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48

de la teora de los colores de Goethe


a la InteraccIn del color de albers
From Goethes Theory of Colours
to Albers InTeraCTIon of Colour

Jos Antonio Franco Taboada


doi: 10.4995/ega.2015.3703

En este artculo se plantea un hilo In this article a basic common thread


conductor bsico entre la Teora de is drawn between Goethes Theory
los Colores, de Goethe y la Interaccin of Colours and Albers Interaction
del color, de Albers. Para Goethe, el of colour. For Goethe, colour had
color tena un efecto sensible-moral a sensual-moral effect and could
y poda ser puesto al servicio de los be used for the highest aesthetic
ms elevados fines estticos, como purposes. This was later brilliantly
ms tarde ejemplific magistralmente exemplified by Albers in his series
Albers en su serie Homenaje al Homage to the Square, in a way
cuadrado, de una forma que se ha that has been defined in his latest
definido como medios mnimo, and most complete retrospective
efecto mximo, en su ltima y ms as minimal means, maximum
completa exposicin retrospectiva. La effects. The academic side of Albers
vertiente acadmica de Albers llega reaches its highest expression in
a su mxima expresin en la obra the aforementioned work, whose
citada, cuya evolucin de lo analgico evolution from analogue to digital
a lo digital seguramente supondr format will surely lead to a new wider
una nueva difusin, lastrada hasta circulation, hitherto hampered by the
ahora por lo limitado de las versiones limited paperback versions and the
de bolsillo y lo inalcanzable de las unattainable nature of the full printed
versiones completas impresas 1. versions 1.
Palabras clave: Goethe. Keywords: Goethe. schopenhauer.
schoPenhauer. albers. teora de albers. theory of colours.
los colores. InteraccIn del color. InteractIon of colour. analoGue
analGIco versus dIGItal versus dIGItal
expresin grfica arquitectnica
Interaccin del color [] Es un vo- Interaction of Color is the most
lumen indispensable para el artis- comprehensive and intelligent, as well as
ta, el arquitecto o el profesor que the handsomest, book we yet have on this
encuentra un mayor reto en el des- subject. It is an indispensable volume for
cubrimiento que en un sistema de the artist, architect, or teacher who finds
a greater challenge in discovery than in a
colores seguros.
safe color system. 49
Architectural Forum, 1963 2 Architectural Forum, 1963 2

Cuando Goethe escribe en el prefacio duradero que cualquier cosa que se When Goethe writes in the preface to his Theory
de su Teora de los Colores Si bien aprenda nicamente por la lectura o of Colours Colours and light, it is true, stand in
los colores y la luz guardan entre s la escucha (Albers 2014, 291) 4. the most intimate relation to each other, but we
should think of both as belonging to nature as a
relaciones exactsimas, tanto aquellos As fue desde sus primeros pasos
whole, for it is nature as a whole which manifests
como sta pertenecen en un todo a la como maestro en las Bauhaus de Wei- itself by their means in an especial manner to
naturaleza; pues a travs de ellos la mar, Dessau y Berln hasta su actividad the sense of sight (Goethe [1810] 1945, 11). His
Naturaleza quiere manifestarse par- final como profesor de la Universidad words seem somehow to anticipate the work of
ticularmente al sentido de la vista de Yale en la que fue nombrado Doc- Josef Albers, who was well aware of Goethe and
(Goethe [1810] 1945, 11). Sus pa- tor honoris causa en Bellas Artes pa- must have taken particular note of the section of
labras parecen adelantar de alguna sando por el pequeo y complicado, chapter six, The sensual-moral effect of colour,
manera la obra de Josef Albers. Este aunque influyente, Black Mountain Dread of theory, in which he stated:
A dread of, nay, a decided aversion for all theoretical
conoca muy bien la de Goethe y so- College, conocido como la Bauhaus views respecting colour and everything belonging to
bre todo debi tomar buena nota del americana, del que fue rector unos it, has been hitherto found to exist among painters;
apartado de su captulo sexto, El efec- pocos meses. Durante ese largo perio- a prejudice for which, after all, they were not to be
to sensible-moral del color, Miedo a do de tiempo, con difciles vicisitudes blamed; for what has been hitherto called theory
la teora, en el que sealaba: was groundless, vacillating, and akin to empiricism.
como el ascenso de los nazis al poder
We hope that our labours may tend to diminish this
Los pintores han evidenciado hasta aho- en Alemania, compagin magistral- prejudice, and stimulate the artist practically to prove
ra un miedo y hasta una franca aversin mente su labor como creador con la and embody the principles that have been explained
a todas las consideraciones tericas acer-
de maestro de muchas generaciones, (Goethe [1810] 1945, 231).
ca del color y de todo cuanto se relaciona
con l, actitud sta que ciertamente era entre las que tuvo alumnos o compa- It is clear that Albers not only put into practice
comprensible, pues lo que hasta ahora eros como su propia esposa, tambin the principles of Goethe, besides those of his
se llamaba la teora careca de base, era pintora de gran talento, Anni Albers, teacher Johannes Itten 3, but also arrived at his
fluctuante y gravitaba hacia la empiria. own, collected essentially in his monumental work
Richard Anuszkiewicz, Robert Raus-
Deseamos que nuestros esfuerzos logren Interaction of colour.
desvanecer hasta cierto punto este miedo
chenberg, Buckminster Fuller y Ri- Albers, like Goethe, attached great importance to
y estimular a los artistas a verificar y am- chard Serra, entre muchos otros. experimenting with colour, not only as a source of
pliar en la prctica los principios consig- No resulta extrao, por lo tanto, la his own creative work but as an essential means
nados (Goethe [1810] 1945, 231). dedicatoria de su obra escrita ms co- for the learning of his students, as he emphatically
Est claro que Albers no solo llev nocida, Interaccin del Color: Este asserted: In short, we believe in learning through
a la prctica los principios de Goethe libro es mi agradecimiento a mis es- experience, which naturally is more durable than
tudiantes (Albers 1979, 7), que con- anything you learn only by reading or listening
adems de los de su maestro Johannes
(Albers 2014, 291) 4.
Itten 3 sino que formul los suyos pro- trasta con el desilusionado epigrama
These were his first steps as a teacher in the
pios, recogidos esencialmente en su mo- que Goethe dedic a Schopenhauer: Bauhaus of Weimar, Dessau and Berlin and this
numental obra Interaccin del color. Con que gusto seguira enseando approach continued through to his final position as
Albers, como Goethe, daba una todava / si los escolares no se creye- a professor at the University of Yale, where he was
gran importancia a la experimenta- sen maestros enseguida!. El filsofo, appointed Doctor honoris causa of Fine Arts, not
cin con el color, no solo como fuente atrado por la teora de los colores forgetting his time at the small and complicated,
de su propia obra creativa sino como despus de conocer a Goethe, que but influential, Black Mountain College, known as
the American Bauhaus, where he was rector for a
medio esencial para el aprendizaje de frecuentaba el saln literario de su
few months. During that long period of time, with
sus alumnos, como aseguraba tajan- madre Johanna en Weimar, quiso su- difficult vicissitudes such as the rise of the Nazis
temente: En resumen, creemos en perarlo y escribi a su vez su propio to power in Germany, he masterfully combined
el aprendizaje por medio de la expe- tratado, que titul Sobre la visin y his work as a creator with that of teaching many
riencia, que de manera natural es ms los colores, no muy bien acogido por generations, with students or colleagues including
1. Homage to the Square: Glow (Homenaje al
cuadrado: Resplandor). 1966 (Albers 2014, 150)
2. Homage to the Square (Homenaje al cuadrado).
1971 (Albers 2014, 151)
3. Vista parcial de la exposicin Josef Albers. Medios
mnimos, efecto mximo (foto del autor)

50 his wife, also a talented painter, Anni Albers, se conocen ms de dos mil interpreta-
Richard Anuszkiewicz, Robert Rauschenberg, ciones diferentes. Y pongo interpre-
Buckminster Fuller and Richard Serra, among taciones en el sentido estrictamente
many others.
musical del trmino, como ejemplific
We cannot, therefore, be surprised about the
dedication in his best-known written work, Nicholas Fox Weber en la conferencia
Interaction of Colour: This book is my thanks to inaugural 7 de la magna exposicin
my students (Albers 1975, v), which contrasts retrospectiva organizada por la Fun-
with the disillusioned epigram that Goethe 1 dacin March en Madrid entre marzo
dedicated to Schopenhauer: I would be delighted y julio de 2014. Fox puso el mismo
to still be teaching/if the students did not consider fragmento del Cuarteto de cuerdas n
themselves masters right away!. The philosopher,
attracted by the theory of colours after meeting
14 Op. 131 de Beethoven, interpre-
Goethe, who frequented the literary salon of his tado con dos versiones de dicha serie
mother Johanna in Weimar, wanted to surpass como las de las figuras 1 y 2 una
it and in turn wrote his own treatise, which he por el Quartetto Italiano de cuerda y
called On vision and colours, which was not la otra por la Orquesta Filarmnica
warmly welcomed by the great writer. Given this de Budapest. Es decir, la misma obra
lack of enthusiasm from Goethe, Schopenhauer
musical, distintas interpretaciones. O
angrily attacked him in a letter in 1815, in which
he asserted that his theory would someday be tambin: la misma obra conceptual,
studied in schools. This is when Goethe wrote the distintas variaciones.
epigram mentioned earlier 5. La exposicin, titulada Josef Al-
Albers would have been aware of the bers. Medios mnimos, efecto mxi-
discrepancies between the two, but took from mo 8, est compuesta por una amplia
each what best suited his theories: When he 2
miscelnea en la que tuvieron cabida
(Schopenhauer) tried to improve Goethes 6-part
ms de cien pinturas y dibujos, foto-
color circle to Goethes dismay he changed the
previous presentation of 6 equal areas to decidedly grafas, mobiliario y otros objetos a
different quantities (Albers 2006, 43). el gran escritor. Ante la falta de en- travs de los cuales se puede apreciar,
It was in 1950, shortly after his time at Black tusiasmo de Goethe, Schopenhauer en un marco con la magnitud adecua-
Mountain College 6 when he began the series of le ataca airadamente en una carta en da, la ingente obra de un creador dife-
paintings that would make him universally famous, rente, humilde pero seguro de lo que
Homage to the Square, of which there are more
1815, en la que le espeta que ser su
teora la que algn da se estudie en hizo a lo largo de su vida (Fig. 3).
than two thousand different known interpretations.
Here I say interpretations in the strictly musical las escuelas. Es cuando Goethe escri- Las ediciones de su obra en ingls
sense of the word, as exemplified by Nicholas be el epigrama citado 5. y en espaol, sin contar las reimpre-
Fox Weber at the inaugural conference 7 of the Albers ser consciente de las discre- siones, han evolucionado desde la
great retrospective exhibition organised by the pancias entre ambos, pero tomar de magna edicin original limitada de
March Foundation in Madrid between March and cada uno aquello que mejor se adap- 1963 reeditada ms modestamente
July 2014. Fox used a fragment of Beethovens en 2009 a la ltima versin digital
te a sus teoras: Cuando (Schopen-
String Quartet No. 14, Op. 131, played with two
hauer) quiso perfeccionar el crculo de 2014 (primera versin en 2013),
versions of that series, like those in Figures 1 and
2, interpreted once by the Italian String Quartet cromtico de 6 sectores de Goethe pasando por las ediciones de bolsillo,
and once by the Budapest Philharmonic Orchestra. para gran disgusto de ste, cambi con contenidos sucesivamente am-
That is, the same musical work with different la presentacin anterior de 6 reas pliados (Figs. 4 a 9).
interpretations. Or to put it another way: the same iguales por cantidades decididamente Resulta evidente que el acceso a la
conceptual work with different variations. diferentes (Albers 2010, 58). obra de Albers en todo el mundo fue
The exhibition, entitled Josef Albers. Minimal durante muchos aos muy limitado y
Fue en 1950, poco despus de su
means, maximum effect 8, consists of a wide
miscellany in which were accommodated
paso por el Black Mountain Collegue casi nicamente a travs de las muy
over one hundred paintings and drawings, 6, cuando comenz la serie de pintu- reducidas casi reduccionistas edicio-
photographs, pieces of furniture and other objects ras que le hara universalmente famo- nes de bolsillo. Ser necesario esperar
through which one can appreciate, in a setting of so, Homenaje al cuadrado, de la que hasta 2013, en que para celebrar el 50
expresin grfica arquitectnica
1. Homage to the Square: Glow. 1966 (Albers 2014, 150)
2. Homage to the Square. 1971 (Albers 2014, 151)
3. Partial view of the exhibition Josef Albers. Minimal
means, maximum effect (photo by the author)

the appropriate magnitude, the enormous work of a 51


different creator, humble but secure about what he
did throughout his life (Fig. 3).
The editions of his work in English and in Spanish,
not counting reprints, have evolved from the original
great limited 1963 edition, re-edited more modestly
in 2009, to the latest digital version in 2014 (first
version in 2013), in the meantime appearing as
paperback versions, with successively greater
content (Figs. 4-9).
It is clear that access to the work of Albers
3
worldwide was very limited for many years and
almost only an option through the very small, almost
reductionist, paperback editions. Wider access
would have to wait until 2013, when another more
aniversario de la edicin limitada ori- estas dos frases, aunque se conserv extensive paperback edition was published to
ginal se publica otra edicin de bolsi- el tringulo, que pas de denominarse celebrate the 50th anniversary of the original limited
llo bastante ms amplia y sobre todo la The Triangle of Goethe a The Equila- edition, and above all the app appeared that will
app que seguramente la democratizar teral Triangle. Si analizamos la obra surely mean his definitive democratisation. It should
definitivamente. Es preciso resaltar, de Goethe, tanto la versin castella- be emphasized, as Albers did himself, that the
como hizo el propio Albers, que la edi- na como la original alemana Zur original edition of 1963 had two surprising features:
one physical, its weight of twenty two pounds, and
cin original de 1963 presentaba dos Farbenlehre s aparece su crculo de
another economic, its price of hundred dollars (Albers
caractersticas sorprendentes: una fsi- los colores, pero ningn dibujo de un 1975), which made its wide circulation very difficult.
ca, su peso de veintids libras, y otra tringulo. El pintor norteamericano What stands out in the original edition is its last
econmica, su precio de doscientos d- Mitchell Johnson, que fue artista re- theoretical chapter, XXIV, Color theories, which was
lares (Albers 1979, 11), lo que hara sidente en la Fundacin Josef y Anni not incorporated into the paperback version until
muy difcil su divulgacin. Albers, public en su blog en febrero 2006, and in particular its first section, that reflects
En la edicin original destacaba su de 2011 la siguiente entrada titulada the overriding influence on Albers, namely Goethe.
It was devoted to what is called Goethes triangle
ltimo captulo terico, el XXIV, Teo- Not Goethe Triangle:
(Fig. 10), which he said was It is probably the most
ras del color que no se incorpor a [] theres an interesting story about the condensed and clear system of presentation of an
las de bolsillo hasta 2006 [esp. 2010] triangle, whose silk screen was prepared essential order in the vast world of color. He ended
y en concreto su primer apartado, by Rackstraw Downes and another Yale the chapter stating that:
que haca patente su admiracin por student at Albers request for the original, We wonder why the fundamental and at the same time
handmade Interaction of Color, publis-
Goethe. Lo dedicaba al que denomi- hed by Yale in 1963. Albers first saw the
beautiful Goethe Triangle has been so rarely published.
naba Tringulo de Goethe (Fig. 10), We should also like to mention that Goethe called
triangle in a small german book on color his color theory (several volumes in length) his most
del que deca que era Probablemente theory written by Carry van Biema [] beloved child (Albers 2006, 142).
el sistema ms condensado y claro de and if I remember correctly how Fred
These two sentences do not appear in the following
presentacin de un orden esencial den- Horowitz explained this to me, Albers
knew about the mistake before he died, editions of his work, including the digital version and
tro del vasto mundo del color. Y ter- but long after his book had legitimized the republication in 2009 of the 1963 work, and while
minaba el captulo manifestando que: Biemas creation 9. the triangle does remain, its name has been changed
from The Triangle of Goethe to The Equilateral
Nos sorprende que el tringulo de Mitchell Johnson da una informa-
Goethe, fundamental y al mismo tiempo
Triangle. If we analyse the work by Goethe, both the
bello, haya sido tan poco publicado. cin importante, pero no publica el Spanish version and the original in German Zur
Tambin queremos mencionar que tringulo de Carry van Biema ni da Farbenlehre we see his circle of colours, but there
Goethe dijo que su teora del color (que datos sobre donde fue publicado. Fi- is no drawing of a triangle. The American painter
ocupa varios volmenes) era su hija ms Mitchell Johnson, who was artist in residence at the
nalmente he encontrado el tringulo,
querida (Albers 2010, 158). Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, published in his
recogido en la obra Farben und For- blog of February 2011 the following entry with the
En las siguientes ediciones de su men als lebendige Krfte Colores y title Not Goethe Triangle:
obra, incluida la digital y la reedicin formas como fuerzas vivas publica- [] theres an interesting story about the triangle,
de 2009 de la de 1963, no aparecen do en 1930 (Fig. 11). whose silk screen was prepared by Rackstraw Downes
52

5 6 7

No sabemos si Albers comparta el


rechazo de muchos cientficos a la de-
nuncia que Goethe hizo de las teoras
de Newton expresadas en su pti-
ca. Podramos decir que la polmica
Goethe-Newton (polmica evidente-
mente unidireccional, por otra par-
te) se basaba, simplificando mucho,
en un gran malentendido: Newton
se refera esencialmente a la sntesis
aditiva basada en la luz, mientras que
Goethe lo haca sobre la sustractiva,
sobre los colores como pinturas, El
que la mezcla de todos los colores da
el blanco es un absurdo que junto con
otros es credo desde hace ya un siglo
religiosamente y contra toda eviden-
cia (Goethe [1810] 1945, 157).
Pero s podemos suponer que a Al-
bers le interesara sobremanera el en-
foque romntico de Goethe sobre El
efecto sensible-moral del color (Fig.
12) y una de sus consecuentes conclu-
siones: Por lo cual el color, conside-
rado como elemento del arte, puede
ser puesto al servicio de los ms ele-
vados fines estticos (Goethe [1810]
4
1945, 205).
Como no poda ser menos en la
poca de la cibercultura, caracteriza-
da por el lenguaje universal que De-
rrick de Kerckhove denomina digital,
este ha alcanzado a la obra de Albers.
expresin grfica arquitectnica
4. reedicin de 2009 del original de 1963
(foto del autor)
5. edicin de 1971 (open library)
6. edicin de 1975 [esp. 1979] (Amazon.com)
7. edicin de 2006 [esp. 2010] (Amazon.com)
8. edicin de 2013 (foto del autor)
9. edicin digital de 2013 (captura de pantalla)
10. tringulo de Goethe (?) segn Albers
(Albers 2013, app)
53
4. 2009 reissue of the original from 1963
(photo by the author)
5. 1971 Edition (Open Library)
6. 1975 edition (Amazon.com)
7. 2006 edition (Amazon.com)
8. 2013 edition (photo by the author)
9. Digital edition from 2013 (screenshot)
10. Goethes Triangle (?) By Albers
(Albers 2013, app)

8 9

Lo ha hecho recientemente, cuando la Michelle Komie, editora de arte y ar- and another Yale student at Albers request for the
Yale University, con motivo del 50 quitectura de la editorial, se trata de original, handmade Interaction of Color, published
by Yale in 1963. Albers first saw the triangle in a
aniversario de la publicacin de la edi- una [] very tactile experience. You small german book on color theory written by Carry
cin original de la obra ha publicado, feel as if you are working with paper, van Biema [] and if I remember correctly how Fred
adems de la edicin en papel ya refe- which was a very important part of Horowitz explained this to me, Albers knew about the
renciada, la app denominada Interac- Albers methodology 12. Se puede no mistake before he died, but long after his book had
legitimized Biemas creation 9.
tion of Color by Josef Albers 10. compartir literalmente esta opinin,
Mitchell Johnson provides important information
Si el espritu de la obra es la in- aunque debe admitirse que se ha fa- but does not publish Carry van Biemas triangle or
teraccin, esta app lo aplica literal- cilitado extraordinariamente dicha give information on where it was published. I finally
mente, habindose hecho merecedora experiencia, quiz demasiado? found the triangle, seen in the work Farben und
del Winner of 2013 Best Interactive Algunos podrn tener dudas razo- Formen als lebendige Krfte Colours and shapes
Product in the Tablet/Handheld cate- nables sobre si el digital es el formato as living forces, published in 1930 (Fig. 11).
gory, from Communication Arts y del adecuado o si la experiencia interac- We do not know if Albers shared the rejection
by many scientists of Goethes complaint about
Winner of 2013 Spark Award for Best tiva llegar a ser algo ms profundo Newtons theories expressed in his Optics. We
App. Como manifestaron en agosto que otro juego de ordenador, eso s, could say that the Goethe-Newton controversy
de 2013, recin publicada la app, los esta vez con justificacin acadmica. (obviously only controversial in one direction)
actuales alumnos de Yale: En todo caso, parece que finalmente was based, and here I am oversimplifying, on a
podr cumplirse el objetivo de Albers serious misunderstanding: Newton was essentially
What better way to celebrate the 50th
de que su obra adquiera la mxima referring to the additive synthesis based on light,
anniversary of Josef Alberss classic
book The Interaction of Color than to difusin posible. n
make it more, well, interactive? Yale Uni-
versity Press just released a new version
of the book for iPad that lets readers try Notas
out Alberss principles themselves 11. 1 / Este artculo ha sido traducido al ingls dentro del
Programa de Consolidacin e Estructuracin Redes
Esta app combina enlaces a graba- (R2014/024) de la Xunta de Galicia.
2 / Prrafo citado por Nicholas Fox Weber, director de
ciones en video de diversos especialis- la Fundacin Josef y Anni Albers, como de un profe-
tas en la obra de Albers, del propio sor de diseo de la Cooper Union (Albers 2010, 12).
3 / Vase el artculo de Rodrigo Galecio en la revista
Albers y sobre todo el texto ntegro online del Goethe-Institut Chile. http://www.goethe.
y las imgenes de la obra original de de/ins/cl/es/sao/kul/mag/bku/12474872.html.
4 / Conferencia en el Trinity College en 1965.
1963, adems de lo que supone ya un 5 / Vase la resea de Lus F. Moreno Claros del
rizar el rizo conceptual, ejercicios 2/3/2013 en El Pas, http://blogs.elpais.com/tormenta-
de-ideas/2013/03/la-pasion-de-los-colores.html).
interactivos sobre los ejercicios de 6 / Solo dos aos despus, en 1952, Black Mountain
interaccin del color. Como asegura pasara a la historia del arte como el lugar en el que se
10
11. lmina IV de farben und formen als lebendige 11. Print IV of Farben und Formen als lebendige Krfte,
Krfte, de Carry van biema. se han superpuesto en by Carry van Biema. Superimposed in the same image
la misma imagen la pgina de papel cebolla con los are the onionskin page with the text and the colour print
textos y la lmina en color base (biema 1930) without it (Biema 1930)
12. Crculo cromtico de Goethe, que simboliza la 12. Goethes colour circle, symbolising the life of the
vida del espritu y del alma humana, 1809 (Arnaldo spirit and the human soul 1809, (Arnaldo 2008, 69)
2008, 69)

54 while Goethe was referring to the subtractive,


about colours as paints, The fact that mixing all the
colours gives white is an absurdity that along with
others has been religiously believed for a century
against all evidence (Goethe [1810] 1945, 157).
But we can assume that Albers was greatly
interested in Goethes romantic approach on The
sensual-moral effect of colour (Fig. 12) and one
of his consequent conclusions: So colour,
considered an element of art, can be placed at
the service of the highest aesthetic purposes
(Goethe [1810] 1945, 205).
As one would expect in the age of cyberculture,
characterised by the universal language that
Derrick de Kerckhove called digital, this has
affected the work of Albers. This was the case
recently when Yale University published, to mark
the 50th anniversary of the publication of the
original edition of the book, in addition to the
aforementioned paperback edition, an app called
Interaction of Color by Josef Albers 10.
If the spirit of the work is interaction, this app
applies this literally, having been the worthy
Winner of 2013 Best Interactive Product in the
Tablet/Handheld category, from Communication
Arts and Winner of 2013 Spark Award for Best
App. As current students at Yale stated in August
2013, shortly after the publication of the app:
What better way to celebrate the 50th anniversary
of Josef Alberss classic book The Interaction of
Color than to make it more, well, interactive? Yale
University Press just released a new version of
the book for iPad that lets readers try out Alberss
principles themselves 11.
This app combines links to video recordings from
various specialists in the work of Albers, of Albers
himself and especially the full text and images of the
original work from 1963, in addition to what is now
a conceptual loop the loop, interactive exercises
about the exercises of interaction of colour. As
Michelle Komie, art and architecture editor at the
publisher says, it is a [...] very tactile experience.
You feel as if you are working with paper, which
was a very important part of Albers methodology
12. It would be possible to not fully share this view,
although it must be admitted that this experience
has been greatly facilitated, perhaps too much?
Some may have reasonable doubts about whether
the digital format is the right one or whether the
interactive experience will become more meaningful
than any other computer game, this time with
academic justification. In any case, it seems that
finally Albers objective, for his work to acquire the
widest circulation possible, may be fulfilled. n
11
expresin grfica arquitectnica
55
Notes
1 / This article has been translated into English by Penny Hierons as part
of the Programme for the Consolidation and Structuring of Networks
(R2014/024) of the Regional Government of Galicia. Thank Maria Luisa
Balseiro, translator of the work of Albers, by original article citations.
2 / The paragraph is a quote from Nicholas Fox Weber, director of the
Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, as a design teacher at the Cooper
Union (Albers 2006, x).
3 / See the article by Rodrigo Galecio in the online magazine of the
Goethe-Institut Chile. http://www.goethe.de/ins/cl/es/sao/kul/mag/
bku/12474872.html.
4 / Conference at Trinity College in 1965.
5 / See the overview from Luis F. Moreno Claros from 02/03/2013
in El Pas, http://blogs.elpais.com/tormenta-de-ideas/2013/03/la-
pasion-de-los-colores.html).
6 / Only two years later, in 1952, Black Mountain would find its place
in the history of art as the place in which they performed the first
happening in history, Theater piece No.1.
7 / Issued on 28 March 2014. Full Video at http://www.march.es/
videos/?p0=4621&l=1.
8 / This exhibition was complemented by another entitled Josef
Albers. Process and printmaking in Palma de Mallorca and in the
Museum of Spanish Abstract Art in Cuenca.
9 / Mitchell Johnson Art News, mitchelljohnson5.blogspot.com/.
Fred Horowitz, who died in 2013, was a disciple of Albers and one of
the foremost experts in the study of colour, his books on his teacher
standing out. I am grateful to Dr. Claudia Kalasz, of the Goethe-Institut
in Barcelona, for providing me with the information on the blog.
10 / Do not confuse this app with the very elementary Albers. The
trailer for the app Interaction of Color by Josef Albers is available at
12 http://vimeo.com/74212756.
11 / Mark Alden Branch, Yale Alumni Magazine, published since
1891, https://www.yalealumnimagazine.com/blog_posts/1532.
12 / Quoted by Mark Alden Branch (see previous note).
realiz el primer happening de la historia, la Theater ALBERS, Josef. 2006. Interaction of Color.
piece N1. Revised and Expanded Edition (paperback edi-
7 / Pronunciada el 28 de marzo de 2014. Video com- references
pleto en http://www.march.es/videos/?p0=4621&l=1.
tion). Yale University.
ALBERS, Josef. 2010. Interaccin del color. ALBERS, Josef. 1963. Interaction of Color. Yale University.
8 / Esta exposicin se complement con otra titula- ALBERS, Josef. 1971. Interaction of Color (paperback
da Josef Albers. Proceso y grabado, en Palma de Edicin revisada y ampliada. Alianza Editorial.
edition). Yale University.
Mallorca y en el Museo de Arte Abstracto Espaol ALBERS, Josef. 2009. Interaction of Color.
de Cuenca. ALBERS, Josef. 1975. Interaction of Color. Unabridge text
New Complete Edition. Yale University.
9 / Mitchell Johnson Art News, mitchelljohnson5. and selected plates. Revised edition (paperback edition).
ALBERS, Josef. 2013. Interaction of Color. Yale University. .
blogspot.com/. Fred Horowitz fallecido en 2013, fue
50th Anniversary Edition (paperback edition). ALBERS, Josef. 2006. Interaction of Color. Revised and
discpulo de Albers y uno de los mayores expertos
en el estudio del color, destacando sus libros sobre Yale University. Expanded Edition (paperback edition). Yale University.
su maestro. Agradezco a la Dra. Claudia Kalsz, del ALBERS, Josef. 2013. Interaction of Color by ALBERS, Josef. 2009. Interaction of Color. New Complete
Goethe-Institut de Barcelona, haberme la informacin Josef Albers (full app and complete app). Yale Edition. Yale University.
sobre dicho blog. University. ALBERS, Josef. 2013. Interaction of Color. 50th
10 / No debe confundirse esta app con la muy elemen- ALBERS, Josef y otros. 2014. Josef Albers: me- Anniversary Edition (paperback edition). Yale University.
tal Albers. El triler de la app Interaction of color
dios mnimos, efecto mximo. Fundacin Juan ALBERS, Josef. 2013. Interaction of Color by Josef Albers
by Josef Albers puede consultarse en http://vimeo.
com/74212756. March. (full app and complete app). Yale University.
11 / Mark Alden Branch, Yale Alumni Magazine, edi- ALVIANI, Getulio (Editor). 1988. Josef Albers. ALBERS, Josef and other. 2014. Exhibition catalog Josef
tado desde 1891, https://www.yalealumnimagazine. LArca Edizioni. Albers: medios mnimos, efecto mximo. Fundacin Juan
com/blog_posts/1532. ARNALDO, Javier (Ed.). 2008. Johann Wol- March.
12 / Citada por Mark Alden Branch (ver nota anterior). fgang von Goethe. Paisajes. Madrid, Crculo ALVIANI, Getulio (Editor). 1988. Josef Albers. LArca
de Bellas Artes. Edizioni.
Referencias ARNALDO, Javier (Ed.). 2008. Johann Wolfgang von
BIEMA, Carry van. 1930, Farben und Formen
Goethe. Paisajes. Madrid, Crculo de Bellas Artes.
ALBERS, Josef. 1963. Interaction of Color. als lebendige Krfte. Jena, Eugen Diederichs
BIEMA, Carry van. 1930, Farben und Formen als lebendige
Yale University. Verlag. Krfte. Jena, Eugen Diederichs Verlag.
ALBERS, Josef. 1971. Interaction of Color (pa- GOETHE, Johann Wolfgang von. [1810] 1945. GOETHE, Johann Wolfgang von. [1810] 1945. Teora
perback edition). Yale University. Teora de los colores. Poseidn, Buenos aires. de los colores. Poseidn, Buenos aires. Original,Zur
ALBERS, Josef. 1975. Interaction of Color. Original,Zur Farbenlehre, en https://archive. Farbenlehre, en https://archive.org/details/
Unabridge text and selected plates. Revised org/details/zurfarbenlehre00goet zurfarbenlehre00goet.
edition (paperback edition). Yale University. ROSENTHAL, T. G. 2006. Josef Albers, For- ROSENTHAL, T. G. 2006. Josef Albers, Formulation:
ALBERS, Josef. 1979. Interaccin del color. mulation: Articulation. All Works and text by Articulation. All Works and text by Josef Albers. Thames
Alianza Editorial. Josef Albers. Thames & Hudson Ltd, London. & Hudson Ltd, London.
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