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Groundwater Model

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DIFFERENTIATION

arXiv:1610.07345v1 [math.AP] 24 Oct 2016

Abstract. We prove existence and uniqueness of the flow of water within a confined

aquifer with fractional diffusion in space and fractional time derivative in the sense

of Caputo-Fabrizio. Our main method is the fixed-point theorem. We propose the

numerical approximation of the model. The Crank-Nicolson numerical scheme was

used to solve the modified model. In order to check the effectiveness of the model,

stability analysis of the numerical scheme for the new model are presented.

1. Introduction

The flow of subsurface water within the geological formation is an interested physical

problem that has attracted attention of many scholars around the world due to its

complexities. The first model was suggested by Theis, where he adapted the model

of heat flow in an homogeneous media. Although his equation has been extensively

used in the circle of geohydrology but the comparison of mathematical equation with

experimental data show a disagreement. However although the collection of experimental

data could be bias but still the nature revealed the true behind a physical problem. It is

then believed that the mathematical equation suggested by their needs to be reverified.

To do this, the time derivation in the Theis equation was replaced several time by the

concept of fraction differentiation see [1]. Nevetheless the kernel used in the concept

of fractional differentiation is the well-known power law x which has a singularity as

x 0. However change in water level is observed in the vicinity of the borehole which

is consider here as origin. But at the origin with the power we have a singularity.To

improve this, the kernel was recently replaced by the exponential decay law which does

not have singularity event at the origin .

The aim of this work is to revisit the groundwater flow model with the Caputo-Fabrizio

derivative. For this purpose, the problem of flow of water within a confined aquifer.

Very recently a new model of groundwater flow in a confined aquifer has been proposed

by A. Atangana and Alkahtani [2] in order to take into account the effect of different

scales in the annular space as

Date: February 10, 2017.

Key words and phrases. Groundwater flow equation. Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative. Exis-

tence and uniqueness.

1

2 DJIDA AND ATANGANA

where, F1 and F2 are inflow and outflow rate, respectively, and V (r, t) is the volume.

CF

Dt denotes the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative given by (2.1). The variation

for the radial flow through into a well for confined homogeneous and isotropic aquifer is

given by

2

(1.2) F2 F1 = K r h(r, t) + r h(r, t) 2(r + dr)b K r h(r, t) 2rb ,

where r is the radio of the annular cylinder, b is the thickness of the confined aquifer,

and K is the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer [2].

The change of volume at different scales is proportional to the change in hydraulic

head at different scales in the confined aquifer. This change has been presented by

A.Atangana and Alkahtani [2] as

CF

Dt V (t, r) = 2rdr CF Dt h(t, r).

By putting all together one can get the equation in the form

S CF 1

(1.3) Dt h(t, r) = r h(r, t) + r2 h(r, t),

Tr r

where T is the transmissivity of the aquifer and S the Storativity.

The above equation (1.3) which describes the flow of water at different scales in time

within the confined aquifer has been study analytically and numerically [2]. This model

which is fractional in time can be fractional in space as well. This could useful to get the

global picture of the behaviour of the of water within the confined homogeneous aquifer.

As one of our aim is to enhance the mathematical model describing the flow of water in

a confined aquifer, we proposed the model given by (1.4). This model is based on the

Caputo-Fabrizio derivative in time, and fractional Laplacian in space.

This paper is devoted to study the existence, uniqueness and stability of of solution

to the problem of ground water flow within a confined aquifer in different scales in time

and in space.

Let be the domain of the confined aquifer and an open and bounded subset of

n

R (n 1), with boundary . Given , (0, 1), the specific equation of groundwater

flow we study is

(

t h = (r)r h + L h,

(1.4)

h0 = h(r, 0) on (0, T ),

Tr

where the initial datum h0 = h(r, 0) and we seek h(r, t) to be the head. (r) = rS is

given in meters per second. Physical considerations restrict (0, 1). Notice that, h is

a function of r and the time t > 0, and the coefficient = Tr S 1 is given in meters

per second. For the case = 1 then is given in meters2 per second.

The problem we consider uses the derivative with fractional order in time (2.1) as well

as the fractional Laplacian in the sense of Caputo-Fabrizio (2.3).

MORE GENERALIZED GROUNDWATER MODEL 3

L denotes the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional space derivative (2.1) of order (0, 1).

The Equation (1.4) is then a parabolic equation which is nonlocal.

Notice that for = 1, the parabolic problem given by the Equation (1.4) becomes a

classical groundwater flow problem. The pressure of water is related to the density via

a nonlocal operator. In our case we consider a pressure which takes into account long

range interactions effects. The space derivative which involve the exponential decay

Caputo-Fabrizio type has slimly the form of the fading kernel.

This paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, we recall some properties of Caputo-

Fabrizio fractional derivatives and Laplacian. Existence and uniqueness for the problem

(1.4) are discussed in Section 3. Furthermore, in Section 4, numerical analysis of the

new groundwater model is presented. Finally 5 is dedicated to our perspectives and

conclusions.

In the following we recall the definitions of fractional derivative and integral in the

sense of Caputo-Fabrizio [3, 4] that will be useful.

Definition 2.1. Let h (0, T ) H01(), (0, 1). The Caputo-Fabrizio derivative of

order of a function h is defined by

B() t

Z

CF

(2.1) Dt h(r, t) = s h(r, s) exp (t s) ds, t > 0,

1 0 1

where

B() = 1 + ,

()

is a normalization constant depending on such that B(0) = B(1) = 1.

the old definition [5], the new kernel has no singularity for t = s, but still need more

regularity. Despite some weakness of this derivative, it has been shown recently by many

researchers that this new derivative can be used with great success for those problems

described by Caputo and Fabrizio [6].

The fractional integral associated to the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative (2.2) is given as

Z t

2(1 ) 2

(2.2) It h(r, t) = h(r, t) + h(r, s)ds, t > 0.

(2 )B() (2 )B() 0

Definition 2.2. Let h (0, T )H01 (). The Fractional Laplacian in the sense of Caputo

derivative for (0, 1) is defined as

Z r

exp 2 (r )2 h(, t)d,

(2.3) L h(r, t) =

(1 ) 0

where L stand for (2 ) and = (1 )1 .

4 DJIDA AND ATANGANA

confined aquifer

3.1. Formulation of the problem and existence of solutions. Integrating the

Equation (1.4), using the associate fractional integral (2.2), yields to

Z t

2(1 ) 2

(3.1) = K(r, t, h) + K(r, s, h)ds,

(2 )B() (2 )B() 0

where the kernel K(r, t, h) is defined as

Z r

exp 2 (r )2 h(, t)d

K(r, t, h) = (r)r h(r, t) +

(1 )

Z0 r

exp 2 (r )2 h(, t)d

= (r)r h(r, t) + r h(r, t) +

0

Z r

22 (r )2 exp 2 (r )2 h(, t)d

0

1

where = (1 ) .

Now let us show that the nonlinear kernel K(r, t, h) satisfies the Lipschitz condition.

Theorem 3.1. Let (0, 1), T > 0 and K : (0, T ) H01 () a continuous function such

that there exists > 0 satisfying,

Proof. We consider two bounded functions h and in H01 (). We have by triangular

inequality

kK(r, t, h) K(r, t, )k |(r)|
r h(r, t) (r, t)
+ ||
r h(r, t) (r, t)

Z r

2 2 2 2

+ |2 |
(r ) exp (r ) h(, t) (, t) d

Z r 0

2 2

+ ||

exp (r ) h(, t) (, t) d

0

Z r

2 2

+ ||

exp (r ) h(, t) (, t) d

0

Z r

2 2 2 2

+ |2 | (r ) exp (r ) h(, t) (, t) d

0

MORE GENERALIZED GROUNDWATER MODEL 5

Z r 12 Z r 21

2 2 2 2 2

+ |2 | (r ) exp (r ) d kh(, t) (, t)k d

0 0

Z r 12 Z r 21

exp 2 (r )2 2 d 2

+ || kh(, t) (, t)k d

0 0

Thus we obtain

S 1 3 2

= 1 + 2 + 3 = + + (1 ) +

T 165

We conclude that the operator K is a contraction. The statement follows now from

Banachs Fixed Point Theorem.

In the following we show that the solution of our problem (1.4), given by the Equation

(3.1) can be written as an iteration for a given subsequence hm (r, t) (0, T ) H01 ().

Theorem 3.2. Assume that a bounded sequence hm (r, t) on (0, T ) H01 () converge to

the exact solution of the problem (1.4), then any bounded sub-sequences on (0, T )H01 ()

converge to the exact solution and is a Cauchy sequence with respect to the norm in

H01 ().

Proof. The kernel K being then bounded on (0, T ) H01 (), there exists a subsequence

K(r, t, hm ) on (0, T )H01 () that converges on (0, T )L2 () by the Rellich-Kondrachov

theorem[7]; furthermore, the difference between two consecutive sub-sequences K(r, t, hm )

and K(r, t, m ) also converges on (0, T ) L2 (). Thus the sub-sequence K(r, t, hm ) is a

Cauchy sequence with respect to the norm in H01 ().

Let hm (r, t) and hm1 (r, t) two successive sub-sequences on (0, T ) H01 (). From the

Equation (3.1) it follows that

2(1 )

(3.2) hm (r, t) hm1 (r, t) = K(r, t, hm1 ) K(r, t, hm2 )

(2 )B()

Z t

2

(3.3) + K(r, s, hm1 ) K(r, s, hm2 ) ds.

(2 )B() 0

6 DJIDA AND ATANGANA

Next we want to control the difference between the two sub-sequences hm (r, t) and

hm1 (r, t). A direct application of the triangular inequality yields

2(1 )

khm (r, t) hm1 (r, t)k | | kK(r, t, hm1 ) K(r, t, hm2 )k

(2 )B()

Z t

2

+| |
K(r, s, hm1 ) K(r, s, hm2 ) ds
.

(2 )B()
0

2(1 )

kK(r, t, hm1 ) K(r, t, hm2 )k

(2 )B()

Z t

2

+ kK(r, s, hm1 ) K(r, s, hm2 )k ds.

(2 )B() 0

Now since the nonlinear kernel given by the operator K in a contraction, its follows that

2(1 )

kK(r, t, hm1 ) K(r, t, hm2 )k

(2 )B()

Z t

2

+ kK(r, s, hm1 ) K(r, s, hm2 )k ds.

(2 )B() 0

2(1 )

kK(r, t, hm1 ) K(r, t, hm2 )k

(2 )B()

Z t

2

+ kK(r, s, hm1 ) K(r, s, hm2 )k ds.

(2 )B() 0

Hence there exist a solution h to the problem state by equation (1.4).

3.2. Uniqueness of the exact solution of the problem. In this section we propose

to study the uniqueness of the exact solution given by the problem (1.4). To do this, we

assume that there exists another solution of the problem (1.4), namely (r, t).

Before state the theorem of uniqueness of the problem (1.4), we recall the following

Lemma [4].

Lemma 3.3 (Lemma 1 [4]). Let (0, 1) and h be a solution of the following fractional

differential equation,

(3.4) t h(r, t) = 0, t > 0.

Then, h is a constant function.

Next we can now state the theorem of uniqueness of solution of the problem (1.4).

Theorem 3.4. Let (0, 1). Then, the solution of the problem of groundwater flow

given by Equation (1.4) is unique.

Proof. The approach of our proof comes from [4].

Suppose that the problem (1.4) has two solutions h(r, t) and (r, t) that can be written

in the form of the Equation (3.1). This means that

(3.5) t h(r, t) t (r, t) = t h(r, t) (r, t) = 0,

and h(r, 0) (r, 0) = 0.

MORE GENERALIZED GROUNDWATER MODEL 7

Thus it comes out for all t (0, T ), from Lemma 3.3 and the Equation (3.1) that,

h(r, t) = (r, t).

One can then conclude that the problem of groundwater flow describe by the Equation

(1.4) has an unique solution given by the Equation (3.1).

In this section, the numerical approximation of the problem (1.4) is analyse. The

stability of the problem using the Fourier method is also presented. The problem will be

solved using the Crank-Nicholson scheme.

some positive integers M and N. The grid points in time and space are defined respec-

tively by tk = k, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N and rj = j, j = 0, 1, 2, . . . , M. We also denote

by hkj = h(rj , tk ), the values of the functions h at the grid points.

The first and the second order approximation of the local derivative is the sense of

Crank-Nicholson is given as

hk+1 k+1 k k

h + h h

1 j+1 j1 j+1 j1

r h(rj , tk ) = ,

2 2

and

1 hk+1 k+1

+ hk+1 k k k

l+1 2hl l1 + hl+1 2hl + hl1

rr h(rl , tk ) = .

2 2 2

For discrete version of the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative and Laplacian, we recall that this

has been already done by Atangana and Nieto in [. Thus the following Theorems.

Theorem 4.1 (Atangana and Nieto [9]). Let h(t) be a function in H01 () (0, T ), then

the first order fractional derivative of the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative of order (0, 1)

at a point tk is

k s+1

hj hsj

B() X

(4.1) t h(tk ) = + O( ) Ek,s, ,

s=1

where

Ek,s, = exp k s + 1 + exp k s .

Theorem 4.2 ([Atangana and Nieto [9]). Let h(r, t) be a function in H01 ()(0, T ), then

the fractional Laplacian in the sense of the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative of order (0, 1)

at the grid points (rj , tk ) is given as

j k+1 k+1 k+1

k k k

1 X hl+1 2hl + hl1 + hl+1 2hl+1 + hl1

L h(rj , tk ) =

2 l=1 2 2

erf (rj rl+1 ) + erf (rj rl ) + O 2

(4.2)

8 DJIDA AND ATANGANA

The complete proof of Theorems 4.1 and 4.2 can be found in reference [9].

The results from Theorems 4.1 and 4.2 can then be applied to (1.4). Hence the

resulting equation of the discretization of the problem (1.4) using the Crank-Nicholson

numerical scheme can be written as

k

hs+1 hsj

B() X j

exp k s + 1 + exp k s

s=1

k+1

hj+1 hk+1 k k

1 j1 + h j+1 hj1

(4.3) (rj )

2 2

j

1 X hk+1 k+1

+ hk+1 k k k

l+1 2hl l1 + hl+1 2hl+1 + hl1

2 l=1 2 2

erf (rj rl+1 ) + erf (rj rl ) = 0.

B()

Ek,s, = exp k s + 1 + exp k s ,

1

Fk,j,l = 2 erf (rj rl+1 ) + erf (rj rl ) ,

2

1

G = .

2

k

X 1

hs+1 hsj k+1 k+1 k k

j Ek,s, G (rj ) hj+1 hj1 + hj+1 hj1

s=1

2

j

1X k+1 k+1 k+1

k k k

(4.4) hl+1 2hl + hl1 + hl+1 2hl + hl1 Fk,j,l = 0,

2

l=1

(

h0j = (rj ), (1 j M),

hk0 = 0, hkM = 0, (0 k N).

4.2. Stability analysis. We analyse the stability of our discrete problem (4.4) using

the Fourier method as presented in [9, 10].

Let hkj be the approximate solution of our problem and we define by jk = hkj hkj for

all k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N and j = 0, 1, 2, . . . , M.

MORE GENERALIZED GROUNDWATER MODEL 9

k

X 1

js+1 js k+1 k+1 k k

Ek,s, G (rj ) j+1 j1 + j+1 j1

s=1

2

j

1X k+1 k+1 k+1

k k k

(4.5) l+1 2l + l1 + l+1 2l + l1 Fk,j,l = 0.

2 l=1

We define the grid point function as

(

jk , for rj h < r < rj+ h ,

k (r) = 2 2

h

0, for L 2

< r L,

endowed with the norm

M

X 1 1/2 Z L 1/2

k

k (r)k2 = |jk |2 = |jk |2 dr .

j=1 0

2ar

X

k

(r) = dk (a)e L , k = 1, 2, . . . , N,

a=

where

1 L k

Z

2ar

dk (a) = (r)e L .

L 0

By applying the Parseval equality we have

Z L X

k 2

(4.6) | (r)| dr = |dk (a)|2 .

0 a=

k 2 X

(4.7) =

2

|dk (a)|.

a=

2a

jk = dk eijT , with T = .

L

By replacing jk into Equation (4.5), yields

iT X j iT j

ijT e eiT ilT e + eiT X

ilT

iG (rj )e + e Fk,j,l e Fk,j,l dk+1

2i l=1

2 l=1

iT j iT

j

ijT e eiT X

ilT e + eiT X

ilT

+ iG (rj )e + e Fk,j,l e Fk,j,l dk

2i l=1

2 l=1

k

X

+ eijT

ds+1 ds Ek,s, = 0.

s=1

10 DJIDA AND ATANGANA

j

X j

X

ijT ilT ilT

dk+1 iG (rj )e sin(T ) + e cos(T )Fk,j,l e Fk,j,l

l=1 l=1

j

X j

X

ijT ilT ilT

(4.8) = dk iG (rj )e sin(T ) + e cos(T )Fk,j,l e Fk,j,l

l=1 l=1

k

X

eijT

ds+1 ds Ek,s, .

s=1

Theorem 4.3. The finite difference scheme given by Equation (4.4) is stable.

Proof. To give a sketch of the proof of the Theorem 4.3, we use mathematical induction.

To do this, we consider Equation (4.9)

For k = 0,

j

X j

X

ijT ilT ilT

d1 iG (rj )e sin(T ) + e cos(T )Fk,j,l e Fk,j,l

l=1 l=1

j

X j

X

ijT ilT ilT

(4.9) = d0 iG (rj )e sin(T ) + e cos(T )Fk,j,l e Fk,j,l

l=1 l=1

k

X

eijT

ds+1 ds Ek,s, = 0,

s=1

then

ijT

Pj ilT Pj ilT

iG (rj )e sin(T ) + cos(T )Fk,j,l l=1 e Fk,j,l

l=1 e

|d1 | =

|d0 |

iG (r )eijT sin(T ) + Pj eilT cos(T )F Pj ilT F

k,j,l l=1 e

j l=1 k,j,l

|d0|.

Hence |d1 | |d0 | and from the Parseval equality (4.6) and Equation (4.7) we have

1

0
.

2 2

We now assume that |dm | |d0 |, m = 1, 2, . . . , k. We shall prove this for all values

m = k + 1.

MORE GENERALIZED GROUNDWATER MODEL 11

Let |d0| = |d1 |, then

eijT Pk d d

E

s=1 s+1 s k,s,

|dk+1 | |d0 | +

B() B()

|dk+1 | 1 e |dk+1 | + |d0 | 1 e |dk |

1 B() 1 e

|dk+1 | |d0 |

1 + B()

1e

|d0 |.

k

0 ,

2 2

k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N.

5. Conclusion

We have presented a framework for existence and uniqueness of solutions of the prob-

lem of groundwater flow in a confined aquifer, within the concept of derivative with

fractional order. We used the Fixed-Point Theorem as method to prove the existence, of

the exact solution. We also succeed to show that, the modified groundwater flow equa-

tion obtained by changing the local time and space derivative by the Caputo-Fabrizio

derivative, has an unique solution. The Crank-Nicolson scheme has been used to dis-

cretize our problem. In the light of this result, in order to show the efficiency of this

new model, numerical analysis of stability of the solution and numerical simulations were

presented for different values of .

Acknowledgments

The first author is indebted to the AIMS-Cameroon 20152016 tutor fellowship.

Author Contributions

Each of the authors, J.D. Djida, A. Atangana, contributed to each part of this study

equally and read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

12 DJIDA AND ATANGANA

References

[1] A. Cloot and J. F. Botha. A generalised groundwater flow equation using the concept of non-integer

order derivatives. Water SA, vol.32, no.1, pp. 17, (2006).

[2] Atangana Abdon, and Alkahtani Badr Saad T. New model of groundwater flowing within a confine

aquifer: application of Caputo-Fabrizio derivative. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, vol.9,no.1, pp.1

6, (2015).

[3] Caputo, M., Fabrizio M. A New Definition of Fractional Derivative Without Singular Kernel.

Progress in Fractional Differentiation and Applications, vol.1, no.2, pp. 7385, (2015).

[4] Losada, J., Nieto, J.J. Properties of a new fractional derivative without singular Kernel. Progress

in Fractional Differentiation and Applications,vol.1, no.2, pp. 8792, (2015)

[5] I. Area, J. D. Djida, J. Losada, and Juan J. Nieto. On Fractional Orthonormal Polynomials of a

Discrete Variable. Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, vol. 2015, Article ID 141325, 7 pages,

2015. doi:10.1155/2015/141325

[6] Atangana A. On the new fractional derivative and application to nonlinear Fishers reaction-

diffusion equation, Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 1, no. 273, pp. 948956, (2016).

[7] Ciarlet, P. G. Linear and Nonlinear Functional Analysis with Applications. Society for Industrial

and Applied Mathematics (SIAM, 3600 Market Street, Floor 6, Philadelphia, PA 19104), 2013.

[8] ARMAN AGHILI and ALIREZA ANSARI. Solving partial fractional differential equations using

the FA-transform Arab J.Math Sci, vol.19, no.1, pp. 6171, (2013).

[9] Abdon Atangana, and Juan Jose Nieto, Numerical solution for the model of RLC circuit via the

fractional derivative without singular kernel, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, vol.7, no.10,

2015.

[10] Ibrahim Karatay, Nurdane Kale, and Serife R. Bayramoglu, A new difference scheme for time

fractional heat equations based on the Crank-Nicholson method, Fractional Calculus and Applied

Analysis, vol.16, no.4, pp.892910, 2013.

(Djida) African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS), P.O. Box 608, Limbe

Crystal Gardens, South West Region, Cameroon.

E-mail address, Djida: jeandaniel.djida@aims-cameroon.org

Sciences, University of the Free State, 9300, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

E-mail address, Atangana: abdonatangana@yahoo.fr

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