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THERMOSYPHON BASED TWO STAGE REFRIGERATING

SYSTEM
A PROJECT
Submitted by

Vishnu Venugopal

Group Members
Vishnu Venugopal(64798), Sreekanth V S(64789), Shyam V(64787),

Joffy Joy N(64771), Sajil S(64787)

to

Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala

in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the Degree

of

Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering.

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


MAR BASELIOS CHRISTIAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
AND TECHNOLOGY, PEERMADE, IDUKKI, KERALA.

1
APRIL-2012

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

MAR BASELIOS CHRISTIAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


AND TECHNOLOGY, PEERMADE, IDUKKI, KERALA.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled THERMOSYPHON BASED TWO STAGE
REFRIGERATING SYSTEM submitted by, (VISHNU VENUGOPAL ,UNIVERSITY
REG.NO 64798) to Mahatma Gandhi University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for
the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering is a bonafide
record of work carried out by him under my guidance and supervision of during the period
March-April 2011.

Mr.Raju V.Bhanu Name of project guide

Assistant Professor Designation


Project Co-ordinator Project Guide

Prof.Saju Elias

Head of the Department

2
INDEX

Chapter No. Title Page No.

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Solar Energy 2

1.2 Solar power in India 4

2 Basic Concept 6

2.1 Refrigeration 6

2.1.1 Basic Definitions 6

2.1.1.1 Refrigeration 6

2.1.1.2 Refrigeration Cycles 6

2.1.1.3 Refrigerants 6

2.1.1.4 Heat Pumps 6

2.2 The refrigeration Circuit 6

2.3 Two-Stage Systems 8

2.3.1 Advantages of Two Stage Systems 8

3 Primary Concept of the Project 11

3.1 Thermosyphon air conditioning &

Refrigeration- single compression system 11

4 Secondary and final concept of the project 13

4.1 Two stage compression Thermosyphon

refrigeration system 13

3
5 Designing of two stage compression 15

thermosyphon air conditioning &

refrigeration system

5.1 Theory behind calculations 16

5.1.1 Methods of heat transfer 16

5.1.1.1 Conduction 16

5.1.1.2 Convection 17

5.1.1.3 Radiation 18

5.1.2 Under lying Physics 19

5.1.2.1 First law of thermodynamics 19

5.1.2.2 Second law of thermodynamics 19

5.1.3 Psychrometric chart 20

5.1.3.1 Dry bulb temperature lines 21

5.1.3.2 Specific humidity or moisture content lines 21

5.1.3.3 Dew point temp lines 22

5.1.3.4 Wet bulb temperature lines 23

5.1.3.5 Enthalpy(Total Heat) Lines 24

5.1.3.6 Specific Volume Lines 24

5.1.3.7 Vapour Pressure Lines 25

5.1.3.8 Relative Humidity Lines 25

5.2 Calculations In Designing The System 26

5.2.1 Calculation Of Evaporator Temperature 26

5.2.2 Analysis Of Compressor Work 31

4
5.2.3 Inter cooling After Compression 31

5.2.4 Pressure Difference In Thermosyphon 32

5.2.5 Energy Received By Thermosyphon 33

5.2.6 Energy Given Out By Condenser 34

- When Thermosyphon is used

5.2.7 Energy Given Out By Condenser 35

-When Thermosyphon is not used

6 MODELING SOFTWARE USED : 37

CATIA V5

6.1 The Steps To Create The Model And Assembly 39

Section

6.2 Screen Prints Of The Various Steps Done While 42

Preparing The Model

7 Conclusion 51

Reference 53

5
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. Name Page No.

1.1 Solar resource map for India. 3


2.1 Principle of working of Refrigeration 7

2.2 p-h diagram of simple refrigeration cycle 8

2.3 Two stage refrigeration system 9

2.4 p-h diagram of 2 stage system 10

3.1 Working of Single Stage Compression System 11

4.1 Working of Two Stage Compression System 13

5.1 Conduction 16

5.2 Convection 17

5.3 Radiation 18
5.4 Psychrometric Chart 20
5.5 Dry Bulb Temperature Lines 21

5.6 Specific Humidity Or Moisture Content Lines. 22

5.7 Dew Point Temp Lines 23

5.8 Wet Bulb Temperature Lines 24

5.9 Enthalpy(Total Heat) Lines 24

5.10 Specific Volume Lines 25

5.11 Vapour Pressure Lines 25

5.12 Relative Humidity Lines 26

6
5.13 Air Circulation through AC system and room 29

5.14 Psychrometric Chart on Which The Condition 31

is measured

5.15 p-h diagram of Thermosyphon Based Two Stage 36

Refrigeration System

6.1 Creating Base Sketch in XY plane 43

6.2 Extruding (Padding) 43

6.6 Creating Sketch for Pocketing in the given plane 45

6.7 Exit to Work Bench 46

6.8 Giving Sufficient Depth 46

6.9 Pocketing Done 47

6.11 Reference object 48

6.12 Patterning with the reference object 48

6.14 Profile for Splining 49

6.15 Process of splining 50

6.18 Completed Model 51

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. Title Page No.

5.1 Estimation of Heat Gain 27

7
ABSTRACT
TWO STASE COMPRESSION THERMOSYPHONE REFRIGERATION
SYSTEM

In this project, we are replacing one compressor in a two stage compression system
with inter cooler.

The thermosyphon air conditioning system uses the same basic equipment as a conventional
system with a specialized thermosyphon that is placed between the compressor and the
condensing coils. The primary task of the compressor is to pressurize and heat the refrigerant
to small degree of super heat. The hotter it gets the better. Before entering the thermosyphon
the refrigerant passes through an intercooler. A Thermosyphon air conditioning system uses a
highly efficient vacuum tube collector filled with an organic liquid product

The collector heats the organic substance to over 250 degrees using the FREE power of the
sun to superheat the refrigerant above what the compressor would be able to heat it with
electricity. The resulting efficiency derived from the solar collector allows for the refrigerant
to work more efficiently with no additional moving parts or motors. This increases the ability
of the gas to change back into a liquid much more quickly and dramatically reduces the
energy requirement of the compressor. The gas now condenses back into saturated gas in the
first third of the condensing coil not the final third. Therefore by the time the refrigerant
reaches the expansion device in the inside coil, it is already almost a liquid. This allows the
near liquid refrigerant to be more efficient at absorbing heat, making it 5-6 degrees cooler in
the inside coil, delivering colder, drier air to the building. By using a thermosyphon the COP
of the air conditioner increases to more than 17% of the actual one.

Keywords; CONDENSING, LIQUID, EFFICIENCY, COLLECTOR

8
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
An energy crisis is any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an
economy. In popular literature though, it often refers to one of the energy sources used at a
certain time and place, particularly those that supply national electricity grids or serve as fuel
for vehicles. There has been an enormous increase in the global demand for energy in recent
years as a result of industrial development and population growth. Supply of energy is,
therefore, far less than the actual demand.

According to an investigation done by the Lebanese society on solar energy, we were able to
establish the price balance of the production and the sartorial consumption of electricity in
Lebanon as follows:

Yearly invoice price of necessary fuel-oil for the production of electric energy is about 350
millions dollars, 40% of the electric energy production are consumed in the residential and
commercial domains such as houses, apartments, stores and commercial enterprises, 33%
from this 40% are consumed in the residential domain which is equivalent to 115 millions
dollars (per year). The main consumption factors in the residential field are: heating and air-
conditioning, sanitary hot water, lighting and electric devices.

Air-conditioning and heating consumes the largest part of the invoice then comes the sanitary
hot water and then the lighting. This consumption can reach 75% of the total electric energy
production, if one supposes that the consumption of the electric resistance in the water heater
is of about 45% of 75%, then one can estimate that the invoice of the residential electric
resistance is about 52 millions dollars per year. The increase in the yearly demand of electric
energy is about 6 to 8% that implies that in the next 15 years the consumption will be 2 times
the present consumption, which is a dangerous. That is why we searched for an inexhaustible
energy source which is the "The sun". The main reason for choosing this energy source is
certainly because it is inexhaustible; the second reason is the risk of the nuclear energy waste
and its storage.

The third reason is the notion that is recognized as "lasting development." To india, the
renewable energies are as in most countries, little developed. For example hydraulic energy

9
that is not exploited to its maximal potential, it becomes useful and profitable if it used in a
region isolated of high mountains and not joined to the national network as well as in the case
of an emergency station as that found in the plain of Kerala.

1.1 SOLAR ENERGY

Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans
since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies
include solar heating, solar Photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity and solar architecture,
which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the
world now faces.

Solar power is energy from the sun and without its presence all life on earth would end. Solar
energy has been looked upon as a serious source of energy for many years because of the vast
amounts of energy that are made freely available, if harnessed by modern technology.

A simple example of the power of the sun can be seen by using a magnifying glass to focus
the suns rays on a piece of paper. Before long the paper ignites into flames.

This is one way of using the suns energy, but flames are dangerous and difficult to control. A
much safer and practical way of harnessing the suns energy is to use the suns power to heat
up water.

A magnifying glass can be used to heat up a small amount of water. A short piece of copper
tube is sealed at one end and filled with water. A magnifying glass is then used to warm up
the pipe. Using more than one magnifying glass will increase the temperature more rapidly.
After a relatively short time the temperature of the water increases. Continuing to heat the
water will cause water vapour to appear at the top of the tube. In theory, with enough
patience, several magnifying glasses and very strong sun light enough heat should be
generated to boil the water, producing steam. This is one way of harnessing solar power.

Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending
on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include
the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar
techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with
favourable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally
circulate air.

10
In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable,
inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will
increase countries energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and
mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs
of mitigating climate change, and keep fossil fuelprices lower than otherwise. These
advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment
should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely
shared".

1.2 SOLAR POWER IN INDIA

Fig 1.1 Solar resource map for India.

The western states of the country are naturally gifted with high solar incidence.

India is bestowed with solar irradiation ranging from 4 to 7 kWh/square meter/day across the
country, with western and southern regions having higher solar incidence.[53]

India is endowed with rich solar energy resource. India receives the highest global solar
radiation on a horizontal surface

11
With its growing electricity demand, India has initiated steps to develop its large potential for
solar energy based power generation. In November 2009, the Government of India launched
its Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate
Change. Under this central government initiative, India plans to generate 1 GW of power by
2013 and up to 20 GW grid-based solar power, 2 GW of off-grid solar power and cover 20
million square metres with solar energy collectors by 2020. [54] India plans utility scale solar
power generation plants through solar parks with dedicated infrastructure by state
governments, among others, the governments of Gujarat and Rajasthan.[53]

The Government of Gujarat taking advantage of the national initiative and high solar
irradiation in the state, launched the Solar Power Policy in 2009 and proposes to establish a
number of large-scale solar parks starting with the Charanka solar park in Patan district in the
sparsely populated northern part of the state. The development of solar parks will streamline
the project development timeline by letting government agencies undertake land acquisition
and necessary permits, and provide dedicated common infrastructure for setting up solar
power generation plants largely in the private sector. This approach will facilitate the
accelerated installation of private sector solar power generation capacity reducing costs by
addressing issues faced by stand alone projects.

Common infrastructure for the solar park include site preparation and leveling, power
evacuation, availability of water, access roads, security and services. In parallel with the
central government's initiative, the Gujarat Electricity Regulatory Commission has
announced feed-in-tariff to mainstream solar power generation which will be applied for solar
power generation plants in the solar park.

Gujarat Power Corporation Limited is the responsible agency for developing the solar park
of 500 megawatts and will lease the lands to the project developers to generate solar power.
Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation Limited will develop the transmission evacuation
from the identified interconnection points with the solar developer. This project is being
supported, in part, by the Asian Development Bank.[53]

The first Indian solar thermal power project (2X50MW) is in progress in Phalodi (Rajasthan),
and is constructed by CORPORATE ISPAT ALLOY LTD.[citation needed]

12
The Indian Solar Loan Programme, supported by the United Nations Environment
Programme has won the prestigious Energy Globe World award for Sustainability for helping
to establish a consumer financing program for solar home power systems. Over the span of
three years more than 16,000 solar home systems have been financed through 2,000 bank
branches, particularly in rural areas of South India where the electricity grid does not yet
extend. Launched in 2003, the Indian Solar Loan Programme was a four-year partnership
between UNEP, the UNEP Risoe Centre, and two of India's largest banks, the Canara Bank
and Syndicate Bank,Land acquisition is a challenge to solar farm projects in India. Some state
governments are exploring means to address land availability through innovation; for
example, by exploring means to deploy solar capacity above their extensive irrigation canal
projects, thereby harvesting solar energy while reducing the loss of irrigation water by solar
evaporation.

13
CHAPTER 2

BASIC CONCEPT

2.1 REFRIGERATION

2.1.1 BASIC DEFINITIONS

2.1.1.1 REFRIGERATION.
The transfer of heat from lower temperature
regions to higher temperature ones is called
refrigeration.

2.1.1.2 REFRIGERATION CYCLES.


Devices that produce refrigeration are called
refrigerators, and the cycles on which they operate
are called refrigeration cycles.

2.1.1.3 REFRIGERANTS.
The working fluids used in refrigerators are called
refrigerants.

2.1.1.4 HEAT PUMPS.


Refrigerators used for the purpose of heating a
space by transferring heat from a cooler medium
are called heat pumps.

2.2THE REFRIGERANT CIRCUIT

The individual components of the refrigerant circuit are connected through hoses and
form a closed system. Within the system the refrigerant circulates, driven by the
thermosyphon method.

14
The part between expansion valve and thermosyphon system is designated as low
pressure side. The gaseous refrigerant is heated in the thermosyphon system and thus heated
up considerably. It is forced into the condenser under high pressure. This results in heat to be
withdrawn from the heated up refrigerant, which leads to its condensation, i.e. its state
changes from gaseous to liquid. The drier, the next station separates pollutants and air
inclusions from the now liquid refrigerant.

This ensures the effectiveness of the system and protects the components from
damages caused by pollutants. From the drier the circuit continues to the expansion valve.
This valve can be compared to a barrage. In front of the barrage it maintains the consistent
pressure, whereas this pressure is allowed to relieve behind the barrage, due to its change in
volume. Since the expansion valve is located directly in front of the evaporator, the
refrigerant relief passes into the evaporator.

During evaporation, i. e. when changing the state of aggregation from liquid to


gaseous, latent heat (evaporated cold) is released. Just like the condenser the evaporator is
similar to a heat exchanger. It possesses an enormously large surface, which transfers the
latent heat to the environment. This evaporative cold is now blown into the vehicle's interior
by the ventilation system, where it is responsible for the passengers' comfort. At the low
pressure side the refrigerant -which is now gaseous again - flows back to the solar system
where the circuit starts from the beginning.

Fig 2.1 Principle of working of Refrigeration

15
P H DIAGRAM

Fig 2.2 p-h diagram of simple refrigeration cycle

2.3 TWO-STAGE SYSTEMS


Intermediate gas cooling is often used between the two compressor steps. By cooling the
refrigerant vapour after the first compressor, the discharge gas leaving the high-stage
compressor can be kept at an acceptable temperature level. The intermediate cooling also
increases the compressor efficiency, which reduces the compressor power consumption.

A two-stage system is a refrigeration system working with a two-stage compression and


mostly also with a two-stage expansion. A schematic system layout and the corresponding
process in a log P/h diagram are shown in Figure

2.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF TWO STAGE SYSTEMS

_ Used in industrial applications where quite low


temperatures are required

_ The large temp difference requires a large pressure


Difference

16
_ Compressors have low efficiencies for large pressure
differences; this results in low system efficiency

_ Refrigeration cycle is performed in stages

_ The refrigerant in the two stages doesnt mix

_ Higher efficiency results but also a higher first cost

17
Fig 2.3 Two stage refrigeration system

18
Fig 2.4 p-h diagram of 2 stage system

CHAPTER 3

PRIMARY CONCEPT OF THE PROJECT

3.1 THERMOSYPHON AIR CONDITIONING & REFRIGERATION


SINGLE STAGE COMPRESSION SYSTEM

19
Fig 3.1 Working of Single Stage Compression System

This was our first concept in which the system compensates the compressor usage and uses
the solar power as the operation of compressor done in the air conditioning system. Here
instead of compressor setup we are using the solar thermosyphon system. The solar power is
a conventional and easily available. Using this project we can reduce the cost involved in the
air conditioner. This is very useful in many areas.

The individual components of the refrigerant circuit are connected through hoses and form a
closed system. Within the system the refrigerant circulates, driven by the thermosyphon
method.

The part between expansion valve and thermosyphon system is designated as low pressure
side. The gaseous refrigerant is heated in the thermosyphon system and thus heated up
considerably. It is forced into the condenser under high pressure. This results in heat to be
withdrawn from the heated up refrigerant, which leads to its condensation, i. e. its state
changes from gaseous to liquid. The drier, the next station separates pollutants and air
inclusions from the now liquid refrigerant. This ensures the effectiveness of the system and
protects the components from damages caused by pollutants. From the drier the circuit
continues to the expansion valve. Since the expansion valve is located directly in front of the
evaporator, the refrigerant relief passes into the evaporator. During evaporation, i. e. when

20
changing the state of aggregation from liquid to gaseous, latent heat (evaporated cold) is
released. Just like the condenser the evaporator is similar to a heat exchanger. It possesses an
enormously large surface, which transfers the latent heat to the environment. This evaporative
cold is now blown into the rooms interior by the ventilation system, where it is responsible
for the peoples comfort. At the low pressure side the refrigerant -which is now e gaseous
again - flows back to the solar system where the circuit starts from the beginning.

CHAPTER 4

SECONDARY AND FINAL CONCEPT OF THE PROJECT

21
4.1 TWO STAGE COMPRESSION THERMOSYPHON
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

Fig 4.1 Working of Two Stage Compression System

In this project, we are replacing one compressor in a two stage compression system
with inter cooler.

The thermosyphon air conditioning system uses the same basic equipment as a conventional
system with a specialized thermosyphon that is placed between the compressor and the
condensing coils. The primary task of the compressor is to pressurize and heat the refrigerant
to small degree of super heat. The hotter it gets the better. Before entering the thermosyphon
the refrigerant passes through an intercooler. A Thermosyphon air conditioning system uses a
highly efficient vacuum tube collector filled with an organic liquid product

The collector heats the organic substance to over 250 degrees using the FREE power of the
sun to superheat the refrigerant above what the compressor would be able to heat it with
electricity. The resulting efficiency derived from the solar collector allows for the refrigerant
to work more efficiently with no additional moving parts or motors. This increases the ability
of the gas to change back into a liquid much more quickly and dramatically reduces the
energy requirement of the compressor. The gas now condenses back into saturated gas in the
first third of the condensing coil not the final third. Therefore by the time the refrigerant

22
reaches the expansion device in the inside coil, it is already almost a liquid. This allows the
near liquid refrigerant to be more efficient at absorbing heat, making it 5-6 degrees cooler in
the inside coil, delivering colder, drier air to the building. By using a thermosyphon the COP
of the air conditioner increases to more than 20% of the actual one.

23
CHAPTER 5

DESIGNING OF TWO STAGE COMPRESSION


THERMOSYPHON AIR CONDITIONING &
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

Here we are designing the multistage compression thermosyphon solar air


conditioning & refrigeration system. This is a new innovative concept. This concept we are
design this air conditioning & refrigeration system through the 3D modelling software as per
the equation we have studied earlier classes.

This is very useful to reduce the electrical power to compensate the compressor usage and
use the solar power as the operation of compressor done in the second stage . Here instead of
compressor setup we are using the solar thermosyphon system. The solar power is a
conventional and easily available. Using this project we can reduce the cost involved in the
air conditioner and an efficient air condition system is obtained. This is very useful in many
area

24
5.1 THEORY BEHIND CALCULATIONS

5.1.1 METHODS OF HEAT TRANSFER

5.1.1.1 CONDUCTION

Fig 5.1 Conduction

On a microscopic scale, heat conduction occurs as hot, rapidly moving or vibrating atoms and
molecules interact with neighbouring atoms and molecules, transferring some of their energy
(heat) to these neighbouring particles. In other words, heat is transferred by conduction when
adjacent atoms vibrate against one another, or as electrons move from one atom to another.
Conduction is the most significant means of heat transfer within a solid or between solid
objects in thermal contact. Fluidsespecially gasesare less conductive. Thermal contact
conductance is the study of heat conduction between solid bodies in contact.[6]

Steady state conduction (see Fourier's law) is a form of conduction that happens when the
temperature difference driving the conduction is constant, so that after an equilibration time,
the spatial distribution of temperatures in the conducting object does not change any further.[7]
In steady state conduction, the amount of heat entering a section is equal to amount of heat
coming out.[6]

Transient conduction (see Heat equation) occurs when the temperature within an object
changes as a function of time. Analysis of transient systems is more complex and often calls
for the application of approximation theories or numerical analysis by computer.[6]

25
5.1.1.2 CONVECTION

Fig 5.2 Convection

Convective heat transfer, or convection, is the transfer of heat from one place to another by
the movement of fluids, a process that is essentially transfer of heat via mass transfer. (In
physics, the term fluid means any substance that deforms under shear stress; it includes
liquids, gases, plasmas, and some plastic solids.) Bulk motion of fluid enhances heat transfer
in many physical situations, such as (for example) between a solid surface and the fluid. [8]
Convection is usually the dominant form of heat transfer in liquids and gases.

Although sometimes discussed as a third method of heat transfer, convection is usually used
to describe the combined effects of heat conduction within the fluid (diffusion) and heat
transference by bulk fluid flow streaming.[9] The process of transport by fluid streaming is
known as advection, but pure advection is a term that is generally associated only with mass
transport in fluids, such as advection of pebbles in a river. In the case of heat transfer in
fluids, where transport by advection in a fluid is always also accompanied by transport via
heat diffusion (also known as heat conduction) the process of heat convection is understood
to refer to the sum of heat transport by advection and diffusion/conduction.

Free, or natural, convection occurs when bulk fluid motion (steams and currents) are caused
by buoyancy forces that result from density variations due to variations of temperature in the
fluid. Forced convection is a term used when the streams and currents in the fluid are induced
by external meanssuch as fans, stirrers, and pumpscreating an artificially induced
convection current.[10]

26
Convective heating or cooling in some circumstances may be described by Newton's law of
cooling: "The rate of heat loss of a body is proportional to the difference in temperatures
between the body and its surroundings." However, by definition, the validity of Newton's law
of cooling requires that the rate of heat loss from convection be a linear function of
("proportional to") the temperature difference that drives heat transfer, and in convective
cooling this is sometimes not the case. In general, convection is not linearly dependent on
temperature gradients, and in some cases is strongly nonlinear. In these cases, Newton's law
does not apply.

5.1.1.3 RADIATION

Fig 5.3 Radiation

A red-hot iron object, transferring heat to the surrounding environment primarily through
thermal radiation.

Thermal radiation is energy emitted by matter as electromagnetic waves due to the pool of
thermal energy that all matter possesses that has a temperature above absolute zero. Thermal
radiation propagates without the presence of matter through the vacuum of space.[11]

Thermal radiation is a direct result of the random movements of atoms and molecules in
matter. Since these atoms and molecules are composed of charged particles (protons and
electrons), their movement results in the emission of electromagnetic radiation, which carries
energy away from the surface.

Unlike conductive and convective forms of heat transfer, thermal radiation can be
concentrated in a small spot by using reflecting mirrors, which is exploited in concentrating

27
solar power generation. For example, the sunlight reflected from mirrors heats the PS10 solar
power tower and during the day it can heat water to 285 C (545 F).[citation needed]

5.1.2 UNDERLYING PHYSICS

Thermodynamics is the study of energy.

5.1.2.1 FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

First law of thermodynamics- States that energy may be changed from one form to
another, but cannot be created or destroyed. - Energy is always conserved.

This law may be applied to the movement of water in thermo siphoning system: Energy from
the sun is directed and transferred (via conduction and convection) to either water, air, or
another medium of choice. This natural process of heating eliminates the need for external
energy sources such as fossil fuels or electricity.

5.1.2.2 SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Second law of thermodynamics- States that in all energy exchanges, if no energy


enters or leaves the system, the potential energy of the state will always be less than
that of the initial state. - The net return of a system is always less than that of which
was initially put in.

Energy is always conserved, however energy (or heat in this case) may often be lost in a
given system (thermo siphoning) as heat. Adding insulation with appropriate R values to the
system and its plumbing may greatly reduce heat loss, and thus increase efficiency.

28
5.1.3 PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

Fig 5.4 Psychrometric Chart

It is a graphical representation of the various thermodynamic properties of moist air. The


psychrometric chart is very useful for finding out the properties of air ( which are required in
the field of air conditioning). And eliminate lot of calculations. There is a slight variation in
the charts prepared by different air conditioning manufacturers but basically they are all alike.
The psychrometric chart is normally drawn for standard atmospheric pressure of 760mm of
Hg (or 1.01325 bar).

In a psychrometric chart, dry bulb temperature is taken as abscissa and specific humidity.
Moisture contents as ordinates. Now the saturation curve is drawn by plotting the various
saturation points at corresponding dry bulb temperatures. The saturation curve represents
100% relative humidity at various dry bulb temperatures. It also represents the wet bulb and
dew point temperatures. Through the psychrometric chart has a no of details, yet the
following lines are important from the subject point of view.

29
5.1.3.1.DRY BULB TEMPERATURE LINES

The dry bulb temp lines are vertical i.e parallel to the ordinate and uniformly spaced as
shown in figure. Generally the temperature rang of those lines on psychrometric chart is from
-6c to 45c. The dry bulb temp lines are drawn with difference of every 5c and upto the
saturation curve as shown in figure. The values of dry bulb temperatures are also shown on
the saturation curve.

Fig 5.5 Dry Bulb Temperature Lines

5.1.3.2. SPECIFIC HUMIDITY OR MOISTURE CONTENT LINES.

The specific humidity( Moisture content) lines are horizontal i.e parallel to the abscissa and
are also uniformly spaced as shown in figure. Generally moisture content range of those lines
on psychrometric chart is from 0 to 30 g/Kg dry air(or from 0 to 0.030 kg/Kg of dry air). The

30
moisture content lines are drawn with a difference of every 1 g (or 0.001Kg) and upto the
saturation curve as shown in figure.

Fig 5.6 Specific Humidity Or Moisture Content Lines.

5.1.3.3. DEW POINT TEMP LINES

The Dew point temp lines are horizontal i.e. parallel to the abscissa and non uniformly spaced
as shown in figure. At any point on the saturation curve , the dry bulb and dew point
temperatures are equal.

The value of Dew point temperatures are Generally given along the saturation curve of the
chart as shown in the figure.

31
Fig 5.7 Dew Point Temp Lines

5.1.3.4. WET BULB TEMPERATURE LINES

The Wet bulb temp lines are inclined straight lines and non uniformly spaced as shown in
figure. At any point on the saturation curve, the dry bulb and wet bulb temps are equal.

The value of wet bulb temps are generally given along the saturation curve of the chart as
shown in the figure.

32
Fig 5.8 Wet Bulb Temperature Lines

5.1.3.5. ENTHALPY(TOTAL HEAT) LINES

The enthalpy( or total heat) lines are inclined straight lines and uniformly spaced as shown in
figure. Those lines are parallel to the wet bulb temp lines, and are drawn up to the saturation
curve. Some of those lines coincide with the wet bulb temp lines also.

The value of total enthalpy are given on a scale above the saturation curve as shown in figure.

Fig 5.9 Enthalpy(Total Heat) Lines

33
5.1.3.6. SPECIFIC VOLUME LINES

The specific volume lines are obliquely inclined straight lines and uniformly spaced as shown
in figure. Those line are drawn up to the saturation curve.

The value of volume lines are generally given at the base of the chart.

Fig 5.10 Specific Volume Lines

5.1.3.7. VAPOUR PRESSURE LINES

Vapour pressure lines are horizontal and uniformly spaced generally the vapour pressure lines
are not drawn in the main chart. But a sale showing vapour pressure in mm of Hg is given on
the extreme left side of the chart as shown in figure.

Fig 5.11 Vapour Pressure Lines


34
5.1.3.8. RELATIVE HUMIDITY LINES

The relative humidity lines are curved lines and follow the saturation curve. Generally, those
lines are drawn with values 10%, 20%, 30%, etc. and up

Fig 5.12 Relative Humidity Lines

5.2 CALCULATIONS IN DESIGNING THE SYSTEM

5.2.1 CALCULATION OF EVAPORATOR TEMPERATURE

Dimension of rooms

35
Length =10m

Width =10m

Height =4m

No of doors =1 ; Dimension =10* 2.5m2

NO of windows =6; dimension =1.0*1.5m2

No of persons =25

Out door condition =35 c dry bulb temperature

In door condition =25c dry bulb temperature

Estimation of Heat Gain

Source U (W/m2k) Area (m2) te ( c) Senc Heat Gain


U A te (W)
North Wall 2.5 (10*4)- 12 1125
(1*2.5)=37.5
South Wall 2.5 (10*4)- 15 1387.5
(2*1.5)=37
East Wall 2.5 (10*4)- 12 1110
(2*1.5)=37
West Wall 2.5 (10*4)- 17 1572.5
(2*1.5)=37
Roof 2 10*10=100 20 4000
Floor 3 10*10=100 2.5 750
Doors 1.5 (1*2.5)*1=2.5 12 4.5
South Windows 6 (1*1.5)*2=3 10 180
East Windows 6 (1*1.5)*2=3 10 180
West Windows 6 (1*1.5)*2=3 10 180
Total 11530
Table 5.1 Estimation of Heat Gain

Total heat= 11.53 KW

36
Solar heat gain through Glass

Area of 2 windows * S H G F For south= [2 *(1.5* 1) ] * 150 = 450 W

Area of 2 windows * S H G F For east = [2 *(1.5 *1) ] * 50 =150 W

Area of 2 windows * S H G F For west= [2 * (1.5 *1) ] * 350 = 1050W

Total solar heat gain [Sensible] = 450+150+1050 =1650 W

Total sensible heat gain from person = Qs * No of person = 75 * 25 = 1875W

Total Latent heat from person =QL * No of person = 55 * 25 = 1375 W = 1.375K


W

Amount of infiltration of air = V1 = (L*W *H *A c)/ 60 = (10 * 10 * 4 * 1)/60

= 6.67 M3 / min

Sensible heat gain due to Infiltration of air = 0.02044 V1 (td1 - td2 )

=0.02044 * 6.67 [35 -25] = 2.363 KW

Latent heat gain due to Infiltration of air = 50 V1 ( W 1 W2 ) = 50 *6.67 [ 0.222


-0.01 ]

= 4.002 K W

Volume of outside air V = 0.3 M3/ min

37
= 0.3 * 25 = 7.5 M3 / min

Outside air sensible heat=OASH = 0.02044*V*(td1-td2)

= 0.02044*7.5*(35-25) = 1.533KW

Outside air latent heat = 50V*(W1-W2)

= 50*7.5(0.022-0.01) = 4.5KW

Total room sensible heat

RSH = Sensible Heat Gain from walls, roof, floor, doors, windows , infiltrated air and
ventilators.

= 11.53+1.65+1.875+2.363+1.533=19.05

Total room Latent heat

RLH= Latent Heat Gain From person, infiltrated air, ventilated air

=1.375+3002+3.5=7.017

Fig 5.13 Air Circulation through AC system and room

38
Room sensible Heat Factor RSHF = RSH/(RSH+RLH)

=19.051/(19.051+7.017) = 0.73

Assuming By pass Factor = 0.2

And

Assuming

25% fresh air mixed with 75% of recirculated air.

From graph td3 = 27.5c

.2= (td4 td6)/(td3 td6) = (td4 td6)/(27.5 td6)

Where td3 is the apparatus dew point temperature

By trial and error method

td4 = 13.6c and td6 = 10c

Hence evaporator temp. = 10c

39
Fig 5.14 Psychrometric Chart on Which The Condition is measured

40
5.2.2 ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSOR WORK

v Volumetric efficiency

C Pressure ratio

Bore (D) = 80mm, Stroke(L) = 60mm, Speed(N) = 250 rpm, Condensing Temp = 35 c,
Clearance Factor= 5%, Index of isentropic Compression () = 1.13

Pressure at evaporator (P1) = 6.5 bar

Pressure at Condenser (P2) = 13.8 bar

v = 1+C- C(P2/P1)(1/) =1+0.05-0.05(13.8/6.5)(1/1.13) =0.9582

Volume of R-22 entered / minute

= (/4)D2LN = (/4)*0.082 *0.06* 250 = 0.07539 m3/min

Actual volume = V*v = 0.07539*0.9582 = 0.0722460 m3/min

Enthalpy of refrigerant at state 1 = 250 KJ/Kg

Specific Volume at 1 = 0.035 m3/kg

Mass flow rate = (V1/Vs1) = 0.072246/0.0350 = 2.064 Kg/min

Super Heated State of refrigerant at state 2 , h2= 270 KJ/Kg [from chart]

Temperature of refrigerant at state 2 (t2) = 60c

Work done by compressor, m(h2-h1) =(2.064/60)(270-250)

=0.688 KW

5.2.3 INTERCOOLING AFTER COMPRESSION

Q= m (h2-h2)

h2 = 270 KJ/Kg

h2 = 260KJ/Kg

41
Q= (2.064/60)*10 = 0.344 KJ/s

Q = h A (Ts -Tf) = h A (60-35)

344 = 25* ( D L) [25]

D*L= 0.17519

Assume D as 0.06 m

Therefore L = 5.839

5.2.4 PRESSURE DIFFERENCE IN THERMOSYPHON

Dimension of Thermosyphon

Radius of Heating Pipes (rp) = 3 cm = 0.03m

Height of Heating Pipe (hp) = 75 cm = 0.75 m

Radius of container tank (rt) = 15 cm = .0.15 m

Length of containing tank (lt) = 56 cm = 0.56 m

No. Of pipes (n) = 8

Therefore volume of thermosyphon

= n*[ rp2hp] + [ rt2 lt] = 8*[*0.032*0.750] + [*0.152*0.56]

= 0.05654 m3

Here the volume is considered to be constant.

Now,

P V = m R T; Here m is the mass flow rate, R is the Characteristic Gas


Constant

Differentiating,

V dP = m R dT

42
dP = (m/V)*R*dT

Gas constant R of R-22 = CpR22 CvR22 = 0.057 0.048 = 0.009 KJ/ mol K

= 10.40 KJ/KgK

dP = (2.064/60)*10.40*103*(250-60) = 67974.4 Pa = .67 bar = 0.7 bar

Therefore Pressure difference in Thermosyphon is negligible

5.2.5 ENERGY RECEIVED BY THERMOSYPHON

Sun diameter = 1.4 * 104 m

Temp of sun = 5750 k

Distance between sun and earth R = 15 * 1010m

Radius of sun rs= 0.7 * 109m

Radius of earth re=6.4*106m

Surface temp of sun T=5750k

Energy loss through the atm. is =42%

Diffuse radiation=11%

Normal of panel inclined 50degree to the sunrise

Toatal energy emitted by sun Eb=AT4=5.67*10-8*4rs2*57504=3.816*1027W

Area where radiation falls just outside the earths atmosphere=4**R2=4 (15*1010)2m2

Emission received outside earth atm.=3.816*1027/4R2=9555.11w/m2

Direct Energy Reaching on earth= (1-0.42)*9555.11=5541w/m2 - (1)

5541*0.11=609.61w/m2 - (2) (diffuse radiation)

Et=total radiation reached (1) + (2) =6151.88w/m2

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Total surface area where heat is absorbed in thermosyphon =n ( r p h)/2=8*(2*.03*.75)/2 =
0.56548m2

Projected area =Acos =.56548cos50

Energy received by solar collector = Et Acos50=2236.10 W = 2.236 KW

Assuming transmission efficiency=0.8

So Net Heat Received

= 0.8*2.236 = 1.788KW

Enthalpy attained by refrigerant at state 2 to 3 = (Net Heat received/Mass Flow Rate)

= 1.788/.0344 = 51.97 KJ/kg

Total enthalpy of refrigerant at 3 =260+51.97=311.97KJ/kg

Temperature of Refrigerant at state 3 = 110c [from chart]

5.2.6 ENERGY GIVEN OUT BY CONDENSER

-When Thermosyphon is used

Here

L Length of Condenser

Ts Surface Temp of Condenser

Tf Temp of air outside

h = Overall heat transfer coefficient of Cast iron 25W/m2K

Q = hA (Ts-Tf) =25 D L (110-35)

Q = m (h3-h4) =.0344*(311.97-95)=7.463 KJ/s = 7463 J/s

7463=25*(DL)*(110-35)

D*L=1.2669

44
Assuming D=3cm=0.03m

L=25.32m

Enthalpy change in condenser = (Heat given out by condenser/Mass flow rate) =


7.463/0.0344

= 216.94 KJ/Kg

Enthalpy of refrigerant before entering expansion valve = 311.97-216.9 = 95.03 KJ/Kg

Refrigeration effect = m (h1-h4) =0.0344*(250-95.03) =5.36 KJ/s

COP = (Refrigeration effect/ Work done by compressor) = 5.36/0.688 = 7.79

5.2.7 ENERGY GIVEN OUT BY CONDENSER

-When Thermosyphon is not used

h A (Ts Tf) = h ( D L) (Ts Tf) = 25*(*0.05*25.32)(60-35)

= 4.97KJ/s

Enthalpy change in condenser = (Heat given out by condenser/Mass flow rate) = 4.97/0.0344

= 144.47 KJ/Kg

Enthalpy of refrigerant before entering expansion valve = 270-144.47 = 125.52 KJ/Kg

Refrigeration effect = m (h1-h4) = 0.0344*(250 -125.52) = 4.28 KJ/s

COP = (Refrigeration effect/ Work done by compressor) = 4.28/0.688 = 6.62

Therefore COP of the Air Conditioning System When

Thermosyphon is not used 6.62

Thermosyphon is used 7.79

N.B : All the data are taken from the fig 5.2

45
Fig 5.15 p-h diagram of Thermosyphon Based Two Stage Refrigeration System

X axis - enthalpy in KJ/Kg

Y axis Pressure in Bar, Pressure at evaporator (P 1) = 6.5 bar, Pressure at Condenser (P 2) =


13.8 bar

Red line (inside the vapour dome) p-h diagram of ordinary Ref. System

Black Line p-h diagram of Thermosyphon Based Two Stage Refrigeration System

Blue line Temperature in C

Green Line Specific Volume in m3/ Kg

46
CHAPTER 6

MODELING SOFTWARE USED : CATIA V5

CATIA (Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application) (in English usually


pronounced /kti/) is a multi-platform CAD/CAM/CAEcommercial software
suite developed by the French company Dassault Systemes. Written in the C++ programming
language, CATIA is the cornerstone of the Dassault Systemes product lifecycle
management software suite.

CATIA competes in the high-end CAD/CAM/CAE market with Siemens NX.

CATIA started as an in-house development in 1977 by French aircraft manufacturer Avions


Marcel Dassault, at that time customer of the CAD/CAM CAD software to develop
Dassault's Miragefighter jet, then was adopted in the aerospace, automotive, shipbuilding,
and other industries.

Initially named CATI (Conception Assiste Tridimensionnelle Interactive French


for Interactive Aided Three-dimensional Design ) it was renamed CATIA in 1981, when
Dassault created a subsidiary to develop and sell the software, and signed a non-exclusive
distribution agreement with IBM.

In 1984, the Boeing Company chose CATIA V3 as its main 3D CAD tool, becoming its
largest customer. In 1988, CATIA V3 was ported from mainframe computers to UNIX. In
1990, General Dynamics Electric Boat Corp chose CATIA as its main 3D CAD tool, to
design the U.S. Navy's Virginia class submarine.

In 1992, CADAM was purchased from IBM and the next year CATIA CADAM V4 was
published. In 1996, it was ported from one to four Unix operating systems, including
IBM AIX, Silicon Graphics IRIX, Sun Microsystems SunOS, and Hewlett-Packard HP-UX.

In 1998, V5 was released, which was an entirely rewritten version of CATIA, with support
for UNIX, Windows NT and Windows XP since 2001.

In 2008, Dassault announced and released CATIA V6. While the server can run on Microsoft
Windows, Linux or AIX, client support for any operating system other than Microsoft
Windows is dropped. In November 2010, Dassault launched Catia V6R2011x, the latest

47
release of its PLM2.0 platform while still continuing to support and improve its Catia V5
software. In June 2011, Dassault launched V6 R2012.

Companies use CATIA to create a complete 3D digital model of their products. The models
consist of 2D and 3D solid model data which can also be used downstream in finite element
analysis, rapid prototyping, tooling design, and CNC manufacturing. All data is associative
and interchangeable between the CAD, CAE and CAM modules without conversion.

A product and its entire bill of materials (BOM) can be modeled accurately with fully
associative engineering drawings, and revision control information. The associativity in
CATIA enables users to make changes in the design at any time during the product
development process and automatically update downstream deliverables. This capability
enables concurrent engineering design, analysis and manufacturing engineers working in
parallel and streamlines product development processes.

48
6.1 THE STEPS TO CREATE THE MODEL AND ASSEMBLY SECTION

CREATE THE WORKING DIRECTORY-First create the working directory to


save the all model in one folder

File set working directory selects the required folder ok.

SKETCH- This command is used to create the new sketch like circle, line, rectangle,
ellipse, etc,..

The CATIA window select the sketch icon and select the plane or surface want to
sketch.

CIRCLE- This command is used to create the circle. Create circle by picking the
center point and a point on the circle from Right Toolchest.

Pick the origin for the circles center - pick a point on the circles edge- click the
middle mouse button ok

ELLIPSE- This command is used to create the ellipse. Create ellipse by picking the
center point and a minor radius point and major radius point, the minor and major
radius of the ellipse is vertical and horizontal direction depend upon the shape of
ellipse we want.

Select the ellipse icon from right toolchest- Pick the center for the ellipse pick the
minor radius of ellipse point and pick the major radius of the ellipse- click the middle
mouse button ok

49
LINE- This command is used to create the line. Create the line by start point and end
point.

Select the line icon from the right Toolchest click the start point of the line click
the end point of the circle -enter

ARC- This command is used to create the arc. Create the arc by using three points.
The three points are start point, end point and center point of the arc.

Select the arc icon from the right Toolchest click the start point of the arc click the
end point of the arc and click the middle point of the arc enter.

The dimension of the arc is modified by double click on the arc then the dimension
will appear in the pop up box, then provide the value of the arc.

CREATE THE HEXAGON The hexagon is created by insert foreign data icon in
the Right Toolchest.

Insert foreign data from Palette into active object - scroll down to see the hexagon -
double-click hexagon- Place the hexagon on the sketch by picking a position - with
the left mouse button, drag and drop the center of the hexagon at the origin - modify
Scale value to the required size click enter

RECTANGLE- This command is used to create the rectangle and square.

Click the rectangle icon in the right Toolchest click the lower left point of the
rectangle and higher right corner of the rectangle we want to draw.

After drawing the rectangle the dimension of the rectangle is provided by the pick the
dimension command from the dimension icon in the right toolchest of the CATIA
software.

50
DIMENSION- This command is used to provide the dimension of the sketched
entities the entities may be circle, line, rectangle, ellipse, etc,..

The dimension is provide to the sketch by select the dimension icon from the right
tool chest then select the sketched entities and press the middle mouse button to finish
the dimensioning.

To change the dimension of the sketched entities by just double click the dimension
line of created sketch.

EXTRUDE This command is used to create the material (to make 3D object from
2D sketch) from the sketched entities. The entities may be circle, line or rectangle,
etc,...

Select the extrude icon from the right tool chest then select the sketched part in the
window, enter the extrude length and press the middle mouse button to finish the
extrude command. There is a provision for removing material in pro e which is
called cut. The main condition to create the solid model is the sketched section must
be closed.

REVOLVE- This command is used to create the material from taking the one axis
and sketched entities. The axis is the center of the revolved part. The revolve angle
should between 0 degree to 360 degree.

Select the revolve icon from the right toolchest then select the sketched part and axis
of the object in the graphical window, enter the revolve angle and press the middle
mouse button to finish the extrude command.

SWEEP FEATURES

The Sweep option extrudes a section along a defined trajectory. The order of
operation is to first create a trajectory and then a section. A trajectory is a path along

51
which a section is swept. The trajectory for a sweep feature can be sketched or
selected. The Sweep option of protrusion is similar to the Extrude option. The only
difference is that in the case of the Extrude option, the feature is extruded in a
direction normal to the sketching plane, but in the case of the Sweep option, the
section is swept along the sketched or selected trajectory. The trajectory can be open
or closed. Normal sketching tools are used for sketching the trajectory. The cross-
section of the swept feature remains constant throughout the sweep

6.2 SCREEN PRINTS OF THE VARIOUS STEPS DONE WHILE


PREPARING THE MODEL

52
Fig 6.1 Creating Base Sketch in XY plane

Fig 6.2 Extruding (Padding)

53
Fig 6.3

54
Fig 6.4

55
Fig 6.5

Fig 6.6 Creating Sketch for Pocketing in the given plane

56
Fig 6.7 Exit to Work Bench

57
Fig 6.8 Giving Sufficient Depth

58
Fig 6.9 Pocketing Done

Fig 6.10

59
Fig 6.11 Reference object

Fig 6.12 Patterning with the reference object

60
Fig 6.13

Fig 6.14 Profile for Splining

61
Fig 6.15 Process of splining

62
Fig 6.16

63
Fig 6.17

Fig 6.18 Completed Model

64
CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSION

We have successfully designed two stage thermosyphon based refrigeration system using the
knowledge Gained from our earlier classes. From our project we can conclude that the cop of
thermosyphon refrigeration system is greater than the normal refrigeration system. So the
more efficient and economic refrigeration system is thermosyphon Refrigeration system.
Using this system we can save a considerable energy. After this project we got familiarize
with the modelling software CATIA and some methods to save energy in our daily air
conditioner usage.

Air conditioning can account for up to 50% of your summer electricity bill, so try to
use it only when necessary to remain comfortable.

The average residential daily energy consumption is 25 kWh or about 1 kWh/hour. A


room air conditioner adds about 1 kWh per hour to your energy usage. If it is left
running for 24 hours a day, it will total about 24 kWh, doubling the average
residential energy consumption. In Alberta we tend to see central air operate for about
300 hours per year, thats about 1050 kWh. At 11-cents per kWh, that would cost just
over $115 every year.

When shopping for a central or window air conditioning unit, choose newer ENERGY
STAR qualified models which are up to 70% more efficient than older models.

Keep air conditioning thermostats set at 25 C or higher. You will use 3 5% more
energy for each degree your air conditioner is set below 24 C (75F), so set the
thermostat at 25 C (77 F) to provide the most comfort at the least cost. The less
difference between the indoor and outdoor temperatures, the lower your overall bill
will be.

Dont set your thermostat at a colder setting than normal when you first turn on your
air conditioner. It wont cool your home any faster and could result in excessive
cooling and unnecessary expense.

65
Dont place lamps or TV sets near your thermostat. The thermostat senses heat from
these appliances and can cause the air conditioner to run longer than necessary.

Turn off lights during the day and keep blinds drawn so you can keep air conditioning
use to a minimum. This is especially important for windows or doors that get direct
sunlight.

Turn off air conditioning at night and open windows.

Use your programmable thermostat to set the temperature higher when you are not
there during the day and have it turn on to cool the house down before you get home.

Make sure to keep all your windows closed when your air conditioner is operating.

If you use a ceiling or tabletop fan in conjunction with air conditioning the wind
chill effect means you can set your air conditioner higher to 26 or 27C (79 - 80F)
and still be comfortable. Every increase of 1.7C (3F) on your thermostat can result
in a reduction of 15% in air conditioning energy use and can result in significant
savings on your summer electric bill.

Ceiling fans cost about 3-cents for 2 hours of operation. Make sure your fan is
blowing air downward in the summer.

Whole-house fans help cool your home by pulling cool air through the house and
exhausting warm air through the attic. They are effective when operated at night and
when the outside air is cooler than the inside air.

Leave your furnace fan on continuously to circulate cooler air from the basement up
to other floors. Some furnaces have a way of opening a duct to draw even more
cooler basement air into the system.

Plant trees or shrubs to shade air conditioning units, but not block the airflow. A unit
operating in the shade uses as much as 10% less electricity than the same on operating
in the sun.

66
Try to put your room air conditioner in a window that faces north or is shaded. If you
keep the air conditioner out of direct sunlight its efficiency will improve; an air
conditioner that is exposed to direct sunlight will consume 5% more energy than one
that is shaded.

Consider closing off the dampers of your basement ducts. This will send more cooled
air upstairs. You can reopen them in the fall to allow heated air to be sent into the
basement.

If you have a fireplace, keep the damper tightly closed when not in use. A glass fire
screen can help minimize the loss of conditioned air.

Be sure to check your air conditioning filter at least once a month and clean if dirty.

For energy savings, set the fan switch on central air system or room air conditioner on
automatic instead of on or continuous.

Turn off pilot lights on gas fireplaces during the summer months.

REFERENCE

Engineering thermodynamics P K Nag


Fluids mechanics and hydraulic machines R K Bansal
Heat and mass transfer R K Rajput
Refrigeration and air conditioning R S khurmi & J K Guptha
Refrigeration and air conditioning data book Domkundwar & Domkundwar
Power plant engineering P K Nag

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