ended and responses were
noted and used to innovate in the next semester teaching. More than Attardo, Salvatore. (1994) Linguistic Theories of Humor. Mouton
80% of the students felt that they enjoyed learning in my class de Gruyter, NY.
because they were happy and felt non- threatened. They found a Retrieved on 11/01/2013 from
receptive teacher that was keen on maintaining a positive
atmosphere; a teacher that was compassionate as well as educative &pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false

239 240
Aylor, B., & Opplinger, P. (2003). Out-of-class communication Frymier, A.B., & Weser, B. (2001). The role of student
and student perceptions of instructor humor orientation and socio- predispositions on student expectations for instructor
communicative style. Communication Education, 52, 122_134. communication behavior. Communication Education, 50, 314-
Brown, H. Douglas. English Language Teaching in the 'Post-
Method' Era: Toward Hativa, N. (2001). Teaching for Effective Learning in Higher
1. Better Diagnosis, Treatment, and Assessment, Education. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current
Practice. Edited Jack. C. Richards and Willy A. Renandya. CUP, Gorham, J., & Christophel, D.M. (1990). The relationship of
2011. (pp 9-18) teachers' use of humor in The classroom to immediacy and student
learning. Communication Education, 39, 46-62.
Bryant, J., Comisky, P., & Zillmann, D. (1979). Teachers' humor in
the college classroom. Communication Education, 28, 110-118. Howatt, A. P. R and H. G. Widdowson. A History of English
Language Teaching: Second Edition. OUP, 2013.
Bryant, J., & Zillmann, D. (1989). Using humor to promote
learning in the classroom. In P.E. McGhee (Ed.), Humor and Harris, J.J. (1989). When jokes are not funny. Social Education,
children's development: A guide to practical applications (pp. 49- 53, 270.
78). New York: Haworth Press.
Kaplan, R.M., & Pascoe, G.C. (1977). Humorous lectures and
Chee, A. (2006). Humor in TEYL - reducing classroom anxiety. humorous examples: Some Effects upon comprehension and
The International TEYL Journal. Retrieved December 17, 2012 retention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 61-65.
Krashen, S. (1982). Theory versus practice in language training.
Conkell, C., Imwold, C., & Ratliffe, T. (1999). The effects of In Blair (Ed.), Innovative Approaches to Language Teaching.
humor on communicating fitness concepts to high school Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
students. Physical Educator, 56, 8-18.
Martin, R.A., Puhlik-Doris, P., Larsen, G., Gray, J., & Weir, K.
Davies, A.P., & Apter, M.J. (1980). Humor and its effects on (2003). Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation
learning in children. In P.E. McGhee & A.J. Chapman (Eds.), to psychological well-being: Development of the Humor Styles
Children's humor (237-253). New York: Wiley. Questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 48-75.

Emke, Dave. 2007 No Laughing Matter: Humor in the English Shade, A. R. (1996). License to Laugh: Humor in the Classroom.
Language Arts Classroom, accessed on 22-12-2012 Connecticut: Greenwood publishing.
0Laughing%20Matter.pdf Stuart, W.D., & Rosenfeld, L.B. (1994). Student perceptions of
teacher humor and Classroom climate. Communication Research
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Assessing students' perceptions of inappropriate and appropriate
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Sudol, David.(1981) Dangers of Classroom Humor. The English Appendix 1
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Technology Research & Development, 43, 6-28.

Torok, S.E., McMorris, R.F., & Lin, W. (2004). Is humor an

appreciated teaching tool? Perceptions of professors' teaching
styles and use of humor. College Teaching, 52, 14-20.

Wanzer, M.B., & Frymier, A.B. (1999). The relationship between

student perceptions of Instructor humor and students' reports of
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Ziv, A. (1988). Teaching and learning with humor: Experiment

and replication. Journal of Experimental Education, 57, 5-15.

1. Look at the picture and jot down any incident that is similar
in your life. Using the notes write 2 to 3 paragraphs
describing the incident. (advanced learners) (writing)
2. In pairs discuss the picture and relate it to your own
experiences. Then declare it to the whole class. (Speaking,
intermediate to basic learners' level)
3. The texts have a few punctuation errors. Correct and
rewrite them against each blurb. (grammar, all levels)

243 244
Appendix 2 Appendix 3
Source: Note: Various jokes are available and can be used in a variety of ways in the language learning classroom. A few sample tasks are
et=a.289935947725469.88000.214433131942418&type=1&thea given below. The joke may be printed out in a handout format and
ter handed over to students in groups.
Teacher talk: Learners! This is a test for you, so, please do your Source:
work silently and individually.
1. Physics Teacher: Isaac Newton was sitting under a tree when
an apple fell onhis head and he discovered gravity. Isn't that

Student: Yes sir, if he had been sitting in class looking at books

like us, he wouldn't have discovered anything.

Speaking task: Discuss in pairs why the students responded in this

way and let the other groups know of your opinions. Try to think
creatively and different from what your classmates could think of.

Writing task: Write a letter to Isaac Newton and tell him how his
discoveries have helped/bothered you in your science classes.

2. A man is talking to God.

The man: God, how long is a million years?
God: To me, it's about a minute.
The man: God, how much is a million dollars?
God: To me it's a penny.
The man: God, may I have a penny?
God: Wait a minute.

Now rewrite all the statements with proper spelling and Speaking task: In pairs discuss who is more wise, the man or God.
punctuation. Jot down reasons for your opinion. Later share it with the class.

3. A little girl came home from school and said to her mother,
Mommy, today in school I was punished for something that I
didn't do.

The mother exclaimed, But that's terrible! I'm going to have a

245 246
talk with your teacher about this by the way, what was it 6. Teacher: If you had one dollar and you asked your father for
that you didn't do? another, how many dollars would you have?
The little girl replied, My homework. Vincent: One dollar.
Teacher: You don't know your arithmetic.
Note: This can be used as a stimulus for a writing task. Vincent: You don't know my father.
Writing task: Do you think school children and other older students
need to be given homework? Record your response in an essay of Reading comprehension task:
500 words. a) How many characters are there in this joke?
b) Write a few lines about each of them as you can judge
4. The teacher of the earth science class was lecturing on map from the joke.
reading. c) Why do you think the boy says that the teacher does not
know his father?
After explaining about latitude, longitude, degrees and minutes the
teacher asked, Suppose I asked you to meet me for lunch at 23
degrees, 4 minutes north latitude and 45 degrees, 15 minutes east Appendix 4
longitude? Source :
After a confused silence, a voice volunteered, I guess you'd be et=a.407237669305465.113971.321454251217141&type=1&ref
eating alone. =nf
Reading comprehension task: One fine day, a bus driver went to the bus garage, started his bus,
and drove off along the route. No problems for the first few stops - a
a) Why do think that the teacher would be eating alone? few people got on, a few got off, and things went generally well.
b) Where do you think the teacher invited the student?
At the next stop, however, a big hulk of a Pathan got on. Six feet
Grammar task: write the student's response in reported speech. four, built like a wrestler, arms hanging down to the ground. He
glared at the conductor and said, "Pathan doesn't pay!" and sat
5. Teacher: This essay on your dog is, word for word, the same as down at the back.
your brother's.
Student: Yes, sir, it is the same dog. Conductor didn't argue with Pathan, but he wasn't happy about it.
The next day the same thing happened Pathan got on again,
Writing task: Do you think that teachers are running out of ideas for made a show of refusing to pay, and sat down. And the next day, and
essay writing topics? Defend your arguments with examples from the next.
your English classes.
Or This grated on the bus driver, who started losing sleep over the way
Why do you think students refuse to put in extra effort to do Pathan was taking advantage of poor conductor. Finally he could
homework? Write a paragraph taking examples from your own stand it no longer. He signed up for body building courses, karate,
experiences. judo, and all that good stuff.

247 248
By the end of the summer, he had become quite strong; what's 4. Look at the pictures carefully. Choose only ONE and
more, he felt really good about himself. So, on the next Monday, write a reaction around it. It should closely correspond
when Pathan once again got on the bus and said, "Pathan doesn't to the quote and the picture. 10m
Picture 4a
The driver stood up, glared back at Pathan, and screamed, "And
why not?"

With a surprised look on his face, Pathan replied, "Pathan has a bus

Moral: Be sure there is a problem in the first place before working

hard to solve one.

Picture 4b

249 250
Appendix 6 english class I dont know to speak english now I would speak with
all my friends. I say that my english was 70% improved.
Informal interview questions Q4
No there is no class that was boring.
1. Do you enjoy your English classes? Why/why not?
2. Do you think that your English classes are better or worse A5
than other batches? Why? Yes my english class is different from others.
3. Describe your favorite session and explain the reasons.
4. Comment on the teaching skills of your English teacher. Student 2: Roshni
5. Do you think you are learning English better than your batch
mates? Why/ why not? 1. What was the best class and why?
6. Do you find your teacher more approachable? Why/ why not? Ans. The best class was the dramatics class were i was acting as
What can she do to be more approachable if she is not mom and girlfriend...
7. Have you improved your capacity to communicate in 2. Dd u enjoy making question and evolution?
English? If yes on a 10 point scale with 1 being the least Ans. Yes it was awesome ws v interesting and funny too...
improvement, and 10 being perfect where do you stand now
in your own judgment? 3. Do you think ur English has improved?
Ans. A lot... as before i use 2 use capital letters alot for no reason, n
Some unedited responses are recorded here for reference (the order ma way it was a fashion i came to know...
of questions was different) via email given by the learners in the
preceding semester (semester 1- July Dec 2012- group 7) as a part 4. Was any class that was boring ? explain??
of mid course feedback: Ans. No..Not at all.Each nd every class ws so interesting that we
cannot forget.We enjoyed as well as learned a lot.. it was v
Student 1 : KORUTLA ROHITHKUMAR 12IMMM16. useful to me atleast.
A1 5. Do u think ur English class was different than the other
My best class was english because I dont know how to speak class??how?
english but I will understand english completely. Now I able to Ans. Yea,it was different ..we love the classes because its very
english. That's y my best class was english. interesting as we involved in many group activities.
Q2 ..Mam you rock..
Yes I enjoyed making questions and evaluation because previous I
not done this activity. I known that making questions and Student 3: Fani Eswar
evaluating is how hard I understood. Like this I enjoyed a lot.
1. What was the best class and why?
A3 Ans: I like every class.. and every subject....because every class
Yes my english has improved. Because when I came to my first will teach us that how u r..and wr ur that i always

251 252
try to be present in every class,and trying to learn every Action Research - A Device to Solve Language
thing.....mam. Issues in English Classroom
2. Did u enjoy making questions and evaluation?explain? B.sreekanth Reddy
Ans: Yes....i enjoyed. Research scholar (JNTUA)
First i felt some what shy to asking questions in classes Mail id -
regarding anything.because i came from telugu medium
background.this english class mada a confidence to
rise a question. This is because of YOU..mam.thanking you Abstract
The action research is an individualistic or a collaborative activity
3. do u think your English has improved?explain..give for finding solutions to everyday, realistic problems of the
approximate % of improvement according to you? classroom. It is a process through which practioners study their
Ans: Yes....i learn and i improved my English talking skills.that problems scientifically in order to guide, correct and evaluate their
firstly it is near to 60-70. decisions and actions. In the educational set up i.e. school / college,
the practioners are teachers and their colleagues who strive to
4. Was there a class that was boring?explain... improve and enhance their personal as well as organizational
Ans: No. i love every subject. goals. Thus action research is very important tool to improve and
enhance the quality of educational objectives. In this paper
5. Do you think your English class were different than the presentation an effort is made to present the theoretical and
other?how? practical aspects of Action research, and a brief sample design for
Ans: Yes..... application of Action research to solve the problem of 'Spelling
English class was purely different than the other classes. Mistakes' of the 11th grade students of A9 class of RGUIIIT.
Because,they are teaching and giving only subject oriented
knowledge.but English class not like that.English class gave
a capacity to getting good that once sec i would like The teacher uses many concepts in planning and Organizing
to say that.thanking u mam effective teaching and realizing the objectives of teaching. A
-------eswar. teacher may come across several types of challenges in presenting
and achieving the learning objects .Therefore, it is essential for a
teacher to solve those problems scientifically. The appropriate
teaching strategies may not be effective unless and until the
problem are solved .

The classroom problems can be solved by employing the action

research process .It is a method for solving the problems of
teaching objectively and systematically. This is useful for
improving and modifying the teaching process.

253 254
Meaning of Research : Meaning and definition of Action Research:
Research is a process to study the basic problems which contribute Stephen M Corey applied this concept of Action research for the
in the edifice of human knowledge. The research process first time in field of education. It is a process by which practitioners
establishes new truth, finds out new facts, formulates new theory attempt to study the problems scientifically in order to guide,
and suggests new applications. It is a purposeful activity which comment and evaluate their decision and action.
contributes to the edifice of knowledge.
''Action research is a process for studying problems by
'' Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge'' practitioners scientifically to take decision for improving their
current practices.'' Stephen M Corey.
Educational research: The concept of action research is being used in education since
1926. Buckingham has mentioned this concept for the first time in
The principle focus of education is the development of a child .It's his book 'Research for Teachers,' but Stephen M Corey has used
aim is to bring the desirable change among learners. The basic this concept for solving the problems of education.
problems of teaching and education are studied in educational
research. Objectives of action research:
'' Educational research is that activity which is directed towards the The following objectives can be achieved by adopting the action
development of science of behaviour in educational situation.'' research projects:-
WM. Traverse
To enhance the performance and aspirational levels of
Educational research aims to make contribution towards the students.
solution problem in the field of education by the use of the
scientific method, which focuses on critical reflective thinking. l
To develop scientific attitude among administrators,
principal, and teachers and solve their educational problems.
Types of Educational Research:
The objectives of educational research is to contribute to the l
To improve the working conditions of the Educational
existing knowledge in the form of new theory and facts in a institutes.
particular field studied. It may not always contribute to knowledge
development but suggests new application for practical problems l
To create a healthy environment for teaching learning
.Thus, the educational researches are classified broadly into two process.
To improve and modify the classroom teaching learning
1) Fundamental or Basic Research. strategies.

2) Action research or Applied Research. l

To develop interests, attitudes and values in students.

255 256
Steps of action research: Experimental project of Action research
1. Identification of the problem:- The teacher should be able to An experimental project is designed for solving the problems of
identify the problem and must realize the seriousness of the English teaching.
1. Topic of the project: A study for improving the spelling
2. Defining the problem:- After identifying the problem, it errors in English language.
should be defined so that the scope ,boundaries, the action and
the goal may be fixed .The scope helps to localize the 2. Investigator: An experienced teacher of English language.
problem in terms of class, subject in which a teacher
encounters a problem. 3. Background for the project work: An English teacher has
observed and experienced that students commit more errors in
3. Analyzing the causes of the problem:- Analysing the spellings. He came across several types of spelling errors in
factors responsible for the cause of problems helps us to student's assignments, composition, translations and in their
formulate the hypothesis. It also tells us whether the factors written work.
are under the control or beyond the control of an investigator .
4. Objectives of the project: An action research is planned to
4. Formulating the action hypothesis:- An action hypothesis achieve the following objectives -
is formulated after identifying and analyzing the factors
which causes the problem .The statement of action l
To make students know about the importance of correct
hypothesis has two aspects: Action and Goal. It indicates what spellings in English language.
action has to be taken for achieving the desired goal.
To make them sensitive towards spelling errors in English
5. Design for testing the action hypothesis:- In action language.
research one hypothesis is tested at a time. The design of
action research is flexible and can be redesigned at any time l
To improve the English spellings of the students.
according to the convenience of the research. The design is
developed for testing the feasibility of the proposed l
To improve the level of achievement in English.
hypothesis. If the hypothesis is not accepted second design is
developed for testing another hypothesis. 5. Importance of the project: English is an International/global
language. It is very important for communication in our
6. Conclusion of Action research project:- After testing the country as well as abroad. To have good hold on language is a
hypothesis, the results are collected and studied in depth and professional requirement now-a-days. Therefore students
analyzed .After analyzing data some inferences are drawn. must learn language correctly.
The conclusion statement indicates the prescription for the
assumed practical problem of the class room. The conclusions 6. Field of the problem: The field of the study is the 'Spelling
are useful in modifying the current practices of the school or Errors' in English language.
class room.

257 258
7. Specification: The problem is located in the 11th grade The action hypothesis is tested by using the
students of A9 section in RGUIIIT, R.K. Valley. The students design of the project -
of this class commit several spelling errors in English.
Design for testing action hypothesis: - The first action hypothesis is
Analyzing the causes of the problem:- The causes of the problem tested by employing the following design -
are identified so that tentative solutions may be designed. The
causes are analyzed as given below S. Activity Source Time
Causes Evidence Control 1. The teacher Text books & 5 days
1. The students The assignments Under the control designs a list of prescribed
doesn't complete are always of the teacher. written work syllabus for the
their written incomplete assignment in weekend
assignments. English Language.

2. Teacher doesn't By conducting Under the control 2. A blue print of the Prescribed 3 days
give due dictation, of the teacher. tests to be syllabus for the
attention / enquiring the administered is week.
importance to students / made for the
spellings during supervising the complete
the class hours. written work. lesson/module

3. The students 3. The teacher will Various model 1 week

donot have clear Students poor oral May or maynot be assign daily based papers, previous
understanding of response to the under the control written work to exam papers.
English grammar questions based on of teacher test the different
or have a strong grammar aspects of
foundation in language.
4. The teacher Teacher evaluates 2 days
The analysis of the causes of the problem provides the basis for the evaluates the the assignments
formulation of action hypothesis. assignments and
Formulation of Action hypothesis:- The following two action assigns grades /
hypothesis have been developed by considering the causes. marks.
1st hypothesis:- The modification or improvement may be done in The data is collected during the project work and the marks/grades
English spelling errors by proper correction of English written are analyzed. If the project result indicates significant
work/ assignments. It refers to the action part. improvement in reducing spelling errors in English, there is no
2nd hypothesis:- The spelling of words and their meanings should need to test the second hypothesis.
be emphasized by the teacher to improve the spelling errors in the Conclusion:- The project work done is evaluated in terms of
English teaching. This part concentrates on goal. statistical representation. The results are studied and analyzed and

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then the hypothesis is accepted or rejected. The percentage of errors
is also calculated and conclusion or suggestions may be Challenges in teaching English
proposedinthe form of remedial measures for the problem. Language to economically
weaker sections of Children
from Vernacular medium.
Works Cited
1. Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques - C R Dr. Neelam Tikkha
Kothari, 2nd edition, New Age International Publications.

2. Research Methodology and Statistical Tools P. Narayana

Reddy and GVRK Achayalu, 1st Edition, Excell Books New
Delhi, 2008.
"Poverty doesn't only condemn humans to lives of difficulty and
3. Statistical Methods S.P.Gupta S Chand & Sons, New unhappiness; it can expose them to life threatening dangers.
Delhi, 2005 Because, poverty denies people any semblance of control over their
destiny, it is the ultimate denial of human rights" (Yunus and Weber,
2007, p 104).

In India, there has been an educational drive called Sarva Shiksha

Abhiyan to teach poor students but teaching the poor is not the
same . It is seen that despite hard work and persistent efforts of the
government the poor children are not able to compete with the
other privileged students. The major reason is they lack the
vocabulary and the language. It is highly essential to teach the poor
proper language to compete with other students to get rid of
poverty .As English has become the lingua franca of international
commerce, for economic growth it is important for a country to
have human bridges who can work across cultural and linguistic
borders, and ESL and other English teachers have an important
role in developing these human bridges.

An individual teaching English in a developing economy can have

a profound and direct impact on the lives of the students by
providing them with a proper language and in a way this individual
can also have a small and indirect impact on reducing global
poverty through providing the skills a nation needs to integrate

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bridges who can work across cultural and linguistic borders, and
Objectives: In this paper an attempt would be made to explore ESL and other English teachers have an important role in
teaching learning strategies for teaching ESL and EFL for the developing these human bridges.
An individual teaching English in a developing economy can have
(1) I would explore the possibility of using folklore and songs a profound and direct impact on the lives of the students by
of Maharashtra to develop vocabulary in English. providing them with a proper language and in a way this individual
can also have a small and indirect impact on reducing global
(2) I would attempt to use ICT to teach through translational poverty through providing the skills a nation needs to integrate
and trans creational method to impart essential English internationally.
Vocabulary which would help students to develop their
English skills and would be able to relate with the situation Bygate (1987) said that speaking I a skill which deserves attention
in the context of Maharashtra. as much as the literary skills in both native and foreign languages.

Providing the poor with proper strategies to improve their

language skills would be in true sense giving them with equal Objectives:
opportunity. Initiating the teaching learning process with the use
of folklore, vernacular songs, make learning interesting and In this paper an attempt would be made to explore teaching
fruitful. Innovative use of ICT makes learning effective. learning strategies for teaching ESL and EFL for the poor.

(1) I would explore the possibility of using folklore and songs

of Maharashtra to develop vocabulary in English.
Introduction: (2) I would attempt to use ICT to teach through translational
"Poverty doesn't only condemn humans to lives of difficulty and and trans creational method to impart essential English
unhappiness; it can expose them to life threatening dangers. Vocabulary which would help students to develop their
Because, poverty denies people any semblance of control over their English skills and would be able to relate with the situation
destiny, it is the ultimate denial of human rights" (Yunus and in the context of Maharashtra.
Weber, 2007, p 104).1
Folklore and mother tongue are close to the heart of the people.
In India, there has been an educational drive called Sarva Shiksha Children and adolescent are also specially drawn to the folklore and
Abhiyan to teach poor students but teaching the poor is not the songs that are close to their culture.
same . It is seen that despite hard work and persistent efforts of the
government the poor children are not able to compete with the other The various reasons could be it brings home the point immediately.
privileged students. The major reason is they lack the vocabulary They are able to understand what is being said. The new words that
and the language. It is highly essential to teach the poor proper they learn through this module they can implement in their day to
language to compete with other students to get rid of poverty .As day life. Whereas, if they are taught what happens in western world
English has become the lingua franca of international commerce, they are not able to relate with it so easily. If the children are
for economic growth it is important for a country to have human introduced with a sentence: The course begins in Fall. And then
they are asked the meaning. The use of word Fall will pose a

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problem. They will find it difficult to learn the difference between Some other following popular Marathi songs called Badbadit gite
fall that is tripping over and fall as season. Another example; are very funny and can be used:
Children had their supper. The difference between the word
supper and dinner would be difficult to understand. There would be ADgaula maDgaula
many other words that children would not be able to relate with. sanyaaca kDgaula
Pyaacaa vaaLa
If the list of non comprehensible words and situation increases poor tan(a baaLalaa
children who lack vocabulary and confidence soon give up and tIT laa].
loose interest. This is clearly evident from the number of failures
in the subject English. It is highly essential to curb the failure rate ek hta Jaulala
since, once the child fails he cannot go ahead with his studies and cyaalaT navata Xalala
gives up permanently thus contributing to increase in literacy rate. basa maQao caZlaa
The teachers should have a sympathetic approach towards such iTkIT naahI kZlaa
children. itqaca Gar gaazlaa.

Marathi folklore can be strategically used to make learning saKarama baapu

interesting . For example the following song on rain is very popular dmaiDcao Aafu
amongst children. They can learn a number of words with the help AaQaolyaacaI KsaKsa
of this song: padu naka fsa fsa.

Ye re ye re pausa , DMpunaanaa TMpunaanaa

Tula deto paisa , AgaDpgaDbaMd
Paus ala motha , gaaDa Aalaa gaaDI AalaI
Paisa jhala khota. rgaDdgaDcand.
Ye re ye re sari,
Majhe madke bhari, cyaalaI cyaalaI
Sar ali jorat mhatarI AalaI.
Madke gaile wahoon.
The students could be asked to use these words and express
Vocabulary: themselves in English. Another, activity that they can do is to make
some small poem using the words. The students can also be asked
Pausa Rain to translate and trans create into English. This activity will develop
Motha paus : Heavy rains creativity , analytical ability and help enhance the speed of learning
Deto to give English.
Paisa coin
Sar gushing breeze The major transformation and achievement that would be seen in
Madke Pot the students would be that interest level will go high. The fear of
Wahoon- to be swept away. English language will disappear.

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Fun and Learning : 4) Makes life easier for teachers.
Introduction of fun in the inculcation of English language can also 5) Improves test scores.
be achieved by the use of ICT. Animated stories in Marathi
language can be shown and then asked to reproduce in the own 6) Help reach different types of students easily. For example, a
words in English. For example the story of a fox can be animated weak student will also get equal attention.
and shown to children.
7) Help students with different attention spans.
Kolba kolba bor pakli
Budhi ne mai kambar shekli. 8) ICT gadgets are one time investment but in long run saves
money and time . It also saves energy in teaching .
A fox can be shown stealing berries from the farm of an old lady.
Then, the old lady burning the bottom of the fox will be highly 9) Encourages and engrosses students to do home work which is
funny for children to see. often a very boring task.
Another, effective use of ICT would be to teach their culture. This 10) Removes all obstacles that are encountered while learning
will help children to develop roots and attachment to one's society English language.
and would be able to identify to one's linkages. It will also
inculcate dignity and pride in the children. 11) Gives multisensory experience while learning.
Children can know the way festivals are celebrated by other Teachers should not be afraid that the use of ICT will replace them
communities as well. as Sheryl N. Beach says; Teachers will not be replaced by
technology, but teachers who do not use will be replaced by those
The following eleven fold use of ICT summarizes the impact of who do.
ICT on the minds of children while learning:

1) Children love learning with ICT . Conclusion:

Providing the poor with proper strategies to improve their language
2) ICT helps four active key components to learning: a) Active skills would be in true sense giving them with equal opportunity. If
participation. students speak confidently and express them well comfortably then
they can interact better in real life situations. They thus contribute
b) Participation in groups . in improving economy. Initiating the teaching learning process
with the use of folklore, vernacular songs, make learning
c) Frequent participation with peer. interesting and fruitful. Innovative use of ICT makes learning full
of fun and effective.
d) Interaction with experts.

3) Professional development.

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Reference: Value based teaching of English
1) Yunus, M. and Weber, K. (2007), Creating a World without P.Hiltrud Dave Eve,
Poverty: Social Business and the Future of Capitalism,
Assistant Professor,
Public Affairs: New York.
Sacred Heart College,
2) Bygate,M Tonkyn, A and Williams, E.(eds): Grammar and Tirupattur. 612 635
the Language Teacher ( esp. Chapters by P.Skehan and E-mail :
M.Bygate). Prentice Hall, 1994.

3) Sheryl N. Beach, You tube downloaded on 26th December, Education is not the filling of a pail,
2012. But the lighting of a fire.
William Butler Yeats

Education, which is the vehicle of knowledge, self preservation,

and success not only gives us a platform to succeed but also imparts
the knowledge of conduct, strength, character and self-respect. It is
not an accessory to life but it is a necessity. Will Durant says
'Education is the transmission of civilization'. It gives us the
knowledge of the difference between right and wrong, a belief in
God, the importance of hard work and self respect. Education is a
continuous learning experience form people, learning from success
and failures, learning from leaders and followers.

Mahathma Gandhi once said that education not only moulds the
new generation but also reflects a society's fundamental
assumptions about itself and the individuals that compose it. In the
words of Martin Luther King Jr, 'Intelligence plus character that
is the goal of true education'. Education tries to develop in three
aspects physique, mentality and character. Plutarch asserts that 'A
mind is a fire to be kindled, not a vessel to be filled'. Education is the
source which kindles the mind to live a goal oriented life. The
purpose of education is to mould the students in all the three
domains and makes them aware of honesty, humility, morality and
other moral values. It provides profession as well as a purpose of
life. The actual aim of life is to know oneself and be oneself.
Education gives us the unique knowledge of knowing oneself
which makes life better and purposeful. Education is a light to
ignorance, a way to success. The world classical text Tirukkural
describes the value of education,

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Learning is excellence comparison with the USA or UK but in terms of creativity,
Of worth that none destroy; independent study and objective approach towards a subject we
To man nought else affords feel inadequate in experience.
Reality of joy (Learning XL-6)
Literature is an instrument of reason and English language became
Thiruvalluvar opines that education makes a person free from fear, its dignified medium. Literature as it starts earlier concentrated
he can go anywhere and the place or country became his own. He mainly on the moral values. From the ancient Aesop's fable of the
further adds that an uneducated person is like an animal, and he is 'Tortoise and the Hare', in which the plodding and determined
like a barren field. Education gives tolerance, patient; it nurtures tortoise wins a race against the much faster yet extremely arrogant
and empowers the people. The teaching of moral and ethical values hare, the stated moral is slow and steady wins the race. It can also
to the student is called value based education. C.R.Lewis says, teach other morals, for instance that arrogance or over confidence
'Education without values as useful as it is, seems rather to make a in one's abilities may lead to failure or the loss of an event, race or
man; a perfect human being with optimistic ideas. The contest. In Shakespeare's plays he used stock characters to present
contemporary society does not care for the culture, value of life, the moral. The moral in Shakespeare's plays may be more nuanced
humanity, moral and ethical values. Education tries to generate the but no less present, and the writers point up in other ways.
student to become a good student. Throughout the history of recorded literature, the majority of
fictional writing has served not only to entertain but also to instruct,
The Parliamentary Committee in India, in its 81st report on value- inform or improve the readership. The novels of Charles Dickens
based education in 1999 strongly suggested that value based are a vehicle for morals regarding the social and economic system.
education should be introduced at the school level and extended to Literature is used to teach moral values other than any other
college and university level. According to the committee, subject. It teaches the behaviour, ways of thinking and use of
'Education should aim at multifaceted development, of a human language to be followed or avoided.
being-his intellectual, physical, spiritual and ethical development.'
The lives of great poets and great personalities itself teaches our Never give up! It is wiser and better,
students the correct way of living. A teacher of English can take the Always to hope than once despair:
simple example of the contemporary writers work to teach values. Fling off the load of Doubt's cankering fetter,
The main purpose of education is to make them understand not only And break the dark spell of tyrannical care;
in the classroom but outside the classroom also. Prof. Anil Sarwal's Never give up! Or the burden may sink you-
survey says 'At present over 6.5 billion human beings use over Providence kindly has mingled the cup,
6,800 languages to carry our their affairs, but English has emerged And, in all trials or troubles, bethink you,
as the de facto global language for universal communication in the The watchword of life must be, never give up!
closing years of the 20th century though there are still challenges to
its functionality as global language given the linguistic prejudices The above is an extract of an anonymous verses and songs from
that still have strong roots in many parts of the world'. Education chartist literature. It teaches the values of hope which is the
now days are result-oriented. Schools and colleges concentrated watchword of life. It presents the values of hard work and hope
mainly on the curriculum and the result percentage. Of course which leads to success in difficult situation.
results do matter, but then again there is more to our life than the
The greatest work in Russian Literature War and Peace by Leo
performance in the bit of paper. Our educational system is far more
Tolstoy, constantly emphasizes the irrational motives for human
advances and progressive in terms of academic standards in

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behaviour in both peace and war. It reveals the truth behind the colonial writings show how the society is scattered with racial
falsity of earthly life. When it is taught by the teacher, he may problems. When it is taught to the students of English, they were
emphasis the non-violent resistance. aware of the racial problems and they know their struggles. They
Yes, love. But not the love that loves for something, or because of may be practising it in their life, the struggle of people who were
something, but that love that I felt for the first time, when dying, I under the colonisation, depicts and teaches the national integrity in
saw my enemy and yet loved him. I knew that feeling of love which the minds of students who learn the plays or works.
is the essence of the soul, for which no object is needed. And I know Among the ethical works written in Indian languages, Tirukkural
that blissful feeling now too. To love one's neighbour's; to love stands supreme. The main aim of this ethical text is to prescribe the
one's enemies, to love everything - to love God and all His noble virtues to be adopted, and to prohibit the detestable vices to
manifestations. Some one dear to one can loved with human love; be abhorred. Dharma or Aram indicates the positive and negative
but an enemy can be loved with divine love. And that was why I felt virtues to be followed by the householder. Valluvar talks about all
such joy when I felt that I loved that man. What happened to him? Is the values which make man's life fruitful. He describes the right
he alive... Loving with human love, one may pass form love to way of earning money, how to lead peaceful life, even the qualities
hatred; but divine love cannot change. (War and Peace) of a ruler in the democratic country.
The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway is the symbolic Gifts, grace, right, sceptre
exploration of the human struggle with the natural world, the Care of people's weal:
human capacity to transcend hardship, and personal triumph won These four a light
from defeat. His works teaches and gives hope to the readers as well Of dreaded kings reveal (Chapter LXXIII-8)
as the students. It also portrays the importance of human courage There are many hurdles and hardships in the life of a man. Valluvar
and prowess, the dignity amid the harshness of the world. The hero insists on the way of escape from the hardship and talks about
has his own code of values. It leaves a message to the society that hopefulness in trouble.
A man can be destroyed but not defeated. It gives a hope to the
younger generation students. The poems of Robert Frost give an Who pain as pleasure takes,
idea about what is life and encourages self-reliance, not following He shall acquire
where other has led. In another poem Mending wall he advises to The bliss to which
the people to keep good relation. Good fences make good His foes in vain aspire. (Chapter LXIII-10)
neighbours Thoreau's Civil Disobedience presents the man's duty It talks about friendship, love, power of speech, purity in action,
to the society and in government, by presenting the vices; he gives a way of accumulating wealth, military spirit etc.,
message that the man in the society should be aware of these vices.
As hand of him whose
He is concerned with the problem of existence in the society. His
Vesture slips away,
poems depict the theme of human limitation. The universe seems
Friendship at once
chaotic and horrific because man's limited faculties cannot
The coming grief will stay (Friendship LXXIX-8)
comprehend its meaning. He insists on duty, responsibilities of an
individual. Margrat Atwood's works we may find the human nature In Gitanjali, Rabindranath Tagore views the relationship between
of loving animals, when it is taught by the teacher he or she can God and man, purity, deliverance, life, philosophical ideas about
teach the value of humanity and kindness which should be shown to life. Tagore a superb representative of his country- India the man
the animals. Her works are conscious about environmental issues who wrote its national anthem- his life and words go far beyond his
and it nurtures the importance of nature in the mind of people. Post country. He is a product of the best of both traditional Indian and

273 274
modern western cultures. He exemplifies the ideas important to us Why People Stuff Suggestion Box with Peels of Banana?
of goodness, meaningful work and world culture. His works and Dr. Neelam Tikkha
some of his poem induce the patriotic spirit in the young minds.
Man of high credentials and remarkable simplicity
Where there is, mind without fear and the head
Is held high
Where knowledge is free
Where the world has not been broken up
Into fragments

Where the mind is led forward by thee
Into ever-widening thought and action
In that heaven of freedom, my father, let
My country awake. (Gitanjali I)
Mirror mirror on the wall ,
Shakespeare was not of an age nut for all times because his Who is the fairest one of all?
characters are true to the eternal aspects of human life and not
limited to any contemporary life. Shakespreare's tragedies exhibit All of us know the answer to this riddle. The Indian culture is
the decorum Character is Destiny. Most of the characters regret fraught with the myth that asking questions is challenging the
for what they have done is bad. He insists that even one flaw in the authority which should be taken as a personal affront. Similarly,
character of a person may ruin his life. In King Lear, he presents life giving suggestions is trying to show off
through the character of Lear. He learns the value of patience and learning. In such cases suggestion box
worth of 'unaccommodated man'. He begins to realize his own becomes merely a show piece and an
faults as a king and almost understands his failure as a father. It also object to be ignored . Nevertheless , the
presents the value of true love of Cordelia. Through the character of person who gives a suggestion becomes
Cordelia the student may understand the virtues of devotion, an object to be victimized like Snow
kindness beauty and honesty- honesty of a fault. Cordelia is an White. Many people become detectives
embodiment of virtues; her reunion with Lear- shows the triumph and take pride in showing off their skills
of love and forgiveness over hatred and spite. When the students as a detective in trying to unearth the
read literature, which mirrors the society clearly, they may shape writer of the suggestion, who dared to
their own life in a good way. challenge their superiority and
hierarchy instead of focusing on
If the teachers use the world literature to teach English, he can site improving the quality and paying a
more examples to the students which are from ordinary men and serious thought to the suggestion .
women and the student may understand the values and they can The suggestion box kept under surveillance of CCTV is one such
implement it in their life. ludicrous situation, where the privacy is not respected and the
purpose of the suggestion box is either mandatory or aping of the
successful organization literally, rather than in the true spirit.

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There is a great danger in making things mandatory. I would like to A BIG Hello!
quote an example of the recent system of UGC which has made
the annual performance highly objective by assigning marks for A personal invite to join International society that promotes conferences,
each activity. This has made college teachers run a rat race for workshops, and helps getting you known round the globe by helping in
getting your esteemed articles published in double blind peer reviewed
marks. Many teachers have become great by their excellent
journals and books .
knowledge and deeds in imparting training on how to increase
PBAS score by unethical and manipulative means. About CFTRA- Global: It is a nonprofit organization and a knowledge
sharing platform. It will also help building creativity, intellectual growth
Another, interesting fact is that PBAS is also a mother of various and research sensibility.
writers, who have mushroomed suddenly and every book seller has Paper Publication: It is absolutely free of cost. Scholarly papers on any
turned into a publisher and a successful businessman by taking out topic in any discipline are accepted.
journals, holding conferences and publishing articles in the Papers would be published in ISBN listed Books and ISSN listed,
conference proceedings. Pageant A Multi Disciplinary Critical International Journal
ICT is another magic wand in the hands of such teachers since it has Guidelines for writing paper : Write an abstract of not more than 250
made research activity highly convenient. You just need to know words. Type in 12 point Times New Roman, headings in 14 point and
two commands cut and paste and you can come up with a nice justify the document.
scholarly article which might put many a Shakespeare to shame and Please attach a soft copy of photo .Please also write your designation,
make Eliot turn in his grave. postal address, affiliations and Email ID.
I feel, the Indian government by making the government Hard Copy: while submitting paper make a mention, If you'd like a hard
employees permanent has reduced the chances of improvement in copy of the book to be delivered to you?
the quality. In fact , the problem should be addressed at grass root The book and Journal are coming out after double blind peer review with
level and education sector should be the first one to be considered ISBN / ISSN number by CF International Publishers in the month of
since it is the propagator of the attitude; yeh hai India yahan sab MARCH 13 .
chalta hai. The education sector has been hollowed out by poor The Society is called CFTRA- Global, (Confidence Foundation
standards in the quality of teaching. Orientation programs are a Educator's Trainer's Researcher's Association - Global)
synonym to disorientation programs. Refresher programs no Entrepreneur : People in business can also join since they would be able
longer refresh but make people sick. to reach out globe. Advertisements would be carried on the books and
On the other hand , if we see the major changes that companies have journals.
brought in their system are because of their belief in as Peter In case you have more questions feel free to contact me. It is for anyone
Drucker puts in : from any discipline interested in Education and paper writing. US,
Australia and India.
One has to assume first, that the individual human being at work
knows better than anyone else what makes him or her more Fee: India and SAARC countries INR 600/ = for a year.
productive . . .even in routine work the only true expert is the person For International people: $ USD 100
who does the job." India and SAARC countries Entrepreneur: INR 10000/=
I feel we need to really think about the entire system since Foreign Entrepreneur: $500
Preaching only gets you converts on Sunday, but they are sinners
2. Call for papers: Please send your scholarly papers on any topic in any
again on Monday. discipline on Email:

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