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Republic of the Philippines

ILOILO STATE COLLEGE OF FISHERIES


COLLEGE OF EDUCATION
GRADUATE PROGRAM
Tiwi, Barotac Nuevo, Iloilo

CONCEPTS IN GEOMETRY

DARVI Q. CERCADO
LYRA MAE C. JOCSON JEANETTE G. BAYONA
Discussants Subject Professor

AXIOMS FOR FOUR-POINT GEOMETRY


1. The total number of points in this geometry is four.
2. For any two distinct points P1 and P2, there is precisely one line that
contains both P1 and P2.
3. Each line is on exactly two points.
Statement Reason Visual
There exist exactly four This is axiom 1 A B
distinct points A, B, C and
D
C D

There are six pairs of Statement 1
A B
points {A,B}, {B,D},

{C,D},{A,C},{A,D}, {B,C}
C D

There is exactly one line Statement 1
containing each of the six and statement
pairs of points 2
The set of lines is on Statement 1,
exactly two points statement 2
[{A,B}, {B,D}, and statement
{C,D},{A,C},{A,D}, {B,C}] 3

Preposition 1:
1. Given any linel and a point X not on the line there exists exactly one line
through X parallel to l
2. Given any line there exists exactly one line parallel to it and four lines that
intersect it.

Preposition 2:
Any pair of distinct lines intersects in at most one point

Dual Geometries
The two geometries (four line and four point geometries) is said to be
dual iff there is bijection between the points of geometry and the lines of the
other geometry such that the incidence relation is reverse.
Examples:
is on in the original geometry becomes contains in the dual
geometry
Intersecting becomes collinear
parallel becomes non collinear
An axiom is a self-evident truth. It is not proven. Theorems are provable statements. The proof
of such statements rely on definitions, axioms, and logic. Proofs can also be based on previously
proven theorems. Axiomatic systems are described using the terms consistent, independent,
and complete. Definition: An axiomatic system is said to be consistent if neither the axioms or
theorems contradict one another. Modern Developments in Geometry - 21 - Definition: An
axiom is described as independent of other axioms if it cannot be derived from them. Definition:
An axiomatic system is complete, if for all correctly posed statements can be proven or
disproven. Another way of describing completeness, if it is impossible to add a new independent
axiom to the system. FOUR-POINT GEOMETRY Axioms There exists exactly four points.
Any two distinct points are on exactly one line. Each line is on exactly two points. Consistency
for an axiomatic system can be established by creating a model and verifying each axiom. A B C
D T E F G H P E F E G E H F G F H G H
Independence is much more difficult to establish. A possible approach is to replace an axiom
with its negation and creating a model. You must do this for each axiom. A D B C Inserting the
negation of the last axiom. Modern Developments in Geometry - 22 - Completeness for a rich
and comprehensive system such as arithmetic and geometry is impossible. Kurt Gdel proved
this in 1931.
An axiom is a self-evident truth. It is not proven. Theorems are provable statements. The proof

A B

C D

An axiom is a self-evident truth. It is not proven. Theorems are provable statements. The proof
of such statements rely on definitions, axioms, and logic. Proofs can also be based on previously
proven theorems. Axiomatic systems are described using the terms consistent, independent,
and complete. Definition: An axiomatic system is said to be consistent if neither the axioms or
theorems contradict one another. Modern Developments in Geometry - 21 - Definition: An
axiom is described as independent of other axioms if it cannot be derived from them. Definition:
An axiomatic system is complete, if for all correctly posed statements can be proven or
disproven. Another way of describing completeness, if it is impossible to add a new independent
axiom to the system. FOUR-POINT GEOMETRY Axioms There exists exactly four points.
Any two distinct points are on exactly one line. Each line is on exactly two points. Consistency
for an axiomatic system can be established by creating a model and verifying each axiom. A B C
D T E F G H P E F E G E H F G F H G H
Independence is much more difficult to establish. A possible approach is to replace an axiom
with its negation and creating a model. You must do this for each axiom. A D B C Inserting the
negation of the last axiom. Modern Developments in Geometry - 22 - Completeness for a rich
and comprehensive system such as arithmetic and geometry is impossible. Kurt Gdel proved
this in 1931.