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School of Management

Royal Holloway, University of London




Challenges of customer relationship management (CRM)
A study of Hino Motor Ltd. Saudi Arabia



MN5140


MBA International Management


Student Name : Syed Zafir Momin

Candidate Number: 1508588



Supervisor

Dr. Olga Kravets


1 September 2015

This Individual Business Project is submitted as part of the requirement for the award of the
MBA International Management

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Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................................... 4
ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................... 5
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 7
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY .................................................................................................................... 7
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ....................................................................................................................... 8
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ..................................................................................................................... 8
LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................................... 10
2.1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 10
2.2 CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT MODEL AND ASPECT .......................................................... 11
2.3 STRATEGY FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CRM ................................................................................... 14
2.4 PLANNING FOR CRM DEPLOYMENT ................................................................................................... 15
2.5 THE SUCCESS OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT ................................................................... 16
2.6 CONCEPT OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION .............................................................................................. 18
2.7 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK .............................................................................................................. 19
2.8 ECRM AN EVOLVING PART OF CRM ................................................................................................... 22
2.9 TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR IN IMPLEMENTATION OF CRM ....................................................................... 22
METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................................... 25
3.1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 25
3.2 PROFILE OF THE STUDY AREA ............................................................................................................. 25
3.3 CASE STUDY PROFILE ....................................................................................................................... 26
3.4 SAMPLING PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................... 26
3.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS ..................................................................................................................... 28
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION ........................................................................................................ 28
3.7 INSTRUMENTATIONS ....................................................................................................................... 30
3.8 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS .................................................................................................. 31
RESULTS AND FINDINGS ............................................................................................................... 32
4.1 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 32
4.2 DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE RESPONDENTS .............................................................................................. 32
4.2.1 Gender of Customers and Employees ................................................................................. 33
4.2.2 Education status of respondents ........................................................................................ 34
4.2.3 Working experience of Staff ............................................................................................... 34
4.3 CRM PRACTICES IN HINO MOTOR LTD SAUDI ARABIA ........................................................................ 35
4.3.1 Customers assessment of the relationship with staff of Hino Motor Ltd. .......................... 35
4.3.2 Customers perception of management responsiveness .................................................... 36
4.3.3 Rating Information and communication technology (ICT) in Hino Motor Ltd ..................... 39
4.3.4 Disseminating information on customers among departments. ........................................ 40
4.3.5 Staff initiatives in attending to customer needs ................................................................. 40
4.3.6 Improving relationship with customers .............................................................................. 40
4.4 LEVEL OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF CRM PRACTICES IN THE STUDY AREA ............................................. 41
4.4.1 Customers rating of customer service in Hino Motors Ltd. ................................................. 41
4.4.2 Customers response to the product offering in Hino Motor Ltd. ........................................ 42
4.4.3 Means of channelling complaints ....................................................................................... 44
4.4.4 Managing customer and complaints .................................................................................. 44
4.4.5 Customer switching ............................................................................................................ 45
4.5 STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE ON CUSTOMER RELATION ............................................................................... 47
CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................ 48
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY .......................................................................................................... 49

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RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................................................... 50
SUGGESTION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH ........................................................................................... 51
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................. 52
APPENDICES ................................................................................................................................. 65
APPENDIX A - HINO REPORT, MIDDLE 2015 ............................................................................................. 65
APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE AND INTERVIEW ........................................................................................ 67
APPENDIX C CONSENT FORMS ............................................................................................................. 72
APPENDIX D PRESENTATION ................................................................................................................ 78
APPENDIX E SIMPLIFIED ETHICAL APPROVAL FORM ................................................................................. 78

Acknowledgments

First and foremost, I would like to thank the almighty God, who has
blessed me with courage, strength and belief when dealing with
crucial times in this project. I would like to express my sincere
appreciation to Ms. Olga Kravets for the help, suggestions, thoughts
and advice that guided me through the project. It would have been
next to impossible without her tremendous support and feedback.

My warm gratitude also goes to my parents, sisters and brothers-in-
law for the prayers and moral support I received during the project.
Last but not least, I would like to thank my friends and the Royal
Holloway professors and staff, without whom this this would have
been a very difficult task to accomplish.














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Abstract


This study utilises an approach that is referred to as explorative, because it aims to
evaluate the challenges an organisation faces in implementing successful Customer
Relationship Management (CRM) using various analytical tools. The study is built on
the existing literature, theory and models within CRM. The case study sought to
discover what challenges multinational companies face in CRM in the automotive
industry, and how it impacts customer satisfaction. Customer Relationship
Management has become a buzz term in the automotive industry. Current steps
taken in the automotive industry are the optimisation of multi-channel approaches,
the strengthening of financial services, the optimisation of dealer management and
the integration of CRM with Supply Chain Management (SCM) (IBM, 2004). As it has
sometimes not been understood clearly, CRM can be defined here as organisation-
wide activity intended to improve customer focus and responsiveness by
systematically gathering and using customer data at relevant customer touch points,
and in preliminary value-added activities (IBM, 2004).

In a study conducted by IBM it was found that Audi, BMW and VW have already
implemented CRM activities and have been successful in certain areas (IBM, 2004).
In this study we will analyse the optimisation of the multi-channel approach and the
integration of CRM with SCM. Multi-channel CRM means developing and integrating
touch points in the customer lifecycle. Multi-channelling helps manufacturers in
improving the focus on the customer through centralisation of customer data and
enhancing personalised communication. The integration of CRM with SCM helps the
manufacturer in the further evolution of its CRM activities. This information helps the
manufacturer in understanding customer demands to improve their variability. The
case of Hino Motors Ltd. (HML), a company operating in Saudi Arabia, has been
used as a focus to examine CRM. This study explores customer relationship
practices in Hino Motors Ltd. (Saudi Arabia), operating under two partners: Jamjoom
Vehicles and Equipment, and Toyota Tsusho Corporation. It also examines the level
of customer satisfaction in the study area.

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In the research we will be using seven variables derived from a framework identified
by Lawson-Body and Limayern (2004). The framework recommends the critical
factors in relation to CRM practices, for customer satisfaction. An extensive literature
review was carried out in relation to the topic, and linked to the study. The main
research instruments used were questionnaires and interviews. The researcher
interviewed the staff of HML and surveyed its customers to reach an insight into the
CRM function and its operation. The study shows that companies in the automotive
industry are still confronting challenges in implementing effective CRM.

This industry is product-centric. As competition in the industry has grown


dramatically, the company is trying to use technology in CRM to increase customer
satisfaction. It was also acknowledged that CRM application could help manage
customer relationships more effectively across various stages, from initiation to
managing, implementing CRM and using it effectively while keeping the customers
satisfaction at its core. In the case of HML it was observed that the company was
lacking customer information in their CRM practices, thus preventing them to
measure effectively. These factors had a marked effect on the quality of service
delivered, CRM practices, managing complaints etc. The research also highlighted
the importance of empowering the staff, to gain loyalty. The study recommends that
all information and communication technology tools should be provided to all the
staff in various departments, to enable them to use a database to facilitate customer
interaction and to ensure customer satisfaction in an age of growing competition in
the industry.

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Introduction

At the dawn of the new century, automotive firms have had to cope with major
structural changes that led them to restructure their production systems. These
reorganisations in the automotive industries economic and social environment stem
from factors such as technological developments. As this produced innovation, the
influence of the competitive process increased internationalisation and resulted in
mergers and acquisitions in firms, changing the relationship with customers in the
automotive industry (Freyssenet, 1998). Customer Relationship Management is a
term that refers to the practices, strategies and technologies that firms adopt in
managing and analysing its customers data throughout the lifecycle, with the prime
objective of improving business relationships and customer retention, so driving
sales. As technology is adopted within various processes for managing information
across an organisation, CRM systems are integrated to compile information on
customers across its channels. This supports customer-facing staff in providing
detailed information from its database, acting as a data bank to record customer
interaction information through various channels. Many organisations have failed to
implement CRM, as they were not sufficiently customer-centric.

Background of the study

Competition in the automotive industry has grown massively over the years. It is one
of the top 10 fastest growing industries in the world (Ali, 2015). It has revolutionised
transportation and brought about enormous changes in the lives of people,
businesses and travel. This industry is subject to intense competition, with increasing
demand for cars, buses and trucks. As vehicles have moved from a luxury to a
necessity in an individual persons life and in business, the automotive industry has
grown more than 44 per cent (44.3%) from 2003 to 2013 (International Organization
of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers, 2014). As the automotive industry is globalising, it is
in better shape than it was five years ago (McKinsey, 2013). Due to evolving trends,
it has been facing pressure in highly competitive markets (PwC, 2015).
Consequently, CRM has become a tool for each firm to exploit its competitive
advantage. The automotive industry distribution system has distanced them from the

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the end user, as the industry uses various partners to provide particular customer
support. To integrate a truly vertical CRM solution, it must be integrated from the top.
Partners tend to be extremely conservative in adapting or using technology, so a
limited customer base is informed of the original equipment manufacturers (OEM)
resources. As Dan Garretson, senior analyst for Forrester Research, acknowledges,
the problem lies in the relatively small role customers preferences play in the
manufacture of automotive products. Automotive companies are unaccustomed to
taking ultimate responsibility for end user preference (Compton, 2000). To build trust,
CRM-enabled communication is the key factor in order to overcome the consumers
problems. (Compton, 2000).

Objectives of the study

This study aims to identify the challenges multinational companies face in relation to
customer relationship management in the automotive industry, and how it impacts
customer satisfaction. The case of Hino Motors Ltd. (HML), a company operating in
Saudi Arabia and worldwide, has been used as a focus to examine. This study
explores customer relationship practices in Hino Motors Ltd. (Saudi Arabia),
operating under two partners: Jamjoom Vehicles and Equipment, and Toyota Tsusho
Corporation. It examines the level of customer satisfaction in the study area. In this
research we will be using seven variables as a framework, identified by Lawson-
Body and Limayern (2004). The study recommends the critical factors in relation to
customer relationship management practices, for customer satisfaction.

Significance of the study

The research work seeks to provide an insight into customer relationship


management (CRM) that will help other researchers interested in this area of study.
The outcome of this research will serve a basis for further study and research, which
might aid organisations that want to conduct studies of CRM. It will add information
to existing knowledge, and serve as input for formulating policies to regulate and
control this industry. It will also help to gain insight on CRM at various levels, using
different variables, and so help researchers to understand the challenges
organisations face when using CRM to enhance customer satisfaction in the

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automotive industry in Saudi Arabia, rather than using westernised ideas of customer
relations that might be culturally incompatible. The research will be important in
understanding customer retention and the improvement of customer satisfaction. It
aims to enhance understanding of the relationship between quality, CRM and
customer loyalty, that might improve competitiveness in the organisation. It also
explores the making of decisions regarding the CRM attributes that are known to be
most important to the customer in relation to the products and services available.

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Literature Review

The second chapter will serve as the theoretical backbone for my analyses,
discussions and conclusions. It begins by presenting a literature review, and then
discusses key concepts in the field of CRM. At the end of this section, the framework
is summarised in a model for the technological factors influencing CRM.

2.1 Introduction

Interest in CRM began to grow in 1990s (Ling and Yen, 2001; Xu et al., 2002).
Organisations are now motivated to adopt CRM and manage customer relationships
more efficiently. An enhanced relationship can ultimately lead to greater loyalty,
retention and profitability. As there has been rapid growth of the internet, and various
other technologies have increased the opportunities for marketing, this has led to a
transformation of the relationship between consumers and organisations (Bauer et
al., 2002).
Successful customer relationship management (CRM) is one of the major
competitive advantages that companies can exploit to prevent consumers switching
to other companies. (Kimiloglu and Zarali, 2009)
CRM is a leading new approach to business that has already been established in the
academic and business literature (Szeinbach, Barnes, and Garner, 1997). The
concept of the customer and customer trends have evolved over time. Philosophies
about the consumer have changed, through the production concept to the societal
marketing concept (Kotler et al, 2002). Customers should play a pivotal role in an
organisation, but prior to the 1960s the customer was perceived merely as
purchaser or consumer of what was produced, and was not a prominent part of
decisions about production strategy (White, 2010). As competition has become a
major challenge faced by companies, due to globalisation and liberalisation (Akaba,
Ocloo and Worwui-Brown, 2014), it has been noted that it is cheaper to retain current
customers than to recruit new customers (Massari, Donio and Passiante, 2006).

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2.2 Customer Relationship Management Model and Aspect

CRM is evaluated based on the satisfaction level achieved by its activities. As CRM
has emerged as a major strategy for business, little research has been conducted in
evaluating its effectiveness, as it is difficult to demonstrate tangible return on the
resources expended to plan, develop, implement and operate CRM (Seddon et al.,
2010). Companies are continuously looking for ways to lead the competition for
market power. It has become a challenge, due to advancements in technology, for
companies to achieve long-lasting market differentiation. Acquiring new customers is
an expensive business, compared to improving the retention rate of existing
customers (Ledford, 2014).

The CRM objective in an organisation is simply to understand customers, based on


loyalty and returns. It has evolved from strategies such as direct mail to marketing
practices in their present state, differing from previous efforts by analysing the
importance of reshaping relationships between companies and customers instead of
trying to sell (Rudolph, 1999).

As companies are investing a large portion of their budget in building close


relationships with their profitable customers, their efforts are often unsuccessful as
they are unable to integrate two important tools. The first tool is a method for
monitoring progress towards achieving relationship objectives; the second tool is the
companys strategic and integrated plan for managing these customer relationships.
Companies are often unable to quantify what good relationships are, and how they
are formed and measured. Due to these factors, CRM initiatives are unable to deliver
a return on investment (Satish et al., 2013). Understanding the long-term value of a
company is determined by the value of its customer relationships. A firms Customer
Equity is the total of the lifetime value of all of its customers (Blattberg and Deighton
1996), as defined by Rust, Lemon and Zeithaml (2000, p.4). As Customer Equity is
certainly the most important component of the value of a firm, rather than its physical
assets, it provides the firm with its most reliable source of future revenues, and
formulating it can provide a firm with an important competitive advantage. As trends
are changing in the developed economy, the shift is moving from product focus to

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customer focus. There have been changes in the new service economy, as service
now works differently.

OLD ECONOMY NEW ECONOMY

GOODS SERVICES

TRANSACTIONS RELATIONSHIPS

ATTRACTING RETAINING
CUSTOMERS CUSTOMERS

PRODUCT FOCUS CUSTOMER FOCUS


CUSTOMER
BRAND EQUITY EQUITY

2.2.0 Long Term Trends (Rust, Zeithaml and Lemon, 2000).

Three main drivers of Customer Equity are Value Equity, Brand Equity and
Relationship Equity. All these factors are important, in variable proportions based on
the industry.

Value Equity: emphasises the rational and objective aspects of a firms offering. The
value is strengthened if the actual goods and service consumption experience meets
or exceeds the expected experience. Hence, each time the customer is disappointed
he/she will become disconnected. The main drivers of Value Equity are the physical
or service product and the service environment (Rust et al., 1999)

Brand Equity: substantially contributes to the Customer Equity approach. It is mostly


important in industries that sell products that are low involved goods: consumers do
not want to think too much about them. Substantial insights have been made into the
process that encourages customers to develop relationships with firms (Keller,

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1998). The main drivers are brand awareness, brand ethics and attitude towards the
brand (Keller, 1998; Aaker 1991).

Relationship Equity: the tendency of consumers to be loyal to a brand, above and


beyond the customers objective and subjective assessment of the brand (Rust et al.,
1999). Its prime focus is to maximise the relationship for the retention of customers,
and to decrease the likelihood that the customer will purchase from competitors. The
main drivers are aspects such as loyalty, special recognition, community, knowledge
building and affinity (Rust et al., 1999).

CRM strategies are unique processes linked to a firms business strategy, driving
change in the organisation, its processes and its use of technology. The vital point
here is to create a philosophy that touches on every factor, and, more importantly,
involves every department in the organisation (Turk and Vaskelis, 2004). As CRM is
responsible for holding vital information within a customer database: contact details,
communications, social media profiling and valuable leads, it acts as a colossal
brain or hub and as an application through which everyone in the firm can access
information (Doyle and Doyle, 2015). CRM systems are becoming central to
productivity across an organisation. Gartner estimates that the CRM industry was
worth $18 billion in 2012, and will be worth $36 billion by 2017. As CRM has made a
big impact on customer services as they risk losing their competitive edge. As
technology develops at an astonishing rate, the key challenge is how can it can be
fully utilised within a business (Perreault, Jr. and McCarthy, 2002).

As social media has transformed the web into an interactive information and
communication channel, social media plays a significant role in influencing the
decisions customers make when selecting products and services, based on
feedback in blogs, websites and forums. This online feedback is vital for a marketer
(Severi, Nasermoadeli and Kwek, 2014). A survey conducted by The Neilson
Company showed that 90 per cent of internet consumers worldwide trust
recommendations from people they know, while 70 per cent trust consumer opinions
posted online (Neilson, 2009). An important indicator in CRM is customer loyalty
(Evans and Laskin, 1994), that has been considered rational phenomenon (Chow
and Holden, 1997; Jacoby and Kyner, 1973; Sheth and Parvatiyar, 1995; also cited

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by Macintosh and Lockshin, 1997). As organisations have realised that the benefits
of customer loyalty are numerous, they are eager to secure a significant customer
base. (Gefen, 2002; Reinartz and Kumar, 2003; Rowley and Dawes, 2000). Many
authors have been interested in the links between empowerment and customer
loyalty. Some have argued that customer loyalty is a tangible, and its benefits can be
measured by the effectiveness of the relationships maintained by employees (Uncles
and Laurent, 1997). Most authors share the same view of CRM, by incorporating the
idea of promoting empowerment among employees so that they will be able to serve
the customers more efficiently and effectively (Berry, 1983; Gronroos, 1990; Morgan
and Shelby, 1994 and Bendapudi and Leone, 2002).

2.3 Strategy for the implementation of CRM

The critical factor in successful implementation of a CRM strategy is the aligning of


CRM initiatives with employee and customer objectives (Bowman and Narayandas
2004; Heskett et al. 1994; Kamakura et al. 2002). Several commercial CRM software
packages are available off the shelf, varying in their approach to CRM. CRM is not
just a technology, it is rather a comprehensive approach to an organisations
philosophy in dealing with its clients (Rigby, Reichheld and Schefter, 2002). The
objectives of a CRM strategy must be considered based on each company-specific
situation and its customers needs and expectations (Lawson-Body and Limayem,
2004). In 2010, Gartner outlined three steps for a solid framework for CRM success:

Set the Destination: The vision of the company and its goals for its vision are the
destination of the CRM strategy. While CRM strategies are developed, leadership
and governance must be agreed upon them, as it will help lower stress when
managing the impact of change upon employees.

Audit current situation: Skills, resource competitors, partners and customers all need
to be consulted when beginning the CRM initiative. Organisations need to identify
the maturity of their existing approach to CRM. Use the audit to evaluate the
organisation in the same or similar industry (Gartner.com, 2014).

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Map the Journey: As the journey might take many years, the map will change en
route. It is an integrated blueprint for the organisation to achieve its sales, marketing
and customer service goals. The challenge is to avoid rushing the development
process as the company may be committed to many years of change (Gartner.com,
2014).

2.4 Planning for CRM Deployment

A business needs to understand its customer management methodologies, customer


preference and customer behaviour, as discussed in chapter 2.3. To ensure
effectiveness, the CRM strategy needs to capture data accurately to be able to
analyse it (see Chapter 1.7 for a detailed explanation), ensuring that it is viewed by
the right people and that the information is used correctly (Bligh, Philip and Turk,
2004). If they are unable to achieve this, the organisation risks investing a
considerable amount of time and money, only to fail to achieve the expected benefits
of CRM. The consideration of a customer-focused strategy is more important than
the kind of technology required. CRM plans must include a scalable architecture
framework and integration for a best fit for the enterprise, tying together the best of
breed software that can be used in order for various channels to be assessable. The
data stored and collected must have a reason behind it, or it will waste time and
resources (Itinfo.am, 2015). Also, the highest rate of success can be achieved when
a company develops its CRM strategy and then identifies its process and sets
measurable objectives for its CRM system: only then should it begin the technology
implementation, ideally in staggered phases (John, 2007).

The organisation should fully integrate the CRM system with a wide range of
functions, revolving around following elements:

Central Database
This allows all departments to have complete access to the database for viewing a
customer profile. It helps in facilitating a better service, and in return improves
customer service, loyalty and retention.

Customer Analysis

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This assists the firm in segmenting its existing customers, to formulate suitable
strategies for customising various campaigns.

Customer Service
CRM assists the application or portal with personalised access to customers that
helps them to complain or place orders. It also helps in reducing the cost accrued in
managing a call centre.

Prospect Tracking
CRM also tracks proposals, products and pricing for current and prospective
customers.

Report Generation
CRM facilitates effective projection of revenue and sales patterns, via automated
reporting systems.
(Shanmugasundaram, 2008)

2.5 The Success of Customer Relationship Management

In the mid-20th century, mass production techniques and mass marketing developed
increased product availability for consumers. Customers lost uniqueness and
companies lost track of their customers individual needs. Many companies are
racing to re-establish the connection to present and historical customers, to boost
long-term customer loyalty (Chen and Popovich, 2003). For CRM to flourish in an
organisation, it requires foremost a supportive culture, so that with CRM the
organisation is able to provide a personalised effort using information from its
detailed customer database (Perreault, Jr. and McCarthy, 2002). CRM symbolises
the mutual cooperation and interdependence between customer and service provider
(Etzel, Walker and Stanton, 2004). Kotler (1990) argues that marketers should build
and use a customer database to track their interest, using this information to serve
them better (Caruso, 1992). The results should be consistent with the notion that the
marketing strategy formulation process should be designed to ensure the business is
externally focused on the customer and on competitors (Kerin, Mahajan and
Varadarajan, 1990). Complete integration between the development of business

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CRM strategy and its marketing strategy will lead to success in CRM (Bohling et al.,
2006).

Through CRM initiatives, companies have witnessed higher revenues and lower
operational costs. Managing customer relationships effectively and efficiently boosts
customer satisfaction and retention rates (Reichheld, 1996; Reichheld and Teal,
1996; Jackson, 1994; Levine, 1993). Many executives encounter one or more pitfalls
while trying to implement CRM. Installing CRM technology before creating a
customer-focused organisation is the most dangerous pitfall (Rigby, Reichheld and
Schefter, 2002). CRM applications help answer questions such as what service and
products are important for the customer; what is their favourite colour and their size.
In return, customers benefit from personalised information (Kassanoff, 2000). The
channels or methods to contact the company can be via the internet, call centres or
sales representatives, but customers receive the same consistent and efficient
service (Creighton, 2000). Table 2.5 highlights the benefits of successful CRM by
sharing customer data throughout the organisation and implementing innovative
technology (Chen and Popovich, 2003).

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Table 2.5 CRM applications supported by ERP front and back office (Chen and
Popovich, 2003)

CUSTOMER DATA SHARING CRM INNOVATIVE


ACROSS ORGANISATION TECHNOLOGY
Customers capable of self-service
High level of customer service
and use of internet applications
Attracts existing and new
Opportunities for cross-selling and customers through personalised
up-selling communication and improved
targeting
Detailed information about
Integrates suppliers and customer
customers habits and
relationships
preferences
Constructs matrices to analyse
Integrated and complete view of
common and unique customer
the customer
patterns
Improved targeting to segments
and individual customers
Efficient call centres / Service
centres

Table 2.5.1 CRM applications benefits in organisations


(Chen and Popovich, 2003)

2.6 Concept of Customer Satisfaction

Research into customer satisfaction emerged in the early 1970s and has
continuously evolved since then. Researchers have investigated the expectations of
customers, the performance of different products and services, and their perceived
pay-off as an antecedent to satisfaction (East, 1997). Customer satisfaction is a well-
known concept in several sciences: marketing (Fornell and Werneldt, 1987; Fornell
and Wernefelt, 1988; Kotler, 1991), consumer research (Johnson and Fornell,
1991),welfare economics (Simon, 1974) and economics (Van Raaij, 1981; Wrneryd,

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1988). If it is assumed that customers act rationally, that means they will choose
goods and services so as to maximise their total satisfaction and total utility
(Ehrenberg and Scriven, 1999).

Customer satisfaction is considered as a key indicator within business, and a part of


the Balance Scorecard. In todays competitive market, businesses are competing for
customer satisfaction as a key point of differentiation, and it has become an element
in business strategy (Gitman, McDaniel and Gitman, 2006). Customer satisfaction is
one of the key indicators for the future of business, as loyal customers ensure a
lasting cash flow for the business in the future (Matzler et al., 1996). An increase in
customer loyalty of 5 per cent can increase profit by 100 per cent (Reichheld and
Sasser, 1990). Satisfied customers are loyal customers and ensure a lasting cash-
flow for the business in the future.

2.7 Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework of a study is the system of concepts, assumptions,


expectations, beliefs and theories that support and inform the research:a key part of
the design (Miles and Huberman, 1994; Robson, 2011). Miles and Huberman (1994)
defined the conceptual framework as a graphical or narrative form indicating the
importance of key factors and concepts and their relationships. In addition, Berger et
al.s (2002) framework develops the idea of a framework to assess customer
database creation. Purchasing forecasting and marketing resource allocation affects
a customers lifetime value to the firm. CRM is organised as a series of events that
are clustered together, in the context of this study (Lawson-Body and Limayern,
2004). The conceptual framework for this study is adapted from Lawson-Body and
Limayern (2004). This conceptual framework will have a significant impact on the link
between CRM (partnerships, empowerment, relations with customers and
personalisation), and loyalty.

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Customer Prospecting

Customer Relationship Management Practices

Relationship with Understanding Employee Personalisation


customers customer expectations empowerment

Interactive
Management Partnership

Customer Satisfaction

Customer Prospecting
Customer prospecting is a term that refers to different means employed to track,
locate and attract new customers (Reinartz and Kumar, 2003; Shultz, 1995). Many
organisations develop databases that contain detailed interaction data on customers,
as well as on prospects (Thomas, 2001). The concept of CRM is understood in terms
of loyalty scale, leading from the customer prospect, through customer, client and
supporter to partner (Payne, 2004).

Relations with Customers


The relationship with the customer component of CRM demonstrates the extent to
which the firm initiates, develops, maintains and improves relationships with other
organisations. (Berry et al., 1991; Gronroos, 1990; Heide, 1994; Jackson et al.,
1985; Morgan et al., 1994; Nevin, 1995; Peterson, 1995; Reinartz and Kumar, 2003).
In most of the literature, the concept of relationships with customers also relates to
customer loyalty (Chow and Holden, 1997). Firms are oriented towards the benefits
that can be reaped from the construction of customer loyalty (Lawson-Body and
Limayern, 2004).

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Partnerships
Partnerships are created with suppliers when they work together closely and
customise their traditional product or services, leading to durable relationships
between suppliers and customers (Evans and Laskin, 1994; Payne ,1994). A five-
stage model has been developed by Wilson (1995) that is devoted to the explanation
of CRM process phases, in which he considers Partnership as the first step of the
CRM process (Lawson-Body and Limayern, 2004).

Interactive Management
In CRM functions, Interactive Management is the key aspect (Gronroos, 1994). It is
based on the actions designed to transform the prospective customer who is in
contact with the business representative into an active and effective client (Dufour
and Maisonnas, 1997). These concepts are based on reciprocity, an important
dimension of CRM (Bitner, 1995; Gummesson, 1994; Nevin, 1995). Customer
feedback is at the core of Interactive Management (Evans and Laskin, 1994).

Understanding Customer Expectations


This concept highlights the importance of identifying the customers desires and
providing the expected product and services (Evans and Laskin, 1994; Szeinbach,
Barnes, and Garner, 1997) and helps in understanding the expectations of the
strategy adopted by an organisation to grasp and gain further knowledge of
customer expectations, in order to provide the best service to secure their loyalty.

Empowerment
Empowerment is the process that firms adopt to encourage and reward employees
who make a valuable contribution towards doing their utmost to help customers
solve their problem (Evans and Laskins, 1994; Hertzberg, 2003). Reichheld (2001)
reports in his research that he has not encountered an organisation that has
achieved high customer loyalty without fostering similar loyalty in their employees.
As seen, most businesses prefer to deal with regular customers, as they understand
them better in order to serve them, and this requires fewer changes to their initial
request (Bendapudi and Leone, 2002; Chow and Holden, 1997).

21
Personalisation
This is the extent to which an organisation assigns one business representative to
cater to a customer and builds or designs specific products for specific customers
(Lawson-Body and Limayern, 2004). Schuber (2003) states in a journal that
personalisation is about selecting and filtering information for a company by using
information about the specific customers profile. John (2007) also mentions that
technology can be vital with CRM assistance for providing a portal with personalised
access through which customer complaints or orders can be managed.

2.8 eCRM an evolving part of CRM

The differences between CRM and eCRM are subtle but important. (Sachan, 2015).
As the internet is integrating with businesses, many organisations consider this as an
opportunity to reduce customer service costs, tighten up customer relationships and
provide personalised marketing, and enable mass customisation. In coordination
with Sales Force Automation (SFA) that enables a firm to gather data and analyse
customer information, a similar trend has been seen in CRM, now called eCRM. The
challenge here is to provide communication and information based on customers
requirements, in the right amount and within a timescale that fits the specific needs
(Itinfo.am, 2015). Sachan (2015) does not think there are differences between CRM
and eCRM when considering the strategic perspective. They are both concepts with
the overall goal of increasing the customer lifetime value, aiming to increase
customer retention and decrease service cost. He also indicates that conventional
ways are often time-centric, but eCRM allows an organisation to interact in real time
(Sachan, 2015). eCRM allows customers to access company services from more
and more places, since internet access points are increasing day by day (Sachan,
2015). Finally, the technology used should be easy and affordable: as has been said,
just make sure youre a good carpenter before buying the latest hammer
(Thompson, 2005)

2.9 Technological factor in implementation of CRM

The technology requirements to implement the CRM strategy can be complex and
far-reaching (Philip, Bligh and Turk, 2004). If data is to be used it has to be clean and

22
timely and the impression should be gained that the organisation has extensive data
on their customers (Anon, 2002; Abbot, 2001:184). It has been suggested that
organisations are not ready to implement CRM, as the quality of their data is not up
to standard (Abbott, 2001;183). A number of technologies can be identified to
implement and develop a CRM strategy (Xu & Walton, 2005; Zaayman, 2004; Chen
& Popovich, 2003; META Group, 1999).

The three main components of CRM systems can be identified:

Operational CRM Business Operation Management


This refers to customer-facing applications such as sales force automation,
marketing automation and customer service and support (Chen and Popovich,
2003;672). Customer call centres are also a component of operational CRM, as all
interactions enable the organisation to gather data on the consumer to track (Xu &
Walton, 2005:960; Anon, 2000). Despite the fact that call centres are the dominant

23
form of operation for CRM, in research it was found that only 40 per cent of
organisations had implemented this in the UK (Abbott, 2001:184).

Analytical CRM Business Performance Management


This analyses the data created through operational CRM to build an image of the
customer. It acts as a data warehouse that stores the customers information from
capturing, storage, extraction, processing, interpretation and reporting (Xu & Walton,
2005:961). As a result, the organisation is able to examine customer behavioural
patterns to develop marketing and promotional strategies (Xu & Walton, 2005:961).
In research conducted in the UK, 25 per cent of organisations used analytical CRM
(Xu & Walton, 2005:960).

Collaborative CRM Business Collaboration Management


This uses new and traditional technologies to interact with the organisation (Meta
Group, 1999). Collaborative CRM allows a better response to the needs of the
customer as it interacts with all the members in the supply chain, such as suppliers
or partners (Xu & Walton, 2005:961). It also involves channel strategies that act as
touch point between the customer and the channel (Shahnam, 2000:3).

24
Methodology

The third chapter provides an overview of the way this study was undertaken. It
outlines the study area, case study, sampling, method of data collection,
instrumentations and finally data presentation and analyses.

3.1 Introduction

This chapter describes the methodology adopted to collect and analyse data in order
to fulfil the research objectives, and is divided into the following: study area,
population, sampling procedure and research instruments. The research design
consists of blueprints for data collection, measurement and data analysis (Cooper
and Schindler, 2011). It offers the plan and the structure for obtaining information for
the research study (Ibid).

3.2 Profile of the study area

Saudi Arabia has become the new booming market and auto manufacturing hub for
the Middle East (U.S.-Saudi Arabian Business Council, 2013). As vehicle sales are
booming, vehicle manufacturers are also giving Saudi Arabia a new look. Saudi
Arabia is currently the largest importer of vehicles and auto parts in the Middle East,
accounting for 760,000 units of sales. Driving this demand is a rising level of
disposable income and a younger population: more than 60 per cent of the
population is under 30 years of age. The Saudi government has planned to support
original equipment manufacturers to establish their manufacturing facilities. It has
placed the strategy for this sector as one of the five priorities in the national cluster
development strategy. Saudi Arabia also offers tax-free access to the countries in
the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The GCC accounts for 1.2 million vehicles, all
imported from outside the Middle East. Fostering a pro-business tax and regulatory

25
environment, the Kingdom is trying to attract OEMs and foreign investment. Saudi
Arabia has liberalised the automotive sector with its commitments to the WTO (World
Trade Organisation) by allowing 100 per cent ownership to companies, plant,
equipment, projects and property (U.S.-Saudi Arabian Business Council, 2013).

3.3 Case Study Profile

Hino Motors Ltd. (HML) was founded in Japan on 1st August, 1910 and established
in 1942 with paid-in capital of 72,717 million yen. Its products are trucks and buses,
commercial vehicles, passenger vehicles (commissioned for Toyota Motor
Corporation), engines, spare parts etc. Its present President is Yasuhiko Ichihashi.
They hold the highest market share of 31.5 per cent in the local market in Japan
(Shimbu, 2015). In Saudi Arabia, HML is operated under Jamjoom Vehicles and
Equipment (JVE) and in partnership with Toyota Tsusho Corporation (TTC) and
Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC). JVE is a company under parent Jamjoom Group
that is more than 100 years old. JVE was established in 1972. It has around 250
employees. It has its presence in all the provinces in Saudi Arabia. The company
has been the largest seller of Hino Trucks in the Middle East for 42 years. They have
won their 6th straight championship in the under 10-liter Class of Truck Category
(Hino-global.com, 2015). Hino Trucks has been ranked highest in customer
satisfaction for five consecutive years by J.D. Power and Associates. (For
Construction Pros.com, 2013). Hino Motors Ltd. has Sales, Marketing, After Sales,
Service, Call Centre, Finance and Human Resource departments. The company is
focused on taking this custom of customer satisfaction a step further by making total
customer delight the focal point in its activities (Jamjoom.com, 2014). Although Hino
Motors Ltd. is not the only automotive company in Saudi Arabia, it was chosen
because Saudi Arabia is the largest market for Hino Motors Ltd. in the Middle East.
They have been in the business for more than 40 years, and have the highest-selling
Medium Duty Truck in its class. They have been facing challenges, as its competitor
ISUZU has 60 per cent approximately of market share and maintains its dominance
in Saudi Arabia. (ISUZU, 2014)

3.4 Sampling Procedure

26
Saunder and Thornhill (2007) defined a population or a target population as the
entire set of a population, individuals and elements that meet the sampling criteria.
This study is constituted of customers and staff of Hino Motors Ltd. in Saudi Arabia.
The total strength of the staff in the organisation is around 250 employees. There are
in total 800 active customers in Saudi Arabia. The population will cover the present
corporate and individual customers. The study could not cover the entire population
so I have selected a sample due to these limitations. Many researchers argue that
using sampling makes it possible to achieve a higher overall accuracy than using a
whole population (Yin, 1994). The smaller sample for data collection means that
more time can be spent designing and piloting the means of collecting data. The
collection of data from fewer cases also means that is more detailed (Saunder et al.,
2007). In this case, sampling serves a practical purpose for the study: the adopted
sampling method was due to available sample size, time and financial restraints. The
sampling criteria used for the selection of the population refer to the characteristics
that led to the selection of the correspondents in the sample.

Sample criteria for this study were:


1. Diversity: Staff should range from low to senior management. In addition,
people from all the departments should participate (Sales, Marketing, Service
and Spare Parts).
2. Language: English was a strong recommendation.
3. Relationship with the company: Work experience of a minimum of three years
was considered for staff experience, and from the customer perspective, one
year has been taken into consideration.

Based on the above criteria, a sample size of 30 has been selected. In this sample
size, 25 customers were surveyed and 5 employees were interviewed. The
customers were picked randomly from the corporate and individual category in the
Hino Motors Ltd. customer database and the employees were selected from different
departments to understand from a wider scope. The interviews varied in time period
from 20 to 25 minutes, as limited by Hino Motors Ltd. The sampling method used
was a non-probability as the researcher was bounded by time, money and sample
size. As it was impossible to randomly sample the entire population mix, for
convenience a quote sampling technique was used by the researcher to ensure

27
equal proportionate representation of subjects. The researcher assessed all risk of
bias in the study. Bryman and Bell (2003) state that highly-structured interviews are
an alternative when conducting interviews, as this increases the validity, since the
same questions are asked to all respondents. On the other hand, the highly-
structured approach neglects the opportunity to ask follow-up questions to explore
new topics, so semi-structured interviews were conducted for this study. The author
wanted to decrease the risk of gaining too much information. Semi-structured means
that questions were pre-prepared from prior understanding (Bryman and Bell, 2003).
Semi-structured was appropriate, as all respondents held different positions and
were working with CRM in different ways. It has been declared that semi-structured
questions are more appropriate when considering company and individual
perceptions (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe and Lowe, 1991). It gives the opportunity to
understand underlying meanings such as their inflection of voice, and to pursue
follow-up questions. Several questions were asked, and the author felt that
respondent showed interest hence to enrich the qualitative and quantitative data.

3.5 Research Questions

1. How does the customer perceive the level of CRM practices in Hino Motors
Ltd?
2. How does the customer rate the levels of customer service in Hino Motors
Ltd?
3. How do the staff of Hino Motors Ltd. perceive the challenge of CRM practices
on customer satisfaction?
4. What are the strategies to improve in Hino Motors Ltd.?

3.6 Method of Data Collection

The researcher had been given access by the respective manager and head of the
Marketing, Sales, Service and Human Resources departments. The customer was
informed that they would be contacted after the data was collected from the
University. A letter was provided to Hino Motors Ltd. about the purpose of the study.

28
Any social researcher must provide the respondent with their intentions and provide
clear objectives, guided by research ethics (Saunder and Thornhill, 2007). The
respondents were informed about their following rights:

Scientific objective: All the data, regardless of whether it is unsupportive and


negative has been included. All factors such as personal values and biases have
been considered, that might impact the outcome.

Protection: The researcher has considered the respondents discomfort and provided
them with the option to terminate the interview at any time they wish (Saunders and
Thornhill, 2007).

Anonymity: The respondents were assured that their confidentiality would be


preserved regarding their views and experience. All information would treated as
highly confidential.

Integrity: The researcher has not suppressed any information about possible risk,
discomfort or benefits, to misrepresent the study of these matters.

Blumberg et al., (2011) mention that research can be classified into three categories,
namely: exploratory, descriptive or causal purposes depending on the type of
question the researcher seeks to uncover. The study conducted was an exploratory
study in the automotive industry. The researcher will follow a deductive approach.
The point of departure for the case study was to match the customer satisfaction so
the data was purely qualitative. Qualitative research is a holistic approach that
involves discovery. Bryman (2001) defined it as a strategy that places emphasis on
words, feelings and perception rather than the collection and analysis of data.

According to Cooper and Schindler (2011), there are various qualitative techniques
through which data can be collected: questionnaires or surveys, interviews, case
studies or observation. The data collected for the study was based on customer
satisfaction and loyalty. The type of data collected was on customer satisfaction,
customer relationship practices and relationship management, where the scope was
how well a product and service measured up to the expectations of the customer.

29
The data collected in the research was comprised of both primary and secondary.
The primary data collected was for a specific purpose and was obtained from
surveys and interviews. The survey was used for the customers, as the sample size
was large and the questions were arranged to understand an overall view based on
the research questions. The interviews were designed for the employees of HML
with closed- and open-ended questions, in order to discuss in depth. The secondary
data collected was from annual reports, textbooks, journals, magazines, forums,
research and marketing publishing and websites. These were gathered from Royal
Holloway, University of London library and different departments of Hino Motors Ltd.
in Saudi Arabia.

3.7 Instrumentations

The major instruments that were used were questionnaires, semi-structured


interviews and open observation. The analysis used was a mix of qualitative and
quantitative. As Donald and Schindler (2000) define it, a questionnaire is a set of
formal questions for the respondents to answer. The use of questionnaire is common
as a research method, as it is an efficient means to collect statistical and quantifiable
information (Ackroyd and Hughes, 1981). The questionnaire was conducted
electronically via secured form. As Boshier (1990) claims, it constitutes an ideal
speech situation free of coercion and provides an equal opportunity and reciprocity
expected by participants. The researcher focused on questions pertaining to the
research study and diversified by adding open and closed questions. Semi-
structured interviews were conducted as this enables respondents to communicate
freely. Semi-structured interviews can yield valuable information if factors such as
who conducted the interview, where they take place and how information should be
recorded and analysed are considered (Saunder et al., 2007). The semi-structured
interview was conducted with the staff of the organisation. Open observation was
also used. The observations during the interview make good field notes. Field notes
should indicate the views the researcher sees, thinks and experiences. In this study
the researcher recorded observation and personal field notes during interviews.

30
3.8 Data Presentation and Analysis

Data analysis focuses on data that is in the form of words and numeric or
mathematical inference. It can be categorised into both qualitative and qualitative
analysis. The analysis is based on three concurrent flows of activities:
Data Condensation
Data Display
Conclusion Drawing/verification
(Jonker and Pennink, 2010)
The complete information from the questionnaire and interviews was checked for its
accuracy. In facilitating comparisons, a Google form was used and statistical
techniques are used to present data. As the sample of the population with variables
was small, Microsoft Excel was used to analyse the data.

31
Results and Findings

In this chapter on the data analysis and findings, the literature on customer
relationship management with be used to compare the findings from the study area.
It will also present the data and analyse the findings from the questionnaire and the
interviews conducted with the customers and the staff.

4.1 Introduction

This research evaluates the effect of customer relationship management on


customer knowledge and customer value. As many researchers have suggested,
firms should reorient their operations towards the creation and delivery of superior
customer value if they want to improve CRM performance (Jensen, 2001; Day 1994;
Slater, 1997). Analysis of the data is important to be able to understand and interpret
the results, discuss them and draw conclusions. The findings are reported with
respect to the evidence based on the questions asked to guide the study. The
research is purely descriptive, and to evaluate statistics, percentages were used to
form tables, charts and graphs. Any social research should keep in mind the sample
size based on the population to ensure sufficient responses for the margin of error
required in research (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007). Non-response will
increase the necessity for extra respondents and increases the cost of data
collection. As Seth and Parvatiyar (2000) suggest, non-response is due to four
interrelated problems: refusal to respond, ineligibility to respond, inability to locate
respondents and respondents unable to make contact. As suggested by Neuman
and Neuman (2000), the response rate should be total responses/total sample size x
100. As per the equation, the response rate was 96.77 per cent. The 3.22 per cent of
the sample size was not part of the analyses due to being unable to make contact
and inability to locate the respondent.

4.2 Demographics of the Respondents

32
Neuman and Neuman (2000) reinforce the importance of the demographic
environment for market research, as it involves people, the key factor that makes up
the markets.
The most noticeable demographic trends in markets include gender, education, age,
profession and marital status (Stephan and Levin, 1992). This study only examined
the gender and level of education of the respondents.

4.2.1 Gender of Customers and Employees

Gender
30

25

20

15

10

0
MALE FEMALE

Figure 4.2.1 Graph showing the gender of respondents


(Syed Zafir Momin, 2015)

The importance of the Graph 4.2.1 is to understand the gender composition of this
industry. It was revealed that there was gender inequality. All the employees and
customers of the total population were men. The study shows that there is gender
inequality in the automotive industry. This might be due to the strict regulations of
Saudi Arabia in relation to recruiting women and the technical nature of the job that
requires physical strength. It was revealed that there were no female staff in Human
Resources, customer relations or operations. It is essential to understand the
importance of diversity in the automotive industry. As gender diversity is associated
with increased sales revenue, more customers and greater relative profits, in the
study by Herring (2009) he acknowledges that the industrial sector does not vary
greatly by gender diversity, except in retail and manufacturing

33
4.2.2 Education status of respondents

Education
Status Customers
Post Graduate 24%
Graduate 64%
Diploma 8%
Other 4%
Figure 4.2.2.2 Source: Numeric representation of the figure 2.0
(Syed Zafir Momin, 2015)

Customer education is essential for decision-making as it is an important factor for


the confidence and expectation from the vendor as it reveals more concrete
expectations and defines his requirements (Stephan and Levin, 1992). In totality, 60
per cent of the respondents held a graduate degree and above. The table also
shows that the total of postgraduates was 24 per cent. The interviewers were all
qualified with a minimum of a diploma and the majority of them were postgraduates.
Overall, the respondents had tertiary qualifications from universities and colleges.
This indicates that the management had been able to recruit the required workforce
to implement its strategy and policies on CRM practices.

4.2.3 Working experience of Staff

Work Experience - Employee

9 and above

6 - 9 years

3 - 6 years

0 - 3 years

0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45%

34
Source: This graph highlights the span of work experience
(Syed Zafir Momin, 2015)

In this study we are able to conclude that Hino Motors Ltd. has well-experienced staff
as 80 per cent of the staff have been working for more than six years in the
company. It also highlights that 40 per cent of the staff have been working for nine or
more years in the company. It is because this industry relies on experienced and
competent staff to manage the operations in the company. Technical knowledge is
very important in this sector and experience sharpens the knowledge they have
gained from various tertiary institutions. As Lowenstein (2003) has emphasised in a
journal article, it is important to measure staff loyalty and alignment, not staff
satisfaction. As the staff of the organisation are so close to its customers, and so
involved with creating and sustaining loyalty behaviour, the stakes are very high.

4.3 CRM practices in Hino Motor Ltd Saudi Arabia

Researchers have developed theories for the effects of CRM application in


marketing and information systems with little progress towards empirical findings
(Jayachandran et al. 2005; Reinartz, Krafft, and Hoyer 2004; Romano, Nicholas and
Fjermestad 2003; Srinivasan and Moorman 2005), so there is limited knowledge
about the effects of CRM applications on a firms customer knowledge and customer
satisfaction (Mithas, Krishnan and Fornell, 2005). As many researchers assure us,
although CRM can improve the performance of an organisation very few practical
guidelines are known to direct the design and implementation (Kotler, 1991). There
has been no research published on the impact of CRM on customer satisfaction in
the automotive industry in Saudi Arabia. It has been an important factor for the
managers and researchers to recognise the importance of retaining and assessing
its customers.

4.3.1 Customers assessment of the relationship with staff of Hino Motor Ltd.

35
80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Very cordial Cordial Unpleasant Very Unpleasant

Figure 4.3.1 (Syed Zafir Momin, 2015)

The data indicated that only five per cent (5%) of the customers of HML found it
unpleasant and zero per cent (0%) felt that personnel were very unpleasant. On the
other hand, seventy-two per cent (72%) of the customers felt that they were cordial
and twenty-four per cent (24%) very cordial with the personnel. As we have
discussed in chapter 1.2, customer satisfaction is the key point of differentiation and
a major part of business strategy (Gitman, McDaniel and Gitman, 2006). This shows
that the company is in a better position to deploy CRM practices to leverage their
stock of accumulated knowledge and experience into its customer support that can
benefit them in increasing their market share. It also suggests in the study that
customer satisfaction will have an effect on its CRM application as CRM enables
firms to customise and improve the reliability of its offerings and help them manage
customer relationships more effectively across different stages of the relationship
(Reinartz et al.,2004).

4.3.2 Customers perception of management responsiveness

As there are many competitors in the automotive market gaining a competitive edge
it is very important for the management to identify efforts to provide excellence in
service to meet or exceed their requirements in delivering. CRM enables firms to
improve the reliability of consumption by facilitating orders of the product and
services in a timely manner to the customers.

36
Customers perception of management responsiveness

INDIVIDUAL

Very Quickly Quickly Slowly Very Slowly

Figure 4.3.2.1 (Syed Zafir Momin, 2015)

CORPORATE

Very Quickly Quickly Slowly Very Slowly

Figure 4.3.2.2 (Syed Zafir Momin, 2015)

The data was divided into corporate and individual customers, to understand the
detail in figure 4.3.2.1 and 4.3.2.2. We are able to understand that HML was able to
respond to its individual customers quickly, as the survey indicates, by forty-two per
cent (42%) of individual customers but on the other hand, forty-six per cent (46%)
customers from the corporate category said they found the response to be slow.

37
There was a great disparity between the customers that rated such management
responsiveness. The implications are that HML should come up with better policies
and an active response to fulfil the customers requests. As discussed in chapter 1.8,
the challenge is to provide the right information within the right time to fulfil the
customers needs (Itinfo.am, 2015). It is important for the management to understand
the customers requirements to improve their services related to the responsiveness
to customers needs. In the Lawson-Body and Limayern (2004) five-stage model
Understanding customers expectations emphasises the importance of identifying
the customers desires in providing products and services (Evans and Laskin, 1994;
Szeinbach, Barnes, and Garner, 1997) as it helps in adopting its CRM strategy for
the organisation.

I N F O R M E D A B O U T C H A N G E S I N S E R V I C E A N D P R O D U C T
40%

32%

24%
4%

VERY OFTEN OFTEN SOMETIMES NOT AT ALL

Figure 4.3.2.4 Informed changes about the product and services to the customers
(Syed Zafir Momin, 2015)

In addition, in figure 4.3.2.4 only four per cent (4%) of the customers were actively
informed about the changes in service and product, as most of the customers were
not informed proactively and twenty-four per cent (24%) were not informed at all
about the changes in their product and services: this is a major limitation identified in
the study.

38
4.3.3 Rating Information and communication technology (ICT) in Hino Motor Ltd

Very Satisfactory
8%

Satisfied
Not satisfactory
36%
56%

Very Satisfactory Satisfied Not satisfactory

Figure 4.4.1 Customer rating ICT of HML (Syed Zafir Momin, 2015)

Knowledge of customer behaviour enables firms to analyse and target its customers
based on their experience of the perceived value of the firms offering and helps to
avoid losing loyalty to another competitor. It is important for the automotive
companies to derive competitive advantage by acquiring cumulative customer
knowledge available to manage and provide solutions using its internal information.
Customers responded with fifty-six per cent (56%) opting for not satisfactory. Ashar
(2015) points out that the back-end system is not integrated. As suggested,
integrating IT systems in a firms value chain is important to utilise the full benefit of
sharing information and data completeness (Brohman at al., 2003; Gosain, Malhotra
and El Sawy, 2005; Rai, Patnayakuni and Patnayakuni, 2005). It has been noted that
IT-enabled data is critical for efficient forecasting and to design an agile supply chain
through management processes (Fisher, Raman and McClelland, 2000). In relation
to this inference, the study agrees that the interweaving of IT across the supply chain
creates value, enabling the members of the supply chain to respond to the needs of
the customers. Creating an IT infrastructure also enables the organisation to
leverage their resources to tackle the customers evolving needs. As industry
observers have noted, failure to address CRM is due to the propensity of
organisations to ignore important data transformation and convergence processes

39
including transaction, interaction and networked touch points (Swift and Ronald,
2002). Thus, firms with an integrated supply chain benefit from their CRM application
to enhance their knowledge of customers.

4.3.4 Disseminating information on customers among departments.

As information sharing is a very vital part of CRM, if limited knowledge is shared


across via CRM applications it affects the firms CRM strategy. This is an important
part of the operation as it provides details of customer habits and preferences. In
chapter 1.5 it is highlighted that CRM integrates and provides an overview of the
customer with data sharing. In the study, Ashar (2015) said that they are sharing
information across the departments in HML. As Kohli and Jaworski (1990)
emphasise, dissemination of intelligence across departments develops market
knowledge which can be used to guide strategy recognition (Walters and Tang,
2006).

4.3.5 Staff initiatives in attending to customer needs

In the study it was established that only management and some junior level staff
were allowed to take initiative in attending to customer needs and the rest had to
consult the management. In chapter 1.7, it is stated that empowerment is a process
that firms adopt to encourage and reward employees who help solve customer
problems (Evans and Laskins, 1994; Hertzberg, 2003). Reichheld (2001) reports that
he has not encountered any organisation that has achieved high customer loyalty
without fostering similar loyalty in employees.

4.3.6 Improving relationship with customers

Using a customer database in enhancing the relationship

As firms have moved from brand to customer oriented, they have recognised the
importance of managing customer relationships and understanding the product and
service as a customer asset. As referred to in chapter 1.2, Doyle and Doyle (2015)
claim that CRM holds vital information through customer databases,

40
communications, and social media profiling etc. and acts as a colossal brain or hub:
an application through which everyone can attain information. As argued by Hogan,
Lemon and Rust (2002), the key to competitive advantage is in the ability to acquire,
manage and model customer information. In the interview with Ashar (2015) the
database is missing much vital information regarding the customers and needs to be
modified or updated in relation to the information. Mahmood (2015) also
acknowledged that as CRM was implemented recently, it is lacking historical data, so
the reports generated are not accurate. As argued by Bligh, Philip and Turk (2004) to
bring about effectiveness CRM strategy needs to capture information accurately. In
the study it was acknowledged that the information was not updated proactively, and
that will affect the CRM strategy of the company. There has been very limited
research on the role and contribution of CRM applications in managing customers,
especially in the automotive industry. Researchers in marketing and information
systems have developed theories of the effect of CRM applications but limited
evidence of empirical validation. Berger et al. (2002) developed a framework to
understand the three key factors that effect the lifetime value of the firms database
creation, marketing segmentation and marketing resource allocation.

4.4 Level of customer satisfaction of CRM practices in the study area

4.4.1 Customers rating of customer service in Hino Motors Ltd.

This study aims to analyse the customers rating of service delivery in the automotive
industry. This was important, as in todays business management recognises that
customers are the core of the business and success is achieved by managing
relationships with them effectively. Ehrenberg and Scriven (1999) mention that
customers act rationally: that means they will choose goods and services to
maximise total satisfaction and total utility. The quality of services is a critical
success factor for existing service companies. Customer satisfaction is one of the
key indicators for the future of a business as it reinforces the loyalty of the customer
(Matzler et al., 1996). In the study it was found that sixty-four per cent (64%) found
that the offered services were satisfactory and only twenty-four per cent (25%) found
it that it was not to their expectations. Ashar (2015) said that the goal is to achieve
90% service rate, but they are only partially able to get this done. This also study

41
shows that 68% of the customers found that the services were tailored to their needs
and only 32% found it not to be up to their expectations. In relation to this, if
customer loyalty is increased by 5%, it can increase profits by 100% (Reichheld and
Sasser, 1990).

70% 64%

60%

50%

40%

30% 24%

20%
12%
10%

0%
Very Satisfied Satisfied Not Satisfied

Figure 4.4.1 Rating customer service of Hino Motor Ltd.


(Syed Zafir Momin, 2014)

4.4.2 Customers response to the product offering in Hino Motor Ltd.

If customer knowledge taken across services encounters can be made available for
future transactions, that enables employees to respond to any consumers needs
(Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 2000). Organisations can also use customer knowledge
to profile customers and identify their needs on the basis of similarities between their
purchasing behaviour and those from similar segments. Also, they can share their
acquired information to enable customers to serve themselves by defining the
service and its needs. It is an extent when organisation assigns representatives to
cater a customer and provide personalisation for specific customers (Lawson-Body
and Limayern, 2004) (Refer to Chapter 1.7 for a detailed framework).

Customer response to product(s) offering in Hino Motor Ltd

42
40%

60%

YES NO

Figure 4.4.1 Services and Product tailored to customer needs


(Syed Zafir Momin, 2014)
The idea was to find out from the customers of the industry about their thoughts on
the products or services offered. Competition has become a major challenge faced
by companies, due to globalisation and liberalisation (Akaba, Ocloo and Worwui-
Brown, 2014). Products or services need to be adaptable to the customers needs. It
has been noted by many researchers that is is cheaper to retain present customers
then to recruit a new customer (Massari, Donio and Passiante, 2006). Kotler (1991)
explored this in more detail, suggesting that it is wise to satisfy and establish better
relationships with customers than to attract new ones, as retaining customers
contributes much more revenue than finding new customers. Consistent with this,
Sheth, Parvatiyar and Shainesh (2001) indicate that CRM is a comprehensive
strategy and process of acquiring, retaining and partnering with selective customers
to create superior value for the company and customers. In the study it was
demonstrated that sixty per cent (60%) of the customers found the product as they
needed, with only forty per cent (40%) saying that it did not meet their expectations.
In the follow-up question to provide a reason, they mentioned that the time taken to
service a vehicle was longer than the competitors. They also mentioned the limited
variant in their Medium duty class vehicles, and the lack of the possibility to provide
lower wheel base trucks as offered by competitors, and the limited flexible finance
scheme.

43
4.4.3 Means of channelling complaints

The importance in choosing the most appropriate channelling strategy for customer
complaints is vital for organisations and they must enhance the CRM policies and
practices. The study indicates that real value lies in the collection of customer
complaints and sharing the information. It was revealed that the company had a toll
free line, suggestion box, customer support desk and email. It was also
acknowledged that sometimes management response to following up complaints
was not resolved and was time-consuming.

4.4.4 Managing customer and complaints

Managing complaints is a crucial variable as it decides the long term retention of


customers. It has been assumed that product and service quality is directly related to
the retention of the customers.

Managing complaints in Hino Motors Limited

The data was analysed based on three parameters of how and what complaints
were received from customers and the measures that were taken to solve them. The
analysis disclosed that often complaints were received by the staff in Hino Motor Ltd.
As mentioned in the table, these complaints were divided based on the departments
sales, service and spare parts (Fig. 4.4.4). Most of the complaints were related to
after-sales support, as mentioned in the following survey.

Customer Complaints - Hino Motor Ltd


Sales Service Spare part
After-sales related Request for damages that Issues with slow moving
1 issues 1 are not claimed under 1 parts
warranty
Product expensive Corporate customers Delay in delivery if part is
2 compared to the 2 requesting for 2 not available in Middle
competitors replacement under East office

44
Issues related to long warranty for damages by Parts expensive compared
3 3
term leasing leasing abusive driver to competitors
Figure 4.4.4 Hino Motor Ltd complaints from customers to employee
(Syed Zafir Momin, 2014)

Complaints Resolutions - Hino Motor Ltd


Sales Service Sparepart
Directed to department Providing service Using premium freight
1 heads if not solved in 2 1 contracts to maintain the 1 services for urgent request
weeks vehicles spares
Providing competitive Providing better price to Using "Kaizen" in part
2 2
prices case by case satisfy customers department
Partnering with Financial 2 Improving the prices
3 Leasing company for 3 compared to the competitor
long term lease quarterly basis
Figure 4.4.4 Hino Motor Ltd solutions to complaints
(Syed Zafir Momin, 2014)

HML has also started a programme called Voice of the Customer: the programme
consists of multiple teams working across the organisation capturing feedback with
various channels to support their departments (HML Report, Report 01). It also
stated that in future plans from the management it was planned that Hino Motors Ltd.
will move to a Total Support Strategy. In this they are committing to ongoing efforts
along with maximizing customers up-time and minimising the life cycle costs (HML
Report, Report 01). In chapter 1.7, John (2007) and Schuber (2003) also mention
that technology can be vital for CRM assistance, so that personalised access for
customer complaints or orders can be managed.

4.4.5 Customer switching

Customer satisfaction may reduce the costs related to warranties, complaints,


defects related to goods and field service costs (Fornell, 1992). As stated by
business analysts, the cost of recruiting a new customer is five times more than

45
retaining an existing customer (Barsky 1994; Reichheld and Sassar, 1990).
Continuing customers save cost on various factors:
Advertising to entice new customers
Personal selling pitch to new prospects
Setting up accounts
Providing business procedures to new customers
Inefficient dealings during the learning process

NO

YES

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%

Figure 4.4.5 Rating of the probability of customer switching


(Syed Zafir Momin, 2014)

Loyal customers profit the organisation by saving on initial costs. Their loyalty
increases and they focus towards dealing with limited or single suppliers and
maintaining a comprehensive product. The longer the firm can retain its customers,
the greater the life cycle of revenues. As revenues increase, the cost of serving the
customer declines. Customer retention is an important source for long-term business
success. In Hino Motors it was acknowledged from the survey that seventy-six per
cent (76%) of the customers had no intention of moving to competitors. Only twenty-
four per cent (24%) had such future intentions. The response indicates that
companies need to realise the value of keeping customers loyal by providing tailored
products and services. Since it is known that dissatisfaction causes disloyalty, the
foregoing analysis also indicates that limited CRM practices could cause
dissatisfaction. Hino Motors Ltd. need to consider the responses and develop
measures to fulfil their needs in order to retain them.

46
4.5 Strategies to improve on customer relation

The critical factor in improving a CRM strategy is to align the CRM initiatives with
their employee and customer objectives (Bowman and Narayandas 2004; Heskett et
et al. 1994; Kamakura et al., 2002). This is not just organisational philosophy but is
based on a comprehensive approach to dealing with clients. In chapter 1.3, as
Gartner (2014) mentioned, from the employees perspective, if strategies are
developed, the leadership and governance must agree upon it as it will lower the
stress of the impact of change management upon employees. This is possible with
three main approaches: set the destination, audit the current situation and map the
journey. All individual resources need to be consulted and considered: skills,
resources, competitors, partners and customers. An organisation needs to identify
the maturity of its existing approach to CRM. Hino Motors Limited need to
understand customer equity, as economies are shifted from product focus to
customer focus. As Abdul Wasay (2015) mentions, they are integrating Total
Support Strategy for the future, to leave no customer unsatisfied. Ashraf Mergawi
(2015) said that they are using Voice of the Customer across departments and will
integrate it with a Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) strategy that will help them to satisfy
all customers. Mahmood (2015) said they have implemented Kaizen, a continuous
improvement strategy, in service and spare-parts to improve practices and are also
enhancing their customer profile for better analysis. All of these strategies will
improve the retention of customers in the future. We have seen this in chapter 4.3.2
and 4.3.3 that focus on value equity, as referred to in chapter 1.2 that analyses the
drivers of customer equity. These strategies need to be aligned with the fundamental
business goal, consisting of not only increasing the market share, but also increasing
profitability by understanding the customer. To evaluate the company, there is a
need to understand the most appropriate and effective channels, and these channels
need to be consistently re-evaluated. Recognition of conflicts is not hard, but
improving and creating strategy needs attention and research. Management needs
to use more statistical measurement and analysis to direct discussions, as these are
the characteristics of strong brand (Eechambadi, 2006)

47
Conclusion

The challenge for CRM will be to find the best fit for the organisation based on the
industry in which the firm operates. The CRM strategy needs to drive change in the
organisation, process and technology. In the study area it was established that the
scope of CRM was limited and was not structured: it was lacking information as
Doyle and Doyle (2015) described, and its importance is that it is the colossal brain
or hub for everyone to access information. As this will make a big impact on
customer service, it will make them lose the competitive edge if not addressed. In the
case study in chapter 4.4.5 it was established that 24% of customers were looking
for a shift to competitors. Management needs to understand how to empower their
staff to resolve these issues. In the study of customer rating in chapter 4.4.1
Ehrenberg and Scriven (1999) mention that customers act rationally if goods and
services maximise their total satisfaction and total utility. The employees
acknowledged that they aimed for 90% successful service rate, but were only
partially able to fulfil the demands of the customer.

The quality of the service is a critical factor for future business and present loyalty to
the firm (Matzler et al. 1996). In relation to the issues, they need to understand the
criticality of the time element in responding to customer needs. This will vary with
numerous factors, as indicated across the study. As we have seen in the literature
and the study, the importance of customer equity and its drivers (chapter 1.2) is vital
in relation to chapter 4.3: that there is a gap in understanding their customers. In the
framework used (Refer chapter 2.7) to analyse the present activity in the HML it was found
that from chapter 4.2 and 4.3 analysis that they are lacking in variables understanding
customer exception, Partnership, Personalisation and interactive management. As due to
these factor they are loosing the loyalty of the customer. In the CRM system it was found
that HML was lacking in all Operational, Analytical and Collaborative management (Refer
Chapter 2.9) that will effect its over all CRM strategy. The internal CRM application benefits
as proposed by Chen and Popovich (2003) in chapter 2.5 (Table 2.5) with concerns to the

48
present structure in HML as analysed in chapter 4.3 (Section 4.3.4) it is important for HML
to link it across its departments to use it effectively. The findings also indicate that a
customer relationship management application will have a positive effect on
customer satisfaction in the automotive industry. It has also been established that it
will help firms to manage customer relationships more effectively from initiation
through to maintenance. This was established based on the case study of Hino
Motors Ltd.s responses, especially in the areas of quality of service delivery. In
chapter 4.4.4 it was also established from a report by the firm that they are moving to
a total support strategy to ensure their ongoing efforts to enhance and support
customers. It is analysed that CRM is still in the preliminary stages of adaptation in the
automotive industry as the companies were so product centric they were not able to predict
the competition. As the rising competition has limited the product to outstand against
competitors the companies in the automotive industry need to change their approach to
gain customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Limitation of the Study



The study was limited to the challenges faced by customer relationship management
in the automotive industry in Saudi Arabia. The case of Hino Motors Ltd. was
considered due to availability and cooperation from the management to disclose
information. The major limitation was the budget, limited time, sample size and
resources. As the research was based on the limited study area the discussion is not
focused enough. The limitation of data collection is that the interviews were semi-
structured and short, due to the limited time given by the management; it was not
possible to explore deeply. Also, the willingness of the respondents was relevant, as
English is not their first language. The sample size of the questionnaire needed to be
large to produce results among variables that are significantly different. It broadens
the range of data and forms a better picture for analysis. As the sample size
becomes larger, the smaller the margin of error. As the topic is broad and needed
more research to support arguments, and due to limited study and research in the
automotive industry on CRM this was not possible. As CRM is used in every
company, multiple case studies would have enhanced the horizon of the research
and allowed it to explore in depth each variable found in the literature review. The

49
CRM practices analysed needed the support of more open-ended questions, to
remove the generalisations in the arguments. The research needed to be widened to
understand more parameters, such as barriers to CRM implementation, returns of
CRM and the implications of the procedure.

Recommendations
Based on the study, the following recommendations were put forward.

Operations should be decentralised rather then having a centralised operation


from the Hino Motors Ltd. office in Japan. This factor currently does not augur
well for prompt implementation of initiatives.
Most of the customers appreciated the services in the study, but there were a
certain percentage that wanted to switch firms. This indicates that
management needs to review their policies and practices so as to ensure that
they are fully customer-centred.
Information and communication technology should be used across the staff to
enable them to use the active database to facilitate customers interactions
and to ensure customer satisfaction in this age of growing competition.
The importance of CRM practices and policies in the firm needs to be in line
with the customers expectations and needs to be revised periodically to
ensure the satisfaction of the customers.
Information dissemination is an important factor: if not done actively it will
affect customer satisfaction as it complements the supply chain of the firm.
CRM facilities need to be used effectively for the projection of various patterns
through various reporting systems. In the case of the study, the information is
now actively updated and that will affect the CRM strategy of the organisation.
Any changes or innovation should be introduced to enhance the trust and
loyalty of customers. It was acknowledged by the Hino Motors Ltd. customers
that this is a crucial limitation.
Customer fora should be planned periodically in order to understand the
problems and needs of customers. It will complement the Voice of the
Customer programme in the firm.

50
Suggestion for future research
The following suggestion are made for future research interest in this study:

The impact of information and communication technology in enhancing


customer relationship management practices in the automotive industry.
Techniques for analysing the impact of customer relationship management.
Strategic issues in e-CRM in the automotive industry. There is still a need for
empirical studies in this industry.
Limitations of gender diversity in the automotive industry.

51



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64



APPENDICES

Appendix A - Hino Report, Middle 2015


65



66
Appendix B Questionnaire and Interview



Questionnaire

67

68




69
Interview

70





71
Appendix C Consent Forms


Project title

Challenges of customer relationship management (CRM): A study of Hino Motor Ltd.


Saudi Arabia

Researchers name

Syed Zafir Momin

Supervisors name

Dr. Olga Kravets

I understand the purpose of the research project and my involvement in it.


I understand that I may withdraw from the research project at any stage. and that this will
not affect my status now or in the future.
I understand that while information gained during the study may be published, I will not
be identified and my personal results will remain confidential.
I understand that I will be audiotaped / videotaped during the interview. {Omit this point
if the interview will not be taped}
I understand that I may contact the researcher or supervisor if I require further
information about the research.

Signed

Print name Date

Contact details

Researcher: syed.momin.2014@live.rhul.ac.uk

Supervisor: olga.kravets@rhul.ac.uk

(Approvals listed below via e-mail)

72
Syed)Zar)Momin Saturday,)29)August)2015)13:20:48)Bri8sh)Summer)Time

Subject: Fwd:%CONSENT%FORM
Date: Saturday,%29%August%2015%12:30:55%Bri?sh%Summer%Time
From: Zar%Momin
To: Momin,%Syed%(2014)

JJJJJJJJJJ%Forwarded%message%JJJJJJJJJJ
From:%Abdul)Wasay%<abdulwasay321@gmail.com>
Date:%29%August%2015%at%10:18
Subject:%Re:%CONSENT%FORM
To:%Syed%Zar%Momin%<zar.momin@gmail.com>

I%approve%the%below%men?on%consent%form.

Best%regards

Abdulwasay

Please&could&you&sign&this&or&reply&approve&for&the&consent&form,

Project&title&

Challenges of Customer relationship management :Case of Hino Motor Ltd. - Saudi Arabia (SA)

Researchers&name&

Syed%Zafir%Momin

Supervisors&name

Dr.Olga Kraverts

%I%understand%the%purpose%of%the%research%project%and%my%involvement%in%it.%

%I%understand%that%I%may%withdraw%from%the%research%project%at%any%stage.%and%that%this%will%not%affect%my
status%now%or%in%the%future.%

%I%understand%that%while%information%gained%during%the%study%may%be%published,%I%will%not%be%identified%and%my
personal%results%will%remain%confidential.%

%I%understand%that%I%may%contact%the%researcher%or%supervisor%if%I%require%further%information%about%the
research.%%

Signed&

Print&name Abdul Wasey Date&20%July,%2014

Contact&details&

Researcher: syed.momin.2014@live.rhul.ac.uk

Supervisor:%Olga.Kravets@rhul.ac.uk

Page)1)of)1

73
Syed)Zar)Momin Saturday,)29)August)2015)13:21:10)Bri6sh)Summer)Time

Subject: Fwd:%CONSENT%FORM
Date: Saturday,%29%August%2015%12:50:42%Bri?sh%Summer%Time
From: Zar%Momin
To: Momin,%Syed%(2014)

IIIIIIIIII%Forwarded%message%IIIIIIIIII
From:%ashar.ali.minai%<ashar.ali.minai@gmail.com>
Date:%29%August%2015%at%12:44
Subject:%Re:%CONSENT%FORM
To:%Zar%Momin%<zar.momin@gmail.com>

Approved
Ashar%Ali%Minai

Sent%from%my%Samsung%device

IIIIIIII%Original%message%IIIIIIII
From:%Zar%Momin%<zar.momin@gmail.com>%
Date:%28/08/2015%20:30%(GMT+03:00)%
To:%Ashar%Ali%Minai%<ashar.ali.minai@gmail.com>%
Subject:%CONSENT%FORM%

Please&could&you&sign&this&or&reply&approve&for&the&consent&form,

Project&title&

Challenges of Customer relationship management :Case of Hino Motor Ltd. - Saudi Arabia (SA)

Researchers&name&

Syed%Zafir%Momin

Supervisors&name

Dr.Olga Kraverts

%I%understand%the%purpose%of%the%research%project%and%my%involvement%in%it.%

%I%understand%that%I%may%withdraw%from%the%research%project%at%any%stage.%and%that%this%will%not%affect%my%status
now%or%in%the%future.%

%I%understand%that%while%information%gained%during%the%study%may%be%published,%I%will%not%be%identified%and%my
personal%results%will%remain%confidential.%

%I%understand%that%I%may%contact%the%researcher%or%supervisor%if%I%require%further%information%about%the
research.%%

Signed&

Print&name Ashar Ali Minai Date&20%July,%2014

Page)1)of)2

74



Syed)Zar)Momin Saturday,)29)August)2015)13:20:24)Bri7sh)Summer)Time

Subject: Fwd:%CONSENT%FORM
Date: Saturday,%29%August%2015%12:30:13%Bri?sh%Summer%Time
From: Zar%Momin
To: Momin,%Syed%(2014)

JJJJJJJJJJ%Forwarded%message%JJJJJJJJJJ
From:%Mahmood)Shaheen%<mahmoods_2002@outlook.com>
Date:%29%August%2015%at%01:07
Subject:%RE:%CONSENT%FORM
To:%Zar%Momin%<zar.momin@gmail.com>

Approved

Date:%Fri,%28%Aug%2015%18:26:21%+0100
Subject:%Re:%CONSENT%FORM
From:%zar.momin@gmail.com
To:%mahmoods_2002@outlook.com

Hi#Mahmood,

Could# you# please# approve# the# consent# form.# Sorry# to# bother# you# on# vacation# as# this# is# mandatory
requirement#to#provide#for#my#project#it#will#be#great#if#you#could#respond#early.#

Please#could#you#sign#this#or#reply#approve#for#the#consent#form,

Project#title#

Challenges of Customer relationship management :Case of Hino Motor Ltd. - Saudi Arabia (SA)

Researchers#name#

Syed%Zafir%Momin

Supervisors#name

Dr.Olga Kraverts

%I%understand%the%purpose%of%the%research%project%and%my%involvement%in%it.%

%I%understand%that%I%may%withdraw%from%the%research%project%at%any%stage.%and%that%this%will%not%affect%my%status
now%or%in%the%future.%

%I%understand%that%while%information%gained%during%the%study%may%be%published,%I%will%not%be%identified%and%my
personal%results%will%remain%confidential.%

%I%understand%that%I%may%contact%the%researcher%or%supervisor%if%I%require%further%information%about%the
research.%%

Signed#

Print#name Mahmood Shaheen Date#18%July,%2014

Contact#details#

Researcher: syed.momin.2014@live.rhul.ac.uk

Page)1)of)2

75



Syed)Zar)Momin Saturday,)29)August)2015)13:19:59)Bri6sh)Summer)Time

Subject: Fwd:%CONCENT%FORM
Date: Saturday,%29%August%2015%12:28:57%Bri@sh%Summer%Time
From: Zar%Momin
To: Momin,%Syed%(2014)

KKKKKKKKKK%Forwarded%message%KKKKKKKKKK
From:%<sulieman_alawaad@yahoo.com>
Date:%28%August%2015%at%18:01
Subject:%Re:%CONCENT%FORM
To:%Zar%Momin%<zar.momin@gmail.com>


i approve, best of luck

From:!Zafir!Momin!<zafir.momin@gmail.com>
To:!sulieman_alawaad@yahoo.com!
Sent:!Friday,!28!August!2015,!17:59:02
Subject:!CONCENT!FORM

Please3could3you3sign3this3or3reply3approve3for3the3consent3form,

Project3title3
Challenges of Customer relationship management :Case of Hino Motor Ltd. - Saudi Arabia (SA)
Researchers3name3
Syed!Zafir!Momin
Supervisors3name
Dr.Olga Kraverts
!I!understand!the!purpose!of!the!research!project!and!my!involvement!in!it.!
!I!understand!that!I!may!withdraw!from!the!research!project!at!any!stage.!and!that!this!will!not!affect!my!status
now!or!in!the!future.!
!I!understand!that!while!information!gained!during!the!study!may!be!published,!I!will!not!be!identified!and!my
personal!results!will!remain!confidential.!
!I!understand!that!I!may!contact!the!researcher!or!supervisor!if!I!require!further!information!about!the
research.!!
Signed3
Print3name Sulieman Al Awaad Date317!July,!2014
Contact3details3
Researcher: syed.momin.2014@live.rhul.ac.uk
Supervisor:!Olga.Kravets@rhul.ac.uk

Page)1)of)1

76



Syed)Zar)Momin Saturday,)29)August)2015)13:19:31)Bri6sh)Summer)Time

Subject: Fwd:%CONSENT%FORM%.%ASHRAF%MERJAWI
Date: Saturday,%29%August%2015%12:28:07%BriEsh%Summer%Time
From: Zar%Momin
To: Momin,%Syed%(2014)

..........%Forwarded%message%..........
From:%Ashraf)Mergawi%<ashraf.merjawi.riyadh@gmail.com>
Date:%28%August%2015%at%17:53
Subject:%Re:%CONSENT%FORM%.%ASHRAF%MERJAWI
To:%Zar%Momin%<zar.momin@gmail.com>

ok,%approved

Ashraf

On%28%August%2015%at%17:50,%Zar%Momin%<zar.momin@gmail.com>%wrote:

Please&could&you&sign&this&or&reply&approve&for&the&consent&form,

Project&title

Challenges of Customer relationship management :Case of Hino Motor Ltd. - Saudi


Arabia (SA)

Researchers&name&

Syed%Zafir%Momin

Supervisors&name

Dr.Olga Kraverts

%I%understand%the%purpose%of%the%research%project%and%my%involvement%in%it.

%I%understand%that%I%may%withdraw%from%the%research%project%at%any%stage.%and%that%this%will%not%affect
my%status%now%or%in%the%future.

%I%understand%that%while%information%gained%during%the%study%may%be%published,%I%will%not%be%identified
and%my%personal%results%will%remain%confidential.%

%I%understand%that%I%may%contact%the%researcher%or%supervisor%if%I%require%further%information%about%the
research.%

Signed&

Print&name Ashraf Merjawi Date&16%July,%2014

Contact&details

Researcher: syed.momin.2014@live.rhul.ac.uk

Supervisor:%Olga.Kravets@rhul.ac.uk

Page)1)of)2

77



Appendix D Presentation


78
















Appendix E Simplified Ethical Approval Form

79
Appendix F Declaration

This Individual Business Project has been prepared on the basis of my own work
and that where other published and unpublished source materials have been used,
these have been acknowledged.

Word Count: 11,808

Number of contacts with supervisor (including email and face to face


meetings)
17 e-mails sent, 11 e-mails received and 2 meeting.

Student Name: SYED ZAFIR MOMIN

Signature:

Date of Submission: 1ST SEPTEMBER, 2015


80