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Dersim massacre

The Dersim massacre was a massacre of Kurdish peo- area had a reputation for being rebellious, having been the
ple (Alevi Kurmanj and Zaza) by the Turkish government scene of eleven separate periods of armed conict over
in the Dersim region of eastern Turkey, which includes the previous 40 years.[23]
parts of Tunceli Province, Elaz Province, and Bingl
Province.[5][7][8][9][10][11][12] The massacre occurred af-
ter a rebellion led by Seyid Riza against the Turkication 1.2.2 Tunceli law
policies of the Turkish government.[13] As a result of the
Turkish military campaign against the rebellion, thou- The Dersim region included the Tunceli Province whose
sands of Alevi Zazas[14] died and many others were in- name was changed from Dersim to Tunceli with the Law
ternally displaced due to the conict. on Administration of the Tunceli Province (Tunceli Vi-
layetinin daresi Hakknda Kanun), no. 2884 of Decem-
On November 23, 2011, Turkish prime minister Recep ber 25, 1935[24] on January 4, 1936.[25]
Tayyip Erdoan gave an apology for the Dersim opera-
tion, describing it as one of the most tragic events of our
recent history.[15] 1.2.3 Fourth General Inspectorate

Main article: Inspectorates-General (Turkey)


1 Background
In order to consolidate its authority in the process of
Turkication of religious and ethnic minorities,[26] the
1.1 Ottoman period Turkish Grand National Assembly passed the law, num-
bered 1164 and dated June 25, 1927. Following the First
During the Ottoman period, before the Tanzimat, most
Inspectorate-General (January 1, 1928, Diyarbakr),[27]
of the empires eastern regions were administrated by the
Ottoman feudal system. Authority in these regions was [the Thrace pogroms], the Second Inspectorate-
[12]
in the hands of feudal lords, tribal chieftains and aghas General (February 19, 1934, Edirne) and the Third
[28][29]
(dignitaries).[18] Inspectorate-General (August 25, 1935, Erzurum),
the Fourth General Inspectorate (Drdnc Umumi Mf-
fetilik) was established on June 6, 1936, in the traditional
1.2 Early republican era Dersim region, which includes Tunceli Province, Elaz
Province and Bingl Province.[12]
The situation of Dersim in the Ottoman Empire contin- On November 1, 1936, during a speech in the parliament
ued in the early years of the Republic of Turkey. Tribes Atatrk acknowledged the situation in Dersim as Turkeys
from Dersim objected to losing authority and refused to most important internal problem.[30] Firstly, military sta-
pay taxes.[19] tions were built in the strategical zones. Then the Inspec-
Complaints kept coming from the governors. In an Inte- tor of the Fourth General Inspectorate, Lieutenant Gen-
rior Ministry report in 1926, it was considered necessary eral Abdullah Alpdoan was given the authority to sign
to use force against the residents of Dersim.[20] court orders, providing security, to exile people that lived
in the city when necessary.

1.2.1 Law on Resettlement


2 Rebellion
The Turkication process in Turkey began with the Turk-
ish National Assembly passing the 1934 Law on Resettle-
ment ('skn Kanunu' Law No.2510, June 13, 1934).[21] After the Tunceli Law, the Turkish government built
Its measures included the forced relocation of people military observation posts in the centers of districts such
within the country, with the aim of promoting cultural as Kahmut, Sin, Karaolan, Amutka, Danzik, and Hay-
homogeneity. In 1935, the Tunceli Law was passed to ap- daran.
ply the Resettlement Law to the newly named region of Following public meetings in January 1937, a letter of
Tunceli, previously known as Dersim and populated by protest against the law was written to be sent to the local
Kurmanci-speaking and Zaza-speaking Alevis.[22] This governor. According to Kurdish sources, the emissaries

1
2 3 TURKISH MILITARY OPERATIONS

A 1937 map of Dersim showing the central province, Hezat

of the letter were arrested and executed. In May, a group The commander of the Guard regiment smail Hakk Teke and
of local people ambushed a police convoy in response, the Mustafa Kemal Atatrk at Tunceli region in 1937.
rst act of a localised conict.[31]

2.1 Meeting at Halbori cells


Seyid Riza, the chieftain of Yukar Abbas Ua, sent
his followers to the Haydaran, Demenan, Yusufan, and
Kureyan tribes to make an alliance.[32]
According to Turkish authorities, on March 2021, 1937,
at 23:00 hrs, the Demenan and Haydaran tribes broke a
bridge connecting Pah and Kahmut in the Harik Val-
ley. The Inspector General gave the order to prepare
for action to the 2nd Mobile Gendarmerie Battalion at
Plmr, the 3th Mobile Gendarmerie Battalion at Plr,
the 9th Gendarmier Battalion at Mazkirt, and the Mo-
bile Gendarmerie Regiment at Hozat, and sent one in- Sabiha Gken and her colleagues in front of Breguet 19, 1937
fantry company of the 9th Mobile Gendarmier Battalion 38
to Pah.[32]

3 Turkish military operations

Turkish soldiers and local people of Dersim region. It was


claimed that the women and children in this picture were exe-
cuted shortly after the picture was taken.[33]

of the rebel forces continued to resist and the number


of troops in the region was doubled. The area was also
bombed from the air.[23] The rebels continued to resist
until the region was pacied in October 1938.[34]
Sabiha Gken holding a bomb before the bombardment opera-
According to Osman Pamukolu, a general in Turkish
tion over Dersim with her Breguet 19
Army in the 1990s, Atatrk had given the operational or-
[35]
Around 25,000 troops were deployed to quell the re- der himself.
bellion. This task was substantially completed by the
summer and the leaders of the rebellion, including tribal
3.1 1937
leader Sayiid Riza, were hanged. However, remnants
3.2 1938 3

Hasan Aga (of the Demenan tribe, Cebrail Aas


son)

Hasan (a Kureyan tribesman Ulkiyes son)

Ali Aga (Mirza Alis son)

On November 17, 1937, Mustafa Kemal Atatrk came


to Pertek to take part in the opening ceremony for the
Singe Bridge.[38][39]

Local people of Dersim, 1938


3.2 1938
3.2.1 Second Tunceli Operation

The prime minister, Celal Bayar (in oce: October 25,


1937 January 25, 1939) had agreed to an attack on
the Dersim rebels.[40] The operation started on January
2, 1938 and nished on August 7, 1938.

3.2.2 Third Tunceli Operation

The Third Tunceli Operation was carried out between


August 1017, 1938.

3.2.3 Sweep operations

Sweep operations that started on September 6, were con-


tinued for 17 days.[41]

3.2.4 Aerial operations

Turkish planes ew numerous sorties against the rebels


during the rebellion. Among the pilots was Kemal
Atatrk's adopted daughter, Sabiha Gken, the rst
Turkish female ghter pilot. A report of the General Sta
mentioned the serious damage that had been caused by
her 50 kg bomb, upon a group of eeing bandits.[42]
Turkish soldiers with a head cut o.
Muhsin Batur, engaged in operations for about two
months over Dersim, but he stated in his memoirs that he
3.1.1 First Tunceli Operation wanted to avoid explaining this part of his life.[43] Nuri
Dersimi claimed that the Turkish air force bombed the
On September 1012, 1937, Seyit Rza came to the gov- district with poisonous gas in 1938.[44]
ernment building of the Erzincan Province for peace talks
and was arrested.[36] On the next day, he was transferred
to the headquarters of the General Inspectorate at Elaz 3.3 Consequences
and hanged with 6 (or 10) of his fellows on November
1518, 1937[37] The deaths(?) were: According to an ocial report of the Fourth General Is-
pectorate, 13,160 civilians were killed by the Turkish
Seyit Rza Army and 11,818 people were taken into exile, depop-
ulating the province.[6] According to the Dersimi, many
Resik Hseyin (Seyit Rzas son) tribesmen were shot dead after surrendering, and women
and children were locked into haysheds which were then
Seyit Hseyin (the chieftain of Kureyan-Seyhan
set on re.[45] According to McDowall, 40,000 people
tribe)
were killed.[1] According to Kurdish Diaspora sources,
Fndk Aga (Yusfanl Kamer Agas son) over 70,000 people were killed.[46]
4 6 REFERENCES

A key component of the Turkication process was the 5 See also


policy of massive population resettlement a result of the
1934 law on resettlement. This policy targeted the region Kogiri Rebellion
of Dersim as one of its rst test cases, and it had disastrous
consequences for the local population.[47] Sheikh Said rebellion
Hseyin Aygn, a jurist author, wrote in his book Dersim
1938 and Obligatory Settlement:
6 References
The rebellion was clearly caused by provoca-
tion. It caused the most violent tortures that [1] David McDowall, A modern history of the Kurds,
were ever seen in a rebellion in the Republican I.B.Tauris, 2002, ISBN 978-1-85043-416-0, p. 209.
years. Those that didn't take place in the re- [2] Osman Pamukolu, Unutulanlar dnda yeni bir ey yok:
bellion and the families of the rebels were also Hakkari ve Kuzey Irak dalarndaki askerler, Harmoni
tortured.[48] Yaynclk, 2003, ISBN 975-6340-00-2, p. 16. (Turkish)

[3] Turkeys Alevi enigma: a comprehensive overview, Paul J.


3.4 Numbers killed White, Joost Jongerden, 2003, page 198

[4] http://www.guncelmeydan.com/pano/
The contemporary British estimate of the number of
dersim-yalanlari-ve-gercekleri-sinan-meydan-t33567.
deaths was 40,000, although historians suggest that this
html
gure may be exaggerated.[23] It has been suggested
that the total number of deaths may be 7,594,[22] over [5] Dersim 38 Conference
10,000,[49] or over 13,000.[15] Around 3,000 people were
[6] Resmi raporlarda Dersim katliam: 13 bin kii
forcibly deported from Dersim.[22]
ldrld", Radikal, November 19, 2009. (Turkish)

[7] The Suppression of the Dersim Rebellion in Turkey


3.5 Genocide controversy (1937-38)" (PDF). University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved
20 January 2016.
Many Kurds and some ethnic Turks consider Turkish mil-
itary operations in Dersim to constitute genocide. A pro- [8] Etre Kurde, un dlit?: portrait d'un peuple ni Jacque-
ponent of this view is the academic smail Beiki.[50] Un- line Sammali Google Livres. Books.google.fr. Retrieved
2013-12-24.
der international laws, it has been argued, the actions of
the Turkish authorities were not genocide, because they [9] Les Kurdes et leur histoire Sabri Cigerli Google Livres.
were not aimed at the extermination of a people, but at re- Books.google.fr. Retrieved 2013-12-24.
settlement and suppression.[51] Scholars, such as Martin
van Bruinessen, have instead talked of an ethnocide di- [10] Can Kurds rely on the Turkish state?". Weeklyza-
man.com. 2011-10-14. Retrieved 2013-12-24.
rected against the local language and identity.[52]
In March 2011, a Turkish court ruled that the actions of [11] 16. Turkey/Kurds (1922present)". Uca.edu. Retrieved
the Turkish government in Dersim could not be consid- 2013-12-24.
ered genocide according to the law because they were not [12] Birinci Genel Mfettilik Blgesi, Gney Dou, stanbul,
directed systematically against an ethnic group.[53] p. 66, 194. (Turkish)

[13] http://www.massviolence.org/IMG/article_PDF/
Dersim-Massacre-1937-1938.pdf
4 Recent developments
[14] http://www.massviolence.org/
On November 23, 2011, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Dersim-Massacre-1937-1938 (According to the or-
ganisation encyclopedia of mass violence, Dersim is a
Erdogan apologized on behalf of the state over the
Kurdish alevi province, and the massacre of turks were
killing of over 13,000 people during the rebellion.[54] His
towards zaza speaking alevi kurds)
remarks were widely commented on both inside and out-
side Turkey.[55] His comments were pointedly directed [15] Turkey PM Erdogan apologises for 1930s Kurdish
at opposition leader Kemal Kldarolu. Erdogan re- killings. BBC News. November 23, 2011. Retrieved
minded his audience that Kldarolus party, the CHP, November 24, 2011.
had been in power at the time of the massacre, then the
[16] Martin van Bruinessen, Zaza, Alevi and Dersimi as De-
only political party in Turkey.[15] He described the mas- liberately Embraced Ethnic Identities in '"Asln nkar
sacre as one of the most tragic events of our near history Eden Haramzadedir!" The Debate on the Ethnic Identity
saying that, whilst some sought to justify it as a legitimate of The Kurdish Alevis in Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi, Bar-
response to events on the ground, it was in reality an op- bara Kellner-Heinkele, Anke Otter-Beaujean, Syncretistic
eration which was planned step by step.[56] Religious Communities in the Near East: Collected Papers
5

of the International Symposium Alevism in Turkey and [35] Pamukolu: Dersim'in emrini Atatrk verdi, Hrriyet,
Comparable Sycretistic Religious Communities in the Near August 19, 2010. (Turkish)
East in the Past and Present Berlin, 14-17 April 1995,
BRILL, 1997, ISBN 9789004108615, p. 13. [36] Ahmet Kahraman, pp. 286287. (Turkish)

[17] Martin van Bruinessen, Zaza, Alevi and Dersimi as De- [37] Ahmet Kahraman, pp. 292293. (Turkish)
liberately Embraced Ethnic Identities in '"Asln nkar
Eden Haramzadedir!" The Debate on the Ethnic Identity [38] Cumhuriyet, November 18, 1937, 17 Kasm 1937:
of The Kurdish Alevis, p. 14. Atatrk'n Diyarbakr'dan Elz'a gelii, Tunceli'nin
Pertek kazasna geerek Murat Nehri zerinde Singe
[18] Faik Bulut, Devletin Gzyle Trkiye'de Krt syanlar Kprs'n hizmete a. (Turkish)
(Kurdish rebellions in Turkey, from the government point
of view), Yn Yaynclk, 1991, 214215. (Turkish) [39] Atatrk Pertek'te, The government of Pertek District.
(Turkish)
[19] Ziiolu, Vercihan (November 18, 2009). Military doc-
uments to shine light on 'Dersim massacre'". Hurriyet [40] 19371938de Dersimde neler oldu?", Taraf, November
Daily News. Retrieved 2010-09-22. 16, 2008. (Turkish)

[20] Beiki, Ismail. (1990) Tunceli Kanunu (1935) ve Dersim [41] Faik Bulut, ibid, p. 277. (Turkish)
Jenosidi (The 1935 law concerning Tunceli and the geno-
[42] Reat Hall, Trkiye Cumhuriyetinde Ayaklanmalar
cide of Dersim), Bonn, p.29. (Turkish)
(19241938), T. C. Genelkurmay Baskanl Harp Tarihi
[21] aaptay, Soner (2002). Reconguring the Turkish na- Dairesi, 1972, p. 382. (Turkish)
tion in the 1930s (PDF). Harvard. Retrieved 2010-08-
[43] Muhsin Batur, Anlar, Grler, Dnemin Perde Ar-
02.
sas, Milliyet Yaynlar, 1985, p. 25. (Turkish)
[22] Lundgren, Asa (2007). The unwelcome neighbour:
[44] Martin van Bruinessen, Kurdish ethno-nationalism versus
Turkeys Kurdish policy. London: Tauris & Co. p. 44.
nation-building states: collected articles, Isis Press, 2000,
[23] McDowall, David (2007). A Modern History of the Kurds. ISBN 978-975-428-177-4, p. 116.
London: Tauris & Co. pp. 207208.
[45] The Suppression of the Dersim Rebellion in Turkey
[24] New perspectives on Turkey, Issues 14, Simons Rock of (193738) Page 4 (PDF). Retrieved 2013-12-24.
Bard College, 1999 p. 15.
[46] http://www.pen-kurd.org/almani/haydar/
[25] Paul J. White, Primitive rebels or revolutionary modern- Dersim-PresseerklC3A4rungEnglish.pdf
izers?: the Kurdish national movement in Turkey, Zed
[47] George J Andreopoulos, Genocide, page 11.
Books, 2000, ISBN 978-1-85649-822-7, p. 80.
[48] Hseyin Aygn, Dersim 1938 ve zorunlu iskn: telgraar,
[26] Cemil Koak, Umumi mfettilikler (19271952), letiim
dilekeler, mektuplar, Dipnot Yaynlar, 2009, ISBN 978-
Yaynlar, 2003, ISBN 978-975-05-0129-6, p. 144.
975-9051-75-4, p. .
[27] Birinci Genel Mfettilik Blgesi, p. 66.
[49] Hans-Lukas Kieser: Some Remarks on Alevi Responses to
[28] Cumhuriyet, August 26, 1935. the Missionaries in Eastern Anatolia (19th20th cc.). In:
Altruism and Imperialism. The Western Religious and Cul-
[29] Erdal Aydoan, "nc Umumi Metilii'nin Ku- tural Missionary Enterprise in the Middle East. Middle
rulmas ve III. Umum Meti Tahsin Uzer'in Baz East Institute Conference: Bellagio Italien, August 2000
nemli Faaliyetleri, Atatrk Yolu, Ankara niversitesi
Trk nklp Tarihi Enstits, Vol. 3334, pp. 114. [50] smail Besiki, Tunceli Kanunu (1935) ve Dersim Jenosidi,
Belge Yaynlar, 1990.
[30] Hasretyan, M. A. (1995) Trkiye'de Krt Sorunu (1918
1940), Berlin, Wann, nsttuya Kurd: I., p. 262. [51] Martin van Bruinessen: Genocide in Kurdistan? 1994, S.
(Turkish) 141170.

[31] Jwaideh, Wadie (2006). The Kurdish National Movement: [52] The Suppression of the Dersim Rebellion in Turkey
Its Origins and Development. Syracuse University Press. (193738) Excerpts from: Martin van Bruinessen,
p. 215. Genocide in Kurdistan? The suppression of the Der-
sim rebellion in Turkey (193738) and the chemical war
[32] Faik Bulut, ibid, p. 221. (Turkish) against the Iraqi Kurds (1988)", in: George J. Andreopou-
los (ed), Conceptual and historical dimensions of geno-
[33] "'Dersim Katliam'ndaki o fotorafn srr ortaya kt". cide. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994, pp. 141
Radikal. December 23, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 170.
2014.
[53] Saymaz, Ismail (March 14, 2011). Turkish prosecutor
[34] Chaliand, Gerard (1993). A People without a country: the refuses to hear Dersim 'genocide' claim. Hrriyet Daily
Kurds and Kurdistan. London: Olive Branch Press. p. 58. News. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
6 7 EXTERNAL LINKS

[54] SELCAN HACAOGLU (2011-11-23). Turkish


PM apologizes over 1930s killings of Kurds.
News.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2013-12-24.

[55] Arin, Kubilay Yado, Turkey and the Kurds From


War to Reconciliation? UC Berkeley Center for
Right Wing Studies Working Paper Series, March
26, 2015.https://www.academia.edu/11674094/Turkey_
and_the_Kurds_From_War_to_Reconciliation

[56] Turkey apologises for 1930s killing of thousands of


Kurds. The Telegraph. November 24, 2011. Retrieved
November 24, 2011.

7 External links
Kubilay Yado Arin, Turkey and the Kurds From
War to Reconciliation?, UC Berkeley Center for
Right Wing Studies Working Paper Series, March
26, 2015.

Hans-Lukas Kieser, Dersim Massacre, 19371938


7

8 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


8.1 Text
Dersim massacre Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dersim_massacre?oldid=715755568 Contributors: Dimadick, Varlaam, Rich
Farmbrough, Bender235, CeeGee, Alansohn, Anthony Appleyard, Tabletop, Al E., , Stefanomione, BD2412, Behemoth, Jweiss11,
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KureCewlik81, Vekoler, Chaldean, OttomanReference, Daraheni, Cydebot, Dalahst, Seaphoto, Alangu, Baristarim, EtienneDolet, Com-
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SpartanOrder, Berzencizade and Anonymous: 82

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