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Third Edition

Communicating

for Results

ACanadian Student's Guide

Carolyn Meyer

OXFORD

VNTVBRST'l'Y PRllSS

OXFORD

VNTVllRSITY PR!JSS

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Library and Archives Canada Catalogulug lu Puhllcatlou Meyer, Carolyn Margaret, 1962- , author

Communicating for results : a Canadian students guide I

Caro lyn Meyer. -

lncludes index.

LSBN 978-0-19-900131-6 (phk.)

TI1i rd edition.

1. Business com municatiou-

Canada-

Texthooks.

2 . Busine.~s writing-Can.ada-Texthook~. 1. Ti tle.

HF'5718.M49 2014

651.7

C20B-9082l0-7

Photo credits: Cover Tom Merton/OJO Images/Getty Images,

 

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71

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127 HenninUtomo/iStock/Thinkstock, 156 Wavehreakmedia U.d./Thinkstock,

201

Stephen Vanhorn/Hemera!Ih i11kstock, 233 «:>Ji mDPhoto/L'itock,

265

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oxrmd Un ivers ity

Press is cmnm itted Lo our environment.

Wherever possible, our hooks are printed on paper

which

com e.~ from responsible sources.

Primed and

hound in the United States o r America

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4-17

16

1'5

14

THEMATIC

SUM MARY

SUM MA RY

FROM THE PUBLISHER

ACK NOW LEDGEM ENTS xxvl

CON TENTS

xi v

OF WRITIN G SAMP LES

OF

CASE STUOIE S xv ii

xix

xv

1 Getting the Message Across 1

2

Getting

Started : Planning and Writing Busin ess M essa g es 45

3

Business

Style : Word Choice, Conciseness, and Tone

71

4

Business Style: Sentences and Paragraphs

99

5

M emorandum s, E-mail, and Ro utine M essag es 127

 

6

Routine and Goo dwill Messages 156

7

Delivering Unfavourable News

201

8

Persuasive Messages 233

9

Co mmun icating for Employm e nt 265

10

Informal Reports 309

11

Proposals and Formal Reports 377

12 Oral Co mmunication 424

13 Social M edia and Netw ork ing 461

Appendix

Appendix B: Grammar Handbook 507

A: Busin ess Usage: A Styl e and Mechanics Guid e 479

NOTES

INDEX

524

532

THEMATIC CONTENTS xiv

SUMMARY OF WRITING SAMPLES xv

SUMMARY OF CASE STUDIES xvii

FROM THE PUBLISHER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xxvl

xix

Getting the Message Across 1

Communicating for Change-a nd a Stronger Bottom Line- In the New Economy 2

Communicating

In the Cu rrent Workplace

4

Communication Defined 10 Communication as a Field of Study 11

The Communication Process

12

Elements of the Communication Process

12

Barriers to Effective Communication

Communication Contexts 15

Non-Verbal Communication

16

14

Components of Non-Verbal Communication 18

Communicating In Organizations

21

Internal and External Commu ni cation

Essential Skills for Workplace Comm u nication Informal and Formal Channels 22

21

The Flow of Information

22

Ethical Communication

23

21

Ethics and Legal Responsibilities of Business Communication Ethical Lapses and Why They Happen 24

Cross-Cultural Communication

27

Communicating in a Global Economy 27 Diversity in the Workplace 27

Understanding Cultural Differences

lntercultural Communication Defined 28 High- and Low-Context Communication Styles 30

Communicating lnterculturally 30

28

Privacy In the Workplace 32

WORKSHOPS AND DISCUSSION FORUMS WR ITI NG IMPROV EM ENT EXERCI SES 39

CASE ST UDY EXERCISES

41

37

23

WORKSHO PS AND DI SCUSSION FORUM S 260

WRITING IMPROVEM ENT EXERCISES 260

CASE STUDY EXERCISES

ON LI NE ACTI VITI ES 264

262

CO N TE N TS

Communicating for Employment 265

Analyzlng Your career Goals and Quallficatlons 266

Assessing Your Skills and Values

Assessing Your Work Preferences and Personality

Assessing Your Work History 267

266

Job-Hunt ing 268

267

Usi ng Llnkedln and Twitte r to Establi sh a n O nlln e Prese n ce

Linked ln

27 1

Twitter 273

Writing Persuasive Resumes 274

How Employers Use Resumes

Resume Writing Style

Parts of a Standard Resume 276

Resume Length

Resume Styles and Layouts

Preparing a Scannable Resume 284

Preparing an E-mail Resume 286

274

274

279

279

Preparing a Persuasive Appllcatlon Letter General Tips for Cover Letters 288 Solicited Application Letters 289

Unsolicited Applica t ion Letters

E-mail Cover Letters

293

292

288

Job Applica t ion Rou nd-Up: Some Add iti onal Tips

295

27 1

Career Po rtfolio s and ePortfollos 295

Job Interviews 296 Before the Interview 296

Behavioural Interview Questions and How to Prepare forThem

At the Interview

After the Interview 299

298

297

Follow -Up Employment M essag es 3 00

Follow-Up Letter

300

Thank-You Letter

300

Job-Offer Acknowl edgement 300 Job-Acceptance Letter 300 Job-Refusal Letter 300

Re fer ence -Request Lette r

301

WORKSHO PS AND DI SCUSSION FORUM S 303 WRITI NG IMPROV EM ENT EXERCI SES 306

Getting Started: Planning and Writing Business Messages 45

Writing In Context: Four Key Concepts 46

Contextual Factors 46 Genres 47 Discourse Communities 47 Rhetorical Situations 47

St eps In th e Writing Process

Message Planning 49 Prewriting 50 Organizing and Outlining Drafting 59

Revising and Editing

Collaborative Writing 64 Critiquing Others' Work 66

WORKSHOPS AND DISCUSSION FORUMS WR ITI NG IMPROVEM ENT EXERCI SES 69

ONLI NE ACTIVITIES 70

48

58

61

67

Business Style: Word Choice, Conciseness, and Tone 71

Word Choice 72

Plain Style

72

Word Choi ce Step 1: Use Familiar Words

Word Choice Step 2: Use Fresh and Current Language

Word Choice Step 3: Keep Language Specific, Precise, and Functional

74

76

78

C ON TE NTS

Achieving Conciseness 81

Tone 86 Tune in to Word Connotations

86

Keep Your Style Conversationa l 87

Select the Right Level of Formality: Personal and Impersonal Styles 87 Be Positive 88 Stress Reader Benefits and Relevance 89

Be Pol ite

Use Inclusive Language 90 Write with Confidence 92

90

WORKSHO PS AND DI SCUSSION

WR ITING IMPROV EM ENT EXERCI SES

ONLIN E ACTIVITIES

FORUM S 94

94

98

Business Style: Sentences and Paragraphs 99

Effective Sentences

100

The Building Blocks of Complete Sentences: Phrases and Clauses Types of Sentences 101

Improving Sentence Variety and Length

Phrasing Basic Types of Questions

Improving Sentence Clarity

104

105

103

100

Writing with Consistency 106

Writing Balanced Sentences: Parallel Structure

106

Writi ng

for Emphasis

107

Applying Active and Passive Voice

110

Eliminating Grammar Errors and Awkwardness

112

Effective Paragraphs

116

Paragraph Length

116

Topic Sentences 117

Paragraph Development

Paragraph Coherence

117

118

Proofreading

120

WORKSHOP AND DI SCUSSION FORUM S

WRITING IMPROVEM ENT EXERCISES

ON LI NE ACTIV ITI ES

122

125

1 21

Memorandums, E-mail, and Routine Messages

Memorandums

128

Memo Form at

Memo Organization

Formatting Lists for Memos and E-maiI 131

Paper Memo vs. E-mail 133

129

130

127

E-mall

135

General E-mail Guidelines

Reading and Processing Incoming Messages 138

Formatting and Writing E-mail 139

Replying to E-mail

E-mail Style and Tone 141 Routine Messages: Positive and Informative Memos and E-mail

Routine Messages: Request Memos

Routine Messages: Reply Memos and E-mail 145

Goodwill E-mail Messages 145 Follow-Up Memos and E-mail

136

140

144

146

Instant M essagi ng (IM) 148

WORKSHO PS ANO DI SCUSSION FORUM S 150

WRITING IMPROVEM ENT EXERCISES 15 1

CASE STUDY EXERCISES

ON LI NE ACTI VITIE S 154

152

142

CONTEN TS

Routine and Goodwill Messages 156

Direct Writing Plan

Requests

158

157

Requests for Information, Credit, and Action

Order Requests

Claim Letters 163

161

159

Responses

166

Information Response 166 Personalized Form Letters 168

Order Acknowledgement

Messages Confirming Contracts and Arrangements

Claims Adjustment

168

172

Goodwill Messages

Thank-You Letters

174

175

Letter of Congratulations

Letter of Sympathy

180

179

Informative Letters 181

Announcements

181

Cover or Transmittal Letters

181

lnstriuctional Letter/Memo

182

Letter Formats 185

Letter Balance and Placement Letter Styles and Layouts 185

Letter Elements

Addressing Envelopes

185

191

185

170

WO RKSHOPS AND DI SCUSSION FORUMS 192

WRITI NG IM PROVEM ENT EXERCI SES 197

CO N TE N TS

Delivering Unfavourable News 201

Goals of Negative Messages

202

Tone In Bad News Messages

203

Organizing Bad News Messages 205

Direct Writing Plan for Bad News Messages Using the Direct Writing Plan 205

Limitations of the Direct Approach

207

205

Indirect Writing Plan for Bad News Messages 207 Usi ng the Indirect Approach 207

Bad News Buffers

Explaining the Bad News 208 Revealing the Bad News 210 Goodwill Closing 211 Indirect-Approach Message

Limitations of the Indirect Strategy 212 Apologies in Bad News Messages 213

208

212

Types of Bad New Messages

215

Refusing Requests for Information, Actions, and Favours

Refusing Claims

217

Refusing Credit 218 Turning Down Job Applicants

Announcing Bad News to Employees

220

Declining Invitations

225

223

WORKSHOPS AND DISCUSSION FORUMS

WRITING IMPROVEMENT EXERCISES

CASE STUDY EXERCISES 230

ONLINE ACTIVITIES

229

232

228

215

Persuasive Messages 233

Writing Persuasively 234 Preparing to Write Persuasively 234 Persuasive Appeals 236 Indirect Writing Plan for Persuasive Messages 238

Types of Persuasive Messages

239

Favour and Action Requests Persuasive Memos 241

239

Claim Requests

Collection Letters 247

242

Sales Messages

250

Aiming to Make a Sale: Analyzing the Product and Audience 251

Writing Plan for Sales Letters

251

Fundraising Messages

258

CONTENTS

Informal Reports 309

Introduction to Report Writing 31 O Factors In Successful Re ports 310 Content 310 Clarity 311 Skimmability 311 Informal vs. Formal Reports 31 1

Distinguishing Features of Short Reports 312 Purpose 312 Frequency of Submission 313 Common Categories 313 Formats and Distribution 313

Direct and Indirect Approaches

314

Direct Approach: Informational and Analytical Reports 314 Indirect Approach: Analytical Reports 315

Writing Style for Short Reports 315

Headings 315 Steps In the Writing Process 317 Planning 317 Researching/Analyzing Data and Information 317 Composing and Revising 318 Elements of Informal Reports 320 Introductory Statement 320 Findings 320 Summary/Conclusions/Recommendations 321 Using Graphics a nd Visuals 321 Tables 322 Matrixes 323 Pie Charts 324

Bar Charts

Picture Graphs 327

Line Graphs

Gantt Charts 329

Flow Charts

325

328

329

OrganizationalCharts 330 Commonly Used Sho rt Reports: Informational and Analytical 332 Informational Reports 332 Analytical Reports 353

WORKSHOPS AND DISCUSSION FORUMS 372 WRITING IMPROVEMENT EXERCISES 372 CASE STUDY EXERCISES 375 ONLINE ACTIVITIES 376

Proposals and Formal Reports

Proposals 378 Elements of Informal Proposals 379 Elements of Formal Proposals 380 Writing Style for Proposals 382 Sample Informal Proposal 382 Common Mistakes in Writing Proposals

Research in g and Collect ing Data 387

Formal Reports

390

Preparing to Write Formal Reports

389

Writing Style for Formal Reports 391

Creating a Work Plan 391 Time Management 392 Peer-Reviewing and Team Writing

392

Elements of Formal Reports Front Matter 395 Body of the Report 397 Back Matter 399

395

WO RKSHOPS AN D DI SCUSSION FORUMS

WR ITI NG IMPROV EM ENT EXERCI SES

CASE STUDY EXERCISES ONL I NE ACTIV ITIES 422

420

421

420

377

386

Oral Communication

424

Oral Presentations

425

Types of Oral Presentations 426 Analyzing the Situation and Audience 426

Structuring Presentations

Developing a Three-Part Presentation 428

Oral Presentation Outline 429 Using Visual Aids 430 Types of Presentation Aids 431 Designing a PowerPoint Presentation Prezi 437 Pecha Kucha Presentations 438 Methods of Delivery 438 Rehearsing a Presentation 440 Delivering a Presentation 441 Handling Questions 442 Team-Based Presentations 444 Special-Occasion Presentations 444

427

435

CON T EN T S

CONTEN TS

Organizing and Managing Meetings 446

Types of Meetings 446 Preparing for a Meeting

Conducting a Meeting 449 Meeting Minutes 451 Groupware-Supported Meetings 451

446

Communicating by Telephone 452

Making Calls 452 Receiving Calls 453 Using Voice Mail Productively 454

Dealing with the Media 454

WORKSHOPS AND DISCUSSION FORUMS

WRITI NG IMPROVEM ENT EXERCI SES 458

ONLINE ACTIV ITI ES 460

457

Social Media and Networking 461

Web 2.0 and the New Media Landscape 462 What Is Participatory Culture? 463 What Is Social Media? 464 Types of Social Media 466

Biogs 466 Social Networks 467 Micro-biogs 469 Photo- and Video-sharing Sites 471

The Social Media Advantage 471 The Risks and Challenges of SociaI Media 472 Measuring Social Media Performance 474

WORKSHOPS AND DISCUSSION FORUMS WR ITI NG IMP ROV EM ENT EXERCI SES 477

ONL I NE ACTIV ITIES 477

476

Appendix A: Business Usage: A Style and Mechanics Guide 479

Usage 479 Abbreviations and Acronyms 499 Numbers 500 Capitalization 502 Usage-Related Internet Resources 505 Salutations and Complimentary Closes: A User's Gulde 505 Standard Phrases and Their Plain-Language Alternatives 506

CONTENTS

Appendix B: Grammar Handbook 507

Subject- Verb Agreement 507 Verb Tense Accuracy 511 Other Verb Problems 512 Using Passive-Voice Constructions 513 Avoiding Logically Mismatched Subjects and Verbs (Faulty Predication) 514 Using Simliar Phrasing for Items In a Serles (Parallelism) 515 Making Comparisons Clear and Logical (Sentences with Than or As) 515 Using Pronouns with Precision 516 Correcting Modifier Mishaps 517 Comma Usage 519 Other Forms of Punctuation 520 Internet Resources: Grammar, Style, and ESL Guides 523

NOTES

524

INDEX

532

Active Listening

Audience Analysis

21 - 2, 31 , 65, 299, 454 50, 51 -4, 183, 205, 235, 251, 315, 390, 426- 7, 441

Collaboration 8, 16, 64-6, 392, 395, 444, 446, 449-51

Direct Approach

E-mail

157-9, 205-7, 213, 314- 15, 333, 355-6

133- 4, 135-48, 149, 286, 288, 293, 294, 452

Ethics 6- 7, 23- 6, 53, 79- 80, 166, 237- 8, 251, 284, 322, 473 Indirect Approach 32, 207- 13, 238, 315, 333, 356

lntercultural Communication 16, 27-32, 33-4, 90-1, 157 Non-Verbal Communication 16-20, 31, 296

Privacy/Security 5, 26, 32- 6, 54, 136, 137, 295, 472- 4

Reader-Centred Writing/You-Attitude 89- 90, 203- 4 Revising/Editing 61 - 3, 318- 20

Social Networking

Visual Aid s 107-8, 321 - 31 , 430-8

9, 269, 271 - 3, 466- 71

Jn todays fast-paced, globally connected world, effective communication is essential to suc- cessful business practices. With the expansion of the knowledge-based economy, Canadian employers are- now more than ever- increasingly interested in hiring individuals who are able to communicate dearly and effectively. Globalization poses new challenges to traditional modes or communication, a5 traditional spatial barriers virtually cease to exist. New tech- nolob>ies can provide solutions to suc h challenges, hut these tools must first he und t·Tstood. ln addition to comp reh ending the changing business environmen t, businesspeople must possess strong lan1:,•uage skills. They must know not only what needs to he said but also h ow to say it. An effective writing style hegins with a consideration of the basics:

grammar, tone, word choice, conciseness, and rhetorical techn.iques. But advanced busi- ness writers must also consider strategic composition strategies and persuasive document planning and have a thorough understanding of their audience's needs. Building on the foundation of its predecessors, this third edition of Communicating for Results contin ues to address these needs hy providing students with a thorough un- derstanding of how to effectively communicate in Canadian business environments. A unique, bands-on approach engages students in the processes of critical thinking, stylistic development, and conten t evaluation. Extensive models and organizational plans fo r let· ters, e-mails, report.5, and presentations-as well as extensive exercises based on real-life situation5--help to simplify the wri ting process, banish writers block, and ease fea rs about puhlic speaking. Checklists and review hoxes, along with handbooks to grammar and mechanics, summarize key point.5 for easy reference. Throughout, this approach emphasizes practical knowledge that will give students a head st.art in th e busi ness world. They will develop confidence in their skills and \vill ultimately have everything they need to become competent and successful communicators who get t.heir message across, get noticed, and get results.

CHAPTER 5

Sample Paper·Based Memo

Ineffective Informative E-mail Draft

Effective Informative E-mail 143

134

142

Effective Credit Refusal 221 Ineffective Employment Refusal (extract) Effective Employment Refusal 223 Announcing Bad News to Employees

225

222

E-mail that Requests

144

Ineffective Refusal of Invitation (extract) 226

E-mail that Responds

146

Effective Refusal of Invitation 227

Thank-You E-mail Message

147

Follow-Up E-mail Message

147

CHAPTER 6 Ineffective Information Request (extract) Improved Informati on Request 160

Sample Order Request (in simplified style)

162

Ineffective Claim (extract)

Effective Claim

164

163

Effective Information Response

167

159

CHAPTER 8 Ineffective Favour Request (extract)

Effective Favour Request

Ineffective Persuasive Memo (extract)

Effective Persuasive Memo

Persuasive Memo II

Ineffective Persuasive Claim (extract) 245

Effective Persuasive Claim 246 Sample Collection Reminder Letter 247 Sample Collection Inquiry Letter 248

239

242

240

243

244

Ineffective Info rmation Respon se (extract)

Sample Collection Demand Letter

249

168

Ineffective Sales Message (extract)

254

Sample Form Letter

Sample Letter Confirming Arrangements 171

Ineffective Claim Response (extract) Effective Claim Response 173

Appreciation for Business 176 Appreciation for Hospitality 177 Appreciation for Service or Favour 178 Letter of Congratulations 179 Letter of Sympathy 180 Sample Directive/Instructional Message

169

Effective Sales Message

Effective Sales Message II

255

2 56

172

Sal es Follow -Up

257

CHAPTER 9

Chronological Resume 280

Functional Resume

Combination Resume 283

Scannab le, Computer- Friend ly Resume 285

Sample Plain-Text Resume

Ineffective Solicited Letter of Application

282

287

(E-mail)

184

Putting the Elements Together 190

(extract)

290

CHAPTER 7

Ineffective Direct-Approach Message (extract)

206

Effective Direct-Approach Message

Refusing Requests for Information, Actions,

206

Effective Sol icited Letter of Application 291

Ineffective Unsolicited Letter of Application

(extract)

293

Effective Unsolicited Letter of Application 294

CHAPTER 10

and Favours 216 Ineffective Claim Refusal (extract)

218

Ineffective Conference Report 335 Effective Trip Report (Memo) 336

Effective Claim Refusal

219

Effective Trip Report (Abbreviated E-mail) 338

Ineffective Credit Refusal (extract)

220

Activity Report 340

COMMUNI CATIN G FOR RESULTS

Sample Progress Report

Sample Job Completion Report 345 Sample Incident/Accident Report 348 Sample Problem-Investigation Report 351

Recommendation Report: Direct Writing Plan

342

357

Recommendation Report: Indirect Writing Plan

359

Feasibility Report 363

Comparison Report 366

CHAPTER 11

Sample Informal Proposal 383

Sample Work Plan

Sample Formal Report in APA Style 403

393

CHAPTER 12

Ineffective Transparency 433 Effective Transparency 434 Sample PowerPoint Slide 435

448

Sample Meeting Agenda

CHAPTER 1

The Ethics of Job Slogging

41

Follow-Up Letter: Confirmation ofTelephone

Conversation

199

Ethical Dilemmas in Fundraising

lntercultural Communication Non-Starter

42 Information Response: Mentorship Program

42 199

Cross-Cultural Communication

online

Order Response: Company Novelty Items

200

CHAPTER 2

Know Your Audi ence

CHAPTER 3

online

Claim Response: Mi smatched Office

Components

200

Lette r of Appreciation: Country Club

Afternoon

200

The Style that Confuses

CHAPTER 4

onli ne

Toy Pigs and Poor Sentence Structure online

Transmittal Letter: Proposal for Restoration

Project

200

Is Anyone Listening?

online

CHAPTER 7

CHAPTER 5

E-mail that Informs: Design ShowTrends

E-mail that Informs: Counterfeit Internet

Refusing a Request: Case Study Art icle

230

152 Refusing a Claim: Return Policy on Opened

CDs

230

Coupons

153

Refusing aClaim: Coverage for Additional

E-mail that Informs: Retirement Dinner

153 Moving Expenses

230

Goodwi ll E-mail : Retirement Congratulation s

Refusing a Claim: Deck Repair

230

153

Refusing Credit: Office Furniture Purchase

E-mail that Requests: Reaction to Proposed

Announcing Bad News to Employees:

23 1

WLAN on Campus

153

E-mail that Responds: Reaction to Proposed

WLAN on Campus

153

E-mail that Informs: Relocation of Scheduled

Retreat

154

E-mail that Follows Up: Confirmation of Details

Changes to Office Catering

231

Announcing Bad News to Employees: On- Si t e

Fitness Program for Employees Only

231

Announcing Bad News to Employees:

Postponement of Holiday Party

231

Announcing Bad News to

Customers: Virus

for Intramural OfficeTeams

154 Problem for Internet Customers

232

Thanks, I Guess, and Thanks Again

online

Announcing Bad News to Employees: Office

Relocation

232

CHAPTER 6

Information Request: Business Etiquette

Agencies

198

Information Request: Internship Program

Order Request: Home-Decorating

Items

Order Request: Company Novelty Items

Claim Request: Product or Service Problem

Claim Request: Mismatched Office

Components

199

I Regret to Inform You

CHAPTER 8

online

198 Favour Request: Volunteers for Fundraising

198

Event

262

199 Favour Request: Judge for Fashion Show

199

Benefit

262

Favour Request: Volunteers for an Outreach

Program

262

COMMUNICATING FOR RESULTS

Persuasive Memo: Workplace Situations 262

Persuasive Memo: Problem-Solving

263

Claim Request: Adjustment to Fees

263

Claim Request: Gift Card Redemption

Collection Letter Series: Reminder, Inquiry, and

263

Demand

264

Sal es

Letter: Bicycle Courier Services

264

Sal es

Letter: Low-Carb Catering Business 264

You' re Not Going to Like This, But

.

online

CHAPTER 9 Ask Not What the Company Can Do· For You online

CHAPTER 10

Investigative Report: Equipment forTeam- Bui lding Retreat 375

Investigative Report: Field Trip Destinations

375

Periodic Report: Work- Study Placement 375 Investigative Report: Research Summary 376

Progress Report: Project Summary 376

Progress Report: Status of Office Renovations

376

Recommendation Report: Promotional Music

Salon

376

Recommendation Report: Improvement to School Services 376

It's a Matter of Form

online

CHAPTER 11

Informal Internal Proposal: Workplace

Improvements

421

Informal Internal Proposal: Working from Home 4 21

Informal Internal Proposal: Mobile Devices

421

Informal Internal Proposal: Request for IT Services 421

Informal External Proposal: Public Speakers Wanted 421 Formal External Proposal: Store Rebranding

421

Formal Report: Customer Service Complaints

421

Formal Research Report Requiring Secondary Research 422

Am I Repeating Myself? online

CHAPTER 12

Too Much Information

online

FROM T H E PUBLIS HER

Highlights of the Third

Edition

A

new chapter on social media and networking examines key social media tools

and how they can be used by individ uals and businesses to identify trends, promote prodt1cts and services, and interact with customers.

New chapter vignettes and photos illustrate each chapter's main themes with real- Life examples.

An ell.11a n ded opening chapter introduces cu r rent t r e 11 ds i n t h e

workplac e-s uc h as

the globalization of business practices, the focus on team-based work environments, the importance of corporate social responsibility, and t.he ever-increasing reliance on

new tech nologies we communicate.

such as social media-a nd iden tifies h ow these trends impact how

New discussions of communicating in the new economy, writing in con text, ;;md using social media to find employment highHght various aspects ofhusiness communication.

In

creased coverage of int.ercultural communication , privacy conce rns, collaborative

writing, and oral presentations give more insight into these topics.

APA and MLA documentation guidelines for business reports ensure that students can cite their resea rc h proper ly.

A

marginal glossary defines key terms and concepts at their first appearance in

 

the text.

A11 extensive suite of online ancillaries en hances studen t learning.

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1.

Identify the llnk between effective business communication and personal career success.

2.

Recognize key changes and trends In the workplace, especially those Influenced by technology.

3.

Describe the communication process.

4.

Identify communication barriers and apply strategies for overcoming them.

5.

Explain the Importance of non-verbal communication.

6.

Analyze the systems and mechanisms for communicating Inside and outside organizations.

7. Examine the flow of communication wlthl n organizations.

8. Identify the goals of ethical business communication and apply standards to avoid ethical lapses.

9. Contrast the communication differences between high-context and low-context cultures.

Ease the flow of communication between and across cultures.

11. Identify workplace privacy Issues and apply strategies to safeguard personal Information.

1o.

COMMUN I CATIN G FOR RESU LTS

THE ABILITY of businesses to manage and adapt to change Is currently a popula r topic with communicators. For example, at a 2012 International Association for Business Communication (IABC) event, former International president Juli e Freeman stated : ·current

market forces such as economic uncertainty, globali zation, a more d iverse workforce, Innov- ations In technology and demands for tran sparent and socially responsible behaviour are compelli ng organizations to change the way they do business. And when organizations

chang e, so mu st th e communi cators that

communicate, the more they are engaged and the stronger a company's financial results tend to be. Understanding company goals and strategies and being able to b ring that strategy to li fe Is one of the rol es of communi cato rs, but the challeng es don't stop there. Globalization has made It more important for communicators to position their messages for multiple audiences worldwide and to understand how their organization's finances Impact th eir communi cation s.

serve them."' For Freeman, the better employees

• Communicating for Change-

and a

Stronger Bottom Line-

in the New Economy

Canada's inn ovation performan ce ran ks 14 out of 17 major industrialized nation s. At the Con fe rence Iloard o f Canada Ilusi ness Innovation Summit 20 13 , lead ers from across the country met to dL~cuss raising this stat.us. According to Roger Garrick, managing d irector o f Canadian Operations at Desti nation Imagination, we n eed to improve the four Cs in school cu rrk u lu m; creativity, cri tica l

thin king, com munication, and collaboration skills. Peter Aceto, presid ent and CEO o f ING Direct and

2010 recipien t o f the IABC Communicator of the

Year (COTY) Award , believes that the sol ution lies

believe

social m ed ia's likened to the

a dramatic s hift underway. Some co m pani es are being run d ifferently today. And more im p ortan tly, they will have to he run d ifferent ly tomorrow." 2

o ne day be . We all see

Watch Peter Aceto explain the importance of communication in the Canadian workplace: http:// goo.gl/83hpy1 .

in embracing the power of social media; " I

impact on busi ness wi ll

ind ustrial revolution

.

~:

~I

[!]:

.

.

T h e COTY Award is presented annually to

aToronto-area leader who demonstrates excellence in communication. Judging

criteria include success in developing communication strategies, effective use of internal and external communication, and communication with diverse audiences. For more details, visit http://toronto.iabc.com/

award/coty/.

Whatever the answer to raising Canada's pos- ition as an innovator migh t he, communication is a crucial part of it. Good commu nication matters-

now more than ever in business. In todays d iverse , wired, global busin ess environmenL~. e veryone

co

mm u ni cates for a li vi n g . I t L~ i m pos s i bl e to work

in

an office setting without havi ng to write a report,

d ash off an e-mail message, compose a fom1al lette r, partici pate in a meeting, carry on a teleph one con- versatio n , network and collahorat.e wi th colleagues and associates, make a presentation, or use Weh 2.0 an d .1.0 technologies to cany out any or these

1

I

GETTI NG THE

h.mcli.011s. Spoken and written communication that is focused, reliable, and disciplined has the power to in fluence opin ion and shape perceptions on which an organization's competitiveness, productivity, and success depend. Good communication plays a crucial role in building credibility and uph olding standards of accountability in a global busines.~ environment, where relationshi ps th rive on trust. How you write, speak , and listen on the job reflects who you are professionally, how you treat others, and how you do business. Done well, your communication can empower you and he the means to promotion and success. Language is, after all, a power ful tool worr.h the effort of learning to use well. Effective communication can cut through the complexities of business, clarifying h.izzy concepts and making masses of data both meaningful and manageable for those who must use it and make decisions based on iL Successful communication on the job doesn't merely happen by chance. It is the result of learning how to structure your infom1ation strategically-of using text, desib'll, and tech- nologies to achieve an intended purpose for a clearly defined audience. Delivering informa-

between a

commitment to your business goals and an awarenes.~ o f your audiences needs. Delivering information at Internet speed, as so many jobs now require, may demand a little more than simply fami liarizing yourself with the basic rules of grammar, spelling, and punctuation. It is also a matter of keeping up with changes and developing an accessible, functional style that is fleidblt: enough to he applied to the many fom1s of communication in your workplace. Good communkation makes good business sense. l:ven though the ability to com- municate effectively is th ought of as a "soft skill"- one o f the social and self-management behaviours that help people take action and get results--as opposed to a "hard s kill"- the know-h ow, tools, and techniques that equip people to work in a professional capacity- research has shown that communication is important to success. In a 200.'i publica- tion entit.led SUCCESS, the Canadian Advanced Technology Alliance (CATA) revealed that, among 100 Canadian business leaders, communication was a top attribute linked to l eade r ship sk il l~. Commu ni catio n capa b ilities a r e not just a pathway t.o career adva n ce - ment but also a route to a healthy bottom line. Terry Matthews, founder and chairman of Wesley Clover, a private equity and investment management firm, sees new graduates

tion effectively ca n depend o n a fi n e balance between you and you r audie n ce,

MESSAGE ACROSS

soft skill a social, Interpersonal, or

language skill that complements a

person's tech nical skills.

hard skill a tech nical skill that a person requires for a specificJob.

with specific skill sets as part of I.he formula fo r corporate success in the futu re economy:

"It's not always the ones with the highest marks. Rather, lt's the people with the hard work ethic, c reativity and good communication skills." 3 According to a survey of 120 human resources directors, American businesses spend $3.1 billion annually training their employees to write.• With the enom1ous cost of poor communication, the ability to communicate effectively is n ow a top-ranked skill among Canadian employers. The Conference Board o f Canada argues that progress in th e work world depends on t.he ability to do the following:

• read and u nderstand information in many fom1s

• speak and wri te to command attention and promote

• actively listen and appreciate other points of view

• share infom1ation via a range of technologies

• use scientific and technological skill~to clarify ideas

• manage information by gathering and organizing it through the use of technologies and in fo rm ation systems

• apply and integrate knowledge and skills from other disciplines'

understand ing

COMM UN I CATIN G FOR RESU LTS

Besides heing a hase ror further development, these skills bring lasting benefits to those who can apply them, the organizations where they are practised, and- more i11directly- the stakeholders who must interact with them. Advantages include enhanced problem- solving and decision-making; increased efficiency, workll ow, and productivity; and improved professional image, business relatio11ships, and group dynamics.

• Communicating in the Current Workplace

and

b eyo n d - wit h implicatio n s fo r l ea rning, job r eq u i r ements, soug h t- after bu si 11ess ta le n t,

h iring, and the quality o f work life. Th is 1.ransformation encompasses several factors:

As previo usly ind icated, profound changes are OCL'tlrring in the Canadian workplace-

a

changeover to a knowledge-hased Internet

the adopt.ion of revolut.ionary information and commun ication technolobries (ICTs)

new team -based work environme nts wi th flattened h ierarc h ies and a more d iverse employee hase

expectations fo r sustainah ility, eth ical practice, and corporate social responsihi.lity (CSR)

highJy competitive global markets

Communication is the cornerstone in the new and rapidly evolving workplace, b ringing together core fun ctions.

to he based on 1.h e

T h e

k n owledge eco nom y. Whereas Canada's economy used

products people made from raw materials through manual labour, the information age h as mad e it knowledge-based. Th e knowledge wo rker makes and sells some kind of idea-based product: software, consulting and financial se rvices, music, design, or phar-

maceuticals. The advantage that knowledge products have over those produced through

manual labour is that their value can dramatically increase as the global market expands; the challenge in a knowledge economy Ls to ensure co nt inu ed fu nding fo r re search and d evelop men t (R&:D), to co n tinue to draw on a n educated workfo r ce tra in ed i11 critica l thinking, and to fight the problem o f "brain drain," the loss of ex-perts to other coun tries. Richard Florida, an u rhan studies theorist and head of the Martin Prosperity Institute at the University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management, believes that creativity is the driving force of economic probrress and sou rce of competitive advantage. He claims that "the creative age" has seen the rise o f two social classes: the creative class-comp rised o f workers in science an d tech nology. arts and culture, entertainment, health care, law, and

management- and the service class. 6

Spur ri ng t he spread of Lnfom1ation , utilities and search engines such as Google and open- access h usiness in fo rmation engines have become equalizers, helping to make the acquisition of knowledge more democratic so that everyone can, potentially, know almost anythi ng they want at any given time . It is understood that workers should have b oth the skills to u tilize such resources to find and evaluate info rmation and the kl.low-h ow to process and communicate it effectively. The in fonna tion age makes research ers of us all, n o matter what our occupation or job profile. Shared

Watch Richard Florida explain "Why Creativity is the New Economy" in this video address to the Royal Society for the encouragement of the Arts, Manufactures and

Commerce: http://goo.gl/KwtJuO.

1

I

GETTI NG THE

MESSAGE ACROSS

« Toronto's Centre for SociaI Innovation (CSl)- a communal space that offers members shared workspaces, networks,

and knowledge-

example of Richard Florida's clalm that the new economy Is driven by our ability to put our own and others' creativity to work.

ls a Jiving

workspaces-or areas hosted hy a web server where colleabrues can share information and

employees can share insider info rmation in

a protected web environme n t- are prime examples of how tbis era ls radica lly res hapi ng business environments. The concept of the risk s ociety. With its fo rces of mod ernization, our society is one that sociologists Anthony Giddens and Ulrich Ilec k have called a "risk society." 7 Dangers i nclude no t on l y environmenta l rL~ks, s u c h as natural dL~asters, hu t al~o manufac tu red risks t h at a re co mpl ex, catast rop hi c, a nd ca n affect m a 11y peop l e. Examples of risks in

documen t.So-and company intranet.s--where

ICTs toch nologles, such as mobil e phone systemsand the Internet, used for transmitting, manipulating, and storing data by electronic means.

piracy the ur)authorl zed reproduction and distribution or copyrighted material, Including vtdeo games, software, music, and fllm s.

cyberwarfare aform of Information warfare, usually the conducting of politically motivated sabotllge through hacking.

Identity theft the act of acquiring and collecting an Individual's personal Information for criminal purposes.

risk communication an

Interactive exchange of Information and opinion o n ri sk among ri sk

assessors, ri sk manag m, and Interested parties.•

other

ICTs include piracy, cyherwarfare, and identity theft. Sen11ity breaches result in lost or compromised data , as well as a loss of trust, that can h allll commerce and a companys

credibility, reputation, and bottom line. Institutions su ch as governmen ts and businesses

au.empt to control risk h y buildi n g t.ru s t , esta blis hi ng

forging n.etworks. Managing risk is essential fo r the active risk-taking that allows a dynam ic economy to continu e. Preventive meas ures and regulation are part. of this effort, as are the special- ized protocols of crisis and risk communication . Data security, cyhersecurity, and defence against a spectrum of th reats to comm un ication from com puter viruses , hacki ng, and other fom1s of cyhe rattack con tinue t.o he I.op concerns fo r o rgan izations .

Ffatter organizations. Organizations are hy tradi ti on layered and hierarchical. Manage rs from th e top d own at. many levels are entrusted with making the decisions

and setting the strategies fo r action to he carried out by fro nt-line employees \vith whom they may or may not he in direct contact. As organ- izations strive fo r great.er cost savings, efficiency, competitiveness, and sustainability, management

h iera rch ies may he fl auened , with fewer divisions. This d ecentralization and d emocratization o f the

wo rkplace, with fewer middle a long a n.cl interp ret di rectio n s,

commun.kation chains; therefore , every individual must he a skilled communicator if company prod· ucts and services are going to make it in to the mar·

k el. As hu s iness guru Th omas J. Friedm a n , author

cross- border co -operatio n , a n d

Watch Ulrich Beck discuss living in and coping with world risk society:

http://goo.gi/Kn5jJ3

managers to pass mak es fo r sho r te r

COMM UN I CATIN G FOR RESULTS

of Tht: World Is Flat, ohserves , "When tlie wo rld st.arts t.o move fro m a primarily vertical (command and control) value -creatio n mo d e l to an. increas -

ingly horizontal (connect an d collaborate)

creation

Listen to John Larsen of the

Corpen Group discuss communicating risk in this CBC Radio broadcast: http://

900.91/QgrFGr.

model, it doesn't just affect how husiness gets done. It affects everything."" The old autocratic

style of husin ess management is h eing replaced with a more participatory one, where communica- tion helps to huild trust and understanding and to motivate others. Sustainability and corporate social respon- sibility. Corporations hold significant power and in fluence in the wo rl d. Jn fact, 42 of the 100 largest econ omies in the world are compan- ies. 10 According to Kristen Coco, strategic comm unications cons ultant at the UN Glohal Compact (UNGC), the corporate social responsibility movement was horn in the 1990s amid growing stakehold er concerns over environmental catastrophes (such as the sink- ing o f t.h e Exxon Valdez oil tanker), the first sustai nability reports from forward - looki ng companies such as Ben &: Jerry's, and the eme rgence of the an ti - globaliza tion movement. 11 Today, important initiatives such as the UNGC drive transparency on how corporations earn th t'ir mon ey, treat thei r employees, and protect the p lan et's fi n ite resou rces. T he UNGC asks companies to emb race, support, and enact core values related to part.icular areas:

corporate social responslblllty

(CSR) a company's vo luntaiy

contributi ons to sustainable

development through the support ofnon·profit organizations and/or the creation of soctally conscious corporate policies.

sustainable development

economtcdevelopment that maintains natural resources for future generations and recognizes the relationship between economic, social, and envtronmental Issues.

• human righ ts

• lab our standards (such as bans on fo rced and child labou r, recogn itio n o f collective bargaining righ ts, and elimirnat.ion of employment discrimination)

• the environm ent (adoption o f environmen tal protection initiatives and en vironmen t· ally friendly tech nologies an d use o f p recaut.ionary approach es to environm emal challenges)

• anti-conuptio n (zero tolerance fo r all forms o f corruptio n , includ in g bribery and extortion)

Communicating these values to st.akeholders has become more important as int.erest

in sustainable development an d relat.ed concepts

accotmtahllity, and the t.riple bottom line of environment, economy, and society brrows. 12

According to the Cer tified General Accountants Association of Canada, 80 pe r cent of companies listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange in 2008 reported some type of sustainability prac- tice. i:i Reporting st1st.ainahle development is more than a PR exerdse. Through a combination of vol- untary an d mandatory disclosures, sustainability

of CSR, corporate eth ics, citizensh ip and

Canadian Business for Social Responsibility offers links to more than 60 resources on sustainability and CSR:

http://goo.gi/UVKvtd.

reporting can accomplish many objectives:

• stren gt.h en the lin k hetween a company and its stakeholders and increase stakehold er value

• hoost financial performance

• showcase efficiency in production and lead to better use of company assets and innovative technology

• in cre ase the com p any's ap peal to socially respo nsihl e investo rs

• build industry credihiHty, set an example, and enhance company reputation

Bus iine ss o n a global scale. T h e world 's economy is hecoming increasingly global- to the poin t where , since 2000, the world seems to have shrunk. This is d ue, in large part, to seve ral key factors:

web hrowsers promoting connectivity and the free fl ow of in fonn ation

• software (such as PayPal) and othe r com- munication platforms promoting wider co-operation

• open-sourcin g (or softwa re in th e public domain that users are perm itted to change and im prove)

• outs·ourci ng and offsho ring (designing at home and red istributing customer service fu nctions and production facilities to distant countries)

• "amp lifiers" th at are d igi tal, virtual, mo b ile, and personal (cellph ones, smartphones, chips, file sha ring , VoIP, WiFi)

1

I

G ETTI NG TH E

ME SS AGE ACRO S S

D

Watch Professor Mark Schwartz ofYork University discuss business ethicsand CSR in this video: http://goo.gi/RrpwdA.

Watch thisvideo on CSR from the

University ofSt. Gallen: http://goo.gi/

btm36.

The glohalized busi ness structure provides new opportmtities as well as challenges

Canad ian p roducts must compete in inter-

national markets, yet the brands we may th ink of as 100 per cent Canadian may in fact he produced, in whole or in part, in other countries. For example, Canadian aerospace and

fo r Canadian workers and their organizations.

" In June 2013, Apple revealed the latest version of Its Mac Pro computer at Its Worldwide DevelopersConference. To create local jobs, the company will manufacture the computer In the United States.This decision Indicates that stakeholders are Interest ed In more than just a company's products.

Soun:e: C1nadlM1 PTess/AP Photo/

Erk Rlsborg

COMM UN I CATIN G FOR RESULTS

diversity th<! understanding, acknowledging, valuing, and celebrating of differences among people with respect to gender. race, ethnicity, age, sexual orientati on, religiou sbeli ef, and physical ability.

communication atransactional and relational process Involving the meanlngF\11exchange of lnformauon.

transportation giant Bombardier has facilities in 25 countries . 14 Furt.hem1ore, in.ves tm ent from fo reign-based companies an d emerging super econom ies such as C hina has jumped dramatically, and the trend toward outsourcing and offsho ring customer servi.ce fu nctions continues. 11 The need to explore new and emerging markets, negotiate, buy and sell over-

seas, mark et products,

1.ion with people from around the world, without wh ich none o r these functions could

he accomplished. Th e

language divides--and to exercise intercultural sensitivity hy respecting differences in cus-

toms, lifestyles, religions, and business etiquette- is crucial to the success of ope rations in

th is new global econ omy.

More diverse employee base. Most employee constituencies in present-day Canada

reflect differences in ethnici ty, age, race, gender, physical abilities, and sei

Thi.s diverse, multi-generational wo rkforce is n ot si mply the outcome o f Canada~ success

in attracting talented immigrants or in cu ltivating social responsibility through fair and equitable employment policies; i t is a matter o r good econom ic sense, as companies cap- italize on talents, expert.ise, creativi ty, and strengths across diverse groups to obtain greater productivity and competitive advantage. With out I.h is deep talent pool, Canada could very well lose out on opportunities fo r growth. RBC Financial Group refers to this practice as "t.he d iversity advantage" and cites it as a defining business trend in the twenty-first

in teract.ions

brought about by a world wide economy, managing and p romoting diversity is an import- ant compon en t of management. Organization al policies and practices will contin ue to he vital in sustain ing an incl usive work environment. in which all in dividuals are valued, respected, and treated with dii,'llity.

cent.ury, business is cond ucted by

teams. According to IBM strategL~tJoelCawley, "We are not just commun icating more than ever before, we are n ow ahle to collaborate- to build coalitions, project.~. and products together- more than ever before." 11 Collabora tion in the broadest sense is at work in "open data" and crowdsourcing initiatives, such as a private-sector app that Torontonians can use to report potholes or British Columbia's "Apps 4 Climate Action ," an initiative that challenged the software industry to create applications that would make government.- released data on carbon emissions useful. 18

cen tur y. 10 Because o f the demographic makeup o f most. workp laces and the

ability to communicate across cultural harriers, time zon es, an d

an d enter int.o join t ventu res is anch ored in e ffective cmumu11ica-

'Ual orientation.

Team work environments_ ln the twenty-first

Collahorat.ion through cross- functional teams, in

which in dividuals o f different areas

of expertise come together to share infom1ation for a common goal, makes the most of a wo rkforces creative potential by increasing individual involvement in decision-making and project development. Inn ovations in infom1ation technology and mobile communica- tions have made it possible for employees to he part o f virnial project teams, which can eliminate time and space harriers- by allowing team members to work from home or

oth er off-site locations beyond a st1ict 9 - to -5 workday- an d still provide quality, low-cost solutions to organizational problems. Working in teams, however, depends on good com- municatio n and I. h e i nt e rp erso na l skill~ to overcome conflicts t h at arise when peop l e wi.th differing viewpoints must make joint decisions . Special train ing is o ften required to help team s boost perfom1ance b y ma n agi n g con~flict a nd practising ope n commu ni catio n . Advancing communication tedmologies . Tech nology and lan guage use shaped

h y tech n o l ogy now filter our perspective

ated through many

of t h e world. O u r communica tion are medi - an d electron ic forums, most of wh ich did not

~

different tech nologies

1

I

GETTI NG THE

MESSAGE ACROSS

auto responders; t.ahlet computers; smartphones and or.her hand-held wireless devices; Bluetooth technology; instant messaging (IM); t.ext messaging; voice mail; proprietary Voice over IP services (VoIP) such as Skype; podcasts; mohile apps such as Basecamp and WehEx; space-defying video con rerencing and weh conferencing; presentation soft- ware such as PowerPoint, Prezi, and Keynote; interactive software that can change the sequence of information; wehlogs; wikis; virtual worlds; cloud computing; and, on the horizon , wearahle computers such as Google Glass. Not only do these technologies allow us to communicate farther and faster, hut th ey also enable us to communicate around the

dock- to the point where we are always using one technolob'Y or another. 10 As Michael

Sandel comments in The World ls /:lat, "Developmen ts in info rm ation tech nology are

enabling companies to squeeze all the inefficiencies and friction out of their markets and

business operations." 2 0

Connectivity through the World Wide Web. Web 1.0 (the read-only web) was invented in the early 1990s and continues to enable users t.o find information through tools such as browsers, search engines, and portals and to exchange infom1ation through applications such as e-mail. Weh 2.0 (read- WTite) applications such as hlogs, wikis, peer- to-peer file sharing, social networking platforms, and virt.ual worlds represent a great leap forward hecause they allow users to communicate, collaborate, and socialize, as well as to create, distribute, and share content. Web romiats such as Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds allow frequently updated wo rks to he puhlished and new con tent to he syndicated automatically.

• Social n etworki ng s it.es: Facebook, YouTub e, Linked ln , Tumblr, In stagram , Pinterest, Reddit, Yammer, Salesforce Chatter, and Twitter. Facebook began as

a tool- or what the sit.e calls "a social utility"- to "give people t he power to share

t.o stay connected with frie n ds

and famlly, to discover what's going on in the world, and to share and express what matters to them." 2 ' This networking plat.fom1 lets users cont.ml the information they share with ot.hers, and th is tool for self-presentation has been quickly embraced hy marketing-savvy corporations. Twitt.er, t.he micro-hllogging tool t.hat allows users to

and make t.h e wo rld more open and con nected

send and read "tweets" of up to 140 characters, has hecome one of the fastest· b>rowing social networking sites, according to tracking firm HubSpot lnc. Viewed by some as

a productivity-slashing time-waster,

Twitter also offe rs corporate represen tatives--

including Peter Aceto-the chance to build trust and promote corporat.e values such as transparency. 22

• Web 3.0 (the transcendent web). Businesses are beginning to plan for the next gen· eration o r web technology- and for the privaLy concerns it brings. Web 3.0 encom- passes artificial intelligence (Al) technolob'Y· social media, the semantic web (which allows for more sophisticated and personalized searc h in g), and the Internet of t.h in gs (dubbed loT, a network o r lnterconnected weh devices) 2 3 According to global man-

agement co nsulting fim1 Booz &: Company, Weh 3.0 will tra n sfom1 busines.~. espe - cially the online media and retail industries, over the next five to ten years. 24 Web 3.0 promises the unprecedented ahility to connect and to communicate with customers

and, th rough real-time analytics, to capture data about their on line act.ivit.ies that can

then he used fo r sales and marketing as well as product Ob'Y such as radio freq uency identification (RF!D) tags

tasks, such as tracking stock in a warehouse, ove r six hillion IP- ready objects could

tech nol-

was once used only for hask

deve lopment. Whe re

COMM UN I CATIN G FOR RESULTS

he connected to the Internet hy 201.5, with products such as the Nike Fuelhand,

of this technology. 2 ' Companies

that have already embraced Web 3.0 include Dell, which has created a community of one million online users to test products and provide feedback on design, and Amazon. whkh uses Al to provide customer recommendations based on h1dividual browsing h is tories. 2•

• Mobile apps for business. The 2012 lpsos Canadian Inter®ct.ive Reid Report states that 37 per cent of Canadians have mobile Internet access. Of the 31 per cent who 0\"'11 a smartphone, .57 per cent have downloaded a mob ile app lication. 21 As a result, businesses have been quick to take advantage of mobi le apps. Business-to-business

(B2B) apps are used to suppo rt an o rgartization's internal business processes such as custome r- relatio n s h ip management, ware h ouse management, a nd sa l es - Co rce auto · mation. Business-to-consumer (B2C) apps fulfill different needs: 28

a wearable monito r, rep resenti ng the leadi ng

edge

• Content-oriented apps, such as Twitter and IM, answer the need for in formation, com munication , en tertainment, and socialization .

• Marketing-oriented apps promote brands and excel in targeting them to a younger, digitally native demographic. A 2010 Leger Marketing study found that 90 per

cen t of Canad ian organizations utilize

Canadian companies such as Molson-Coors use mobile apps as mainstays o r their

bran ded pat.io fi n der

brand awareness. 20 Worldwide, companies such as Debenham\;

UK have capitalized on this trend by offering customers a dedicated app ror vis- iting vir tual pop-up stores across t he country. Shoppers can th en view d resses available at a specific location, try them on using augmented reality technology. and purchase them at a 20 per cent di 30 Paramount Studios creat.ed mohile

J tha t a llowed use rs to d own loa d wallpape r for t.h eir

media ads fo r Trnnsfonne-rs

iPhones and view exclusive trailers.

• Service-oriented apps allow users to perform tasks such as online hanking. shop· ping, or consulting schedules.

social

media as a public engagemen t r.ooL

com mimicatio ns helping to build

p la nrtin g, with well - knowi1 apps such as a

~count.

Productivity is getting a major boost rrom the thousands of service-oriented mohile applications, using a variety of operat.ing systems now on the market, including multi- platform note-taking apps such as Evemote, business-planning app StratPad, file-syncing app Dropbox for Teams, and calendar-scheduling app Speaktoit. 31

COMMUNICATION DEFINED

The term wmmunicati<m derives from a Latin root wo rd meaning "common." Having something in common through the transmission of ideas, emotions, and skills-through sharing knowledge and exchangLng inrom1ation- lies at the heart of the act of comm uni- cation. Comm un ication has hee n defined as "a transactional process of shari ng mean· ing with others" 12 and as "a human process through wh ich we make sense out o f the world and share I.hat sense with others." 33 More simply, commun ication is the sharing of synlhols--words, images, gestures--to create meaning. Through communication we assign meanings based on our social and cultural contexts and reb'1.1late the world around us hy the stories that we make up about it and share. T.f storytelling, as narrative theorists believe, is one way to view communication , then it is also a means by which we act on the world, whether to persuade or dissi.1ade or si mply provoke a response from others.

1

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G ETTI NG TH E

COMMUNICATION AS A FIELD OF STUDY

Communication d oes not simply happen-it is something that is learned and requ ires skills beyond the ability to talk , which most o f us are born with . lnqi1iries hy soc:ial scientists,

industry specialists, and cultural studies we communicate a nd th e skills that we

Comm unication can also easily break down, and when it does, communication theory can

led to a fuller understanding o f h ow out o u r communication s effective ly.

scholars have need to carry

h elp explain what happens when we comm unicate and why certain symbols may he taken as meaning different things.

T he US-based National Cmn mu11ication Assodatfon defines I.h is fie ld of research as

one that "focuses on how people use messages to generate meanings with in and across contexts, cultures, channels, and th e media. The discipline promotes the effective and

ethical practice of human comm unications."' 4 Th e large, interd isciplinary and extraord in - ari ly d iverse field o f commun ication research con tin ues t.o grow rapidly all over the worl d. Accordi n g to the Inte rnational Comm u n icatio n Associatio n (ICA), this growth "re fl ects the need to seek answers to urgen t social problems involving communication (e.g., child

developm en t, fa mil y li fe, cultura l develo p me nt an d p reservat ion,

ical communication among political systems and nations)."l' It is now possible to think of comm unication stud ies as havi ng many branches and as s haring theories and assumptions with a wide array o f disciplines such as sodolOb'Y· psychology, political science, law, p hil- osophy, and li ng u is tics . Th ese many co n texts a re re fl ecte d in the 2.5 research d ivisions set

o ut by organ izations s uch as t he ICA, ma ny o f which a re s hown in Table 1.1.

quality o f li fe, and polit-

TABLE 1.1 Areas of Communication Research

ME SS AGE AC RO S S

communication theory a

systemof Ideas for explaining communication.

CONTEXT

CONCERNED WITH •••

Communication and technology

psychological and sociological issues related to computer-mediated communication, human- computer interaction, social interaction and networking, and other impacts of technology

Communication law

communication policies that underlie law and regulation

Environmental communication

the interplay between the environment and communication in any setting

Global communication and social change

production, distribution, content, and reception of communications media at global levels

Health communication

the role of communication theory, research, and practice in health promotion and health care

lntercultural communication

the theory and practice of communication between and among different cultures

Intergroup communication

the ways in which communication within and between groups affects social relations

Interpersonal communication

small-group processes and relationship development

Mass communication

the transmission of messages through mass media, such as print and cinema, and the differing impacts of those messages

Organizational communication

the processes of communicating and organizing in global society and its contexts, such as government and non-government agencies, profit and non-profit organizations, health care co-operatives, and global corporations

Public relations

the understanding of communication between organization and target groups or publics

Visual communication

the meaning and function of all forms of visual representation, including still and moving images in print and digital media, film, television and video, and art and design

COMM UN I CATIN G FOR RESU LTS

rhetoric th<! use of languag<! to pmuade an audience.

semantics the study or the words and symbolswe choos<l.

semiotics the study o r how meaning Isassigned and understood.

cybernetics the study or how

Information Is processed and how

communication systems function.

The effort to discover what we can do t.o commurticate more effectively can likewise he approached th rough many different theoretical fram eworks- from the study of t he prac· tical art of discourse (rhetoric) and t.he way our hehaviour is influenced hy the words and symbols we choose (semantics) to how meaning is as.~i&rnedand understood (semiotics) and how in fo rmation is processed and commun ication systems function (cy bernetics). No matter how specialized the different contexts and suhdiscipli nes o r commu nication appear t.o he, they are neve rth eless linked by common theories, structures, and processes. In the pages and chapters that follow, we will explore these common facto rs as well as the distinctive branches o r communication that are intebrrated in workplace practice.

• The Communication Process

message any typ<! of oral,written, or non-verbal communication that Is transmitted by a sender to an audi ence.

Th e idea o f exc han ge L~ fu n damenta l to

ous hran ches helps to explain some of the more hasic tasks of wri ting and speaking for business . Commun icatio n with out t.h e in vo l vement or a partner(s) is like a tennis match

with just one player. Communicat.i.on can he und erstood

mode rn co mm u n icat i o n theo r y,

w h ich k1 its va ri ·

in terms of three characte1istics:

• situated (embedded in a particular environmen t or socio-cultural con text)

• relational (involves the ahility to interact effectively and ethically according to what is needed at a given moment)

• transactional (exists as a

co-operative activity in wh ich people adapt to one another)

Commun ication isn't simply

a process in which both sender and receiver are involved in a necessary if not entirely

equal partnership. ln concept1.1al t.erms, comm u nication can he thought of not as a thing hut as a process o f t ransfening dat.a from a sender to a receiver as efficient.ly an d accurately as possible. This exchange takes place through the use of a code- a language or a set of sib'l1S and

t through a channel and car ri es

an agreed- upo n mean in g within a pa rticu la r co n t.ext, wit h t.h e aim o f elic i ti n g a response

from the receiver. The receiver must he ahle to understand, with certainty, what is signifi- can t about the data and make meaning out of it in o rder for th is active, ongoing, and ever- changi ng process to be truly effective. Through communication we assign meanings and take possession of the world arou nd us, though the realities we create are shaped hy our different cultural expe1iences and individual knowledge.

symbol~ (e.g., words or gestures) - that transm iL~ a thoug h

someth ing that is done to or.hers; it is cond ucted together-

ELEMENTS

OF THE COMMUN ICAT ION PROCESS

One of the first conceptual models of comm unication was developed over sixty years ago hy Claude Shannon, an engineer at Bell Telephone Lahoratories, and Wanen Weaver, a sde n tist and mathematician. By attempting t.o estab lish how a message, when converted

to anot.h er in the quickest,

and most error- free way, th ey came up wit.h a hroad definition o f com-

munication as "all of the procedures hy which one mind may affect another"l 6 and a model

for communication that represented it as a dynamic two-way process. For con:unun.ka· t.ion to occur, accordi n g to this mathemat.kal theory, there must h e hoth a sou r ce and a

destination-

t.h e other e n d to receive i t and respon d to it (see Fi gu re 1.1). The success of this process

someone at one end to formulate and launch the message and someone at

into electronic most efficien t,

sibrnals, cou ld he t.ransmittecl from one point

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GETTI NG THE

MESSAGE ACROSS

depends on the ext.mt to which a message received corresponds to the message trans- mitt.ed or to wh ich the in put and the output correlate. The goal is fo r the message to he

as simp le and

st.raightfonvard as i.t soun ds. Difficulties wi.th transmission, reception, and interferen ce

unde rstoo d as it was inte nd ed. The process, unfortunate ly, is not al ways

have 1.he potential to disrupt the process.

Sender

The sender, also known as the t ransmitter or communicator, is the person or group with

a particular idea or purpose in mind and an i.ntention to express that purpose in the rom1

of a message. The fom1 that t he idea ultimately assumes- its con ten t, tone, emphasis,

and o rga nization-

and other assumptions based on the senders experience. The act of taking ideas and put- ting them into a code is known as encoding. The message can he encoded verbally or non-verhally-i n writing. speech, or gestures-w ith the goal that it will eventually he understo od. For t his to happen, however, the sender must consider t he receiver's context, knowledge. attitudes, and comm unication skills and then choose the right code to convey the inte nd ed meaning; otherwise, the commmticati.o n transaction can fail.

is shaped hy the

sender's context, knowledge, attitudes, b ackground,

Channel

The channel is the medium by which the message is physically t ransm itted. Delivery can

he by spoken word, letter, memo, report, telephone, computer (e-mail) , voice, or ges- ture. Choosing the optimal chan nel depend.~on a variety of factors discussed later in thi chapter. A medi um can he synchronous (i.e., enabling the com mi.mication t.o take place

d irec tly, at the same time or in real time) or asynch ro nous (i.e., all owi ng for a transfer of informal.ion that L.~stored or archived and accessed later, so that sender and receiver do not need. to he presen t at t he same time). Face-to-face conversations, telephone conver·

sa tions , synchron ous text chat, and audio and video conferencing invo lve synchrono us

d elivery and allow for the most spontaneous interaction and ra pid feedback. E-mail, faxes,

wehlogs, and discussion hoard.~ allow for asyn ch ronous delivery. which allows for more time to reflect on a message.

~

Sender's Field

Receiver's Field

of Experience

of Experience

Sender

encodes

message

Noise

: .••.••.••••••.••.••.••.••.••.•••••••~·········· Feedback

FIGURE 1.1

Transactional Communication Model

Receiver

decodes

message

~

Noise

Receiver

message

and reacts

sender the parttclpant In the transactton who has an Idea and

communlCiJt~s It by encod in g I t

In amessage.

encoding the! actof converting Ideas Into code In order to convey awritten,oral. ornon verbal message.

channel a communlcatlon

pathway or mediumoverwhich

a message travel s.

CO MMU N I CATI NG FO R RESU LTS

receiver the pe 1son for whom a message Is Intended and who decodes the message by extracting meaning from It

decoding theactofextractlng meaning from spoken, written, and non-verbal communication.

feedback the receiver's respon se to a message that conflrms If the ortglnal message was received and understood.

Receiver

T h e receiver is the pe r so n or group at whom the message L~ di r ected. T h e r eceive r is responsible for decoding the message- extracting meanlng from its symhols. The receiv· e r's life expe ri ences, kn ow ledge, attitudes, and con text can in fl uen ce h ow he or. s he will lnterpret and respond to the message.

Feedback

Feedback is the receiver's discernible response to a sender's message. It can be n on -verhal, like the nod o f a head during a face -to-face conversation; oral, like the "umms" or "ah hs" heard d uring a telephone conversation; or written , like the reply e-mail that conveys the

clari ficatio n

and ensuring that the message

receiver's reaction . Feed back is

has been properly understood . Making no provision for

feed back and choosing a medi um whereby reedhack is delayed when it is immed ia tely

required can b ring the commun ication p rocess to a frustrating conclusion .

a vital part of commun ication , allowi ng fo r

BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

noise any form of physical or psychological Interference that distorts the meaning of a message.

communication barriers problems that can affect the communication trans.action, leadIng to conruslon or mlsundersmndlng.

channel overload the Inability or a channel to carry all transmitted messages.

Information overload a condition whereby a receiver

cannot process all messages du e

to th ei r Increasing number.

emotional Interference a psychological factor that creates problems with the commun ication transaction.

semantic Interference Interference caused by ambiguity, Jargon, language or dialect differences, ordlfferen1 ways of assigning meaning."

Anyone who has experienced a dropped cellphone call or had an argument as a result of a m isu nderstand ing can appreciate that the cou rse of comm u nication does not always fl ow smoothly. ln today's fast-paced business en viro nme n ts, t h e r e is a lways t h e pote n tial fo r miscommun ication . Th e average workplace is not immune to human error or spared from the fact that trained professiona ls are sometimes im pe rfect people. The tec hno logy on which an organization relies may not be reliable 100 per cen t of the time. Noi!ie refers to communication barriers and physical and psyc hological obstacles

that can inte r fe re wit h every aspect of th e co mm uni cation process,

standing anywhere, at any time. Noise can be any factor that makes t.he outcome of the commu nication process less predictahle, but it also might be called the Murphy\\ Law of

the communication process. lf somethi ng can go wrong with a message, i.t will, unless you

understand potential comm unica tion barriers

c reati ng misunde r·

and take precautions to prevent them.

• Channel overload. Th is prohlem occurs when the nu mber of messages transmitted through a channel exceeds the capacity of the channel to handle them. You may, for example, t ry to leave a voice-mall message fo r a husiness contact only to find that h is or her voice-mail hox is fu ll.

• Infom1ation overload. An othe r common problem, information overload occurs when a channel simply carries too much information for the receiver to ahsorb it easily o r w hen too many messages are t rans mi tted sim ultaneously for the receive r to ha n d le them properly. Too m u ch informatio n is sometimes too much of a good t h ing because it can leave receivers ann oyed and con fused.

• Emotional interference. Strong feelings of joy, anger, hostility, and resentment can interfere with an individual's ability to commun icate objectively, thus preventing the person from eit h er encoding or decodi n g a message satisfactori ly. Aggressive e- ma il messages, composed in anger and certain to fuel tempers, demonstrate the damage emotional interrerence can cause.

• Semantic interference. Words do not have assigned or fixed meani ngs, thus some· times creati ng a wid e margin for misinterpretation. ln rac t , one word may mean dif- fe ren t t hings to different people, and its mean ing can also change in various co n texts.

1

I

GETTI NG THE

This t)'Jle of misunderstanding is known as bypassing. Shifts in meaning, raulty dic- tion, and misplaced emphasis can all lead to miscommunication.

• Physical and technical interference. Every so often, technical difficulties arise- phone lines jam, computers crash, and cellphone connections fade.

• Mixed messages and channel barriers. Some mes.sages give off con flicting

signals,

resulting in misunderstanding when I.h e receiver

A speake r mi ght say t hat he ag r ees wit h a n idea hut ra ise h L~ eye brow s as he s peaks,

suggesting that he still harbours a few d oubts or reservations. Likewise, choosing the wrong comm unication channel-for example, by e-mailing a contentious message or u:ansmitting a message through too long a communication chain-ca n lead to a

b reakdown in communication.

can 't decide whic h s igna l to observe .

• Environmental interference. People diffe r from one another in

their demographics,

attitudes, and perceptions. Their frames o r reference--or ways of seeing the wo rld hase d on their own experiences, culture, personality, and education-c an he miles apart. Age and cultu ral gaps can create differences in pe rcept.ion that innuence how a message is interpreted .

reflective about your own

com munication practices and more respons ive to the needs and expectations of your

receivers. A few guidelines can help you :

Overcoming these harriers is a matter

o r becoming more

• Be tim ely and time-sensitive .

ln routi ne situations, respond as soon as you have the

infom 1a tio n yo u intend to p a~s on; in emotionally charged si tuatioll choose t h e right time, when others will he receptive l.o your communications. Ease ten sions by giving

others the opportunity to cool down.

~,

MESSAGE ACROSS

bypassing misunderstanding that results from the 1ecclvcr Inferring a different moaning from a mossage based on the different meanings of the words that are used.

physical and technical Interference Interference external to the sender and recelver. 11

mixed messagesconmcttng perceptionsof asignal or message that may result In mlscommunlCiltlon.

channel barriers Inappropriate choices of channol ll'lat lmpeclc communlcanon.

environmental Interference lntcrfcrcnc<l that results from preconceptions and differing frames of reference.

• Be purposeful. In all hut the ve ry hridest message, state you r purpose for meeting, talkLng, or writing at I.he beginning.

• Be a good listener and a careful reader. Give your full attention to the message and

to the message's context.

Be context-sensitive. Consider t.he comm unication situation and if t.he channel is right for that situation and audience.

• Be proactive . If yo u are in doubt about what you have heard or read, verify the fac ts and get more information as needed before proceeding. Being an effective commtmi- catm· means reducing the margin for uncertainty.

• Communication Contexts

Commun ication can he t hought of in terms of several forms o r contexts

ferences in the numbers and proximities of interactants, the relationsh ips between roles of

the sender(s) and receiver(s), the nature and amount of possible feed back, and the degree to which messages are adapted to thei r audiences. Effective comm unication on the joh relies on skills related to Ave forms-the central issu es of which will he explored in th is and subsequent chapters:

that involve dif-

• Interperso nal communication -a n interaction a1 process h etwee n two people (sender and receiver), either face- to -face or th rough mediated fom1s. Dyadic (refer-

ri ng to two people) is another name fo r th is form o f communication, which is typ·

ically in formal and spont.aneous and occurs with in a specific con text to ac h ieve

dyadic ll'lc form or communication that Involves agroupof two.

COMM UN I CATIN G FOR RESULTS

interpersonal goals. E-mailing a colleabrue to confirm the time of a meeting is an interpersonal interaction.

• Small-group communication- an interactional process that occurs among th ree or more (up to 20) people to achieve common goals. The size of the brroup must allow all participan ts to interact freely, and t.he links hetween I.he participan ts are viltal to the success of intended outcomes. Group formation and coordi nat ion can he complex fo r

issues it raises, issues that the study of c.ollahora-

the psychological and in terpersonal

tive communication (see Chapter 2) helps us to understand. A project-planning meet· ing involves small-group interaction.

• Organizational communication- commuriication within a hierarchical social sys·

tern composed of inte rdependent stakeholder groups (such as current and poten tial employees, clien ts, customers, suppliers, and regulators) focused on comm on goals. This fom1 o f communication takes place in large husinesses and industries as well as government instit.ut ions. Individ uals with in th is system assume specialized func- tional roles defined by fom1alized behaviours and rules that are part of an "organ· izational culture"- the dynamic and emotionally charged set of assumptions, values,

and ohjects of h uman workmanship (call ed artifacL~) that arise

between organization mernhers and define what the organizational environment feels like in tem1s of correct ways o f thinking and perceiving.' 0 Th e o rganization is created th rough communication and contini1es to he created through its members as they develop and market products and services, respond to the concerns and demands of customers and external stakeholders, and plan and coordinate employees and their tasks and initiatives.""'

from intaactions

• Intercultural communication- the management of messages between people of dif-

ferent cu lt ures, wit h necessary adaptatio n to account for differences h etwee 11 socia ll y constructed fo r ms of commun ication behaviour. An e- mail message sent fro m an English-speaking o rganization in Winnipeg to a supplie r in Shanghai is an example o f communication in which intercultural issues apply.

• Mass communication- an interaction in which a small group of people sends a message to a large anony11101.1s audience; t he transmission is indirect, ofte n med·iate<l

th rough

munication is distinct from face -to-face pu hlic communication in which a speaker addresses a multi-person audience comprised of individuals he or she does not know personally. A webcast o f a CEO'.s address at an annual general meeting of sha reh olders is an example of mass communication.

rad io or television broadcasts o r newspape r or magazine articles. Mass com-

• Non-Verbal Communication

Communication involves more than just spoken and written words. Messages are also act·

ively conveyed th rough a sub text of non-verbal language, bot h un wri tte n and

Ul1spoken.

As comm u nica tion.~ researc h e r and UCLA professo r A lb ert Mehrabian foun d ,

the impact

of spoken communications contain ing an emoti onal or attitudinal element comes largely

from non-verba l elements:

• 7 per cent of the meaning ls in the words that are spoken.

• 18 per cent of the meaning is paralinguistic (voice quality) .

55 per cent oft.he m ean in g

L~ in n o n - verba l ex-p r ess i on.+ 1

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GETTI NG THE

While this finding is intriguing, if somewhat misleading, other research has shown that non-verhal cues had over fou r times the effect of verhall cues.• 2 This alon e suggests that non-verhal communication is a system of great importance in social interaction. Non.-ve rbal messages communicate emotions, attitudes, gree ti ngs, and cues o r status.+:i Effective non-verhal skills and abilities can the refore play an important role in build ing an d maintaining interpersonal relationships and managing impressions,+! key components in successful careers. How a message is enco ded according to any of the fol- lowing non-verbal displays can in fluence h ow that message is interpreted or decoded :

• tone, inflection, and other acoustic properties or speech

• eye gaze and facial eiq>ression

• hody movements, hody posture, gestures, and touch

• appearance (bodily characteristics and cloth ing)

• personal space and the use of time

Th ese non-verbal cues have the power to intensify what an individual is trying to co nvey and to work at cross-purposes to a message's primary aim. Some non-verbal behaviours, as well as some vocal ones, are obvious-a veritable so urce of uncensored data- while others are much more subtle, often defying detection. A nod of t he head, a point of a finger, a steady g aze , a s lu mped posture, a rmwn-t he se signa l~. like a ll non- ve rbal cu es, are powe rfu l indicators of feeli ngs and attitudes in ve rbal communication. No n-ve rb al com munication cues can play five roles in relation to verb al communication:

repeat a message that is being delivered verbally

in the same in teraction . Instructing a computer tech nician to repair "this computer"

while pointing at the computer is an example or repetition.

message an individual is

trying to convey ve rbally, resul ting in mixed messages and additiona l challenges for the decoder. A joh candidate who says she is "confid en t" hut rarely makes eye contact during the in terview sends contrad ictory messages th at are difficult to reconcile.

3. Regulation. Non-verha l displays can also reb'Ulate con versations . Tappi ng a person on the sh oulder to initiate a conversation is an example o f regulation.

st.and in for a verbal message as

4. Substitution. Someti mes a non-verbal d isplay can

2. Contradiction. Non-verbal messages can co nflict with the

1. Repetition. Non-verbal di

~layscan

the sole means or communication. Decoders with expressive sensitivity can "read"

"speak" louder tha n has been lost if the

team leader enters the meeting room with a sad, downcast expression.

displays can underline, ampli fy, or tone

facial expressions, gestu res, and hod y posture, which sometim es words. Team members migh t b'lless that an importan t con tract

5. Accenti11g and complementing. Non-verbal

MESSAGE ACROSS

non-verbal communication communlCiltlon that docs not use words but takes place through gestures, eye contac~and facial expressions.

non-verbal behaviours communication that takes place through gestures. facial expressions, aye cont.1ct, and posture.

down a ve rbal message. Pound ing the table while exclaiming "We have to cut our budget, now!" is an example of accen ting. Complem en tary non-verbal cues reinforce

or affirm a message , making it easier to remember. A boss who shakes a junior associates hand while praising him or her uses touch to increase the impact of the verbal message.

Non.-verbal cues are easily misinterpreted and can be particularly misleading when taken out of context. Beca use their meaning is often cU1lturall y determined, it is impos- sible to i nterpret them in unive rsal terms. Developing an awareness of intentional and

COMM UN I CATIN G FOR RESULTS

unintentional non-verhal signals can help you not only to decipher them hut also to regu· late their impact on your own communication. Non-verhal skills an d abilities fall in to th ree general domains, all essential to achieving competence as a non-verhal communicator:

1. Encoding (emotional expressivity)- ately to others.

2. Decoding {emotional sensllivity)- non-ve rha l cues.

the ahility to send non-verhal messages accur-

the ahili ty to accurately read another person's

3. Regulation-

the ahili ty to control one's non-ve rba l displays and expressive hehaviour

to suit social situations. Regulation may require a deeper awareness of the subcon· scious choices that result in non-verhal displays and the meaning that other people infer from those displays.

Tuning in t.o the signs and signals of human behaviour can help you "read" people and their attitudes, not just the wo rds they speak or write, and make you a more effective and conJident communicator. Non-verbal cues are also an important source of feedback that can tell you how successful you a re in your communications- what the mood o f a group is, when the group has heard enough, and whether someone in the group woullcl like to speak or raise a qu estion. Non-ve rbal cues enrich ve rba l messages, as it is n ot always w hat you say but how you say it that people will remember.

proxemlcs ltie study of the use and percepti on of space.

TABLE 1.2 Hall's Spatial Zones

COMPONENTS

OF NON -VERBAL COMMUNICATION

Non-ve rba l commun ication corLsists of a range of features that are frequently used together to aid expression:

Use of space (proxemics). Proxemics refe rs to the study of the human use and per- ception of space, speciflcally the amount of space that ind ividuals maintain between each other during a conversation or interaction according to their cultural backgrounds. How space is used and manipulated , and how the fTamework for defining and organizing it is internalized, is yet another form of non-verbal communication and one that can lead to serious failures in com mu nication . Proxemics explains why invading someone's personal space hy standing too close or overstepping what is appropriate in a particular soda] con- text can lead to misunderstanding and negative in terpersonal perceptions on the part of the people involved . Spatial requiremenL~ are defined according to fou r territorial zones identified hy cultural an thropologist Edward I . Hall (see Table 1.2)." Hall\; classification helps to explain why a North American might feel the need to hack away From a conversation partner when travelling in Europe or South .America, where t.he e>-11ected social distance is roughly half of what he or she is accustomed t.o.

Intimate distance

46

centimetres

for interacting with family and close friends

Personal distance

46

centimetres- 11 metres

for communicating among close business associates

Social distance

1.2 metres-3 metres

for business conversations

Public distance

beyond 3metres

for formal business exchanges and public speeches

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Physical environment, owing to ractors such as lighting conditions and interior design, can also affect the behaviour of communicators during Lnteraction. The size of an office,

iL~ colour, even its arrallgemrnt o r furniture conveys a variety of illformation ahout the

occupant that can ill tum influence how people

business communications depend on how well respectful workplace distances are main· tained and how well approachahllity and interaction are en hanced. Use of time (chronemlcs). Chrnnemics rders to the study of the use and illter- pretation of time in non-verbal communication . For professionals, time is a valuable commodity, uniquely conllected to status in our culture. The timillg and frequency of an action- how punctual a person is, how long someone is willing to listen or wait for a rep ly, the pace o r speech OT tempo of a conversa tion- are ractors that innuence th e inter• pretation of that interaction. Paralanguage (vocalics). Paralanbruage refers to the acoustic or non-verbal vocal qualities of verbal comm unication, the way a message is spoken in terms of three classes o f vocalic cues:

feel and respond . Prod uctive and efficient

MESSAGE ACROSS

chronemlcs the study of tlrne In non verbal co mmunication.

paralanguage (vocalics) non-verbal vocal quall tles or comrnunlcatlon.

• vocal qualiti es- the properties that make each voice imique, including intonation, pitch , volume, speed or tempo, rhythm, emphasis or innect.ion, intensity, resonance, nasality, and articulation

• vocal characteristics- sounds that may be recognized as speech hut that primarily express emotion- such as laughing, crying, and yelling

• vocal segregates-pauses or Allers- th e "umms," "ahhs," and "you knows"- that punctuate hut get ill the way of fluent speech

Because they can reveal ullderlying emotions and are used to infer personality traits , these voice patterns sometimes come across more strongly than the actual words that are spoken , at times creating mixed messages when the words and vocal cues clash. Shifts in meaning can occur with the suhtlest changes in volume :and emphasis. A change in vocal

expression of sar-

inflection can turn

casm. "We can't fill your o rder" is a factual statement when delivered at normal volume

hut may have the potential to terminate the customer relationship if it is shouted. "I'm very concerned about th is problem" delivers a different message than wh en you say "l'm very concerned about th is problem" (other people may not he); 'Tm very concerned about

(t h e r e

t h is pro bl em" (my co n cern L~ stro n g); o r 'Tm very co 11 cemed

are other prob l ems). Becoming an effective speaker L~ a matter of learning to capita l ize o n paralanguage and the specific qualities of your own voice to complement and reinforce the

words you use. Body language (kinesics) . Kinesics is a field of research that examines communica- tion through hotly movements, based on the assumption that all humans- consciously or unconsciously- act and react 1.0 situations both verhally and non-verbally. The meaning

o r these sibrnals and their positive and negative value can shirt depending on the receiver's

culture,

a general observation , such as "Oh, really," in to an

ahout this proh l em"

pe rsonality, and experience.

body language (kinesics) non verbal com muni cation co nveyed by g estures, e'j(! contact, posture, and facial expressions.

1. Ges tures. Va ri ous h a nd and arm movements and specific body positions ei 11ress special meanings- o rten cultu ra lly determined ones-- that may both complement and contradict other forms of communication. Psychologists Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen suggest that gestures can he categorized in to five types:

COMM UN I CATI NG FOR RESU LTS

• Emhlems-gestures that can he easily tran.~lated into unequivocal verbal state· ments, for example, waving goodbye or holding a palm outward to signal "stop."

• Illusr.rators- non-verhal behaviours that accompany speech and depict what is said verhally, such as wagging a rorefinger at another person in a verhal interaction that involves reprimand or disagreement.

• Affect displays- gestures that convey emotion, primarily through the race, such as a smile.

• Regulators- gestmes that control interaction , such as leaning forward to signal entry into a conversation.

• Adaptors- body movements that aid in the release of bodily tension due to new or anxious situations, for example, crossing your am1s, running your hand. through your hair, or tapping a pencil."' Most gestures convey unconscious messages on the senders part, so excessive gestur- ing is a distraction that should he kept in check.

2. Posture. Open body positions (arms uncrossed and away from the body, legs uncrossed, leanfog forward) suggest openness, ease, comfort, and agreemerit. Closed body positions (am1s folded across the torso, legs close together or crossed, hands in pockets) may be signs of defensiveness, a lack of receptivity, or physical or psycho- logical discomfort.

3. Eye contact. Eye contact is a powerful form of communication. What it conveys depends very much on its degree, dmation, and context. lt can mean differen t thi ngs

in different cultures. Direct and purposeful eye contact is a sign of honesty, sincerity, respect, and recognition. It is difficult, after all, to fake eye contact or to look someon e in the eye and He. More than a passing glance between strangers, however, can make both parties uncomfortable. Prolonged eye contact in any situation can prove to he

a source of intimidation. Averting the eyes can communicate stress or dishonesty;

deliberately averting the eyes can indicate anger or a lack of interest, although in some cultures it is interpreted as a sib>n or deference. Knowing how to maintain good eye

cont.act is importan t to the

success of public speakers an d presen ters, who may use

it as a means o r holdjng an audience and assessing their receptivity, levels of interest,

and attitudes.

4. Facial expressions. On the ha.~ or eye contact, it is possible to read a face through its range of expressions. Most expressions are short-lived, but each is an indicator of personality traits, judgments, attitudes, and emotional states. There are, regordless of culture, six universally recoi,>nized facial expressions: happy, sad, afraid, surprL~ed, angry, and disb'llSted. Facial exp ressions provide a usefu l , if not always reliable, source of feedback. It is ea.~yto misjudge how people reel by the expressions on their

faces, just as it is orten common fo r people l.o mask thei r true feelings, especially in

a professional environment. Individuals may have their ow11 "display rules," such

a.~ "never show your anger in puhlic," which inhibit emotional displays and limit their expression or cause them to replace a gen ui ne expression with a more socially acceptable one.

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GETTI NG THE

MESSAGE ACROSS

• Communicating in Organizations

INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION

To stay in business and ht: successful, today's compan ies nnust communicate with two main audiences: the organizations internal audience-employees and owners- and its external

audience- customers, governmen t official~, suppliers, and tbe general public. Internal

commu nication stays with in an organization and involves th e back-and- fo rth sharing or ideas and inrormation among superiors, co-workers, and subordinates. Although the speed, instantaneousness, interactivity, and relative in fo rm ality of e-mail messaging make it the most popular and logical choice for use within a compan y, internal communica - tions sysr.ems are al~o supported by other pathways such as memos, department reports, in-house newslette rs o r magazines, face-to-face conversations, group meetings, opinion surveys, speeches, and telephone conversations. Functioning together, they provide the means for organ izations to detect and solve problems, coo rdinate activities, foster deci ·

sion-making and policy-setting, introduce and explain procedures, and persuade employ- ees and managers to accept change. Through external communication, organizations establish themselves in the market·

place, foster good public and media relations, and work to keep their operations func- tional, efficient, and productive. Some of the functions of external communkation are to influence consumer decisions through advertising and promotion , process orders and collect payment, an customer service inquiries and handle complain ts, respond to government. agencies, and carry out purchase l.ransactioms. Th ough communkation with custome1·s and outside stakeholders can take a variety of fo rms, such as newsletters, e-mail, social media blogs and messages, press releases, financial and corporate respon·

reports, and in fo rm ation about products and services posted to company web-

sibility

sites, a good deal of this communication still consists of letters and direct mailings on company letterhead. Wh ether an externally directed message is written or spoken, it carries its company's reputation and co rporate values witl1 it. Today's husi nesses recognize the importance of using communication with outside stakeholders as an opportunity to huil d prestige and a favourable puhlic image hy fostering goodwill and establishing solid

business relationships. While the general functions of business communication are to (a) inform, (b) persuade, and (c) promote goodwill and create a favourable impression, it is the third function that assumes increasing importance in external communication.

~wer

Internal communication

communication through the channelsof an organization.

external communication

communication with audiences who are part of an external environment.

ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION

To perform basic business functions well requires not only the ability to speak and write

effective ly hut

Reading. On the job, you may spend almost as much time reading as you do writ- ing. Well- developed reading and comprehe nsion skills e11ab le you to absorh and an a lyze masses of sometimes complex and tech nica