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Information and Technology Literacy



Approved January 2006

Introduction to the Information and Technology Literacy Framework

Background Information

In 1998, the State Department of Education published two documents intended to set academic
standards and serve as guiding structures for comprehensive and high-quality educational
experiences for every student. The first of these documents, Connecticuts Common Core of
Learning (CCL), delineates Connecticuts standard for an educated citizen and identifies the
skills, knowledge and character expected of all Connecticuts public secondary school graduates.
As such, the CCL establishes a vision of what all students should know and be able to do as the
result of their entire K-12 educational experience.

In recognition of the growing need for all students to be able to use information and technology
resources, CCL expectations for students included a section entitled Learning Resources and
Information Technology. These specific skills and competencies are found in Foundational
Skills and Competencies, the section of the CCL that reflects the cross-disciplinary skills and
competencies that provide a foundation for all learning.

The second document, The Connecticut Framework: K-12 Curricular Goals and Standards,
provides an expanded picture of what all students should know and be able to do in a range of
content areas, including Learning Resources and Information Technology. The frameworks were
designed to provide basic content and performance standards around which individual districts
would develop their own K-12 programs of instruction.

Since 1998, national guidelines have further defined the scope and sequence of these skills and

Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning, published by the American Association for
School Librarians (AASL) and the Association for Educational Communications and Technology
(AECT), 1998. Using the overarching goal that All students will become effective users of
information and ideas the guidelines present nine Information Literacy Standards for Student
Learning. The nine standards are clustered into three areas: information literacy; independent
learning; and social responsibility.

The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) published, in 1999, National
Educational Technology Standards for Students: Connecting Curriculum and Technology. Fourteen
foundational standards for students are grouped into: basic operations and concepts; social, ethical
and human issues; technology productivity tools; technology communications tools; technology
research tools; and technology problem-solving and decision-making tools.

Most recently (2005), the U.S. Department of Education released its new national educational
technology plan, A National Education Technology Plan: The Future Is Now. Goals Four, Five and
Six of the plan relate directly to student learning, demonstrating the interrelated nature of information
and technology literacy.

In light of these guidelines, the Learning Resources and Information Technology Framework has
been revised. The new Connecticut Information and Technology Literacy Framework flows
from, and is aligned with, these national goals, standards and principles for student learning. The
student performance standards for grades 4, 8 and 12 provide additional guidance and specificity
to assist local districts in developing a K-12 program in information and technology literacy.
The framework also is intended to demonstrate the interrelated nature of information and
technology skills and competencies. Local districts must build upon the content and
performance standards in the framework to design a more detailed, K-12 local curriculum that
includes more discrete skills and competencies and integrates them into and across the content
area curricula. There should be a logical progression of student learning from grades K-12,
encompassing not only what students should know --the mechanics of using technology and
information access, but also what students should be able to do--the intellectual processes and
strategies that must be applied to information and technology resources for learning,
understanding, application and communication.

The Context of the Information and Technology Literacy Curriculum

A planned, systematic, ongoing and integrated curriculum for information and technology
literacy represents a major paradigm shift from the way information and technology literacy
programs are currently being delivered. The following chart illustrates the change in perspective
that will lead to the type of program that must be in place to ensure that all students have the
opportunity to learn and practice information and technology skills and competencies.

A New Perspective on Information and Technology Literacy (I&TL)

Moving From To
I&TL Curriculum as Local Initiative I&TL Curriculum Based on State and
Based on existing resources National Standards
Separate computer and library instruction Learning Resources and Information
Often not districtwide Technology Framework (now Information and
Technology Literacy Framework)
Information Power: Building Partnerships for
National Educational Technology Standards
for Students (NETS)
e-Learning: Putting a World-class Education
at the Fingertips of All Students
A Stand-alone Curriculum A Well-defined, but Integrated Curriculum
Discrete skills taught Instruction integrated into and across content
Stand-alone lessons areas, K-12
Developed by library media specialist(s) and/or Developed by I&TL professionals in
technology teacher(s) in isolation cooperation with other educators
Implemented by I&TL professionals Instruction implemented by I&TL professionals
Instruction is random, available to students on working with classroom teachers
an uneven basis not articulated K-12 Instruction is planned, systematic and ongoing
Tends to focus on the integration of for all students
information and technology resources Formal alignment with content areas
Rigid scheduling for I&TL facilities Focus is on student acquisition of I&TL skills
and competencies
Flexible access to I&TL facilities and resources
Cooperation Collaboration
Working cooperatively with teachers who are Working with all teachers
interested Working with all phases of the instructional
Delivering I&TL instruction as requested process: planning, delivery and assessment
Personality Driven Program/Curriculum Driven
I&TL instructional program works because of I&TL instructional program works because it
the person(s) running it has been embedded in the educational process
I&TL professionals in some schools, but not I&TL professionals in all schools
others sometimes an entire level is not served Strong administrative support
Lacks administrative support
Student Competency/Performance Not Student Competency/Performance Assessed
Systematically Assessed
Grade-level benchmarks have not been Grade-level benchmarks or performance
defined standards have been defined
Assessment may occur within some lessons Mechanisms for regularly assessing all
students competencies have been
developed and implemented (e.g., assured

Information and Technology Literacy subsumes what traditionally has been associated with
library media, audiovisual, computer and other educational technology programs. In the past,
these programs often have existed as distinct and separate entities located in different parts of a
school building. New technologies and the information overload that now permeate our
schools and society have blurred the lines that once separated these areas. Though there may
indeed be several individuals within a school who are responsible for different facets of the skills
and competencies presented, planning is best done by considering the interrelatedness and broad
scope of Information and Technology Literacy.

All students must be able to use information and technology effectively to live, learn and work
successfully in an increasingly complex and technology-based society. The overarching goal of
an information and technology literacy instructional program is to ensure that all students are
independent, competent, responsible and confident users of information and technology and can
apply related strategies for acquiring basic skills and content knowledge, communicating ideas,
problem-solving and pursuing personal interests. The following content and performance
standards provide the foundation for initiating local discussions to design an instructional
program that will ensure that all students have the opportunity to learn and practice these new
essential skills.


By the end of Grade 12, all students will be independent, competent, responsible and
confident users of information and technology and able to apply related strategies for
acquiring basic skills and content knowledge, collaborating with others, communicating
ideas, solving problems and pursuing personal interests.


As a result of education in Grades K-12, each student will attain a level of information and
technology literacy skills that will enable them to:

Communicate information and ideas, conduct research, organize data and solve problems,
and create original works;

Demonstrate responsible, legal and ethical use of information and technology.

Use effective and efficient strategies to explore and use a wide range of information and
technology resources to gain knowledge, deepen understanding, make informed decisions
and solve problems for educational, career and personal pursuits;

Apply information and technology competencies to learning in the content areas;

Locate, evaluate, interpret and synthesize information from print and non-print sources; and

Use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity and promote creativity.


1. Definition and Students will define their information needs and identify
Identification of effective courses of action to conduct research and solve
Information Needs problems.

2. Information Strategies Students will understand and demonstrate a command of

information skills and strategies to locate and effectively
use print, non-print resources to solve problems and
conduct research.

3. Information Processing apply information from a variety of sources and formats

using evaluative criteria to interpret, analyze, organize
and synthesize both print and non-print material

4. Application use appropriate information and technology to create

written, visual, oral and multimedia products to
communicate ideas, information or conclusions to others.

5. Technology Use Students will operate and use computers and other
technologies as tools for productivity, problem-solving
and learning across the content areas.

6. Responsible Use Students will demonstrate the responsible, legal and

ethical use of information resources, computers and other

7. Assessment Students will assess the effectiveness of their information

and technology choices for problem-solving and

What do students need to know prior to using information and technology resources?

Students will By Grade 4 By Grade 8 By Grade 12

define their information Clearly restate Clearly restate Clearly state the
needs and identify effective the scope and criteria of a the scope and criteria for scope and criteria for a
courses of action to conduct task (such as time line, a given task, given task and
research and solve problems. length, audience and independently demonstrate the ability to
presentation mode) with communicate them to
minimal prompting others, independently
Identify existing Identify and Independently
knowledge and, with discuss existing identify and assess
assistance, list areas knowledge concerning a existing knowledge related
where more information given task, without to a given task and
is needed prompting articulate information
needs to information
providers or peers
Understand an Frame an Develop essential
essential question related essential question using questions related to a topic
to a topic of interest or given information, and and formulate a research
assignment, with pose additional questions hypothesis related to the
assistance related to completion of topic
the task

Identify, locate Identify, locate Search print,
and use appropriate print, and use an array of print non-print and digital
non-print and/or digital and non-print resources resources within and
resources available available through the outside the school,
through the school library library media center independently
media center, with independently, and with
assistance assistance, access
resources outside the

Describe a Determine an Determine a

course of action for appropriate course of course of action that
addressing an essential action for addressing the demonstrates the selection
question and completing essential question, with of appropriate strategies
the task, with prompting minimal assistance and resources for
accomplishing a task,

What are the learning skills and strategies that students need to successfully find information?

Students will By Grade 4 By Grade 8 By Grade 12

understand and demonstrate Use the online Use additional features of Apply principles
information skills and catalog (or card catalog) online catalog records and of information systems
strategies to locate and to identify materials by demonstrate the ability to organization to a variety
effectively use print and non- author, title or subject, locate information from of print and non-print
print resources to solve including cross references all areas of the library resources
problems and conduct and locate resources in media center, such as
research. appropriate areas of the fiction, nonfiction and
library media center (e.g., reference
easy section or reference)
Use menus, icons Demonstrate the ability to Routinely and
and links to access and navigate through a variety efficiently, use online
use digital media to of software menus to information resources to
conduct basic research access information for meet the needs for
research, publication and research, publications,
communication and communications
Locate and use Describe the variety of Access specific
table of contents and ways indexes and tables information from print
index in nonfiction are used as organizers for and non-print resources
materials information systems by using internal
organizers (e.g., indexes,
Identify print and Use additional organizing Plan and design
non-print characteristics, features of print and non- methods to collect reliable
organizing features (e.g., print (e.g., menus, data for particular
table of contents, index), bibliographies and purposes and audiences,
and purposes hyperlinks) to locate and using advanced reference
use information materials, indexes,
dictionaries and abstracts

Select appropriate Search, find, sort Determine the
resources from a variety and evaluate database best tool for locating
of media formats, information from information and use key
understanding that computers, CD-ROM and word descriptors and
information is stored and on-line resources and Boolean logic to perform
accessed in different ways know how to apply advanced on-line and
specific features of CD-ROM searches (e.g.,
different search engines field searches)
Identify and use Select and use Use,
print and non-print appropriate resources independently, the full
reference sources and/or equipment to range of print and non-
(atlases, almanacs, accomplish a given task print resources within the
encyclopedias, school or district
dictionaries, etc.)
Use information Demonstrate Demonstrate the
presented graphically ability to take notes, print ability to solve problems
(e.g., pictures, captions, out or record selected by collecting, analyzing
diagrams or labels) information from a wide and interpreting data
range of sources of through the use of data
information management software
(database, spreadsheets,
With assistance, Demonstrate the Select and use,
identify and begin using ability to identify and use independently, an
age-appropriate search a variety of features to appropriate search engine
engines and directories locate information using or directory related to a
an Internet search engine specific task
or directory
Identify key Identify key Identify key
words for searching for words for searching words for searching
information, with information sources, with information sources,
assistance. minimal assistance independently

How do students evaluate and use information resources?

Students will By Grade 4 By Grade 8 By Grade 12

apply information from a Identify Develop and apply Develop and use personal
variety of sources and appropriate sources of more complex criteria for and established criteria for
formats using evaluative information for a specific aligning resources with a selecting materials of
criteria to interpret ,analyze, purpose specific need and appropriate breadth and
organize and synthesize both presentation depth of detail, format,
print and non-print material illustrations, special
features, level, content,
purpose and intended
Use criteria to Apply evaluative Demonstrate
judge the relevance, criteria to discern ability to identify and
credibility and com- stereotypes, biases and compare sources of
pleteness of both print propaganda techniques in information and apply
and non-print information print and non-print multiple evaluative
resources criteria, including
purpose, point of view,
biases and stereotypes,
accuracy, continuity and
Organize, analyze Organize, analyze Organize, analyze
and synthesize and synthesize information and synthesize
information into related to draw meaningful information to draw
categories, with assistance conclusions and determine meaningful conclusions
an appropriate format for through written, oral,
presentation, with minimal numeric and visual
assistance communications,

How do students use information and technology to express and communicate ideas?

Students will By Grade 4 By Grade 8 By Grade 12

use appropriate information Select and use Create databases, Use in depth
and technology to create appropriate software and spreadsheets and a variety applications of
written, visual, oral and hardware to organize, of multimedia products to appropriate software and
multimedia products to analyze, interpret organize, analyze and hardware to organize,
communicate ideas, information, and present interpret information analyze and interpret
information or conclusions conclusions information
to others.
Use appropriate Use appropriate Determine
technology(s) and technology(s) and appropriate technology(s)
format(s) to clearly format(s) to clearly and format(s) to clearly
present information present information present information
gathered from a variety of gathered from a variety of gathered from a variety of
print and non-print print and non-print print and non-print
resources resources resources, for a variety of

What type of technological tools will students use?
Students will By Grade 4 By Grade 8 By Grade 12
operate and use computers and Use basic Operate school Operate school
other technologies as tools for operational features of school hardware and demonstrate hardware and demonstrate
productivity, problem solving and hardware (accessing the ability to use the school ability to understand and use
learning across the content programs, input devices, network to access and utilize capabilities of the school
areas. printing, output devices, school software, network and software,
keyboard, etc.) independently independently
Use content-specific Use content- Use content-specific
technology tools and specific technology tools and tools and software
software software
Demonstrate the use Demonstrate Maintain proficiency
of the keyboard and mouse proficiency in keyboarding in keyboarding
Demonstrate the Demonstrate the Produce a variety of
ability to use basic features ability to independently use products using the advanced
(entering information/data, personal productivity features of personal
editing, calculating, software and multimedia to productivity software
manipulating text, sound and create products in a wide
graphics, saving files) of range of formats (newsletters,
personal productivity budgets, brochures, imported
software graphics, web pages, digital
movies, etc.)
Work cooperatively Demonstrate the Using
with peers and others when use of technological telecommunications
using computers and other resources to help plan, collaborate with peers,
technologies coordinate and complete experts and others to
group projects research, compile, synthesize,
produce and disseminate
information or creative works

Identify common Identify Identify and apply
hardware and software hardware and software strategies for solving
problems and seek assistance problems that accompany hardware and software
everyday use and seek problems outside the school
assistance environment
Understand that Understand that Demonstrate the
technology tools are technology tools are ability to identify, assess and
constantly changing constantly changing and adapt to new technology tools
describe their potential for and resources
Describe ways the Identify ways Analyze the
computer is used to help computers and other educational, social and
people work, learn and play technologies are affecting the ethical issues related to the
way we live, work and learn increased reliance on
computers and other
Distinguish among Describe basic Identify evaluative
different technologies and criteria used to evaluate and criteria for making informed
their uses compare different types of decisions about computers,
computers, peripherals (e.g. peripherals and other
printer, scanner) and other technology tools
technology tools

What are student responsibilities regarding the use of information and technology?

Students will By Grade 4 By Grade 8 By Grade 12

demonstrate the responsible, Practice proper Demonstrate Observe local,
legal and ethical use of and ethical use and care of responsible and ethical use state and national laws
information resources, print and non-print and care of print and non- and policies and
computers and other information resources, print information procedures regarding the
technologies. computers and other resources, computers, use of print and non-print
technologies other technologies and information resources,
networks computers, other
technologies and
Give citation Apply established Apply
credit to original sources citation standards for established citation
when using or giving credit for informa- standards for a wide range
transmitting information tion or ideas used of information sources
to others and formats
Demonstrate an Differentiate Demonstrate an
understanding of the among various types of understanding of the
concept of ownership of ownership and protection process for
ideas and information by of intellectual property copyrighting/protecting
respecting and observing (e.g., copyright, patents) their own original work
laws and/ or guidelines and observe fair use
for using print and non- guidelines as they apply
print information, to each
software, hardware and
Adhere to the Adhere to the Adhere to the
districts acceptable use districts acceptable use districts acceptable use
and copyright policies and copyright policies and and copyright policies as
understand the well as local, state and
relationship to local, state national laws and policies
and national legislation

How do students evaluate the process and the final product?
Students will By Grade 4 By Grade 8 By Grade 12
assess the effectiveness of Assess whether Assess whether Assess,
their information and the process and the process and independently and
technology choices for information gathered was information gathered was continuously, the
problem-solving and both relevant and relevant, complete and relevance, completeness
communication. complete in response to accurate in response to and accuracy of gathered
the assigned task the assigned need information and the
efficiency of the research
Assess whether Assess whether Assess,
their products meet their products meet independently, whether
established standards for established standards for their products meet
process, product and process, product and established standards for
presentation presentation process, product and