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ACADEMIC CONNECTIONS 2 ANSWER KEY

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UNNIITT 11
Biology: Experiments and the Common Cold

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Previewing the Academic Content


Exercise 2, page 2
1. symptom 2. relieve 3. remedy 4. effective 5. suffering from

Previewing the Academic Skills Focus


Exercise 2, page 4
1. People use scientific processes in every day life.
2. Answers will vary. All options are possible answers.

2 Building Academic Reading Skills

Before You Read, pages 45


1. T
2. F; Explanation: there would be no reason to do the experiment if the scientists were sure / the flowchart
gives the possibility of rejecting the hypothesis: this would not make sense if the scientists were sure it
was true before the experiment began
3. T
4. F; Explanation: Following the right hand side of the flowchart, this situation will lead to rejecting the
hypothesis
5. F; Explanation: the options after the Do not reject the hypothesis are Do more tests and Try some
other hypotheses. Both indicate that tests will continue.

Global Reading
Exercise 1, page 6
Answers will vary. Suggested answer:
reading title, first and last parts of each paragraph were mentioned in that section

Exercise 2, page 6
Answers will vary. Suggested answer:
What hypotheses are

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 1


Exercise 3, page 7
Paragraph 2: Hypotheses must be falsifiable.
Paragraph 3: Hypotheses must be testable.
Paragraph 4: An example of a common hypothesis
Paragraph 5: Some hypotheses get accepted first and then rejected later.

Exercise 4, page 7
1. a 3. c 2. d
3. b 2. d 5. f

Exercise 5, page 8
1. A hypotheses are ideas about how things work.
2. Testable means possible to check by seeing or measuring things.
3. Hypotheses that need a supernatural force cannot be tested.
4. Falsifiable means possible to imagine a way to show the hypothesis is false.
5. Personal opinions cannot be falsified.
6. A later test may show that an original hypothesis is wrong, or people may find other explanations for
the result.

Focused Reading
Exercise 1, page 8
Students could underline these sentences:
Two definitions
falsifiable: That is, you must be able to imagine a way to show it false. (paragraph 2)
testable: This means it must be possible to check them by seeing or measuring things. (paragraph 3)
Three examples
For instance, think about the hypothesis that you get more colds in cold weather. (paragraph 2)
personal opinions, such as It is wrong to cheat on exams, (paragraph 2)
For example, we cannot test hypotheses that need a supernatural force. (paragraph 3)
An explanation
This is why personal opinions, such as it is wrong to cheat on exams, are not scientific. (paragraph 2)

Exercise 2, page 8
Type of Supporting Idea Phases Introducing Supporting Ideas
Definitions This means
That is
Example For instance
such as
For example

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 2


Explanation That is why

Exercise 3, page 9
1. key word 3. capital letter 5. key word
2. key word 4. number 6. key word

Exercise 4, page 9
1. Getting cold makes it easier to catch a cold.
2. Fruit and vegetables
3. Linus Pauling
4. 1970
5. The Nobel Prize
6. No, they dont.

Exercise 5, page 10
1. Not rejected
2. Rejected because not falsifiable
3. Rejected because not testable
4. Rejected because not testable
Explanations
1. This statement is falsifiable (the counter-example, where people can think just as clearly whether or not
they have a cold, is possible even if it might sound unlikely) and testable (give the same tasks to
randomly selected people who do and do not have a cold, and compare the results. Or give similar tasks
to the same people when they have a cold and when they do not).
2. This is an opinion, and as stated in the text, opinions are not falsifiable.
3. This statement relates to the supernatural, and as stated in the text, supernatural phenomena cannot
be subject to testing or measuring.
4. This statement is not testable as it is not possible to go back in time (if students say that there might be
documentary evidence, the counter argument is that we cannot be sure that all symptoms were
recorded).

Exercise 6, page 10
1. Answers will vary.
2. Answers will vary.
3. Answers will vary. Suggested answers: newspaper articles about scientific research, research in other
fields, TV shows, films & novels about crimes

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 3


3 Building Academic Listening Skills

Global Listening
Exercise 2, page 11
1, 2, 4, 5

Exercise 3, page 12
1. 1 2. 2 3. 4 4. 5

Exercise 4, page 12
Answers will vary. Suggested answer:
The introduction states the main ideas of the lecture. The body of the lecture gives details about the main
ideas.

Exercise 5, page 12
controlled experiments, placebos, blind experiments, double-blind experiments

Focused Listening
Exercise 1, page 12
1. an example 3. in other words 5. for example
2. For instance 4. Its something that 6. we call it

Exercise 2, page 13
Examples: 1, 2, 5 Definitions: 3, 4, 6

Exercise 3, page 13
Examples: an example; For instance; for example
Definitions: in other words; its something that; we call it

Exercise 4, page 13
1. flower 3. quickly 5. experimental treatment 7. no
2. better 4. same 6. nothing 8. dont know
Exercise 5, page 13
1. c 2. b 3. a 4. d 5. c

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 4


Exercise 6, page 14
Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
Give a falsifiable, testable Natulief/Getting more sleep helps people get better from
hypothesis. colds more quickly.
What will the experimental group A: Take Natulief when they get a cold
do? B: Sleep more than their normal times
What will the control group do? A: Take a placebo
B: Sleep at their normal time
Will there be a placebo? A: placebo could be medicine looking like Natulief
If so, what is it? B: no placebo
If not, why not?

Can you make the experiment A: Dont tell people whether they are getting the placebo
blind? or real treatment
If so, how? B: Not possible (at least not in a straightforward way).
If not, why not? People will know whether they are getting more sleep than
they usually do.

4 Building Academic Writing Skills

Before You Write


Exercise 1, page 15
1. Microorganisms are the cause of many illnesses.
2. Paragraph on page 4 is indented; paragraphs on pages 67 have a blank line before and after.

Exercise 2, pages 1516


Group 1: each new sentence shouldnt start on a separate line. Students should rewrite the paragraph,
indenting the first line and running all the sentences together.
Group 2: all sentences in the paragraph should keep to just one topic; all the ideas in the paragraph
should follow the same topic as the first sentence. In this paragraph, there are two separate ideas, how
people get better from colds and the fact that colds are bad for the economy. These two ideas should be
divided into two separate paragraphs.

Focused Writing
Exercise 1, page 16
The first sentence in each of the paragraphs is the topic sentence.

Exercise 2, pages 1617


Students should underline these sentences:
Paragraph 1: but does it work?
Paragraph 2: There are many kinds of viruses that cause the cold.
Paragraph 3: Does echinacea stop the common cold?

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 5


Paragraph 4: The immune system is the bodys natural defense system.

Exercise 3, page 17
Paragraph 1: Explanation
Paragraph 2: Examples
Paragraph 3: None of the supporting detail in the table used
Paragraph 4: Definitions

Exercise 5, page 18
The announcers
Main idea New research: vitamin C has no effect on catching a cold
Supporting details experiment:
many volunteers: half took extra vitamin C, the other
half didnt
volunteers kept a diary about their colds
approximately same number of colds for each group
conclusion: vitamin C has no effect but if you have a
cold, itll help you get better sooner
keeping warm doesn't work, either
washing hands is best way, because cold virus can live outside
bodies for several hours

U
UNNIITT 22
Marketing: New Ways to Spread the Message

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Previewing the Academic Content


Exercise 2, page 23
Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
1. children, young adult males, older adults, older adult women, older adult men, professional women,
stay-home mothers
2. in a newspaper popular with the target group, advertised in a place frequented by the target group such
as bus shelters, played on a radio station popular with the target group
3. give a good feeling about a product, show how good a product is, show how the product can make
your life easier

Previewing the Academic Skills Focus


Exercise 1, page 24

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 6


Students should underline the first sentence once (the general statement), and the remaining sentences
twice (the scope).

Exercise 2, page 24
Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
1. timing of ad campaigns; other ways to get messages to companies
2. similar to the main ideas

2 Building Academic Listening Skills

Global Listening
Exercise 1, page 26
1. b
2. Today, well look at new marketing strategies
First, viral marketing
then stealth marketing

Exercise 2, page 26
1. a
2. viral marketing
3. b
4. stealth marketing

Exercise 3, page 26
1. b
2. viral and stealth marketing
3. b

Exercise 4, page 27
Choice 3

Focused Listening
Exercise 1, pages 2728
Introduction
Ideas in the general statement:
too may ads nowadays
=> people dont notice them
=> companies not getting message across
normal ads (TV, magazine, Internet): very expensive

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 7


=> need new strategies: cheaper; people will notice

Main ideas in the scope: New marketing strategiesstealth and viral marketing
Main idea 1: Definition:
viral marketing advertising message spreads person to person
company has interesting message
people tell friends because its interesting
similar to a cold virus
Advertising medium: people
Examples: Google, gmail, invitations
Advantages:
word of mouth: people believe friends more than ads
cheap
Main idea 2: Definition:
stealth marketing a type of viral marketing
difference is: it doesnt look like advertising
Examples:
movie company gave T-shirts + posters to teenagers
teenagers agreed to talk with friends about the companys
movies
Advantages: same as viral
Dangers: people can feel tricked / bad opinion of the company
Conclusion:
many companies excited about viral/stealth marketing
especially companies selling to young people
interesting to see what happens in future

Exercise 2, page 28
Some answers may vary.
1. people want to tell friends; people; people believe friends more than advertising; no high cost of
traditional advertising
2. special
3. why they are working for
4. stealth marketing

3 Building Academic Reading Skills

Before You Read


Exercise 1, page 29
budget a plan for money: how much to pay, and what to buy; the highest amount you will pay for
something
objective something that you are working hard to complete
profit the money a company makes; the difference between money coming in and money going out
successful producing the result you wanted; working in the way you wanted

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 8


target audience the people who you want to see your advertising campaign; your goal is to for these
people to see your advertising

Exercise 2, page 29
1. profit 3. spend 5. successful
2. budget 4. objective 6. target audience

Exercise 3, page 29
Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
government, non-profit organizations, law firms, colleges and universities

Global Reading
Exercise 1, page 30
a. Paragraph 3
b. choosing advertising objectives, setting the advertising budget, developing the advertising strategy,
evaluating the advertising programs
c. choosing the advertising objectives (heading: Setting Advertising Objectives), setting the advertising
budget (heading is those words exactly)
d. the four advertising objectives: to inform, to persuade, to compare, to remind
e. yes (the ideas follow the mini-scope in paragraph 4)

Exercise 2, page 31
1. b 2. a

Focused Reading
Exercise 1, pages 3233
1. businesses, not-for-profit organizations, professionals, government agencies
2. comparative; persuasive; reminder; informative

Exercise 2, pages 3334


Purpose: to + verb
Contrast: a different kind of; but; however; rather than
Reason: because

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 9


Exercise 3, page 34
Paragraph: 6 Paragraph: 7
contrast (with previous advertising strategy) definition
reason examples
definition more information
example

Paragraph: 8 Paragraph: 5
definition purpose
contrast an example
reason

Exercise 4, page 34
1. Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
A car with a completely new kind of engine: Paragraph 5 says that informative advertising is for new
products. Persuasive, comparative, and reminder would be difficult because there would be few if any
products to compare with.
A popular and fashionable brand of clothing (not a new one): Paragraph 8 says that reminder
advertising is useful for products later in life. Persuasive/comparative may work, but students may
point out that clothes arent often advertised by describing their features
A new restaurant in an area popular for eating out: Perhaps persuasive (or comparative) advertising.
Persuasive is stated in Paragraph 6 to be useful where there are many companies with the same kind
of product.
2. Answers will vary.

4 Building Academic Speaking Skills

Before You Speak, page 35


What Does the Professor Say about the Logical Connectives
Message?
Point 1 must be interesting First
Point 2 must be an easy way for people to get the Second
message
Strategy 1 have a reason to talk to strangers (pretend to be a One
(Point 1) tourist, ask someone to take a picture)
Strategy 2 put stickers on lamp posts Another (idea)
(Point 2)

Focused Speaking
Exercise 1, page 35
Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
Three reasons to buy a product: best price, quality, friends have the same product, university tells you to,
convenient

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 10


Three things a business can do to make people want to buy: set a low price, make it look good, put it at
front of shop, put big advertisement in windows, use viral marketers
Three things a website can do to make people want to buy: set a low price, show prices compared with
other businesses, place interesting and catchy ads on the website

Exercise 2, page 36
Answers will vary. Suggested answer:
Introduction
Ideas in the general statement: Shopping: very common, everyone does it. How to choose what
to buy?
Main ideas in the scope: 3 reasons: best price, quality, friends have same
Main idea 1: best Details: reasonssome people dont have a lot of money; others may want
to save money for something else
price
Main idea 2: Details: some people like to show off to friends. Others want reliable
products. Sometimes people want to give themselves or others a present
quality
(reward themselves) & quality is best of this
Main idea 3: Details: being similar to friends is important to some people. friends may
have tried a product and found it to be good
influence of friends
Conclusion: So, here we have three reasons. Different people may have different reasons.

U
UNNIITT 33
Astronomy: Collisions from Space

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Previewing the Academic Content


Exercise 1, page 40
1. animals: approximately 10%; plants: approximately 10%; life of any kind: approximately 90%; modern
humans: < 0.01%
2. 180 million years; many times greater nearly 1,000 times more
3 and 4. Answers will vary.
5. Answers will vary. Suggested answers: disease, volcano eruptions, asteroid collision

Exercise 2, page 41
1. The one at the end of the Permian (Students should be able to deduct this from the percentages of
species that died)
2. Dinosaurs survived one mass extinction but not the next.
3. Answers will vary. Suggested answers: The gaps are between 51 million years and 135 million years. It
is 65 million years since the last one. So, it could be now. Or it might be millions of years in the future.

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 11


Previewing the Academic Skills Focus, page 42
1. There are many theories about the disappearance of the dinosaurs.
Yes.
2. theories
3. however; contrast

2 Building Academic Reading Skills

Before You Read, page 42


Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
History of life on Earth: No; photos seem to be about the dinosaurs only; title is only about dinosaurs
Explanations for mass extinctions throughout history: No; title indicates it only talks about one mass
extinctionthe dinosaurs
Evidence that a meteorite collision killed the dinosaurs: Probably yes; the picture shows a meteorite
collision
Danger from a catastrophe in the future: Maybe; a heading says Could it happen again?
The effect of climate on the dinosaurs: Possibly; changes in climate could be one of the reasons why
dinosaurs became extinct
Different opinions about the disappearance of the dinosaurs: Probably; one heading says Disagreement

Global Reading
Exercise 1, page 43
Correct order: 2, 1, 6, 3, 5, 7, 4

Exercise 2, page 45
1. No, they are all about possibilities for what killed the dinosaurs (Note: there may be some discussion
about the last paragraph, because that relates to the future and dinosaurs died in the past, but it still
relates to a meteorite collision, which is (possibly) what killed the dinosaurs)
2. Yes, the text is coherent because all ideas are on the same topic.

Focused Reading
Exercise 1, page 45
dinosaurs

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 12


Exercise 2, pages 4546
1. dinosaurs
2. They were the largest and most powerful animals for a large part of the history of animal life on Earth.
Compared with humans two hundred thousand years or so, this is an amazing achievement. (Students
should draw an arrow connecting the underlined word with the first sentence.)
to be the largest and most powerful animals for a large part of the history of animal life on Earth
3. The layer of rock that matched the time of the dinosaurs extinction, 65 million years ago, had
a very large amount of something called iridium. And this wasnt found just in one placeit was found all
around the world. (Students should draw arrows connecting the underlined words with the circled part.)
a layer of rock that matched the time of the dinosaurs extinction, with a large amount of iridium
4. Iridium was very unusualthere is very little of it on Earth. In fact, there was 30 to 130 times more of
this material than normal in this layer of rock. (Students should draw arrows connecting the underlined
words with the circled word.)
there is very little iridium on Earth
30 to 130 times more than normal
5. In fact, there was 30 to 130 times more of this material than normal in this layer of rock. What amazed
the Alvarez team was that this was about the same as the percentage of iridium in meteorites. (Students
should draw an arrow connecting the underlined word with the circled part.)
between 30 and 130 times more

Exercise 3, page 46
Correct order: 11, 8, 5, 2, 4, 9, 6, 3, 7, 10, 1

Exercise 4, page 46
1. T; The text says that it was just the size that the Alvarez team estimated
2. F; it wasnt found until 1990. If it had been easy to see, it would have been noticed long before this.
3. F; Paragraph 7 says only that some scientists believe this; the same paragraph also says that the
evidence appears quite strong, with the evidence referring to the entire explanation of how a meteorite
could have killed the dinosaurs.
4. F; Paragraph 8 discusses evidence that not all dinosaur species became extinct at the time of the
mass extinction.
5. T; This is a paraphrase of the second sentence of paragraph 9.
6. F; The statement might be true, but since its based on the information in the text, it is false.The text
does not say there is a need to know this.

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 13


3 Building Academic Listening Skills

Before You Listen, page 47


Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
1. Something hits the Earth. Maybe a meteorite or a comet.
2. Its possible. Maybe it happened to the dinosaurs. If it happened to them, maybe it will happen to us.
However, scientists would stop that from happening.
3. Many people would die. Maybe many animals would die. Maybe the Earth would break into pieces.
Maybe the end of the world.
4. Its very unlikely. It happened one time in more than 200 million years. So its very unlikely in our
lifetime.

Global Listening
Exercise 1, page 48
Marker S or W/S What Does It Mark?
However, W/S topic change
Now that weve talked about , lets S topic change (possibly introduction if used
move on to after a summary of a previous lecture)
Lets look now at the most important S topic change, introduction
step
Today well talk about S introduction
In conclusion, W/S conclusion
Next, well look at S topic change
The next question is W/S topic change
But W/S topic change

Exercise 2, page 49
1. Maybe yes. There are a lot of asteroids in solar system. Evidence: moon covered in craters.
2. Survey space to find asteroids that might be dangerous / find ways to stop them hitting Earth.
3. Change asteroids direction.

Focused Listening
Exercise 1, page 49
Reasons Markers
Earths atmosphere slows asteroids down, so small For one thing
ones burn up before the hit the ground.
Earths surface is constantly moving, causing any Another reason
craters that are formed to change shape and/or
disappear.

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 14


Exercise 2, page 50
1. Every 10 million years
2. A an asteroid missed Earth by only six hours
3. Every 5,000 years
4. It would break up, and lots of smaller rocks would hit the Earth
5. Very expensive, and governments dont seem to want to pay

4 Building Academic Writing Skills

Before You Write


Exercise 1, page 51
13 feet no damage quite likely
300 feet local damage unlikely
.6 miles worldwide catastrophe extremely unlikely

Focused Writing
Exercise 1, page 52
2. This 4. this 6. They 8. To conclude
3. this 5. Later 7. They

U
UNNIITT 44
Acting: Imagination

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Previewing the Academic Content


Exercise 2, page 56
Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
they act just like the real person; we forget they are acting: we think we are seeing the real thing; make
me want to see them more; they memorize lines

Exercise 3, page 56
Answers for other ideas will vary. Suggested answers:
imagining the emotions the character might experience; living life like the character for a few weeks;
practicing parts of the film

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 15


Previewing the Academic Skills Focus
Exercise 1, page 57
1, 3

2 Building Academic Listening Skills

Before You Listen


Exercise 1, page 58
1. appear in 3. authentic 5. sector of society
2. disabled 4. (be) based on

Global Listening
Exercise 1, page 59
1. P 3. G 5. G 7. X
2. P 4. G 6. G 8. G

Exercise 2, page 59
celebration and partying

Exercise 3, page 59
Answers will vary. Suggested answer:
Imagination is important for acting. The guest speaker told us how he uses imagination. He used
examples from his own acting.

Focused Listening
Exercise 1, page 59
1. Gene Blake now teaches master classes at acting schools around the world.
2. Imagination is any process in which we think about anything that we are not currently experiencing.
3. Imagination can be based on personal experience or research.

Exercise 2, page 60
The first idea is a minor point. It is not the main point because it does not help you understand the main
point. It does not add useful information to the main point, and it is not signaled as being important or as
one of the main points of the talk.

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 16


Exercise 3, page 60
Group A
1. realistically 5. disabled people
2. feelings and reactions 6. angry
3. the period of history 7. Childhood
4. people like the character

Group B
1. different 5. childhood
2. research the character 6. London
3. any part of his body 7. New York
4. disabled

Exercise 4, page 61
Group A Group B
1. MJ 1. MJ
2. MJ 2. MJ
3. MN 3. MN
4. MJ 4. MN
5. MN 5. MJ
6. MN 6. MN
7. MJ 7. MN

3 Building Academic Reading Skills

Before You Read, page 61


1. d 2. a 3. c 4. b

Global Reading
Exercise 1, page 62
Students should underline these sentences:
Paragraph 1: In this section, we will see where imagination came from and, most importantly, we will look
at how and why we can use imagination to help our acting. We will see that effective use of imagination
will help us keep the attention of the audience and make our performances authentic and believable.
Paragraph 9: So, now we can see where imagination comes from, how it helps our acting and why we
have to work hard to let it work well.

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 17


Exercise 2, page 64
1. survive 3. audience 5. Imagination
2. similar; early humans 4. preparation 6. Imagining

Exercise 3, page 64
No, the summary included all the main ideas.

Focused Reading
Exercise 1, page 64
1. Paragraph 5
2. Paragraph 2
3. Not stated. Although the first paragraph says that imagination is at the center of creativity and the
most powerful of the actors tools, it does not state that an actor has to use creativity.
4. Not stated. The first paragraph may suggest this, but it is not stated.

Exercise 2, page 65
Supporting Details for Main Idea 1:
Humans could experience things not related to present
Helped humans be careful about dark caves, because there might be bears in them
Supporting Details for Main Idea 2:
Each play is like a dark cave; actors need to consider possibilities about how their character may behave.
This makes their performance more realistic.
Supporting Details for Main Idea 3:
Truthful/authentic performance is more believable
Supporting Details for Main Idea 4:
Thinking through the characters life experiences helps make an authentic performance
Supporting Details for Main Idea 5:
Magic if: ask ourselves what if about every aspect of the characters situation / explore different
possibilities work out what is authentic
E.g. role = knife murderer. Why would someone be a killer? By imagining various scenarios, we can
understand the character better
Supporting Details for Main Idea 6:
Script only covers a couple of hours of performance: not enough to tell us much about the character. We
have to use imagination to cover the difference between this and the lifetime of experiences that would
shape a real character.

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 18


Exercise 3, page 66
Topics Point from the Reading Related Point from the Lecture
Preparing for Actors need to prepare for their Research roles: understand period, sector
Roles roles by thinking about the of society, etc. Spend time with people like
characters feeling and actions. your characters, and living like them.

Using Actors need to imagine their Imagining childhood events that may have
Imagination characters behavior. affected the adult character

4 Building Academic Speaking Skills

Before You Speak


Exercises 2 and 3, page 68
Name of film Elizabeth
Setting England
Period in history 1558
Name of main character(s) Elizabeth I, Robert Dudley
Sector of society the royalty, the nobility

Name of film Gladiator


Setting Rome, Europe
Period in history Roman times, 2,000 years ago
Name of main character(s) Maximus, Commodus
Sector of society at first, upper classarmy; then, bottom of societyslave (Maximus);
very upper classemperor (Commodus)

Exercise 4, page 68
Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
Elizabeth I: having been declared illegitimate in childhood and then tried for treason at 21, made her
cautious about people who surrounded her; it also made her sensitive to peoples suffering and fears; she
needed to trust her instincts
Maximus: having served in the army made him strong, both physically and mentally; it made him a good
gladiator; having become a slave made his sensitive to peoples suffering
Commodus: perhaps lived a life of luxury; could do anything he wanted; therefore, easily angry when
things were not to his liking; never in danger, so never felt frightened; therefore, could not understand
other peoples fear; therefore cruel

Focused Speaking
Exercise 2, page 69
Answers will vary. Suggested answer:

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 19


An actor can use imagination in several different ways. First is preparation. The character may be from a
very different background from the actor. The actor may not have experience of the characters lifestyle.
So, the actor can research the characters background. Then, he or she can imagine what it was like to
live the characters life. Another way to use imagination is the magic if. This was Stanislavskys idea.
This means thinking of many possibilities for your characters thought and actions. Then, the actor can
choose the best. The last way to use imagination is imagining during the performance. The actor can
imagine he or she really is the character. Then, the characters actions are more likely to look realistic to
the audience. So, using imagination in these ways can make the performance better.

U
UNNIITT 55
Psychology: Emotions

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Previewing the Academic Content


Exercise 2, page 74
Emotion Facial Expression
Adjective Noun
happy happiness smile
angry anger frown
disgusted (by) disgust wrinkled forehead/nose
sad sadness frown
surprised (by) surprise opened mouth; wrinkled forehead
frightened fear widened eyes; wrinkled forehead
contemptuous (of) contempt frown

Exercise 3, page 75
fear sadness
surprise happiness anger
disgust contempt

Previewing the Academic Skills Focus


Exercise 1, page 75
emotions can very strongly affect our behavior

Exercise 2, page 76
Answers will vary. Suggested answer:
When people feel frightened, they become more alert and their senses become more sensitive. They get
ready to run away or fight.

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 20


Exercise 3, page 76
The second item is the best synthesis.

Exercise 4, page 76
Source 1: Studying emotions is important because emotions have a big effect on our behavior.
Source 2: When people are frightened, their body becomes more alert and their senses become more
sensitive. They become more ready for fight or flight.
New text: Studying emotions is important because emotions have a big effect on our behavior. For
example, when people are frightened, their body becomes more alert and their senses become more
sensitive. They become more ready for fight or flight.

2 Building Academic Reading Skills

Before You Read


Exercise 2, page 77
1. Brain become more alert 5. Sight becomes more sensitive
2. Hearing becomes more sensitive 6. Breathing becomes faster
3. Skin becomes whiter 7. Sweating increases
4. Lungs get ready to take in more air 8. Heart beats faster and stronger

Global Reading
Exercise 1, page 78
General idea about emotions

Question 1 to be Question 2 to be
answered in the body of answered in the body of
the text the text

The stages in an emotional response

The reasons that emotions exist, and how they develop

The ideas in the body answer the questions asked at the end of the introduction. Students should
remember from units 1 to 3 that this is called the scope.

Exercise 2, page 78
1. physical responses and responses in the mind
2. physiological response, interpretation in the mind, feelings, and effect on behavior
3. for survival

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 21


Focused Reading
Exercise 1, page 80
excitementwinning an award
sadnessthe death of a parent
angerinsult
jealousylosing a lover to someone else

Exercise 2, page 81
Idea Examples from Reading Examples from:
Physiological response blood drains from the stomach Figure 5.1
blood vessels in the face Sweating increases
become narrowerface Heart beats faster and stronger
becomes whiter Brain becomes more alert
Lungs get ready to take in more air
Breathing becomes faster
Skin becomes whiter because the
blood vessels become narrower
Sight becomes more sensitive
Hearing becomes more sensitive
Interpretation in the both conscious and
mind unconscious
the more you think about the
source of fear, the more
frightened you become
Feelings coming from when you see an angry dog, your Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
memory brain may bring back a memory of When I was a child, I was very sick after
how you felt during past eating tomatoes. Now I still feel strange
experiences with aggressive dogs about eating tomatoes.
Emotions having an fearfight or flight response Answers will vary. Suggested answers: I
effect on behavior (become aggressive or run saw someone win a quiz show on TV last
away) night. She won $1 million. She was
facial expressions crying and waving her arms about.
sounds such as crying or
shouting
gestures, such as waving arms

Exercise 3, page 81
1. agree
Evidence: first sentence of Paragraph 9 states, Whether they occur in humans, cows, cats or humans,
emotions are useful for survival
2. agree
Same reason as in 1, and fear helped people thousands of years ago to respond to dangerous
situations (also Paragraph 9)
3. disagree
Evidence: emotions are not completely fixed by our biology. They also involve learning, including
learning from experience (Paragraph 10)

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 22


4. agree
Evidence Experiences that involved strong emotional responses are also important (Paragraph 10)

3 Building Academic Listening Skills

Global Listening
Exercise 1, page 83
1. body movements and postures, facial expressions, gestures
2. facial expressionssome are instinctive (Ekmans experiment); display rules are learned; gestures are
learned, not instinctive
3. Body movement is quite important for communicating emotions; body language communicates more
clearly than facial expressions (Meerens research)
4. some facial expressions (Ekmans experiment)

Exercise 2, page 84
Answers will vary. Suggested answer:
Before hearing the lecture, we discussed two ways to communicate emotions. These were facial
expressions and sounds, such as screaming or laughing. But during the lecture we heard about two
more: body language and postures. Then, we had a looked at which forms of communication were most
likely instinctive and which ere probably learned. We guessed that gestures were learned, because
people from different cultures use different gestures. We also guessed that facial expressions were
instinctive because people often understand smiles and frowns, even from people from different
countries. But, we found that only some facial expressions are instinctive. Others vary from cultures to
culture, so are probably learned. Also, we thought that facial expressions were the clearest way to
express emotions. However, the lecture taught us that people understand emotions through body
language than through facial expression. The lecturer agreed with us on the last point, thoughthat
people can understand facial expressions of people from other countries.

Focused Listening
Exercise 1, pages 8485
1. b 4. b 7. b
2. a 5. a 8. a
3. a 6. b 9. b

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 23


Exercise 2, pages 8586
Ideas What the Reading Said What the Professor Said
Body movements run away straighten their back
associated with fear gestures, such as waving tighten their muscles (part of
arms fight or flight response)

Examples of how respond to dangerous expressing happiness could help


emotions helped early situations people enjoy being with each
humans to survive love may attach us to a other stay together and be
family; this helps us to more likely to help each other
continue our family line through problems

Evidence that the way physiological responses Ekmans experiment was


we express some (become whiter in response designed to find out exactly this
emotions is built in to to fear) are biological
our biology flight or fight appears to be
part of our biology
Expressions of emotion experience early in life set display rules
that come from learning our emotional temperament gestures as conscious
we also learn from actions
experiences that involved
strong emotional responses

Exercise 3, page 86
Answers will vary, but the general idea will be that emotions come both from instinct and from learning.

4 Building Academic Writing Skills

Before You Write


Exercise 1, page 87
Students should underline both the first and the last sentence.

Exercise 2, pages 8788


Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
Paragraph 1: Thus a very large number of emotions can be formed from the basic ones.
Paragraph 2: Therefore, the ways animals and humans show their emotions are not very different.

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 24


U
UNNIITT 66
Sociology: The Effects of Prosperity

1 Preview

Previewing the Academic Skills Focus


Exercise 1, page 93
1. has an answer that cant be questioned easily
2. has an answer about which people might disagree

Exercise 2, page 94
1. F 3. F 5. F
2. O 4. O

2 Building Academic Listening Skills

Before You Listen


Exercise 2, page 95
Some answers will vary. Suggested answers:
1. doubled 2. triple 3. halved 4. fortunate; twice;
disposable income

Global Listening
Exercise 1, page 95
1. Life is more convenient now than in the past.
2. People can buy more now than in the past.
3. People are safer now than in the past.
4. Modern people would find it difficult to live as people did in 1900.
5. A Golden Age did not exist in the past.
6. Now is the best time in the last 100 years.

Exercise 2, page 96
1. Not all the time. He says so right at the end.
2. Probably, the times he feels less fortunately. In fact, the reading picks up this theme.

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 25


Focused Listening
Exercise 1, page 96
Main Ideas Supporting Details
1. Life is more these technologies make life more convenient:
convenient now than in air-conditioning
the past. computer / email / Internet / databases
international weather forecasts
affordable, frequent jet airliners
cell phones
2. People can buy average disposable income buys more than twice as much
more now than in the we have more than twice as many cars per person
past. we eat out two and a half times as often
it now takes seven minutes to earn enough to buy half gallon of milk,
compared with 40 minutes 80 years ago
3. People are safer Number of deaths from car accidents halved.
now than in the past.
4. Modern people The (Bowler) family had trouble trying to do this.
would find it difficult to
live as people did in
1900.
5. A Golden Age did The (Bowler) family had problems: this suggests live was harder than we
not exist in the past. think
John Mueller: the past gets better in our memories
John Templeton and the lecturer both see the present as better than the
past
6. Now is the best time As with the point above, both the author and John Templeton both see the
in the last 100 years. present as being better than the past.

Exercise 3, pages 9798


Main Idea How strong is the Reason
Evidence?
1. Life is more convenient Strong Based on fact (its hard to argue that computers, the
now than in the past. Internet, cell phones make certain things more
convenient)
2. People can buy more Strong Based on fact: statistics such as what we can buy are
now than in the past. likely to be well researched
3. People are safer now Weak The only safety issue mentioned is car accidents.
than in the past. Other types of accident, and crime, could mean that
we are less safe.
4. Modern people would Middle (possibly It could be argued that the example of only one family
find it difficult to live as strong) is not strong evidence, and that, as the lecturer points
people did in 1900. out, the family didnt have a community around them
to support them, the experiment wasnt realistic
anyway (however, the description of what the family
had to deal with makes it seem likely that it would be
hard for anyone)
5. A Golden Age did not Weak (possibly All the arguments for this seem to be based on
exist in the past. middle) opinion.
6. Now is the best time in Middle (possibly The fact that we have modern conveniences, can buy
the last 100 years. weak) more with our income etc can't easily be denied;
however, there may be other reasons (such as better
relationships) why the past was better.

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 26


Exercise 4, pages 9899
Not at all certain Somewhat certain Certain
maybe probably certainly
perhaps likely is
might definitely
not sure doubtless
could

Exercise 5, page 99
Not at all certain: 4, 6
Somewhat certain: 3
Certain: 1, 2, 5

3 Building Academic Reading Skills

Before You Read


Exercise 1, page 99
From top to bottom: depression, violent crime, teenage suicide, divorce

Global Reading
Exercise 1, page 100
Correct order: 2, 4, 5, 3, 1

Focused Reading
Exercise 1, page 102
Social Trends How Big Was the Change?
divorce double / twice as many / two times as many
suicide triple / three times as many
violent crime four times as many / up four times
depression up to ten times as many
number of people in prison five times as many

Exercise 2, pages 102103


1. b 3. b 5. a
2. c 4. c 6. c

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 27


Exercise 3, page 103104
Point Made in Can You Check the How Likely are Other Fact or
Reading supporting Evidence? Why People to Have Opinion?
(not)? Different Opinions
about It?
Paragraph 1: Yes: it wouldnt be too difficult unlikely fact
we have more to compare journey times in
convenient the past with those no
transportation.

Paragraph 1: Yes: various statistics are Possible: other people Fact


for more than 30 given to support this point, may choose different (though
years, many though references are not statistics to investigate not as
developed countries always give social recession; its clearly so
went into a very deep possible. as the
social recession previous
point)
Paragraph 1: No. None is given. Quite likely. Some may Opinion
This recession made feel that money for the
the economic majority is more important
recessions look very than social problems that
small in comparison. affect a minority (even if
its a growing minority).
Paragraph 3: Yes: references are given for Its hard to argue with this Fact
Behind these the statistics seem to come one.
numbers, this index, from somewher
are real people with
real problems.
Paragraph 4: Harder than the previous one; Possibly. The statistics More like
At the center of the it depends on what the author may indicate that adults opinion
social recession are means by center. are the center: things than the
children and young such as divorce, prison, others
people. etc. But these could all
affect children indirectly.
Paragraph 4: Yes: again, this is based on If the use of the word Fact (as
Martin Seligman was statistic, which at least in every is accurate, the long as
struck by an theory should be findable. point is hard to argue the
interesting fact: He against. statistics
said that every statistic are
about the material correct)
well-being of young
Americans is getting
better, but that every
statistic about their
mental well-being is
getting worse
Paragraph 5: Yes, these it should be If the statistics are Fact
North Americans are possible to find these correct, its hard to
spending more hours statistics. disagree.
at work, fewer hours
sleeping, and fewer
hours with friends and
family.

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 28


4 Building Academic Speaking Skills

Before You Speak


Exercise 2, page 106
1. happiness of people
2. lack of modern conveniences and wealth

Exercises 3 and 4, page 107


Answers in second row will vary.
Agreeing with Partly Agreeing Disagreeing Showing
Someone Understanding
Expressions in the Yes, it looks as Yes, that could be I cant agree. I see what you
discussion though it is true. Interesting point, mean.
but Thats a very good
point.
Other expressions I agree. Well, I agree with I disagree. I see.
with the same Yes, just what I a part of what No. I dont agree. I understand.
meaning was thinking. youre saying. I dont see it that
Good point. way.

Focused Speaking
Exercise 1, page 108
Student 1: another opinion
Student 2: facts, such as research results; explanation or reason
Student 3: another opinion; facts that cant be checked easily
Student 2: another opinion; explanation or reason
Students 1: facts, such as research results; explanation or reason

Exercise 2, page 108


Student 1: rather weak
Student 2: mostly strong

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 29


U
UNNIITT 77
Literature: Chinua Achebe

1 Preview

Previewing the Academic Content


Exercise 1, page 112
a. play b. novel c. poem

Previewing the Academic Skills Focus


Exercise 1, page 113
Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
to entertain, to express themselves, to say what they are thinking, to be creative, for money, to be
famous, because they were bored and it seemed a good thing to do

Exercise 2, page 113


1. e 2. d 3. a 4. c 5. b

Exercise 3, page 114


Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
1. to make people want to see the play; to give information about the play
2. to help to remember what the instructor said; to prepare for a test
3. to show knowledge; to show critical thinking skills; to show an ability to research; to generate new
ideas; to show that the student understood the material

2 Building Academic Listening Skills

Before You Listen


Exercise 2, page 114
1. generation 2. religion 3. theme 4. colony 5. missionary 6. influence

Global Listening
Exercise 2, page 115
Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
Student A
important African writer
from Igbo (in south east Nigeria)

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 30


doesnt want people to think about two cultures opposing each other; would prefer readers to think
about the positives of cultural difference

Student B
big changes over the last 100 years or so
was a colony
Christianity replaced the local religion in some areas
very mixed culture now
Lagos: very large city
has over 250 cultural groups

Student C
one of the first African novels to be published in the west
Nnaemeka finds his father has chosen a wife for him
Nene is Nnaemekas girlfriend

Focused Listening
Exercise 1, page 115
Explanations will vary. Suggested answers:
2. D (disagree). The professor says his writing shows some of the big changes that his people have
experienced over the last hundreds or so there are some fascinating connections between the old
traditions and new beliefs.
3. N (no evidence). While the professor discusses arranged marriages, she offers no opinion about them.
As far as we can tell, the professor has a neutral attitude to them.
4. A (agree). The professor says that arranged marriages are not a central part of Christianity nowadays,
at least in most countries.
5. D (disagree). The professor says Many people born in Lagos, like Nene, do not know much about the
cultural traditions of the countryside.

Exercise 2, page 116


Negative: 3, 4
Neutral: 1
Positive: 2, 5

Exercise 3, page 116


Negative: 5
Neutral: 1, 3

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 31


Positive: 2, 4

Exercise 4, page 116


1. the 2. fascinating 3. fascinating 4. dont

Exercise 5, page 117


Points a and d are possible answers, though the focus seems to be more on point a, helping students
(she says things like one thing I want you to do is look out for examples). The lecturer seems genuinely
to want to help her studentsshe is doing more than just her job, which make point b unlikely. She is not
being particularly persuasive or pushing an opinion hard, so c is unlikely.

3 Building Academic Reading Skills

Global Reading
Exercise 2, page 119
Correct order: 4, 7, 3, 1, 9, 8, 2, 5, 6

Focused Reading
Exercise 1, page 119
Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
1. Because she wasnt from a tribe that tradition said he could marry from / because his father had
already chosen someone for him to marry
2. Perhaps he didnt want to upset her. Perhaps he was frightened of her reaction.
3. The text says he did not believe his ears.
4. She was a teacher (he believed that women should not teach). She was from a different part of the
country.
5. Yes. He refused to accept his sons decision to marry Nene; he even refused ever to meet Nene.
6. Yes. The text says, the young mans heart was hardened, and his father gave him up as lost.

Exercise 2, page 120


Text Purpose Surface (S) / Explanation
Hidden (H)
To give information S The story gives a lot of information about Nigeria and its
history and customs.
To tell a story S It is clearly a story.
To inform the world about S There is a lot of information about Nigerian society.
Nigerian society
To entertain S Stories are generally for entertainment.

To show that the issues that H That could be a feeling that people get from the story.
people in Nigeria have to deal

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 32


with are not so different from
those in other countries

4 Building Academic Writing Skills

Before You Write


Exercise 2, page 122
General statement: Although Achebes writing is mostly about his home country, Nigeria, people around
the world can relate to his themes. This is because his characters experiences are similar to the
experiences of all people who live in changing societies.
Thesis: One of his short stories, Marriage is a Private Affair, shows this well.
Scope: In particular, two themes are the same in my country and in the story: Differences of pinion
between adults and children, and differences between the city and the countryside.

Exercise 3, page 122


Summary: These are just two of the similarities between the life of the characters in Achebes stories and
my own country.
Recommendation: I recommend that everyone read this story, because they might be able to relate the
characters to their own lives and own country.

Focused Writing
Exercise 1, pages 122123
1. Okeke is Nnaemekas father.
2. Some neighbors said it was the beginning of the end when a son refuses to follow his fathers wishes.
Some said Nnaemeka had an illness of the mind, and they suggested he should visit a traditional healer.
3. He didnt want to do that because that would be against his religious beliefs.
4. He cut it in half and sent the half showing Nene back to Nnaemeka. This way he wanted to show that
he did not accept his marriage to Nene.
5. At first he wouldnt agree, then he began to want to visit his grandchildren.

Exercise 2, page 123


Answers will vary. Suggested answers are given in order of importance.
1. What does the audience know already? because this determines the starting point
2. What does the audience need to know? this comes second, after the speaker determines what the
audience knows already; this includes the rest of the story
3. What is interesting for the audience? perhaps not so important to focus on this point in this instance
as its likely that if people have heard part of a story, they will want to know the ending

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 33


4. What is the audiences background? least important here because, given the situation, this might
not cause the story to change muchthough if they were children, it may have caused the language to
change

Exercise 3, page 123


Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
1. anything about Achebes life that may have parallels in the story, as well as the points below
2. only points unique to that story, for example, where it is set, in what time period, etc.

Integrated Writing Task


Step 1, page 124
Differences between Traditional and More Modern Society
Topics Traditional More Modern
(Okekes generation) (Nnaemeka and Nenes generation)
Marriage L: traditionally, marriages were L: arranged marriages are not a central part
arranged (stated directly) of Christianity (nowadays, in most countries)
R: father thought it normal to find R: Nene thought it normal to choose their
a wife for Nnaemeka own marriage partners, and Nnaemeka,
S: fathers neighbors thought despite being aware of tradition, also felt it
there was something serious was OK, unlike his father
wrong with Nnaemeka for
choosing his own wife
Religion L: there was just the traditional R: neither Nnaemeka nor Nene showed any
religion, followed later by a sign of following traditional beliefs
mixture of the traditional beliefs
and Christianity
Knowledge By definition, they knew L: people born in the city know little of the
traditions of the countryside
of R: Nene had trouble understanding that
Okeke wouldnt approve of their relationship
traditions
Women R: women werent allowed to R: Nene was a teacher, and there was no
teach sense of surprise at this; it is portrayed as
allowed to normal.
R: Okeke condemned passionately those
teach church leaders who encouraged women to
teach , implying that this does, in fact,
occur.

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 34


U
UNNIITT 88
Earth Science: The Water Cycle

1 Preview

Previewing the Academic Content


Exercise 1, page 128
a. drought b. dry up c. erosion d. flood e. tropical cyclone

Exercise 2, page 128


Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
people who stay behind in their homes: drown in floods; be injured by falling trees or falling houses
business owners: lose customers; close their business and thus lose money for a while; have
property destroyed
farmers: have the food they are growing damaged; animals die; property damaged

Previewing the Academic Skills Focus


Exercise 1, page 130
Point True or False Clue
One professor is angry at True intonation; context
the government.
The government is very False context: the government should do something
active in dealing with this implies the government isnt doing anything
problem.
Cotton farming uses a lot True context: the farmers are taking too much water.
of water. Whoever suggested they grow cotton in this
country must have been crazy
Rice farming uses a lot of True context: Problems the same with rice.
water.
A mistake was made in the True context; logic: whoever suggested growing
past. cotton must have been crazy implies that the
people who suggested growing cotton made a
mistake.
Its easy for farmers to False logic: If it was easy, the government wouldnt
change what they grow. need to help.

Exercise 2, page 130


b

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 35


2 Building Academic Reading Skills

Before You Read, page 131


Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
1. The sea got smaller.
2. drought
3. Those who worked on fishing boats would have no jobs; same with any who worked in the fishing
industry or any other industry that depended on the sea. People might have problems finding water. If the
problem was caused by drought, perhaps farmers have problems; perhaps there isnt enough food.

Global Reading
Exercise 2, page 133
1. taking water from rivers for farms
2. the amount of water flowing into the sea
3. the fishing industry
4. responsibility for the area
5. the water for their farms
6. breaking up into smaller lakes

Focused Reading
Exercise 1, page 134
1. efficient 3. shrink 5. irrigation 7. volume
2. evaporated 4. crops 6. salinity 8. climate

Exercise 2, page 134


1. Likely
Evidence: the Soviet Union became the worlds second-largest cotton exporter, and the [cotton-growing]
project was judged a great success.
2. Likely
Evidence: impacts include: a bad effect on a major local industry (fishing), peoples health, and climate
change
3. Likely
Evidence: The dust from the drying up of the sea caused breathing problems, increased cancer rates and
increased infant mortality.
4. Unlikely
Evidence: Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan also take water from the rivers that feed the Aral
Sea.

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 36


5. Likely
Evidence: the whole situation seems to be about something that had good short term benefits (cotton
growing being good for economy) also causing problems.

Exercise 3, page 135


Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
1. find something that will make money. A new crop will help to slow down the damage. If they can, they
should try let the rivers fill the small lakes mentioned in Paragraph 6. The text says that this will help a
small fishing industry to begin again, which will help the local people by giving them jobs.
2. help the countries around the Aral Sea, they may solve a problem that is affecting a very large area,
perhaps even their own country. All governments should carefully check the consequences of what they
do to the land.
3. Move away from the area, if possible. This may save them from health problems. They may also find it
easier to get jobs somewhere else. It is unlikely that the problems will be solved quickly, so it isnt a good
idea to wait for the solution.
4. find other crops, not cotton, that can help to solve the problem. Crops that suit the climate may be
betterperhaps farmers can grow them for many, many years, not just the few decades or so that cotton
was successful. Using less waterirrigating lesswill help other people living around the Aral Sea. The
government may ban irrigation in order to protect the Aral Sea, so they shouldnt expect to use irrigation
into the future.

3 Building Academic Listening Skills

Before You Listen


Exercise 1, page 136
1. precipitation 4. soaks 7. reservoir
2. stream 5. filter through 8. groundwater
3. ground 6. spring 9. sediment

Global Listening
Exercise 1, page 136
Correct order: 1, 5, 4, 2, 3
Not a main idea: springs, streams, and rivers

Exercise 2, page 136


Negative: she talks about problems caused by the changes

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 37


Focused Listening
Exercise 1, page 136
Students check off the following, in the order given:
precipitation
water soaks through soil
groundwater reservoir spring
evaporation

Exercise 2 page 137


Students cross out the arrows for:
water soaks through soil
groundwater reservoir spring
Students circle arrow for:
surface runoff

Exercise 3, page 137

cutting down filtration floods


trees stops; water erosion
overuse of runs directly
land to waterways

more
sediment and
pollution

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 38


Exercise 4, pages 137138

more floods more erosion


more tree less filtering more
cutting of water sediment
more farming

worse floods
bottom of
river rises

Exercise 5, page 138

less water less rainfall springs dry up


can
evaporate

problems for streams dry groundwater


people up reservoirs
have less
water

Exercise 6, page 139


Excerpt One: To encourage students to study hard
Excerpt Two: To show whats important on the test
Excerpt Three: To give the scope of the lecture
Excerpt Four: To link current ideas to past knowledge; To remind students about something from an
earlier lecture

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 39


Excerpt Five: To tell students to look in their books; To show students what they can look at later if they
didnt understand something

Exercise 7, pages 139140


Answers will vary. Suggested answers:
From the Reading From the Lecture
The main ways that humans taking water for irrigation cutting down trees
affected the water cycle farming
Effects of these interventions the Aral Sea has dried up more floods, causing worse
damage
A conclusion you can draw we should be careful about the effects of our actions on the
from the point youve chosen environment / the natural water cycle is very important for
human life / interfering with the water cycle can cause very
serious problems

4 Building Academic Speaking Skills

Before You Speak


Exercise 2, page 140
1. melting 2. more water 3. flooding 4. disappear 5. farming 6. 2.4 billion

Exercise 3, page 141


1. b 2. b 3. a 4. b

Focused Speaking
Exercise 1, page 141
a to persuade people that the problem exists
Explanations will vary. Suggested answer:
If it was just to give information or to show how much the speaker knows, there would be no need for the
strong intonation in the podcast. Scaring people could be a secondary purpose, but the part at the end
climate change is realsuggests the first point as being the most important.

Exercise 2, page 141


Answers will vary. Suggested answer:
to make it sound more serious; to give the listeners time to think about the words; to make it sound more
dramatic

Academic Connections 2 Answer Key 40