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BIO 103 Final Exam Guide Version 2 100% Correct Answers

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1. 1. What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method?

1. Make observations and ask a question


2. Analyze the data
3. Develop a hypothesis
4. Share the results with other scientists
5. Design and perform an experiment to test the hypothesis

a) I>II > III > IV > V

b) III > I > V > II > IV

c) V> IV > III > II > I

d) I> III > V >II > IV

e) V > II > I > III > IV

2. You have formulated a hypothesis: Apples contain more vitamin C than oranges.

To test your hypothesis you measure vitamin C levels in 20 oranges and 20 apples from trees that
were grown in the same orchard under the same environmental conditions (temperature, rain,
sunlight). This experiment was conducted twice. The control in the experiment
is__________________________________.

a) type of soil, temperature, amount of rain and sunlight in the orchard


b) vitamin C levels

c) oranges

d) apples

e) a large sample size and repeated experiment

***Use the following information to answer questions 3, 4,5 & 6 below***:

A group of medical researchers investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering cholesterol levels
in a group of men between the ages of 50 and 70 years old. The researchers did the following
experiment and obtained the indicated results: One group of 150 men took a tablet containing
Drug X for 3 weeks 95 of these men decreased their cholesterol levels by at least 10% (three
men from this group dropped out of the study). Another group of 150 men was given a tablet
with no added Drug X for 3 weeks 10 of these men decreased their cholesterol levels by at
least 10% (two men from this group dropped out of the study).

1. 3. Which of the following is the best hypothesis for this experiment?

a) Will drug X lower cholesterol levels in men between the age of 50 and 70 years?

b) Drug X will lower cholesterol levels in men.

c) Since high cholesterol levels significantly increases several health risks for men, drug X is
most likely beneficial.

d) Men between the age of 50 and 70 years will have reduced cholesterol levels if they take
drug X over a 3 week period.

e) There is no significant difference in cholesterol levels between men that take drug X and
those that dont take it.

1. 4. Which of the following was the control group in this experiment?

a) The amount of Drug X contained in the tablet


b) The number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment

c) The group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X

d) The group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X

e) The number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

5. Which of the following is a dependent variable in this experiment?

a) The amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

b) Participants that received tablets containing Drug X

c) The average age of the participants

d) Number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

e) Blood pressure

1. 6. Which of the following is anindependent variable in this experiment?

a) The amount of Drug X contained in the tablet

b) Participants that received tablets containing Drug X

c) The average age of the participants

d) Number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment

e) Blood pressure
7. A chemotherapy drug affects the enzyme DNA polymerase. In which part of the cell
cycle does it inhibit cell division?

a) Metaphase

b) S phase

c) G1

d) Cytokinesis

e) Prophase

1. A researcher planted seeds from four types of tomatoes (Roma, Cherry, Big Boy
and Early Girl) in a greenhouse to determine which type of tomatoproduce the
largest number of tomatoes per plant. The plants were grown for 70 days under the
same temperature and light conditions. The average results for 20 plants of each
type are shown below. Choose the data set that demonstrates that Cherry tomatoes
produce the largest number of tomatoes per plant.

a) Roma: 20 tomatoes, Cherry: 18 tomatoes, Big Boy: 30 tomatoes, Early Girl: 10 tomatoes

b) Roma: 1.8lbs, Cherry: 2.8lbs, Big Boy: 2.7lbs, Early Girl: 1.0 lbs

c) Roma: 3 cm, Cherry: 1 cm, Big Boy: 10cm, Early Girl: 7 cm

d) Roma: 2 cm, Cherry: 10 cm, Big Boy: 7 cm, Early Girl: 6 cm

e) Roma: 23 tomatoes, Cherry: 28 tomatoes, Big Boy: 10 tomatoes, Early Girl: 27 tomatoes

1. 9. The majority of climate scientists believe that the current change in climate is
caused predominantly by ________.

a) an enhancement of the greenhouse effect

b) a decreased reliance on fossil fuels for energy

c) a thinning of the ozone layer

d) a melting of the polar ice caps

e) an increase in solar radiation


1. 10. Based on the following phylogenetic tree, which of the following conclusions are
*NOT* correct? Each letter represents a hypothetical species.

a) A and E share a common ancestor

b) B is one of As ancestors

c) E and D are more closely related to each other than to C

d) C is more closely related to E than to B

e) A and B are closely related


1. 11. You are taking a cruise from California to Hawaii. About halfway there the ship
begins to sink. You are able to board a lifeboat, but now you are floating in the
ocean waiting to be rescued. After several days you are so thirsty that you bend over
the side of the boat and drink lots of salty seawater. What happens to your body?

a) You throw up because sea salt is toxic to humans.

b) You get thirstier because of osmosis.

c) Salt diffuses into your cells, water follows, your cells start to expand and you feel bloated.

d) Since sea water consist of 96.5% fresh water (and only 3.5% salt) you will feel much better.

e) You get dehydrated because water is unable to cross the semi-permeable membranes of your
cells.

1. 12. You are spraying your garden with a pesticide and you accidentally swallow a
small amount. You read on the package that this pesticide inhibits ATP synthase.
Should you be worried?

a) ATP synthase is part of the light dependent reaction in photosynthesis; this pesticide will
therefore not affect humans. So dont worry!

b) ATP synthase is an enzyme involved in the citric acid cycle so all animals, humans
included, will be affected. Call the doctor.

c) ATP synthase found in the pesticide is a very toxic compound. Call the doctor.

d) ATP synthase is involved in both photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Call the doctor.

e) ATP synthase inhibitors will not affect humans, but there might be other toxic ingredients in
the pesticide, so it is best to call the doctor to be on the safe side.

1. 13. In the following chemical reaction, what is carbon dioxide (CO2)?


12 H20 + 6 CO2 -> 1 glucose molecule + 6 O2

a) Substrate

b) Product

c) Enzyme

d) Activation factor

e) Independent variable

1. 14. Which of the following is NOTa feature of DNA?

a) Adenine (A) forms a base pair with thymine (T)

b) Complimentary strands are anti-parallel, running in opposite directions

c) Complimentary strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between phosphate groups

d) Nucleotides within a single strand are connected by covalent bonds

e) All of the above are features of DNA

1. 15. A man who carries a harmful sex-linked gene on his X chromosome, will pass
the gene on to _______________________.

a) all of his daughters

b) half of his daughters

c) all of his sons


d) half of his sons

e) all of his children

1. 16. A double-stranded DNA molecule that has 22% guanine will have __________.

a) 28% thymine

b) 22% cytosine

c) 44% adenine

d) 26% uracil

e) both A and B are correct

1. 17. Which of the following variations could be subject to natural selection?

a) A dog with short legs due to malnutrition is able to crawl into holes better than his litter
mates

b) A tree is not infested by a ground-dwelling beetle when the homeowner cuts the lower
branches

c) A hyena is born with a spotted fur pattern that allows it to hide in the grass better than his
litter mates

d) A pigeon learns than when its keeper comes near it will be fed

e) All of these variations may be acted on by natural selection

1. 18. The ability of fireflies and angler fish to produce light is an example of
convergent evolution. What can you conclude about these two animals based on this
information?
a) They share a recent common ancestor

b) They are both adapted to environments low in light

c) The ability to produce light is an ancient trait

d) They are found in the same location

e) All of the above

1. 19. You observe the following outside your window: A grasshopper is munching
away on a leaf when a hawk swoops down and eats the grasshopper. What is the
grasshopper in this situation?

a) Secondary consumer

b) Prey

c) Herbivore

d) Predator

e) Both b, c and d

1. 20. Which of the following statements is *NOT* true?

a) The cells resulting from meiosis are diploid and the cells resulting from mitosis are haploid.

b) Meiosis and meiosis both starts with one cell, but meiosis ends with four and mitosis with
two.

c) Mitosis produces new cells for growth and repair, meiosis produces gametes.

d) Mitosis goes through cytokinesis once, meiosis goes through cytokinesis twice.

e) Cross over happens in meiosis, but not in mitosis.


1. 21. In the scientific method, a hypothesis ____________.

a) is a statement of fact

b) is a proposed explanation based on observations

c) is usually proven to be correct

d) can only be tested once

e) all of the above

1. 22. To test a hypothesis about a given variable, experimental and control groups are
tested in parallel. Which of the following best explains the dual experiments?

a) In the experimental group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the control
group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.

b) In the control group, a chosen variable is altered in a known way. In the experimental
group, that chosen variable is not altered so a comparison can be made.

c) In the experimental group, a chosen variable plus all other variables are altered. In the
control group, the chosen variable is altered; however, all other variables are held constant.

d) In the experimental and control groups, two different variables are altered.

e) Experimental and control group experiments are identical and run in parallel to get
repeatable results.

1. 23. Which of the following can be considered definitions of theory?

a) A theory can be an explanation of scientific laws

b) A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous hypotheses, each supported by a large


body of observations and experiments
c) A theory is a condensation and simplification of many data that previously appeared
unrelated

d) A theory is a prediction for new data suggesting new relationships among a range of natural
phenomena

e) All of the above

1. 24. You have formulated a hypothesis that light is necessary for seed germination.
To test your hypothesis, one set of lettuce seeds are placed in light with warm
temperatures and adequate moisture. Another set of identical seeds are placed in
the dark under the same set of conditions. The control in the experiment is
___________.

a) seeds in the dark

b) seeds in the light

c) warm temperature

d) adequate moisture

e) germination rate

1. 25. The sexually transmissible disease gonorrhea has become increasingly resistant
to treatment with antibiotics. What is the most likely scientific explanation?

a) The gonorrhea bacteria learned to avoid antibiotics

b) The gonorrhea bacteria changed their genes when they sensed antibiotics

c) Antibiotic-sensitive gonorrhea bacteria died out, but antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea bacteria


have flourished and persisted

d) The antibiotic increased the mutation rate in the gonorrhea bacteria

e) Both b and d
1. 26. Which statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on
earth?

a) Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2

b) Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2

c) Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O

d) Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2

1. 27. Think of the cell as a factory, in which the organelles are specialized sites of
production. All cells have a power plant, the mitochondrion. Plant cells have an
additional reactor for the production of usable energy. It is called the ________.

a) golgi body

b) rough endoplasmic reticulum

c) central vacuole

d) vesicle

e) chloroplast

1. 28. What is biology?

a) The study of life

b) The study of the environment

c) The study of DNA

d) The study of genetics


e) The study of the earth

1. 29. Which of the following groups would contain the largest number of organisms?

a) class

b) order

c) species

d) kingdom

e) family

1. 30. All living organisms _____________.

a) reproduce

b) evolve

c) respond to environmental stimuli

d) have all three characteristics

1. 31. Meiosis results in ______________.

a) 2 haploid daughter cells

b) 2 diploid daughter cells

c) 4 haploid daughter cells

d) 4 diploid daughter cells


e) 6 haploid daughter cells

1. 32. The plasma membrane __________________.

a) is the control center of the cell

b) functions in protein synthesis

c) functions in fat synthesis

d) regulates the passage of material into and out of the cell

1. 33. In a comparison of two solutions, the solution with the higher solute
concentration is _________________.

a) dynamic

b) hypertonic

c) hypotonic

d) isotonic

e) osmotic

1. 34. Catalase is an enzyme found in plant and animal cells. Hydrogen peroxide is a
harmful substance found in cells. Catalase causes hydrogen peroxide to breakdown
into water and oxygen. What type of molecule is catalase?

a) A lipid

b) A protein

c) A nucleic acid
d) A carbohydrate

e) A sugar

1. 35. The pigment molecule that catches the energy of the sunlight is ____________.

a) chlorophyll

b) pyruvic acid

c) glucose

d) carbon dioxide

1. 36. The energy of the sun is converted into usable energy for the cell in the form of
_________.

a) ADP

b) ATP

c) CO2

d) glucose

1. 37. The innermost electron shell of an atom holds a maximum of ______ electrons.

a) 2

b) 4

c) 6

d) 8
e) 10

1. 38. The pH of the fluid in your stomach is around pH 2. The fluid is ____________.

a) acidic

b) basic

c) neutral

1. 39. The chemical bond that results in the transfer of electrons is a _______ bond.

a) hydrogen

b) covalent

c) polar

d) ionic

1. 40. If an acid is added to water, the pH will ______________.

a) decrease

b) stay the same

c) increase

d) sometimes increase and sometimes decrease

e) become neutral
1. 41. Organisms in the Plantae kingdom are ____________.

a) multi-cellular and autotrophic

b) multi-cellular and heterotrophic

c) unicellular and autotrophic

d) unicellular and heterotrophic

e) both unicellular and multi-cellular

1. 42. You examine a cell under a microscope and you do not see a well defined
nucleus. You conclude the cell must be a(n) _____________ cell.

a) prokaryotic

b) eukaryotic

c) plant

d) animal

1. 43. The smallest unit of life is the _________.

a) cell

b) organelle

c) macromolecule

d) atom

1. 44. A dichotomous key is used to ___________________.


a) locate organisms

b) identify organisms

c) divide organisms

d) interbreed species

e) describe plants

1. 45. The control in an experiment _______________________________________.

a) reduces the experimental errors

b) minimizes experimental inaccuracy

c) allows standard comparison for the experimental group

d) is an additional replicate for statistical purposes

e) makes the experiment invalid

46. The hydrophilic surface of a membrane faces:

a) The interior of the cell

b) The interior of the membrane

c) The exterior of the cell


d) Both a) and b) are correct

e) Both a) and c) are correct


47. Plant cell walls are made of:

a) Lipids

b) Cellulose

c) Proteins

d) Chitin

e) Glycogen

48. Cyanobacteria possess:

a) A nucleus

b) Chlorophyll

c) A flagellum

d) No ribosomes

e) All of the above are true

49. The following can be found on the surface of bacteria:

a) A slime layer (capsule)

b) Fimbriae

c) Both a) and b) are true

d) Both a) and b) are false

49. Energy is defined as:

a) ability to work

b) ability to sleep
c) ability to cook

d) ability to do nothing

e) all of the above are correct

50. What can be found in only eukaryotic cells?

a) ribosomes

b) plasma membrane

c) centrioles

d) DNA
e) all of the above are true

51. What can be found in only prokaryotic cells?

a) ribosomes

b) plasma membrane

c) cell wall

d) DNA

e) nucleoid

52. A nucleus would not be found in:

a) Fungi

b) Cyanobacteria

c) Humans

d) Tulips

e) fish
53. The presence of a nucleus, lysosome, and chlorophyll indicates the cell is a:

a) prokaryote

b) plant

c) animal

d) bacteria

e) either plant or animal

54. The word that is defined by The ability of an organism to maintain relatively constant
internal conditions is:

a) evolution

b) homeostasis

c) metabolism

d) energy

e) behavior

55. The electrons of an atom are:

A. always equal to the number of neutrons in an atom

B. found in the nucleus


C. used to determine atomic number

D. positively charged
E. moving in pathways called orbitals.

56. All of the following pertain to the atom except it:

A. has 6 protons

B. has 6 electrons
C. has 14 neutrons
D. is an isotope of carbon

E. has a mass number of 14

57. The subatomic particles that surround the nucleus are the:

A. electrons

B. protons

C. neutrons

D. protons and neutrons

E. protons and electrons

58. Which of the following is not one of waters life supporting properties?

A. Cohesive behavior

B. Ability to moderate temperature

C. Expansion upon freezing

D. Versatility as a solvent
E. All the above are correct

59. Cations are:

A. subatomic particles

B. atoms that have gained electrons


C. radioactive isotopes

D. capable of forming ionic bonds with anions


E. atoms without protons
60. What is the maximum number of electrons in the second energy shell of an atom?

A. 2

B. 4

C. 8

D. 18

E. 32

61. What would be the valence number of electrons in the sulfur atom?

A. 2

B. 6

C. 8

D. 16

E. 32

62.An acid:

A. is neutral

B. releases hydroxide ions in solution

C. releases hydrogen ions in solution

D. basic

E. non-polar

63. Which term does not belong in this list?


A. Lactic acid

B. Vinegar (pH 3)

C. Hydrogen ion donor


D. pH 10

E. Acidic

64. A solution of pH 3 compared to a solution of pH 9

A. is more basic

B. has no OH- ions

C. has more H+ ions


D. None of the above is correct

E. All of the choices are correct.

65. The building blocks of an enzyme are:

A. nucleotides

B. glycerol and fatty acids

C. monosaccharides

D. phosphate, glycerol, fatty acids

E. amino acids

66. All of the following are monosaccharides except

A. glucose

B. glycogen

C. fructose
D. ribose
E. deoxyribose
67. All of the following are lipids except

A. cholesterol

B. starch

C. phospholipid
D. wax

E. triglyceride

68. A monosaccharide with 5 carbon atoms will have _____ hydrogen atoms and _____
oxygen atoms

A. 10, 5

B. 5, 10

C. 5, 5

D. 10, 10

E. 2, 1

69. One nucleotide contains

A. one phosphate

B. one pentose

C. one nitrogen base

D. All of the choices are correct

E. None of the choices are correct

70. Which of the following would have glycosidic bonds?

A. Triglycerides
B. Monosaccharides

C. Polypeptides

D. Polysaccharides

E. ATP

71. All of the chemical reactions of the cell are called:

A. catabolism

B. redox reactions

C. phosphorylation
D. metabolism

E. cellular respiration

72. All of the following pertain to glycolysis except it:

A. occurs without oxygen

B. ends with formation of pyruvic acid


C. occurs during fermentation

D. it produces glucose
E. involves reduction of NAD

73. The formation of citric acid from oxaloacetic acid and an acetyl group begins:

A. glycolysis

B. electron transport system


C. Krebs cycle

D. fermentation
E. oxidative phosphorylation
74. Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to build a polypeptide would be
called:

A. anabolism

B. phosphorylation

C. fermentation
D. exergonic

E. glycolysis

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MATCHING SECTION #1

MATCHING SECTION INSTRUCTIONS: Read all instructions carefully. Please answer


all questions. Each question is worth 1 point. The Matching section (1 and 2) is worth 20
points.

**Do not enter your answers here.** Type in the letter you select from the right column as
the best answer on the Answer Sheet provided by your instructor.

Term or Concept

1. Water molecule h
2. Carbon e
3. Homeostasis i
4. Ionic Bonding b
5. Covalent Bonding c
6. Carbohydrate a
7. Enzyme f
8. Acid j
9. Base g
10. Lipid d

Definition/Association

1. energy source
2. two atoms sharing electrons
3. electron donated/received
4. hydrophobic
5. element found in all living organisms
6. catalyst
7. OH-> H+
8. polar
9. characteristic of all living organisms
10. H+> OH-

MATCHING SECTION #2

Term or Concept

1. Ribosome d
2. Mitochondria g
3. Nucleus c
4. Golgi apparatus a
5. Smooth Endoplasmatic Reticulum f
6. Membrane j
7. Cell Wall e
8. Lysosome b
9. Chloroplast i
10. Cilia h

Definition or Association

1. packaging and transport


2. digestion
3. genetic material storage
4. protein assembly
5. structural support
6. lipid production
7. glucose breakdown
8. movement
9. oxygen production
10. contain transport proteins and receptors

ESSAY SECTION

Complete all of the questions in this Essay Section

INSTRUCTIONS: Each question is worth 5 points.The total points for this section is35
points. Use complete sentences and cite resources. Make sure you provide a
comprehensive answer for full credit.
**Do not enter your answers here.** Type your answers into the Answer Sheet provided
by your instructor.

1. You scoop up a water sample from a local pond nearby, because you are curious about
the possible microbes that might live there. After looking at several slides that held drops
of the sample, you noticed two different kinds of cells: One kind was very small and had
no separate internal structures; the other kind was much larger, and it contained several
kinds of internal structures that were physically different from each other. Please name
each cell and briefly describe their overall similarities and differences.

The first cell that is described is more than likely going to be a basic plant cell like an algae or
similar cell. The second cell that is described will more than likely be an animal cell, it could
perhaps be a skin cell of a fish or frog. There are many differences between these two cells, but
there are also many similarities. One of the seemingly very big differences is the irregular shape
of the larger animal cell; it also seems to not have a cell wall. Some of the similarities are things
like the cytoplasm, ER, Ribosomes, and Mitochondria.

1. PKU (phenylketonuria) is an enzyme deficiency disease that only develops in individuals


who are homozygous recessive for that gene. An individual with PKU has parents that do
not have this disease. What is the parents genotype for the gene responsible for PKU?
What is the probability that they may have another child with PKU? How many future
children of the affected individual will be carriers? Explain your answers.

Heterozygous Dominant

One child will be a non carrier, one in four will have PKU and 2 children will carry the gene
without expression of the disease. This can be viewed in a basic pungent square.

R r

R RR Rr

r Rr rr
1. Humans share 99% of their genes with chimpanzees, 90% with mice, 50% with fruit
flies, and 37% with celery. Please explain the evolutionary significance of these data.

Given an evolutionist theory that we all evolved from the first form of life it would make sense
that we would all share some type of DNA similarities. If Humans are simply just mice which
have evolved, we must still have some of the mouses DNA. It would only make sense that as
you progress down the chain that you would find similarities between the two parties as you go
down the line. If Fruit flies started before mice, then it would make sense for them to share a
large percentage of their DNA together.

1. Describe the major land biome where you live. How have human activities changed the
landscape and how has this affected native species? Include specific examples.

Chaparral biome (Southern Calfornia)(my home). Native vegetation would be scrub brush and
scrub oak. Most of the wilderness has been replaced with urban savanna pavement with
some lawns and whatever people have in their yards. Some of the not-yet-urbanized areas have
been replaced with nonnative grass, and maintained that way by fires. There are also long time
vacant lots. Most of these have eucalyptus (from Australia) and palm trees (that are also not
native here).Introduced animal species have displaced many native animal species. The
introduced species include people, dogs, cats, red-masked Conures, Argentine ants, peacocks
The displaced include birds of prey, bats, deer, bears, cougars. Some animals can coexist with
people. These include coyotes, opossums, skunks, pocket gophers.

1. The habitat of one species of tropical fish is red coral reefs. The large majority of the fish
in this population are red. A few individual fish carry a mutation that prevents the
production of the red pigment; as a result these individual fish are white. The temperature
of the ocean where these fish live gets warmer and warmer over a 10 year period, and as
a result the coral is bleached and turns white. Use what you have learned about natural
selection to explain how this bleaching event may have affected the evolution this fish
population (not including possible direct effects of warmer temperatures on the fish).
Include the following terms in your explanation: differential reproduction, beneficial trait,
allele frequency, selection pressure, evolution.
5.Alternative

At the beginning of the spring, Dr. Betty Burner notices that there is an equal distribution of long
and short stemmed the dandelions in her backyard. By the end of the summer she notices that
the majority of the dandelions have short stems. This observation is an example of what
biological principle? Develop a hypothesis as to why there was an increase in the proportion of
the short stemmed dandelions within the population.

The principal has to do with biological natural selection. The plants that have the best
environment are the plants that will thrive. Perhaps the explanation is that in the beginning of the
spring Dr. Betty Burner wasnt mowing the weeds in the front yard so there was an equal
distribution of the stems among the yard. Later in the spring though, Dr. Betty then mows her
lawn and interrupts the natural flow of the way things would be. This is a very simple
explanation of why the biological environment is being affected. Another explanation could be
that a type of weed poison that her or her neighbor is using is only meant to kill long stemmed
weeds. Either way it is the introduction of something new into the environment which caused
this uneven distributive effect.

1. Use what you have learned about energy transfer in food chains and the second law of
thermodynamics to explain why it is an environmentally good choice to eat a plant based
diet. Include the following terms in your answer: producer, herbivore, omnivore, trophic
level, resources and energy

The transfer of energy is never 100% efficient. Energy is never created nor destroyed but its
transfer can be inefficient. Animals in the first trophic level would be herbivores. Their
consumption of plant matter provides the energy for the production of protein and the animals
growth and maintenance. As a plant eater its source of energy is quite cast given the proper
environment. An omnivore has increased diversity based on diet and can therefore occupy
environments which would be inhospitable to a herbivore.

1. You have read that inorganic fertilizers contribute to water pollution and would like to
make a switch from inorganic fertilizers to organic compost in your vegetable garden. A
friend graciously gives you a truck load of his compost. As a good researcher and critical
thinker you are not convinced that organic compost will yield the same results as the
inorganic fertilizer you have used for years with good results. To draw your own
conclusion based on scientific evidence you decide to conduct an experiment in your
garden. State a good hypothesis, design an experiment (include test subjects, sample size,
control(s), dependent and independent variables, type of data collected) and hypothetical
results/conclusion. Does your conclusion support the hypothesis?

For my experiment I would start by creating two separate gardens, the first garden would be my
control group which uses inorganic fertilizer. The second group would be my test group which
would use organic fertilizer. I would create two separate gardens containing the same plants
where I would test whether or not the garden with the organic fertilizer responded in the same
way as the garden without the inorganic fertilizer. I would hypothesize that the garden with the
organic fertilizer wouldnt grow as good as the garden with the inorganic fertilizer. After several
weeks I would test different vegetable sizes, colors, and overall health of all plants. My
hypothetical conclusion would be that although not as good as the inorganic fertilizer the organic
fertilizer still did a fantastic job. This would support my original hypothesis, but prove that
organic fertilizer is a viable replacement for inorganic fertilizer.