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ALEUTIANI

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The arc of the Aleutian Islands and the Ra,cijic Theatre, from the A~~yAir Fo,rces in WorldFar IL

WORLD WAR II IN T_HE A'1JEUTIANS

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ALTERNATIVES FOIR PRESBRVATIONAND I.N1ERPRETATION OF'-_HISTORIC RBSOIURCES:

&b&£. __ _ - - _ _ _ _. _. _ . __ _ ~- _ _ _ jiI_ "_ • _. _ •

. A'IT-I··· ·D.;UT'I ca ·HARB-"-- ·O···'R-'·" N-I -A,'JI'Af IO·'-·.,p-~E-'I:IA,'ITII-~~'N--G,'" BAS--"·""I~ AN'·"--D'C::: I F~-Oi-:R-T'''''- M,',"I~~D'C'I 'U-S- ARMY'.'.".--

,n ... ,' .••.. ' .'" _ .. ' .. ,1._ ,'.-- .,' .... ' •...... ,.' .• ', ~Yn.L. '.' "--~,., ',',.-' .. -', -.lei .', "1.-.' _,'.".-" ',. ' .. c" J:.nn.LI:a '.'-.'.".- "'. '. "I .. ,', "

NATI10NAL HISfORIC lANDIMA8..K., UNALASKA, ,ALAS:I{A,

&&J -_. -- _.. STTR FTT n°· _. _ _ _ _ I

U.,S. Department of the Interior

,National P,ark Service

AI- ka 'Regi- • . __ ,1 0- 'm- - ,

'_ as '., ,.-.;-, ,'i~ -~/~ODiU ' .- •. ~I __ ee

2,52,5 'G,ambeD Street An. "'~O'rD'.Oi e ... Al,·, ,~'~kal ... -.! 99- ·-,50"

UI_AUO _" UAII_ '.' ,. __ ~

June 1'9911

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'Th.e stu,dy t,eam woul,d like t.OI than.k the ,Cit.y·ofUnalaska, t.h,e Alaska state H:i sto·r Lc Pre:se.rv·ation Office, the ouna Laahka Corporatio:n, th,e.Unalas:ka His·torical connaissio,.n, and t,h.e manyresi.d·ents and. assoc:iates o.fUn,a.l,ask,a.wh·o· cont.Inue to' support and nudqe this. proj1ect along and, 'wh,o' ·o·nm.any occasions ha'vedonat,ed botht.heir ·time and services. Thanks e:sp,eci.ally to 'Unalas,ka residents Bob Ad,ams and T'im .Pe.rry :for th,e generous use of' their b,oats to access Eider Point.

Thisre.port, pr-epar-ed bly' Linda cook, r·eflec.t.,s t.he e.fforts of the present stud.y t,ea.m ·as, well as Slev·e:r·a.l National P,ark Se.rvic'e: s.tudi,e:s. conductied oV1e.r the la:st.ten 'years, es,p,e.c.i.ally the w,ork of w·i.l.lia·m Brown andE:rwin N. Th,om.ps,o,.n.

Kathleen Lidfors, Regional Historian, Project Leader Michael Strunk, Chief, Planning

Michael Boylan". R:efu.'ge. Ma:nager, A.leu,tia.ns Unit., u .. ,s,.Fis,h and Wi.ldl.ife Service steven Peterson, Regional Architect

Sanford Rabinowitch, Planner

Sandra Faulkner, Historian

No,r'm,an Lie; e , Ch.Le f Appraiser

Linda Cook, Historian

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The IResource

Purpose ,of the S:tudy

s.i,g.n.i.fi,c,anc.e lo'f Resources, Rela.ted to World W,a.r II .i.n the Aleutians F'e,as.ibi.li ty _ and Suitability Asse:s:smen.t of· A.l,autian ,S,i.tes D'8'S,cription 10£ W'orld. War' II Ra,:s,Qurces in Dut,ch Harbor Vicinity ,outline of Interp,r'etiv,. Tlh.emes

1 2: 8 9

2:0

TheSettiln'g

City of Unalaska Profile Env.ir,onmen.t

E'c:,on,omy

Regional Services P,opu.lati'on. aecreatio,n Visitors

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Exl..,S -1.ng SerV1.ces

visieor Potential

2,6, 2:6 28 30 30 30 30 31 31

Statu:s of Resourc:a,s, Land Ownership Land US:Q

Resour,ce Pro,tecti.on. Boundary Revie,w

33 33 3:3;

314 315

The .AHernatives

Clonti,nue CUrren.t Mana.ge1D~ent

World Wlar II in the Al.uti.ans Interprletive C'entar A.leuti,an I:slands Nat ion.a 1. Hi.st,oric,al. Par.k

World. War II in the A l.e,ut.i ans Na.tio,n.al Hist,ori,c,al Park Nationa.l Hi,sto:r icMili t,ary Re:sarve

36, 49 45 51.1 513

Selected Refer:e.nces

54

Ap.plelndiioes

Na.t,ional ,His·tori,c Landmark Map,s

Letters ,of SupportandC'i ty of Unalas,ka Re:,solu,tio'n

516, 6.1

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In 1978 section 6 of Public Law 95-348 established War in the Pacific National Historical :Par:k on Guam and mandatied the Nati,onal Pazk S,'ervi,c'e (NP,S:), to p:r,ovide a study of s.itle:s, and areas asso'c,i.ated w',iththe P'ac,if'i,cCampa,ign of' World, War II,. In, rlespons,e, the Alas,ka, Regl'ional 'O:ffice init,i,a'ted a dr'aft, ,as,sessment, of 'th,eWorld, War ,1,1 ,Nat,i,o:n,a,l ,His,toric Landmarks Ln th,e ,A,leutian,s, and oonc Iuded that Dut.ch H,arb,o,r' Naval Ope,rating Base and Fo,rt Me,a,r's, U. S., Amry N,ational Historic Landmaz'k (Dut,c:h Harb,or NHL) w,as ,b,oth fe,asibl,e and s,uitable f,or ,es'tab,lishment of a new area in terms of a,clce,;ss, existing i:nfrastru'ctur'e" cost, and integrity o,f' th,e rleslour,ce. This, report r'e:,a,f'f'ir'ms the ,draft s,tudy and e,x,amin,es, f:Qu,r manag,emen,t alternatives for preservati6n and interpretation of W~rld War II resources at the Dutch 'Harbor NH,L,inclu,din'g the opt.Lon of "'n,o act Ion , 'II'

:Outch Har,b,o:r NHL is Looaned in. Un,al,as.ka, one of the fast,e:st 'growing commun I ties Ln Ala.:sk.a. In the l,ast f i ve yea,rs, boom-rt Lme deve Lopment; in bot.h the commer'c i.a I f i,shi,ng and, ship:pin!g

· d t" '. h ,.'. d i d W" 1· d'·, we-.. I '.. . .. ~, t"'d' . 'Ith t· h' Dut; b H be N~H-···'L-·

1nus<r1e,s !,~as ]elopar'.:c~z,e· .. ·. many".,o,r' ..... cc·~ .. ',ar I,== rle:s,'ourc,es, aSSOC,1,a'e-' Wl.:· .. ' ',I~!~e . ·U·C,-,Jar;~lor ,Iii .• ,

p:rom.pt:.ing NP',S to conduce a two:_year Nati.on,alHistoric Landmaxk boundaryre'viewto, r'e,'-assess

t: th- . 1" d' ',", k-' . ...' '. ,tI, ". b" ·'Id· " '. , .. d La 'd' '-h .' 1 '. , 'fcc tho " h " t-·

many 0 cne I ancmaz« 's, contr~bu,t,~ng .u~-·",.,.Il.nlgs arm Lands , W".,1,Q some or .ne 'c',J1s';.or,1C

buildi,n'qs ,have b'een rehabi.lita.ted f',orus,e"m,any :stan.d ,emp'ty" sla.ted for demolitio:n, or left ,to ruin in th"Q stormy Aleutian ,clim,a,t,e., 'There is, no i.nt,erpretati,on of the, landmark ,or the, two other' Nati,onal H,is,to,ri"c Landmarks (,NHL,) within th,s ,city limi.ts" and r,ec,o,rd d.ev,el,o'pme,nt

'.' . . . l' t · th t .' le- h- .' t 'f- t'h · t ' . d t, ·t· ',' A h .

1,S s- OWIO rlecogn1ze'-:- .. e nauaona, '.',erlL~age 0- 'I-V,ese ,S1'les, anu s~-ruci~'ure,s ._s' c_,ang8occurs

on the Ls Land it is appaz-errc t,hat, the, key ge,ogr'ap,hic f',e,atu,res that made Dut.ch Harb,or so,

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eff,e,ct,i've as a s'trategic coastal d.efen.se b'8s"e :during 't:he 'war ,arle equ,al1y favo'rable tOday :fo,r

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deve Iopment; of t'he harbor aa a ma'j'or international sh,ipP,inga.nd fishing center.

Overwhel'min[g pubLLc su.plplort :fo'r this p,roj,elct in. Un,a,l,aska corrtLnues to remi'nd the NPS tha.t th,e reso:urce.s, at Dutch Ha,rbor NHL have I' if' l,ef't,unatten:d,ed" ,a limited fut,ure. In 1'98;'7' th,e U'na.,laska city council pas:s,ed aresolut,io,n stro,ngl.y i:n.fav,or ,of a NP'S W',or,ldWa,r' II i.'n'ter:p,retiv,e - c,enter at Un,ala,s,'ka • Loc,alp'ubli,c auppor-c 'has won the endorsem,ents, of the 'Co,nqre,:s:s,i'o:nal De leglt,ti,on I Senators Tad, ,stev',en:s and Fran,k, ,Kurkowski and Congressman DO'D, ¥'oiun,g I then Alas'ka Governor ,steve Cowpler'", the s;tate H,is,to'r,ic ,Sites A,dv,is,o'ry commi.ttee, andtbe A,laska .A:ss'Q,c,i,ation for Hi,stor'ic, Preserv',at,ion,. 'Unalas.ka r'esi,d,ents feel that with 'tb,e fifty-'

Y,e~-,a:c··'r- ann l' vez "S~ .a r-~y··" o~"f-=' ·t'h··.·e·_· b'.···Q:,m-1b- 11i n 9- ·0·' ·,'f····· Dut.ch -H~ ·a····r'b· o-'Ir--~' r-·a-p·.-'·l.'~ d:' l-y' appzoach .11' n iq'~- Ln '1··1 9:=9-2-' n--·a··-=-··t~'; ona .1'

__ ". __ ':_ ... 1 .. ""'."_"'" __ '.:: - '_' .. _-__:'_ .. __ - __ .. : .. , .... , .. , ... _, _.' .. __ .',._'." ':' ... ' ... - __ ... _, __::___. __ ._' .... _ .. _-- .. _. _-_'.,_ .. ,:._'.,._.-_ .. _.'J :"'. , •• ::_ .1' ·1_,'._ •. · .• __ 1:· ... -,

attentio,n will :focus on the Al.eu,ti.,a:ns, and ,n.,ow is, 'th.8 tim,e to anticipate future dem,ands· on World War II resources.

I

Dut'ch Harbo'r ,NHL is lone ofth"e ei'9'ht World War II 'Nati,ona,l Hi,sto,r'ic, Landmar:ks in Ala:s'ka, dles,ign,a,t,e,d in 198,5'-119187. Th,e s,le,ven o'the:r landmarks are A,dak, Attu" cape ,Fieldl:For't G,l'e:nn, Ki:ska" K,o·d,ia,k, Lla,d,dF,i.,e,lld ,a:nd s,it,ka N'aval 'oper'atin'g Bas,e, f'i ve 'o,f'whi'ch ar'e int.be Ale.utians. The Na,tional Hi,st.'oric Llandm,a:rks in t:he, A,1,18utia.'n:s re:p,re.sent. th,eA,llie,d, and Japlane:se, battles tiC control t,hi:s :str,ategic La Land cnaf,n. In 11942 'th,e Im,peri,8.1 Gener'a,l H'eadquarters in T,oky,o olr'dler'e,d anassaul,t on ~,he, Midw',ay and Al,eutian LsLands t.o draw th,e American, Navy f:r'ol1l Mi,dw,ay" 'th,u,;s prot,ec,tin'g' 'th,e Im,pe'rialNavy from ,atta'ck" and 'bl,lolcking commun Lcat.Lon b,etwee"n the Uni ted, ,sta,te:sa,n,d t,h,IQ S,lov,iletU,nilon.,

'T'h,e ,Aleu,ti.an I':slandsl for,m a ,1100mile,v'o,lca'ni,c arc that swee,ps lout intolt,h.e N'orth Pac,ific ocean ,off the, Alaskan ma i.n Land, To 'the nortih i.s 'th,eB,eri'ngSea and ,to 't'h,e s,out,hwe:s,t, ar'e 't'he 'Ku,ril.e. 'Islan.ds, :stlepp,in,g s'tcl'nes t.e th,e :n'Q,rth,e:rn. fLank elf 'th'e Imperial f'orc,es of' 'th.,e IJ'aplanese E,mp,ire, dur.ing W',orlld W,a.r 1'1:. Th,e: t,ow',e:ring peaks and, tr,ealch,ler'o,us roc,ky' c,ola:s,tlin,es o,f t:ba, mourrt.a In ran,ge, 'tha't,r i:se,:s d,irect,ly out ,of - t'he :se,a. ,to :f'orm the Alleuti,ans, we,r'e, 't.h,e n.o,rt:hern mil,it,a,ry theatr'e of t,h.e Paci.fLc oampaLqn , and the first ,Amer'ican tle,r'r'itlory to be occup.ied by a flolr'eign po;we,r' :sin,ce the, War o,f 181,2.

Milit,ary lop,e,r',atilons, i:n 't,he A,leutian,:s b,e'gan Ln 1939 when the Jo,int, 'U. s:. .A.rlD.,y/Na,vy B,o'a.rd mandatied ,the ,de'velo,p;m,en·t lof the Ala,:sk,an d,ef,e:nses. ITo conatiruct; :ma'jlo,r mili t,ary inst,all,atioln:s in t:,h.is r'emolte corner' ,of' th,e corrtLnent; en'gineer's .face,dt'h,e 'barr'ie,r's o,f voIcanf.c zock , muskeg, hilly dense tundra., floo,d:s" vilolen't winds" and unpre,dic'tablle fOlg ICIQv,er. By 19141, Icolasl't,al de.f'ens"es,w,e,r,e in pll,a,c,e at Dut.ch ,H,a,rbolr' N,a va I Air ,Sta-t,ion and Fort, M'ea,rs,U '.' IS '. Army,. I,n A.pri,l 194,2 Army t,ro'op,s c~omplet,led c,o'n,;st:r'ulct.i,on lof an Lnnovatii.ve 's,t,e,e,l r'unway a'tPlort Gl,en,n, a secre't lair:b,as,Q Ion 'Umn.ak I:sland sixty la,ir 'mi.l,es 'from Dlutch Harblor, and the on,ly f,e,as,ib,le air'str'ip

terrain in the region. .

IOn th.em,o,rning ,of' June ,3, 1.942: ,tw'o wave,:s ,of Ja,pan,e,se, Ze,ros bombed D:ut,c,h H'arb,or.The fo,llo,wing ,afterno,o:n 'the Zle'ros 'returned, but no lon,ger undez the: ccvez of ,surpris,e--'American P-40 I S 'were on alert at; Fort. G,lenn.. T1he, IJap,ane:se. lost nine p,l,a:nles, in the tw,o Id.a,Y att.ac·k,.

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Thrlee da,y':s .later Ja,pane,:se t:ro,olp's Landed Ion 'Kiska and A'tt,u, Is,l,and:slli' Thle inhab,ita,n't,s ,of .At,t:u"

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:folrty'-fi.VIQ Nati.ve A"leut,:s and ,a :s,lch,o,o,l t.le,alc,hler, fel,linto en,emy handa and w'!ere h.,eld ,ca,ptive

in Ja,p,an unti,l t,he: end o'.f the wa.r.. A,s a saf'ety pr'e,caut.ion th,e U. IS '.' Armyexp,e,d,it,ed 'th,e e,va,ccuanLon of 'th,e Ale'u,t :frlom, vi. 1 ,lag,e,s on A'tk,a, Akut,an, Unalaska, Umn,ak" ,St,. George" land st., P'a'ul is,la:nd.s. Th.les,le Al.eut were inte,r'nled for over thr ,e Ie years in abandoned cannezy .blui,ldingsl Ln

2

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Historic Mapfrom Bai'lie ReDort,.

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Pacific WQr~~

1M . _. ...-!Irrrzr:v

M(ddlt;.Ph!ls~ published ill J947~

I 'ill 1111111 . I 'I

II

ATTU

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Allie'd trolops pursued t:he Jap1a,n,ese and moved to Adak I,sl,and in Augu:st 1,942. Th,e Fort Gl,lenn airf,iel,d w,as over 700 mi,les from l{,iska--th,e move t,o' A,dak, cut; the di,sta,nce in half • Arm,y engineers quickly constructed airfields at Sweeper Cove under the most harsh weather and Iground 'c,onditions to set the, s,ta'ge,fo,r th'e E,leve,nthAir F'orce"s r,aids on Ki'ska and Attu, t,h,r'ou,qholl't 'thef,all of 19142. Shrou,d"ed by 'the: i:mp,ene,tra,ble f,og" J,apa,n,ese ~ar'ge,t,s es,cap,ed ,detecti,onand Allied forces, agai,n,to'Q,k,the, o,ffens,ive fr'o'm t,he LaLand ,of Amchitka whi,ch p,ut, Ameri"can bom,b'er,s withi:namere seven1:y' airmile:s o,f Jap,anlese garrisons.

Alli,edfo,r'ces Lnvaded A,ttu on May 1,2: ,1942 at, a q:r,e,at CO';St, tic botih s"ide,s. A,l,lied,re,p,orts had 'gro':s;sly u,nldere,stimated Japa,n,ese, troop number-s and fo,r thr,e,e we:eks both 'sid.es stru,9g11ed in, infantry combat; t,he only land bat,tl,e on Nort,h .Ameri,c,an s,oil during the wa,r. Attu was th,e:

main battle :si't,e e,f the Paci! ic ca.mpaiqn in th.e Aleutian:s and thie reeapt'ure of 'the Ls Land by Al1ie,d f,o'r'cesfor'ced the Jap,an,ese 'tofle,e Kiska,. All the Japanese forc,es, on Kisl'ka, ov'er 5000 tr'oops, were succes,sfully ev'acua.te,d fr'om t,h.e LsLand on Jap,a,nlese sh.ips, sle.nt in fr'o,m the Kurile, 'Islands • ,Befriended by highlyf avorable wea,ther p,at't,e:r:ns" the IJa,panes,e ships avo Ided A.llied. de:t,e,c,tion and mano,euveredpast, the 'U. s. b.Iookade , TW,o wee'ks later Allied fo,r'ces, Launched a twol'-p,ar't Lnvae i.on ion Kiska, on'Ly to find. 'upon arr'iving t,hat, the enem,Y had eaceped ,

5

FPASmILllYAND SUITMlILrIY ASSESS:MENT OF' PARK LAND SITES,IN 'I-HE ALBtmANS

I - - :iiiiiiiii! ~ ~ 755JIIiiiiii!!i - -- -- -- " . ~ £FFFT-

In 19'86 the N'P,Sprepared, a, draft. feasibility'-sui'tabi,l,ity :stud,y ot: four Natio,nal Hi,storic Landma,rks in, ,Alask,a for cOD,sidera,tion a,s, nationa,l park units. Tbe dra,ft ,studyfound,that th,e Dutch Harbor NHL, was the most fe,asible lOlc:ation ,for a n,ew uni.t.. The Dutch- 'Ha'rbo,r'NHLw8,s :suitable as ,8 newuni,t, a,sn,Q Qlthe'runit of th:. 'N,a,'t,io,nal P,ark ,Servicerep,r,es,entstb,e A,leuti,an Ca.mpa,iqn of the War in the P'ac"ific, lor rep,resen,ts the Un.it,ed, sta'tes" ,continen,tal ,coas'tal defenses ,in th'e, Pa'cific. T,he curren,t stu,dy r'e,affir,ms the ,coR,clu"sion,s of th,a,t draf't.,

F~'e" as "b'~litulS····:' ulab-I-itu of····" Attu:-, ·,r'''!!f!jna Fi,"el'd-/F'" ~'o' 'rt··, G-Ien'~-' n and······,- .'~ I 1.I'1..",lk-:a-· ,N··' ,.wco·n·· 'aI' I Histonc-~" Lan-.:-- d-' m arks~,-, .. -

'.' '=,~_.:,J,..:_ till""." I,' "c~I'_II".1 II,-u I_I' ~ _ 1:-' _ ' __ I,_,ll, ' j,_,I'\.fiJ:I.ClII,' I , __ ,.,~,_, .• _:-:!.::. '_.:.. ' _,' _u_

The draft stu!dy IQ.etermi.ned that the three ou,t,lying wester.n si't'es,Attu" F'ort Glenn, a:nd ,K"iska were ne.ither f,ea,g,ible nee suitable a.s nationa.l park. units. All three island areas are: susceptiblato thepre,c,ario'u,s Ale:utian wea'thar patter'nsthatn'o~t only limit access,b,ut could easilYID.aroon visitors for extand,ed p,e.riQlds of time:. Equally "the verynatur,e of the t.errain, th,e 1.a.'rge exp,ansesof rOlll,i,ng tundra,ma.ke it difficu-lttoinsure t'hes,afety of

visito:rsin the event of' ra.pid w'eath:er change,s,. Some ar,eas still contain, li.ve ozdnance,

Lastly" there is no publi.c -i,nf'rastru~c'ture, and the airstrip,s ,at: Attu. and. F'or't Glenn are d,anger,o,us.ly i.nadequatle. T'be cas,ts, associ,ated wi'thuP9'radinq these sit:e:sto ac:com'l11odate: even them,ostrestricted and en.forced visitor tour route, asw,all ,as, NPSstaf.f and faci.litiesw,ould be prohibitive in proportion to the anticipated public use.

IFeas:ibUitylSuitability ,of: Dutch Harbor National Ktstoric Landmark

Theeva,luation IOlf Dutc:h, Harb10r NH'L 'was far more pr,om.isling.Unalaska iath. largest city in th,e ,Aleuti,an:swith a permane.n·t pop,ula.tio'n. of appr'oximata.ly 290'0 re;sidents with an add it,ion,a, 1. 3000 to 5,0100: seasonalworlt f'orce. The airst,r-i'pi bu.ilt, ,d,uring Wo.rldWa.r II prov.i.desrequ.la.r comme.rciala.ir service to and from .Anc,ho'rag,ewi th shuttl,e service to outl,yinq islands. From .May to S,eptember the .,tate ferr'y syst.emusuall'y has lD.onthly serv.icea.long the Aleu.tian Chain with a stop inUnalaska.C~r'uise ships have ,stoppe'cI in Unalaska in the past and two s,h.ip,sare expI8,ct.d inth' •• ,ummerof1991.Wo,rld War II sites ,are easi.lyacces:s,ibleby' vehicle or b,oat and provide iexcel.l.ent oPP,ortunit .. ie.s for i,nterpreta'ti,on of the World War II in. Alask.a theBe., Furth,armore, t'h.e m.assi V. co,astal defense: f"orti,fic,atio1n:s ,andl.olokoutsprovide ,spectacular panor,amas and v'ista.s of the neighboring i,slands ,and. ,c,o,ncept:u.alapprecia1:i.on for the milit,a.ryav,ents, at Dutch Harbo'r a,nd.to t,h!e we,st,. Tbe:se re,sour,ces ar-e u.nequalla:d in the Aleut.iansandunparalleled in the other' 35,0, pilus unl,ts of t,h.e NPS.

. ~

'In,additi.on to i"dent,ify.ing Dutc,h Harbor as a pot,e,nt,ial unit of the Natio:nal Pa,rk Sys't,em", the dra:tt st,udy' sug'gest,ed th,at a pr'e:serv,ation agreem,ent be f,ormaliz:e,d with the f'eder'al, state, and c,o,rp,oratela,nd m,anager,s 'of' Attu, Fo,rt Glenn, and Kis,ka to recogniz:e t,ha:se, ,si tela as, a

'N' tl 1" 'H" I t· • M~·l·t R

" ·la.'I.·.·~,ona· _ .1S'.~.·lor 11C_ .1_ J.,··.,.ary , .. _eserve.

:OESCRIPTIO,N' Q,F WORlD WAR n RESOURCES IN' mE DurCH HARBORVICNrIY

Dutc,h H,ar,b'orN,av,al Operatin,g Ba:se and Fort Mears His,toric Distr'ict cerrcer s ar-ound 'the gra,nd, :strateg'ic n,atur,al ha,rbor ,of Unala'ska Bay. Du,ring the 'war, ,this, :p~rem,.i,er dee,p wat,e'r ha,rbo,r functioned as, the DiIl,aj ,or ,shipP,ing' and, supply station and Navy and Army ,def,ens,i ve cOlmplex in t,he, Aleutians. B,uilt into t,he p:r,e,cario'us sheer cliffs and bluf:fs ar-ound th.e he.rbor , d,ef,en,se stati'Q,ns and obse:rva'ti,on posts :searche,d for an enemy easily ma.:ske,d. in 'the illu.sive Aleu.tian. :fog.

Th,e Dutc,h, Ha"rb,or Histo.ri"c D'i:strict encompasse's all o,f Amaknak ,!',s,lan.d.; all of Hog Island, and

sit,e:s orr Dna Leaka 'Islan,dhave, b,e'e:n ,pro,posed as add i.t.Lons t.o, the NHL., R,eslo'urc:,e,s i.nclude a 1. 1.

existing World War II roads, docks, fortifications, and structures. In 1990 the Historic D,istrict on, Amaknak LsLarid cons ist.ed of .14,5 conta-Lbut.Lnq structures and 205non-contributinq s,tr'uct'ures. The number of contrr ib,uting structures on U'n,8,la:ska and H,09 I's,l.,ands i:s u,n,de'term,ine,d ,at 'this, time, '.

A:t 'th,e ,tim,e 'Olf t,he June 119,42 attack t,hefacilities a,tDutch ,Harbor wer,e ma,rgin!a;,l,., S,p,u,r're,d. by the t,hreat 'of r,ep,e"at,e,d air at.t.acks and the ,enemy presence on Kiska and Attu,the Army and N,a,vy expanded the hclrb'or-d,ef,ens,es,. The ooaet.a L and i'nfant,r'yde,fens,es, w'ere known c,o,llectively' as Dut.ch H,arbor' s liI'lr,o'n Rin'g. III Major' d,ef·e,nse stati,ons, e,xis,t,ed, at Fort,sM~e,ars" Learn,ar,d,,,Schwat.ka" and Brumback wit'h ,sat,elli't,e st,;ations at consuanc Lne Poi,nt,,' Erskine P'o,int, U'gald,a'g'a B,ay, and cape Wislow. I,n1943 Fort Mears 11\Qv,ed to, trna Laska lsl,and assembling'troops Ln Unalaska a,n,dPyrami"d, v,al1,eys t.o r,epel a p,os'sible over-Land Lrrvas Ion,

· ~. .. - Lsl.and

,Sl.gnl..f',l.can.'t World,W,ar II :st,ructures r,ema:Ln on Amaknak, Hog, and unat.aska Ls.l.ands ,

,AMAKNAK ISLAND

,

MT.., BALL········,· W'U""" nlCW'rAlJ: ,.,AI ,.,.."oc il.r€9 ~ ... -" ."_.l.'_, s. n'~ ~.,I'.,Ii:J."'~~_,J'I' rl"'I~

on t,he: sl,op,es ,of Mt • Bal,l'y:hoo , t'heh.ighes't peak on Amaknak Islan:d" over tw'o doz en ammuni,tion,

9

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UNALASKA,ARBASl'fB'MAPS Key to' Unalaska &" Dutch

'H-;--- - WW':""', n' Rei, - .

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Close '. 'U' 'P' A', maknak .' . ,. ~

I_I/ '_I •. ' './~ ,~, 1_,1 ,--, ':_

Island, U:nalaska

Townsite (Ie~t) &' Unalaska Island Bay Area (right)

1. Amaknak Island

21. Unai,8:ska 'ToWDSli'te

3. Mt" Ballyh,IOO Installations 4.Ulakta, He:ad, 1& Fort S:chwlatka s, Hill 4100 Coa:stal Defenses,

6. Naval Operating Base

7. ,Airport Buildings, ,Ae:ro;logy Build:in,g, Torpedo 8,ombsight Shol:pl Be Ware"hou:s,es

8. Iliuliuk Submarine Base S:ite~

9. Summer ,B,ay; Fort Brumback 101", Eider Point, Fort Leamard ll"Hog Island

AI I-

ew

1_.. 11_1 'IIlj

._. = E4= 2L"1

PW.ASICA CC-.~ MASICA

'",

m:ag,azines jut frollthe mou,ntain, sidle withp,rotective bla,st walls. Four m,ore ma,ga,z;in.s fo;r fUSI,a:s, and ,detonat,ors aranea,r th'8 baae of themou,ntai,n.Bel,ow thasein,stallati,on,s,the Army blast,ad nin'e s'emi-,cir,cu,lar r,ev,etment:sint'othe base of th,emo,unt,ain t,OI protec,t a.ircraft and v.,bic:las fr'om flying sh,rapnel. In front oftbe revetm.ents nea.r t,he short airs,trip ha,l:f o,f th,e J 00' x ,150' doub,l,e ,b,last--p,sn-type, h,a,nqar' is sti,ll Ln us' ••

,ULAKTA. HEAD AND FORTSCHWATK4

W! '" ~ . iMP !iiiiii!iiI P 1!1"'7751

U'la,kta Head,pe.r,che,d at th,e top of then,orthern f,ace of Mt. Ballyhoo" Ls the highe:st coasta,l d,efensa battery ,aver 'c,onstru,ct'ed ,int:he Uni te,dStates ~, Ula,kta,- Head, i:s Q,n,eof' t,WQI c'0&sta1 ,defen:se :stations on the i:s.lan,d and fu,nctio'nedasth,e'keys,tone component of the li'Ir'o'b Ring" :samicir'cu.lar d·efen,sewi.th flank.,ing sta.tions at Fo,rts B,rumback and 'Learnard on Una La ska. ,Island. Of the oVler 100 ste,el and wooden structures, that once s,urround.d the sit,e~only th,s con,crete in.s'tallati'onsha.v8; survive:dthe po:undingwinds and ex.plosure. The Ha.rbor D'efe,nse Co'mmand and Ob,ser'vation S,tati,on Leans out over the cliff c,f t,he monnt,ain., T'ha long cave:rnous tunnel.s of the IClon:c'r'ete, Batt.eryMag,8zin. conn,e,ctthe road to a P'an,ama gun mount. I:n t'he event of enemy ,&'ttack gun operator:s -received firing instructio,ns, fr'o'm this,oommand p'o,st a,n:d a.ll1mun.it,io.n was t,emporarily :stor'ed arid load'Qd. Alo.ngt:h8: rOlad el.flphant steel sh.e,lte,rs" camouflaged on thesid,• but qui,ck.ly evident by their r,oundad entrance,hoiuse:d to,ns o,f live

. · t" a.mmUDl..':-1o,n.

To the: souch , on "Littl"e soueh Am,ericau " rises Hill. 400, the seco,n!d coas,tal defens,e post o'n t,be i:sland. A switchba,ck ro,ad rise:s 240 meters, ,B.bo,ve the coast to the two-tie,re,d cOlncreta,

- .. _. - - -- ---- . -

'fortre,ss of' t,ha ,clefan:se in:st,a .. ll.ation. battery comnand post.: Four Planama gu.n 'DlO,unts, r,eady to

_._ - -

hold 155 mmquns ,si't in a s,emi,cirel'ebeneath the battery c,ommand and observation post,.

Travelling dow'n.tbe road" one sees the ,sca.rs 8.n.d.tr'a.c,as o,f fo'rmer struct,ure,s in the topography and Landaoape , Once disturbed.,ar,c,tic tundr'a i.s slow re:t,urn, andrare,l,Y h,ides al.1. the avide,nca of a structure or a road. IOn Hill 400 this phenom.enon has created ,.unique ,histor'ic Landacape ,as no ,developm,enthas oc,curredsin.ce the war. All blast marks, worn p!atc:bes" ,andun'8v',e;nveg:etation cl,ea.rly in.dicat,e W'orld. War II. c.o,nstructi'on. Skillfully ca,moufla.gsd Ln this Landacape lie und,erg.r,ound elepb.antmagra.z:ine's"seal.ed tunnels" and natu.rai

ca·· °V-.~ ~I

_ I _~' _' " ' '._~- iii 11111

NAY.ALOPERATING BAS~

The o.l,aestnavy in.stal.lat.i,o:ns used by them.il,itary in Wo,rld War II w'er. 'th,Q pre,-wa.r U.S. ,Slign,B.l 'Cor'p,sbrick ,ap,artment houee , cotta'ga,plowerbouse, and pumphous,e. Th.esebuil'dingrs are :still at the,ir oriq.i.nal sit,es. The .Navy statione:d. i.ts haa.dqua.rt,ers atth,e Dutch. Harba'r' dock

12

COR:

WAIR 1ll[IPAR'TMENT

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Diltt,Ki. £1!I!iI;M"~ 'StIlIU., .tho '~ JOB 1190lil:6

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SECRIT

SECR:Ef

Historic War Depanmeni map of Dutch. Harbor and sateliue OI,utPO'Sts, 1946. (U.,S,~ Anny Corps of Engineers, Anchorage)

"""I

II

I I

an,d i:n1944wh,en. the base wa,s completed, i.t could acco'mmodate 281 office.rs and Qve,r 5,0100' e.n.l.isted men.. Thi:s s,am,e dook , builtin. the 1,8,80's, was, the de'barkin'g cente.r tort,h.e A.l,eut people evacuated. fromUnal,8sk,a , Atka, and.t,h'ePribi.l.of is lands, after the June 1942 bOimbin,gs ..

Ac·ro,s;s the street from the dock th'e Navy buil.t its prestig·ious, struct.ures ,the Navy B,a.rra.cks, Mess Hall, and st,ation Bri.q. Thethree-build.ing com.plex is, int.e.rc,Qlnnec,t,ing, a scheme Idesilg·ned by'l:,he Detro.it ,ar,ch.itect A.l.fred .Kahn.. T'he- mess ha,ll :seated. 500 men an.dthe sta.tio,n B·rig· ·held Japanese pris,oners in September 1942. To,da..y the complex sta:nds ampity,., Up the hl.ll 'the .Defens.e HlousingAr,e8" ,8 tra.ct of 4,0 .h,ou.:se:s .built f,o,ro,fficers and.thei.r f'am.il.i.,es, re'tains, m,a.n.y of it.:s original architlelc.tural f·eatures.

T.he Naval base inolud.8S th'8 Aerologybu . .il,dlng and Torpedo Bombs,ight and utility S.ho,p' ,at the a.irp,o,r~ " The:se two buildinlgsa.nd the adj a.,c'entw,areho,us,e, and a.nne.xrepre.san.t one Qlf theb'8st contigulous gr,oupsof ext"sn,'i: W,orl,d Wa.rII building's on the island.. IT'he Aerol,ogyb,u.il.ld.inq s,srve,d. ,a.sthe pa sseng,er termi.na.1 at th,e airportunti.l. the 19 S 0 s .' T'raesp lantadb,y the A:rmy Ln on.,s 'of th,e.i.r nunez'oue attemptstoador.nthe barren Aleuti.an Landacape encircle t,he site.

ILIULlUK !PUB· t.,I DTa.n:rD ~ ~'E'

~I, __ : .. ,' -'-,~'.'.c., ~G

The subma.ri.ne base at DutchHarbo·rp·r,ovided the most extensive .tacili.ties for b,oat r,ep,ai.r land. docking· in the Al,euti.an Islands. 'Tolda.y the subm.a .. rin.ebase s,hows, h.ard.ly a trace o.f .its hi:stor.ic use except for the Ma .. rineRailway Sh . Lp Repai.r Sh.Qd .• , T'he Mari.ne Railway Shed operates as a d:ry .dock f,or s·b . .ip r,epai.rand is B.rc:hi tecturally inta.c,t since t,hewar' '.' There ar'efew :structu.ra.l.a l·te.ration:sto th.8 building and it ,stands as, a. Lone r,emi.nder to the nave.I baae, Th,eS,h,ed i:s aLao a prime ex,am.ple of the potentia.l for rehabilitation. of the Worl'd Wa.r I I buil,d.ing :st,o,ck.

U.NALAS:KA AND HOG ISLAN.D DEFENSES

S,lTMMER .BAY

_. .

F,ori: .Br·umba,ck .a;t Summ,er Bay on th,e shores of the Un·alaska Bay was one of the firs·tcoas·tal st,a'tion:s, .biu.i.lt ,andth'Q ea:st.ern compon.ent in the Iron Ring defen,se. P'o,sitio,ned high ,onth,e hills.id,a th,. concrete. b,att,ery c,ontrol and ,obsarvat.i.on post still cOIDUlands the .harbor. The

15

1_,1

1 •. '1 I·

,s"andy be,a,ch front w',eaves, around th,r,e,e sh,elt,ere~d coves cr'eati'n,q a natural window orree t,he, harbo,r '. S'oddepre,s,sionsof the, "fort,y quonset; hu,ts, andtw'en,t.y cabanas that once cccupaed th,e s,i,te oovez 'the low-lying tundra ,hi"l,l,s. ,In th,em,id:n,ight aun o"f the summer mont,hs h'un,dr'ed"s of specie:s of wil,d:flowers, Lnc.Luddriq cvez rrLne s,pecies of wild ,orchids blanket 't'bese h,ist'oric f'Q,ot,pr int's, .

EIDER'POINT'

..

At the western wing of the Iron Ring, Fort Learnard presides on the cliffsides of Eider

P'oin't. A,c,c,ess,ible only by wate,r" the re:mot,e f',or'tw,as, the ,lar'gest of allth,e defens,ive o,utp,osts on trna.Laeka Island. Suspe,ndedb,etween the backdr-op of Table T"op Moun,tai,n vol,cano and s,h,ee,r 'cl,iffs of ,several hundred, f',ee,t, ,Fort L!e,a,rnard II s, thr,ee-tiered c,o.nc,rete b'att,ery command P"ost caaoadea down the r,o,cky ,bluff'. Two Paname qun. mounts Ion a gun blo,c,k. and an ammu,ni,tion m,aq,azine facethe,entran.ce ,to tbe hazbcr-, A long narr,ow underground 'tun,nel leads fr,om th'8 'g'un:s to, the, fort settle'me,nt wh,er'8 quonset; hut.s , ,fram,e w,ariehou,ses'l and a, fra:me:m,ess hall, wit.h an, loff'icers I annex still st,a,nd. cut; Lrreo the, ,cliff:si,de ,ara,ad d,e:scends fr"om th,e fOJ;tto 'the beach and dock at .BroadBa'y. T'o'qether,the World War II buildings and Landscape and the stun,ning' natu,r',8.1 bleauty of' the si.te" ,const,itute one of 'th,e be;st World. War II resources in the region.

H,og Is,land Ln Unalaska B,a,Y' p,erf,orm,ed the ,im,possible in th.e ,Aleutian,s--predictinlg' and. forecast,i:nq the weather. A combina.tio:n met,eorolo'gical and tide station cable,d hourly :readings vi.a the island liS, 1,a:rgena'val rangera,dio s,yst,em, to the surrounding forts, and 'Qut'P'OI:S,t:S,. ovez f'orty quonaat; huts, eupportied a 'g'arris,o,n o:f 25'Ome,'n a~ this cr'it,ic,al stati,on,. T'h,e his,t,oric landscape of WOlrld War II s,t,r'u,ctures and bu,i,l,ding:s remains in,tac,t.,

18

II

Fm1 SdhNf,~ Ctl1ttma,uJ ,._" d1 If)lmod "ktrd

Vn' JD:llakn~ h'ltlnd~ Slifr Pt~lJlf in ,d~t btlr%~II~/l'

!The War int,he ,Al,eu:tians 'th,em,e in,clude:sbo,th· the, military expezi.ence and the cult,ur,al and, s,oc,io,l,ogi"c,al, ,effect:s, o'f the wa'r Ion a unfque sleetor of tlie Aiteric,an, popul,8,ti .. on. Milita,ry in:stallat,io,n:s tr,a,ns:form,ed :rlemlote island:s into defen'sive str,ongh,olds, with su,ppli,es, and :fac,ilitie,:s t,Q su,p;port t,e'ns 'of tho'u:sandsof se'r'vicem,en in a very s,h,ort period of t,im,e. The ,effects ,of the ,b\iil'dup ,had a dir,e'ct ,im,pact on this exi'sting residents and cuk tu,re Ln a,ddi tilon totopograp:h,y, Land -use: I' Q,ndnat,ur',a,l rleSQurlc,es of many Ls Lands Ln th,eA,le,utia,n chad.n It Th"er,ef,or,e, the range o,fhi:storictheme:s int,erpret,s the 'militar'y expezLence Ln ·the Aleuti,8,n c,amp,a,ig:n aa we,ll as the: geo-p,hy:s,i,c,al ch,ar,a'ct,er of the, Aleut,ia,n Isl,ands and the, history and cui t,ur'e o,f th,e Nati,ve Ale:ut.

A.R,eq:i'onal, q,eoq,rapby ,a:nd q,eo,1,QII9Y & ~

B. Diac:,a:very of 't'b"e, isl,a,nds :i'D, 'the e.ilghtee'D't'h cent'ury c, Rus,sian f'ur station. ,and iD'ter:nation,al fur' trade

D. In:terna'ti,oD,.,l ,and ,d"omest.ia, shi,ppiD,g rOlut"es, rOl,e of' UD,imak Pass .,nd, dee:p w'ater :polr't lat~. Unala:ska

E., .Ro,ute to th,e YUkO'D _D,dNo".. during gol,d rushes

P,., Aleu,ti,aa hea,d,'quarters, f,or American A,lask,. Commer'c,ia,l c'o,mp'8,ny a,nd, Northe:r'D C:omJle,rcia,l, CO;,_pa,uy

G '. 'U. S • ReVe'llue, 'cutter I COI.at Guard. 'U •• ,dquarters

,j. ..

!!'

A. 'Volc,.,ni"c Q,r.i,r:t,i:a,

.'3

B. Seas aDd currents

c, Sea m,allDlal" bird, a Dc! :fisbm,igr,i!ltioD,S D,., Cr,eatioD o.f Da'tioDal w11411.fe' ~efu9'e B. Iliner,a,l e'2q11oit~tiol."

P. ,1",isbi,D'g .i.Dd,u8,t,r,ies·

Cultures Encountered byW'o,r.ld War II

-,

'20

iI II t~

.... '

-;

".

Ie I

B. Migra,tioD t,o t.'h,e Ale:u,tian C:hain c. Prehistoric culture

D. RU:II,aia,D influ,eD'cl. UP'OD Al.'ut cult:ur.

E. Subsistenoe (p,la,nt.. , an,imals,

:P,., A,leut cultural a,rts ,(' •• ,av,i,nq, ,ea,rv,inq, etc.)1

G. RU8,.,i,a,n o'rth:od,oxy and ,reli,qi,ous her1taqa.

H. ,Arcbao l,oqic,ala,rti,fa,cts enclou'Il,teredbym,i 1 i,'tary

I. LOIs,s, of' ,arche,olog'icalb,e,r,it,.q. :froll, :1II,i,l,i,tar'y i,Ds,tall,a,ti,Q'DS

J. Pre~:se:rvat i,lon and ,10:8., of A,l,eut RUB,S, i,.Il, or't,ho,do,x Chur'che::B 4ur'ing' th,e Wa,r

Aleut Evacuation

A,. Eve:nts s\I,r'round,inq evacuatio'D

B.Bvaonation, ,p'o,li,cy for Ale:ut,ia,D ,aDd Pribilo:f islands

c. Int.e,rnment B,nd (I,e:s,olatiQD to Al"eu't

'culture.D,d :po'p;ulation

D,. Rle'turD ,of "th,e Aleu.t to t'be A,leutian, Is,l,.:nds B. Changes to Aleut village distribution

F. C:ultur'al and eav.i,r'o11.mental, ,change.

Milita'ry Buildup' in theAleutians

stra.tegic, q,eoqraphic: i'Dlpo,r't,anoe ,of the Aleutian c:,am.p,a,ign Pre-ex:i:sting naval .inst,a,lla,t,io'DS

C. Extreme .aathe:r and s'ur'ta.c:e condi,tioDS

P'lla.,.s !.'ft:d :strat,eqy ,of cO.Dstr'u,ctioD a,. ,S:ubm .. r'ille~ ba,8,.

b,. C,oastal de:,f,eDses-"Ir'on Ring"1 e ,. F'o,rtHear:s

B.. Obs,t.,cles ,in, aODst,ruot.i'OD C~ol.s,tal defen.se.,et'wo,rk

Construction at Fort GleDD and other posts in Alaska Hili taZ"y arcbi,t:ecture; .A.l,euti.an ,i,D,Dov'at.i.oDS,

A.

B-

- .. '

P.

21

.Defendlng the "Back Door to the United States

.A,. SubJDa,rill'8 13 •• ,. ,.:D,4 sUbmaJ:ib'• chains B. Qu,tpost:a, fir,• c,ol1trol

c. Art1,11er', 'f.,cil,i t,ie:s

D. CODlpODent:. of t'he "I'lion Rill'll"

- ·t- .. f· .'.

B. ,AD· .. ···. 1'cr.,~"t 'warn1l1q sy,st,ems

I' • Comllunica'tioD,S

G., Forti.fi c. t.iODS, ,armam,.n;t, :muD .. i t.ioDS

A., 'ThebombiD9 of Dutch 'Har:bor B., ,Capture ,of A"ttu and Ki;ska

C • BombiD'g'I:,a.i,d:s on Attu andlCiska, D. Milit,a,ry bu.i14'up OD Adak E,.B,attle of Attu.

I' ,.I:,ft.v;as,i,o'D of ,l(,iska

G,. Ass,oci_t,ed ba.tt:.l.le,s _D,d event a, iD. ~h.Paoi.fi,c

The Japanese Enemy

A.,. Jap,.:nesl.war techno,l,olgy

B,. The Z,ero fi.qhter" :subma.r;in,es C ,.Warf,.r,• pr'a,crtic ••

D. Installa,t.ioDS o'DKiska a,ndA'tt.u

a, .Ar,c:b,eo,logiaal.w,orkin Kisk.. and Attu OD Wo,r14, War Xl: J'apanese artifact:.

A S .1..J· »: l-;I'. souuers .·'Je

A. Daily r"outiD.e, l.ivinq ,c·oD.ditioDS

B. I,sola,tioD,

c, Re:crfeat.io.D" USO .'bow:.

DI. Adapt,iDgt.O Al ... k,a.'D/Aleut,iaD cl.:i:ma.te

22

A, -

,,,',~ , '01. DI 111Jt ,'--£8 '!I'. t •• "I:'

II,. lil- bdi-,l-r-.IS'= vi't:b 'th" , IS:ovi -t lalam,

ICI~, Bv'_-2C I 1_-tYiq la_: --;_ I" _rtc~-='D Qaa:p_=-"

III,", :0-.1.' ,ill comDd. :-'ISiOID!I!H! ,;l'iQJ.u oj G·"tbr::: ~ ID 1n 't,IIL

. ',oz'ta:mCD ,e:l 1.. ~ ,~" '.: "U--I pou't; ~ '!O' It::: tllm ,of "tilL I Al II1iI;t ,DUll p,riDQ,n.I:'B uf .. 11 r fI'~ kmy ,deulZ1l:E'Bo bu.1.1:d,i:mgllll 9 [I,I:'-pl:u. I"

.IG,~, P;o,:u~'iet;t.all " II. DIQ - ,IljiL_:_ '.:_'._~gU ' ili~' :fIS(l!ilitl'!I_ 8 ... , P'CI'It,' ,~tU:lQaG_ i'Qi Glialt t.imm:iat'bGI u'·'iltia'Dv'll.hl_'s .I~, 8!!11_' ,m,! qu'¥',tmam,.OD,'tur,1I11u tI&liJIJ.II,"r

J ~ [llot.!amitJD Eio'tln, IDt,1 ,A, ..:::._,o~- 1 , I/:caIU'Dt (D-' , I:.laalil:.1J~1

C17Y OF CLNALASKA PROFILE'

._

'Tihe Ci,t:y o,f Unala:s'ka " Locatied on a LsLand o,f t,he :sa,me, name ,I 'has be,en,a 1,le,ading' cu"l'tural cen'te,r' Ln th,e Al,eut,i,ans for centur'i,es,. Th'8 ,Na,tiv',e A"leut or 'Qaw'al,a:ng,i,n 1,i,v,edo:n 'the p,ro,te,ct,ed s,ho:res ,of U:n,alas,k,a 'H,a:r,b,or for thousan,ds o:f ye,ars, pr,iorto' the intr'u,sio,n:s of Rus,si,an fur hunter':s., In the 17''7'0:s, R,ussi.an e,ntrepren,eurs, 'e,sta,bli:she,d one of'th,efirst, permanent; RU,ssi,an :settl,e'ntents Ln No,r'th ,Am,er,ica on the 'U'n,al,as,k,a towns,i,te,. A,f'ter the U:n,i t,ed, st,at,es pur-chased Ala,s,kain, 1,8,6'7,1' Unal,ask,a thri,v,ed as th,le Al,eutianheadquart,ers, f'o:rthe Alas'k,a Commer,c La ,1 and the No,rth Amer'ic:an COl1llD,ercial ,comp,a,nie:s, majlor players Ln 't,he, lu,crative ,nor'ther'n f'ur sleal m,arket:s. IT,he U. ,S .' ,Re,venue cutterS,erv,i.lc:e " a.predece:s:sor to t:he U.S. 'C,o,ast Gu,a:rd, w,a:s, st,ati,one,d, at; Un,alaskat,opolice the: hi,gh ,se:a,s and w',ard ·ol.ff ill,e:gal,p,el,a,gi,c se:aling. Atth'e turn of the ,c,entu:ry th'efrenzi,ed Nam'e go,id rush br'olught hundr-eds tOI th,ousan,ds of' fortune ,s.,e,ek,ers thro,ugh, th"ep"or't at. Dut.ch Harb,or. T'od,t!ly" Unal,a:sk,a is, the regio,nals'ervic,e center f,or th~, billion dolla,r ayea,r' Ber'ing IS,e,a fi:s,hing -indus,t:ry zmd t,h,e ,l,arg,est and fa:ste:s,t gr,owin'9

,. • .- - - - . [It I - -

oommunLtiy a.n the Aleut,]L,ans,.

En •... fII .. im in.' '.., : ·.'S' e .. ,I'

_ _'1 PN·IJ.""I·~l"IR

U'nala,:s,ka ls"land i:sp,a'rt of' the Ale'utian,:s U'n,i'tof 'the a,p,p,r'o,xi'm,atl,ey ,4. 9 m.illi,Q'n, ,Cl,c're Al,as,ka Mari,t,ime Nati,o'nal Wil,dlife Ref'u'ge'I' ,es't,ab,lis.he,d in 19810 by th,e A,.laska Nation,al Interest Lande 'C,ons,erv·ation A,e,t,., ,A:s, e,arly as, 1'913 P'r'e:s,i.dent 'Ta:ft enacted t,heAleutian. I:sl,a.nds Res"er'vation t.o pr,otect th,e w'ild:s ,of' this,windswlept vo.Lcand.c ar,ehipe,la'go,., Thi,s act; g'av'le t.he; Battle: ,of' ,At,tuan,d the~ bombing of Dut,ch :Har.b,or,. t,h.e ad'ded ,d.i:sti.n,ction of beingt'h,e only 'Wolr'ldW,a:r 'I'I h,Qs,tilit,ie,:s in a 'Na,t,ional Wildlife, R,efug,e. Today t,he, r'e,fuge contiaf.ns one Olf' t,h,e worl,d" s lar"gest remaining sea bird ,co:n,c,entra'tiolns, ,ov,er 10 m.,i.,l,l,i,on, andp,rot,e'cts s,e,al. and 'th,re,at,en,e,d sea lion, popuLa'tLons , Within the, world at, la,rge 'the ,Al,eu,tian:s ,ar,e d,esi'g:nat,ed a B,io,:spher'e Res,er've, b'y t:he Inte,r'nat.ioh,a,l U:ni,Qln f,o:r conaervae Lon o,fNa.tur,e and Na'tu,ralReso'u:rces, Morges " ,swi.tz,e:r,l,and '. Loc,ate,d on, the, n,orth'e,as,t,ern, s Lde ,of th,e islan,d,t,he City ,ofUnala,ska is

c,l'ose to Un.ima:k 'P,as,s'l a major lui'gra'tion ro'ute fo'r birds" marine, ma'mmals, and ,fi,sh mo'vingb·etw'Q,en the Berin'g Se,a, and th,e north,ern, ,Pacifi,lc ocean Iduring al,l, :SQ,asons. F'oll,low'ing-this exampl"e, th,ousan"d,s of' v,as,sals

na··v.c:q···a···'t· e' ·t-"hl. e- pa as ", nu '-ll~ .,

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25

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The ci,tyo'f 'Un,a,la,ska, cover-s a,pproxi'mlat'e:ly 215 squ,are, 'miles o,f wa,terwaysil mountain,s" s,andy' .be,ac:b,es " ,shee,r' ro,cky cliffs" pinn,acle rOlck,s, r'o,lling t'undra" ,i:.land:sll larche,Qllogical s,itles, and a vc Lcano , Ca,ught in, 'the middle of 'th,ewarm, Jlaplan Cu,r:rle,n,t an,dt,he colder' currents of th,e Ber'in,'q Sea, Unal,aska exper Lences spec,ta,cular' :swingsi'nwleather patter'Ds. Durin!g: th,e summer :mont,h:s ,of th,e midn,ight slunt,helushtundra, ex,p,lodes

- ' -

with, hundrelds, ,of sp,e,ci,e:sl ofw,il,dflo,wer':sll including ten sp,e,cies of w'i,l,d

h-d' and '·'1'" 'b'" II , and ,," ,,- ub ·"'t 'f"· ,',. " "d--

orc1,'~s" an,~I,Wl. -d_'e,rr~e:s anc gra:&:sesl,. S'U,_S1s_::ence Jl.sh,l.nq anc

qath,er'inq ar'e st,ill 'ess,ent,ia,ls in thi:s ,i:slan,d ,c,ommunity.,

Economy

'U" '1- , k t- t """hi ,I.' " ,", ,II , , t' h ' , .' _II - _II 1-' .'

_:Ina=-as,a" Ig'a· ... ·ewa'y co ··~.lle B,er1.ng Sea. rleq110:n, :rle1qns as ·· .. cne maJolr' cavarxan

port west, o,f Ko,d,ia,k, and north ot: Hawa.ii and Ls often the, busie,st U'.5,. port on t:he wes't coaat; , In ,198,91 tb,eport", one the most prod,u.c,tiv,e fislb process,inq' cent,er's in th.e nation, r-anked fi,rst in c,ommerc,ial fi,S,h v'olu'me and tr'ansshipP,ed an e:s,tima'te,d one 'billion, pounds of pzoducrt , Free ofth.e c:rippl.i.nq ar'c,t,ic ice pla.,ck, the ,port operat,es year zound in 198,9 serv'ic.i,ng 6,510 vesslels fr'olm 12: courrtrrLes , Boom, ,de'vel,opmen,t In the, c,ity is, ,exp,e,ct,eld to corrtInue wi.th more 'thlan $225 millio,n Id.ollar's, inve,st,ed in sh.ore,d.evelo'p,ment, OV'lerthe last two yea.rs '. Sh,olre-'b,asled proce,ss,lo,rs represen,t th,e great,le~ls't econcad,c ba,s,e e'mplloying t,h,o,usan:d.s ,of sea.so,nalworkers '.' T,o auppoz-t; thi:s g,r'ow,inq pooL ,ofwQ,rkers, and s,h.ipS", th,e cI ty' bO'8,sts 250 l,i,censed busin'e.sses in,'cluding ten, ,res,taurantsl, f iv".

h t- 1 t . t· 1 f-· t I. b 'f f· h d-'"

,Q,- .. e___l_S'I' '~wo autre rena snope , f~'Ve,-aXl.c,a ... compan1es,-=l.ve me.rc,;lan.-1.s,e

and groc'e.ry' sitores as w'e~ll as a vast offerin'C] of·mar.ine 'repair sler'vices.

Lo,ca.ted withi.,n 50 mile::s of the IG:reat Clircle route t,o the Orien,t, t:h,e p'Olr't of Un,a,l"a,skalDut.c,h H,arbo,r pr,of,its fr,om the in'creas,e in translpacific cargo shipment;s 1" Un.alaska i.ls pursu,inlq routle:s to the Paci,f ic R,im" t,he SovietUni,lon" and E'u,r'op,e.

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, 'lap OJ' ,:Q" _'~ WIt;' ;,n t, e AleutiansIslands Unit of the Alaska Manlune National Wi ',c":',Iie ReJuBe~ .' 1./',.'- I~ r'IS'I-' asu I, ,',;, uqe semce.

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ap'pr'oxima'tely 14 port cal,l,s,a year by Russian,ve:s,s,el,s,. From Ap'r'il to

Oct,ob,erth,e, Alaska Marine Highway' off'ere, ferry serv,ic,e, from a:,om:er, ,Ala:sk,a to Unalas'ka,. On, an, average t,he, fer'r'y ma'kes f,our to five trips a

T' '1 t" 'I, ,', ", • ," t'h' "d' , · th ", " ,,' t.o , " ' 'A", "f'

seaso'n. rzave. ,'_l.me 1S cnzee .--',ays W1,-,~,,' an ave:raqe s',-,'op,o,vert,1ma: 0-'

'th,ree hour's in Un,al,a:ska. Cruise ship's alsost"op at Unal,a,s,ka. Vi,s,i,tor's and cu L t'ural exchanqes also ex,is,tthrough the city I s rel,ati'on 'wi,th ,it,s ,s,oviet, s,ist'ercity P,etr'opa:vlo,v:sk-Kamc,h,atski en the Kamch,atka, peninsul,a and th,. interna1:.i,onal affil,iat.ions, of the Hol,y As,cens,i,'on Russ,ian 'Ortho,d,ox cnuech , the lar"gest and one of the ol,dest Russia,n IO'rt,hodlox

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ch-u~-r-~'c-h",e-s,·-' I.-n' A".la,-',s~lk"'a

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The U. IS. ,Fis,.hand Wil,dl,.if'e, Serv'ice (USF&WSI)I has Alask,a Maritime W,il,dlif'eR,efu'ge visitor centers in Adak and Homer, Alaska. T'h,e visitor center on Adak, a .re,stricte,d military baae, attracts over 12:00' v'i,sit,or:s, a :month or 1.4 " 51010 visitors a year ,fro,m a. perman.e.nt reside:n.t base of 6" 000 'person,s. T.he cent.,er 'has th'e highe,st Natu:ralHistory A:s,s,Qciation sale,s .int,h,e, ,s,ta te at $40, 000 y'ear. The USF'&WS C'8.n,ter in, ,Home'r ,places guid,es on. 'the summe:rferry service t.o, Unalaska to in'terp,re.t, th.e events of World W'ar II in the .Aleutia,ns. I,n 1989,1 2:3,0 pe,ople d.isemb!arkled at Un,alaska,.Al,eutianExp,erience To,urs Ln Ancb,ora'ge, ,offers to,ur's to U'nala:sk,& and the environs 'featuring his,tory, cultur,e, and wildl,ife .•

VISito,

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Th,e City of Un a L ask a support's the need for 'visitor services., :T'here a.re,

how,ev,er', no city or private LocaI vis,ito,r servic.es."wi,th the exc:e,pt.io'D o'f' a :few .resid,ent guides" an,da new bro,chure p,rep'are,dby the: City chambez ,of 'C'ommerce. The potential, for th,ese ser'vic,e,s, res't,s en the exnens i.ve ran'g'8, ,ofres·,o,ur'ces, and t,h'Q gro,win,'g numbe,r ofv,is.it.or's-'to'geth,er 'they form a d.yn,amic combinati,on. R,ec'ent worl,d envi.ron'menta.l and p,olitical issues connactied with global warming, inte,rnat,io,n,a,1 fi,shing zonee , the subarxrt.Lc, ,Native ADeri,c,an;s", and theSovie:t 'Union, h,ave 'fos,te:re,d a growing in'ternati,on.al fa.sci,nation with the A,l,eu:ti,a'n,s.

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i,s the only' access,i,ble Wo,r'ld Wa.r 1.1 s,i tie ,in 'the, Al,Quti,ans. cLosed ·to the public and visitors lit,erally h,av,eno, 'other

anyw,here else in th,e Ale,utian chaf,n, ,At:. U'nala,s.ka " many

ar,e a ca'pti ve aud,i.ence I often in tra.n;s,i t fo:r days,o:n. the, i.,sl"and

alDdi laQ) ruJ,ds'I'II-S '@'r1Ii" - '0 d"!-vetl,f!!p 6IJ'Ul C'll..l'ti¥· ' '8 -, tltn" i . g, elf

tJt1;elir ,C'DJllI,IlII:UnJ t, iO ,dllO!ll t itl'nal "G'~efi1t. ial '[\I' ",is 11:1li!' sar¥ ie,m]i w!l:Itlld,

Z'u,eb, critic" 'c'tar 'a'f, ~e AlII!e:_ can, pt:ll"U:JlaltiDnl 4tml ,~l 'i'Llb' 1Jl local. appr1- ,claUom :_ DE: I 1:1111 1n,g hlsc,o,t' 1c ~ d.dtllraT'1 naWEiilI,l ,All.a th!li-: i.ve bCri'~M f"iiS,O:UE'C!eG~ Eqll~l,.lJ ii' :vtsit:or aeMC8'a wouLd r ,'acb the SD'II. J -t):~1. wbe, 'work ",d p'nJU- ,r from,-fi nil 'ur lCe6c'urc.e, tml 'the .I',fw] arm· I ~ in dail'Y [;lc'n'tact- wi,tiI AJ.eu:t. iUUl1: H'ar 1.£1 l\iI'ar II irIB!:;Ja'ut"ces.,. "iti),i t'li:!Ir pC~io1\l "J.Sf.l1 QX!6~t:G 'w.l'~h tlt,& ,Aletl _ i!!:sidlllln'-9 Q,f 'a'th. lsla,nd& lfllt:lte Ale,y,'tia.n C:haiJ'll and! "the Pri'bilc:l 1:£O,1aru:ls" wtmo, lost, iEi!Q,mucn ' u;:rd.IIlJ;,l t!ke W'IlIi.r, 'but: winD promote 111 n,dlpl"lfiI,tooE ~'I!!I ~ 'l'l!l!Iut: wa;~ I~', 1 _' . 6 ~ ,):Nlli A:I ,eu'to ewiJ.C\'I _. 10n ls '. ',r~Ssl, oYerl,OIl:':)cJoCl ehap,t,er 'Il" the ,1e.tIlt,.ian eall'l;palgn .. !:OlWeTct" by far "the 1,~1i!'S,t. vis,lt:.f!'r- ~d't'errt ' 11 ~ !d,as 1n th,e ,S m·il11.~n 9u~yJ.v11il19 v:at:al" iii ~:bcl _ r: '1'IIfJ'ud ~h lr 'n 1= teul 1m ''1:.11 ,cona, 'No'f"lJd War,., 'l1lI ,.~ . c.k 'on, - Urutilu'ka .md 'tOe Amerio.m ~ '''·'V:e~ lO!l" 't:bcr,c, are III mat:i,G:n,al rlQ'mirJf!lmr 0:' 'the 1:;'ll:bD 1lI'f. :tJle 1013a.'nd'~ if!,fAlmar iC;l n 11 'V,i1&: lei lit. (;l'n ~t,b;,ar r~ont.-::; tJi nU'31hO;J\ be 'w·t.U"ld, d,liU"ing'U1e 'WBf~ ~" if y'~y, j. .-;11'n1v r'&U."' 0' '!:.he war ndnhe bD11l~inm t)f Pear I JHa,t:"bo~E" w:I " 1. O~~Kn:t.e tl),aaC' 'yeteriliNii aE! ~IE:. JL ,_5 'dii,e, la,ruls ~Db,:11i,_~,a,dt.'C1I' tletl~J1(1 '1::00 Ufi_t.edJ' S'~a So, A tt. EI

n &g~ itJ Uo !iJ1iOi:(;JIl:r d.arB Q A I.i'liDJta ,i.m p:!E''IJ'V'e g'VeI,£" t :u: din.ald~ , IJ B 1:11 'bili tieB e K 6;t {,ur aru::i5e s:liUp 5 to tho Or i,lent, mO';f![l rs:rry S €I I"¥i co", ii! mid .i fiI'l:rea'5cd tr,a, E',l.,[J :~et.ween ,AJ a,5:11C:,tll,f t.he P,ne r; ~.» JI'I ~ ,p,Wi thE! So"t,F,j,. 't~ft.t.Qt!i ~ Un la~91t"J ta eerfl ~Dl1y l~ea ~d. - -,0, beJi1IB"=i from tf:I.esel filIlla:q,os.

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Land Use

,"_ ".-.-~--------------------------------------------

The oune Laehka corpoxat.Lon, the, Una,laska Nati,v'e 'Colr'p,o'r'atio,n" owns m,os,t, ofth,e Land on ,Amaknak Is"l,and. In 1917' 1 the Ala,s,ka N,at,i v'e Cl,iaims Set'tlente:nt Act (AN,eS,A) conveyed the land t,c la,plp,roxilnately 26'9 ,N,ative sha,r,eh'oldQ'rs 'wh,o tOlday manage th'e property. Sev'eral,f ish,ar'ies IOwn pazce.Ls of Land bought a.s IGenera,l S,ervice Admi.nistration l,ots, in the 1960s pr,ior to the paaaaqe of ANCSA. I'n recen,t y'ears the 'c,orpora,t,io'n, has :sold aome of the ,D"efens,e Hous,ing and ot,her smal,! plots ,of land t,o prLvat;e Lnd.Lv.Ldua La '. The state Q,f Alaska ovns the a,i,r',s,t,rip and la,ir'p,o,rt f,a'cilit,i,es in,clu,dinq the doub.le-bla'st 'pen, ha'ng'e:r and the Tor'p'edo Bombsight Shop and the city owns a few small sites, including the city dock, Most o,fthe a,djacent Lands on Unalaska Is,land at, ISummer Slay and Eid,er P,oin't ,a:r,eown,ed or sielected. by the ounaLashka corpo,rati,o,n '. 8,og I'sl,and is pri,vately owne,d and leas,ed., Th,e,r'8 aze also, 160-acr'e ,Nativ'e allot'ments in,ter;spe:rsed with cozpcxat.Lon Land, The, Ale,ut,ian,-Prib,.il'of Island Corporation, the regional Native corporation, owns most of the subsurface rights on the island.

T,he 'C,i,ty of trna Laska has zoned ,overf iftypercent ofUnalask,a B,ay fo,r 'mod,er'ate 'to heavy industr ial use. 'T.he indus,tr'ial hazboz fa,ci.li tie,s cover a,pproxim,atel'y 80 :square miles and, hazbor' traf'fi,c and dev'sl,opm,ent, are expected t,o Lncr'eaee with expandingwlorld econcmf,c m,ark,ets, in t,he. Pacific Rim, the soviet, Union, and Europe. T'he, deep wat,e"r' ,harb'or on Ama,kna:k ,I:sland annue LLy p,rovi.des service;s f,or appr,o,xi,m:at,el,y40, 0,00

persons on domastic and international fishing and transport crews.

C'onuuercial f,ishing and seafood proces,s,in:g a.re th.e lead,ing in.du,str'ies Ln U.nal,8sk,8 's economy. Unalaska haa co,nsist,ently been a, top r'8,nking U., s , per't and curr,en'tly ranks second in the nat.fon in terms of amount; and va Lue ,of' f Lah caught. The dev'elop,ing' g'roundf is,h in,dustry, begun in,the m,id 1980s, is expected to corrc Inue to escalate, onehoce and o,ffshor,e const,ru'ction over the next; few years. The: curr,entd.evelo'p,me"nt, in th,e grlQundfi,sh in,dustry was unforese,enas recently ,as, :seven 'y,ears aqo 'wh,en

33

------------------......--....,...._ ............. ~-~--~~.-----

9Q1Vernm,8:nt p,redi,ction,s; Q'Xp,.,ct,ed the oil ,indus'try to Qut-p,srform the fishing e,c:o,nolmy by 199,0.,- Tlh~ero,lCi! ot: the oil industry in the pras;.n.t eC,Q,noimicb,oom is insi'gnif,i,c,ant .. Th,eref'or'9 predictions for future econ,Q,m,ic, o'pportu,ni,ties ,ar,Ei! DOlt alwa,ys, eV',icl,.n:t Ln th,is dynam,ic ccnamun,i.t,y.,

Resouree Protection

w· ... ·.-.lo.=.···r- .. -.·l.=_·.d.=.·, W',r .. -.·.I·a·.~._·r~- .. ' I.-~ .. ·I-_· h.··,·.~.·,··1.1J-·.S=Jt:.·.~:-.'.o-.·r~.·.·--.-'1...·_·-c.:· r.-I_···-·.-e .. ·· •. ··,s·-~:.'.o .. '=····.·u .. ·.·,·r-·I_--·c .. ·_·.e.-·:~.·.·s.·-· .. ~·I' .. ·n:-I 'U~n·-·a-·l-'a~'s~~a- a-'r··'e~·' l.·n~··c,···r··e···~~l.~·n··q··-···ly~·· l···o·~·-·s=-·t~ a-m-~o~"'n-"9'

. . . . . . . .. . . . ~ , . '~': 'j -:_ ~ ,_- , •• ~' I-~'LJ\." :_~ __ ._: , ':::_ __ ,,_ ~ "~~-.~ ,_~ ! '- ~ I ',- ,IU.,~' '_~_.-_ ~I '_,_-=- .. .: ' __ : ,-' I , ,_ ',-'- ._1 ' - : :, .-' ',~_ ~ ':, - " ! _>,.~:_._.,

new warehou,se,s, build,inglo,ts, and e,arth and rock infill. DutchHarb,or NHLi is a Pr Loz ity 1 Land'mark. ,as, def Lned in sect.Lon 8 of th.e Nati.lonal Park Service, General. AU.thorities Act, of l'9170j, as amended, prio.ri.ty'l Landmarks are~ d.efin.ed ,a.s p.rope.rti,es wh.i,ch are, seriously dama.ged or

imminently th.reatened with. suc-h ,damage,. -

The natural and. ,cultu'ral re:sources, of the Aleutian Isl.ands have attracted. the attention. of b,othresource develop,ers 8'n'd. conser'vationists,. T,his amazingly' w.ild ,strip ,of isla.nds has desig'nated Nationa.l Hist"o'ric L,an.dm,ark, I.nt,lernational Biosphere, and. Natio,na.l R.sfuge status, but; :still Ls oftendefensel,e,:s:s Ln thef,a'c,so,f deve Lopment.a 1. pres,s,ures •

At trna Laska the effe,cts of the,:se con.f.li,c'ting .interests are intQ:ns,ified,. With no Loca L interp,retation of 'th,eOutchHarborNHL, th.ere is 0. gener,al. dis,regard, and ig'n.orance of :historic event.s., Landaoape, and struc,tur'es,. The h.ighturno,ver,rate of resi,dents and public o,fficials Ln recent years, has fostered a misconcepti,on a.boutb'ound,a.rie:s a .. nd h.i:storicresourc:es,. The probl.em is more c,ompl,e,x, h'ow,ever,.In. l'98f)~19B6 th.e u.s. ArmyCorp;s·· ot: E'nqineers" ac~t,in.g und.er'th,e dir,ection of th.'e D',e,fense Envi.ronment,a.1, Res,toration. .A.ccount (DERA) " ,dem,Q.li:sh,ed, and rem.oved. World Wa.r II st.ructures on th.e is.land ,deem:ed hazar-dous to thepu,b,li.c: and th,s e.nvironm.ent. 'T'he C'o,rps left stan,ding bui.ld.ing:s th,at, werehi.s,to,r'ic8.11y signi.f'icant, Ln u:se, or' suitable for r'eh,ab.illtation. D'sspite th'e cur'rent sh.or'ta'gesin. housLnq, war,sh,ou,se, and ,storag,e space, owner's, and les,s,.as are hes i tant to use th'8 Wor.ld 'War II st.ru,ctures and regard th'am more as eyes,ores and s,tructur,a,lly dan'gerou:sratb.er tha'nasvia.bl.,e,

ava .. ilablebuildin,q stock. 'T'ba.re is also along:sta .. nd.i.ng uneasinas,s,in the connnu.n.it,y associate,d wi.ththes,e buil,d,in,g:s • For m,a.ny, the buildings

j

·_ .~ .----.-~----~~-~-------

are unwa,nt,e,d reminders of th"e trauma,tic and ,devast,ating effec1: 'the w'ar had on the Ale,ut,.,

Cu'rrently t'he o,nly eft',e,cti've prote,ct,io:n p,olicy 'for the landmark is the, Se,ctio'nl06 revi,ew prolcles,s mandaced un,d,erth,e National Histori.c:

Prese,rvatio,n ,A'C't of 1916,6. Th,e U. ,S '.' Amry Corps of Enginee'rs, issu'QS fed,eral parmd.t.s :for deveLepmerrc prlojlelct;s Ln ,all the coas,ta,l water"s wi,thin t,h,e: U,nalas'k,a cit,y limit,san,d must consu l t; with th'e Sitate Hi,st,oric, 'Preservation Offi.'ce about, p1os:sible im,p,acts 't,c hi.:s'toric: re,SOIQ'r'c:es. w'it,h the curz'ent; econoai,c boom, th,e o'p'p,o,rtun,ities for conflict between the in'terests of th,e Landmark ,andpri'va'te deve Lopnerrt; ha.veint,e.'ns,i,fi,ed,,,, Currently in t,he lan,d:mar,k, th,er'e are :six on'9'Q,ing pr'ojects subjle1ct, to section 10116, re,view_,

.

I

I I I I I I I

The buildings, in the best cond.Lt.Lcn aze th,e, ones that have be,e:n used the 'mos,t \I Many have baen re'hab,ili t:.ate,d f,or ho'usings'tock and the 1,ar'9,e concrete stru,ct,ur'es such ,as,th~epower plant are sti,ll us,ed as originally intended. Howeve,r, 'on1celef't em,plty Ln t.he da,mp windy island ,c,lima't,e, the wooden b,u,ildin,g's quLckLy deter,iorate. S'evere storms have rip'p,e,d th,e: .ro'ofs, ,off 's,oim~Qbui,lding's an,dothers, 'have,bee.n us,ed as sc:a,ve,nge,r' sit,es, fOlr s,carlce Lumbez, S:omleare still liv,ed in by squa'tter's.

Boundary

Revi-

_ ew

In 1989 the Alask.a ,Relgi.o:nal O'f:fice of the NPS, initia'ted a la.ndmark b1Q,undary rev'iew' tlCI Lnverrt.ozy a,ll ,e,xisting ,st,ructur,es and document; tb,e c.on,diti,Qln o,fthe, c,o,n:t'ributing s,it,es", objects, and stru,ctures,. Tlhe aecond phase ofth,e r1e,view ,compl,et,ed in :1'91910 assessed the phy,sic:al boundar Les ,ofthe 1"a,ndmark,.B,ecau,s,e t.h,e D,ERA clean,up demolished many Istruc,turles, and o'n:qo,inq conet.ructrf.on has a1 tered or destro'yed, many othe:r's ," it W&IS n,8Ic'essar'y't,o, ,det;ermi,:n,e i:f the ,current boundaries continued t,o reflect the hi,sto'ric re:s,Qurce,.Furth,ermore, th'e 191851 landmark nom.i,natio,n ,ov'erlook.ed adj1acQn't areas ,at 'the former s,ites ,of Fo,rts Brumback a,ndLear.na,rd on Un,alas,k,a land Garr,ison 7 on Hog Island. Field visits and r'Q:s.e.arch in th,e ~summer of 1990 con.f'lrmed the h.istoric: integr'it,y c,f t,hes,it,es and NP,Shasp'roposed upd,ated landma,rk, boundarie:s

addin'9 n.ew are:a,s, and e,xc,l'uding o,thers. -

3,5

A.T~'RN'- -"A,I'TIVE-::"'·':-' A .n..L.. J. .Ct~ '1"1. 1_ ' "_.,,, L_ , __ .

'CO.-.··NTINUE'·'~~.'" •.• ',' .'-,~', CURRE.·~··_'.,,_I'i',~'·NT:I, .• ·'- MAN,'",-_",I".,"A'G,.:;-EMENT,,"-,-"

_._"", I. , .. __ '" ·'·_.···'.1 •. ",' "~"_ ," ,

- - - - -- - - - - - - --

CONCEPT SUMMARY

,

T,hia opti,on wo,uld continu,eth,le ,eurrentownersh,ip and man,agemen,t of World Wa,r IIresou,rce,s wi,thin the, Dutch H"arb,or NHL,.M,o,st ,of Am,Q,knak Island Ls owned, ,by th,eOunalashka, C'o,rp,o,rat,i,on" whi,e!) ,is act,ive,ly seeki:ng tiC deve"lop Landa f,or ind,u,s'tria,l uae , Important World Wa,'r II reS'Qur'ces on Hill 400 Q,nd.at Ulakta -H,e,ad ar,e likely to r'emain, undisturbed fOIl':' sl,om~eti,'me" beoauae of the :rugged terrain in these Locat.Lons . However, some safetyhaz,ards rema.i,n in th,ese are,,2l:s,whi,ch axe a lia.bility concerntoth,e C:'o,rp'oration. It is exp,ected that rem.ai,ninq s,truct:ure,:s and. rui.ns may be removed or' substanti,a.l1y a .. l.tered. in the future t,o m.e:e:t public s,af'ety c,o,ncerns.

A. hi.s,t,or'ica.l1y si'gnif Lcanc ,c'o,m:plex. of building's at the airpor't is, owned by the st,at,e. of A.laska D1ep1art:mentof Tran:sport,ation '. T'h,e ounaLasnka Corpora't,ion owns the Aero,lo'qy Op,eration Bu.i.l.ld.ing., N'o,rthernAir Cargo l,eases the h.istoric ,air cargo bU.ildinqfo.r us'eas a car'go terminal. The Torpedo Bombsight Shop is in need of major rehabilitation; Northern Air Cargo Ls ,sle,eking a lease on the buil.ding. T'h,e doublep,en blast, hange,r'" the center pi,ece 'of th'Q ,airport,bu,ilding:s" hasb,een 'partiall.y d.i:sma.ntl,e,da.nd a larg'e m.odern wareh.o,u:se will be e,rec't'sd Ln .its pLace.

,Significan,t,hi:sto,r.ic reS,Qur'ces on Unalaska. Isl,an.d, are owned by the, O'unalas,hka Corpor,ation., alth,ouqh ,somearef,ound onNat~ive Allotments or other pri.vate l.ands" and som.e are on public, l,and (B'ureau olf Land Mana'gement) • 'The oune.Lashka ,C,olrporation pLana de,ve.lopm.ent Ln some, e,f'

th~.·····~-----··~.· Ln ot; .• h-.··-·. t-h--- ·-:-··· •• ····--·.··-··t'- -······ .. ···b-~ ·1.==-,·1 .·:::~·.'d---ts f'-- ··•·· .•. ·~c-'ck-···-··.···· ·h···.·ik'-i~, etc will

._,sse ,a.rea.s, ~n ,o·~ .. I,ers, .' .. e pr'Bsen, ... use _=y .. locaJ reS1,en _~ _l_or pl.:::.n1_·. 1.nq, .1 _:_:_ •... - ng, '~~ _':::.+ " .... ~.'~-c

oont.Lnue ,

T'h,eCor'poration is concer,ned about; th,eprote'ctio'n of cultural res,ources D'D. t,h.eir Lands , alt,bough their f'QlcUS is primarily Ion archealog.i,c,al ;sites. Some measu.re of protectio'D is afford.ledWorl,d W,ar IIr,esourC8:S withintha Nation,al Historic Llan,dmark, al.though only fe,der'ally fu,nde,d ,or permitted acti,o.ns aze reviewed. for th.eir impacts on histolrica .. l reso,urc,es. 'The ,city -of Unal.as,k,aHi.;stori,cal C,o,mmis·.si'onhas un,der'taken an in.ventoryofhis,t,ori,c res,ourc,es as a, 'Cer'tif is,dLocal Governm,snta.n,d,forth,eir Preservatio,n, Plan.

36

,RDiBDdu w'owdl be acquiL'e.d, O'1f" m II'U!l19'cd bp' tlJ;I!il lHPS en:: iii b- ~ p~t.l' Ie" ,-:gellliCY orr 'EAe P!uqito~e 'CE' pl'\III~BrvD laD nd ln, --'['Dr'!!t· 1o,n.

,i ,f!! . av. 10'[(! 11' 11 ' ,1 nn ; Ill:' ~cgnQmic;: Ire urn,~ lti:GJL:or ca,l 'n'l:A_p, -rll_lfm1 'will D.OCJillr

5 l,Dcal D'rgI'Bniza,i:io'D,& 01" p~iVB:tB ndu&t.ry Ic;hoas- , '0 b~ghll h - 'the bis'tDric huri'tag , IOI! "t:h

Tluo_ • ,bol_ Up 11 S,' IX .. ,

f,lIlQ tXlQ:rd1.,ul~od lcni1lJ-r,~.ngrit!i p \ rmtng is 111< If ~'IiICCU.E' lI'J :pramcl'te. potentiDl,11', :9it: G,n. ""Ci I, 111

i.ndl ~lstlY trill on WO = ,ld, ' h' II 'ury 'C1,J1di r 5,gu:r,ce 1Eii,

. '

1'-1

-:

-

-

IU."I, .IIT.lipS

_ , . -~

S79 _

t ' \

... '.

I .... '

AT TCRN·I'-"A. ~TIVE- .... ,- .' "B"

rJ,.L, .. D,~_,n .'_I_,_ ',I

wo- :RLD···: ~.I W: ·.,/A.,D 11- IN, ,','1 THEI'I'·- -: ALEUTIAN I' ·c .' .• "".'~.'" ··I,S··.····," INTERP',J' I -I ·.··IREi - " _~TgI CENTE,-"I .1 ,. : {R~-

_ "_,',' .1_-.'-,. ,; "~ ,"'_ ,_. ,! ,,~_I I ,'.~,.I".-., .. , 1,',_',' _',' I '_', ' --=. ~~ ~..:.;_ .. , "I.IY.D_.', "_." ._'---_~_:__~

,CONCEPT S'UMMARY

* An i,nterp'reti've cerrcez and jnuaeua de:vot,ed to World War II in th,e Aleutia,n I,sla,nd,s wOiul,dbe plann,e,d, j,o,intly b,Y th,e BPS, U,S:F"&:WIS,,, lapP,r'opri,at,e ,branchles ol,f the mili,tary, and s,t,at,e and 1,lo,ca,1 rep:re:s"en,t,ati,ves. The Igrou,p o,f' h,istlo,ric buildin'gs n,elart,he ,a,ir'p,or't would :be reh,ab,ili,tate,d fort,hi,spur'pose .' Th,e: builldingsw,ouldbe op,erat,e,d by NP'S as le,ad ,alge,ncy' under an in:tera,gen,cy' ,algre,eme:nt., An Adv'isor'y Board co,mpr'i:s,led, of 't,he lag'e'n,cie:sl and state and l'olcal r,ep1re;slen.'ta.tiv,e,s wo,uld p,rovid,e man,agement ov,ersigh,t.. The, center 'wloul,d, be the f,oc:a, 1, po,int 'forA"leuti,a:n h,istory and rleso1urce,;s,. Th"e mu,se:um woul"d be t,hl8 much need,Q,d repos.itor'y and consa:r'vat:i,on, center :for resourlces rel.ated t,D the entire ,A,leut,iant,h.eater. 'Un'd.er th,. present c:ondi"tio,n:s, th,ere are no fa,cili,tie,sfor NPIS, lor USF&WS tlopr,otect and plr'e:,s,lerve Aleut and W,or'ldW,a,r'II ar't,if'acts.,

'. AerologyBuil.d,in.g, Bld.lg. 417 " T'o,rpeld.o ,Bomblsight IShlop ,B,ldq. 4,2: 3, and N,aval Ai:r stati10n ,c,a,r'gote:rmin,al" BI.ldg. ,42:1, (b;uil,dings neaz Dubch Harbor Air',port, Amakn,ak, Island,), or other suitabl.e com.pll,a:x ,ofhisl,tor'ic strulc't'urles ,to b1elea:s,ed o:r purchased ,for uae as in'ter'prletive

cente,r and muse,um f,acilit.ies,. -

- - '_ - -, --

.' His,tor'i.,c o:b'jlects select:,ivel'y ,co,ll,ect1ed fo,r ex,hibi.t and study pur'p1o,s,es frolm Wo'rld War II :si t,es t,hro,ugh,o,utths: .Al"eu,t,ians;' ph,otolgraphs " documerrt.s , and olt,hle.r materials rlela,t,ed, t,o t.b,e, ,Al.'e'uti,an Ica'lnp,aig'n to be ,contr,ibute,d bly :part,i,cip,ating ,a'g'enci,es or pr'i.va.te doncns ,

D,e'taille,d planni.,n'g' for 'th.e usesan,d trle,a'tment, o,f 'th.e air'por't compLex ofbuildinqs and. fo,r' p'r'ovidi,ng visit,o.r'ser'vic,es and i,nt,srpreta,tion shoul,db1e, ,ap'p1ro,a,ch,e,dt,hr'oughdev,elo'pmen,t, concept; and,interpre,t,i ve pl,an:s,. The, foll'owin'g" 'p1rov',ides an ex,aDlp,le lof hOlw an ,interp,ret,l ve center CQuld be actualized.

39

'.

Ttl,' mea.in ,pay ~ 'em con ,j 0 . 'b 'Y' ~,', - O'E" U. 0,-- ian d, ~ _ n.d le.b,!bL - _ ~p:rG"1dU\g- or a QrI

- il Jl' 1, - m lsj_,illndG-", f[bta:rioa. 11,. "Ul is, W4)S, th'ijl' H, 'y'a]' air T - MflO', - i' Ii n 1 h;d,'JkI~ ~

~. . 'd,~h D'li;Jl.iltally ,lII;'C;rviadIl5 'wark: space! "nd I.rpo'~ Dbs' rvali:. ,O~Iil- d, eJl(,r ,wt)'ll

to, in'be'r;p'!:'D'oation a" a. c.r;uilr 'MSII,'. l)1~ (l'h H rbDr 'na • ,;,oUJgncnJ( ,'Ii ' ~haLll

_I IaUl~ght STIli'

~h; -'t_rldatU; e ~~-1dl be ) lAO 'D 1 fU''t,edl to p:'l"ov1d:Q, ~bd.bU S.atC~ fo-~ art:.U,~rt5 'D_' .~: W E :i:n, 'tJ1

,l.iJJQld!:JUjllfUi,~, i.n~l'lIJ.dinigl d:i9~118'lB D!l. ,lcu:g,~ Obj!Ele:t.6" 5~llJjl;hl ,~s--: 4liLl11Ql;ynd :lr'C1r:i!:r't,~ Paatut'~m

-- (l(preas:J", -t_'t:U'j ff'lJinal funoticrn ,of the bu:i.ld.ing'w,ollld be ,pre5.e!l:''Iw:I, and in 'iIi!rJ'irg'ted~

'~.Ulle' blli l'cling ""Oll.Lldl "lrso ~O\l! LI!'I flOfl'~1!011IetJj9pt:li ~a dl" Clura t:::~.:r: 'itll W',orlit a]J[I cCI,11.ecc iOJlI§' stO'ri'lQle.

OII1'I;t TL\'!rmiJ~i

C'CllL;l 1,d. be lO"tl!lci,y 10,

f f,ee -1 v' ,1,., pmt.'i 1:,'0 use' a 9 a l1b;rilJr1'J' thI9a;-UI!li!!"t' arcl:d yes ;il - :nd re l;ie&~ Ierne

Ithe All~'Ult:i Ii1 fOillmpai, n ~

TnV'tcllJ1 ',BlJm1uiglrr ShVJ)1 JlltCri&;,I£ll1!!f tfl18'N1 Il- M 'L!J"~~ J!JSS.

el,

The follo,win'q themes 'woiuld b,eapp,rop,ri"at,e forinter'preta'tion in t,he: ai"rp,ort co'mplex,., Fo:r a fuller list 'of th'em,es, r,e,l,at,ed tiC th,e pzepoaed een:ter, 's'e,e O'u:tli:neof I,n:ter'pre'tive Themes.

*' N'atur,al and cut tur,al. his,tor'y of the, A,leut.i,a,n Isl,an,ds '*' Th,e Al,e,ut, and t:hair cuL t,ur'e,

'.' Th,e i'mp'Qlrta,nce, of 't,he ,Al,e,ut,ian campai.q:n * Th,e war' biuil,d,-'up' in Ala:s'ka

* Aleut evacuation and relocation

* Ma,jlor ev'ents oft'he war in the A,l'eutia,n:s * Th,le b,om,bin'9 of ,O'utch Harb,or

* T',he :role of ,a,i,:r ope'ra't,ions a't Dut.ch Harb,or' and out t:he cha.Ln * 'Tihe Lend -l,e:,a,s,e program

* The daily lives-of military personnel stationed in the Aleutians * Japanese war technology

'. Th,e ,effect:s of th,e 'w,a,r' on t,h,e, Aleu,t, and 'th.'eir cu Lt.ur'e

*Worl,d W,ar' ,II 'r'eSQur'ces r,emaining at; othe,r'Aleutian sites; 'th,e,irsignifican'c'e, m,anag'ement, and p1r'o,tectio,n '.

Ex:pandeld, tourism: opportun,it,ies ~,Ol p,ro,v'ide goolds and serv'i,c,e:s to vi:s,itors;' local development of additional tourist activities and attractions •

.. :.

I

43,

l!ilDEIA ;POINIT

I) ' .. '

\,

t

"

I J

'\,0

I

.' '. t

Allt>e rn att ve'

10.-.·'

. .. I

B'ase

I ~ - - _. ,

. '._ '. '_' I _'

"

o .'

AIR,IPO'RT' BLDIGS. UiLAKTA IHIEAD EIDER P'OINT

H: I ILL, 4,00

p

I .,

- ,

G ,I

•. "

"

AlTERth\TJVIE c

AlE- ITI A 'N" I-IS' lAN' . 'DS'N- A'!JiI'O~ .IA il HIS' ··T.O- ""RIC'- A--l-I piA 'R' K' _ ~[u[ I laM! '" <_I .. '~' .'. ,---=-'_ :_'n _1.'1'" '. ,II" ,,:_~_ I 'n"_ _t •..

C-O=IA.IC·-'!:"PT'·_ '.' S·-U-1FIIII,.4R---=·Y'

I I __ -,_ J.' ~ 1,,1_ " .c;",,':- I l , I'- .,: _ "'ilYl:l~YJA_,' -', : .,"

._ . I

'T',h,is opt.Len would e:stablis,h a n,ew NPS unit wit,h a significant resources related to World War II in the

, . 1- t- .' -. . . - . •... . (. -") t .' . . · t' •. th . ·t·

A-ieu:_-1an 'c,a:mpal.'gni ,2,~oaSS1SI_ 1n ' e: preserva,,1,on

educatrton concexn i.nq Aleut hist,ory and the e,ffec'ts of

two-fold"' purpoae e (1) t,CI p,res,er've Aleu,tians and te,ll t,he, s,to:ry ,of the ,of A,le,ut cult,u,r'e and p,rovide, public

World War II on the Aleut.

* The NPS, WQ'u,ld ,p,rovid,e the full range of s,taff, vis,itor servic,es" i.nterpretat,i,on and r'e:sour,cle pr,ote,cti,cin ac'tivities that occur' in de'signated Na,tio,nal His,t'ori.,c,al, P,arks.

* As Ln Alternative B", aWo'rl,d, H'ar II muaeum and, i'nterpretive cente.r WOUld, be p Ianned jo,in'tl,y by the; NP',S" U,SF,&WS" appr-opr Latie branches of the mili1:ary I t,he, C:ity of Una,la,s,k,a, and the, local command ty '. ,Repr',e:sent,ati v,es of'thes,e entities, would concInue rco s"erve on, an AdVi;s,Q,r'yBoard to' g'uide N'PS ma,n,ag1em'e:nt.

'.' ,An Aleut 'Cult'ural 'Ce:n'ter w,Qul,d be opera'ted inconjunc:t,ion wi,ththep,a,r'k, by a Loca I no,n,-

- - -

pr,of,it olrqaniz,ati,on thr,ough a coopez-at.Lve agreement wit,h the NPS,. Al,eut C:ultur'al 'C,ent,er

p,rog,r,ams and oper at.Lcns could be 'fu'n,ded by a Congressio,nal ap'pro'priati'on, to t,he NP,S'I by t,h,e

'''t-" 'f U--- 1" ke ". ·t'h· . .' i.vatis ." ". '. .... .' ·b··" t·,·,·· . "f" ·t·· h

C1"y lo-~~n,a.J,a.s'-a Q,r oi[erpr'l.Va--'8 :sources, or a connanauaon 0-- 'r; .• :es,e.

* As Ln ,Alternat,iv',e B" a complex of historicbuil.dings at 'the, ,air'polrt on ,other cen:tral, location would be leased, rehabilitated, and maintained b¥ NPS to house the park visitor cen,ter'" Aleut cultural center, mu.seum, and re,lated functions. Park. ,adm.i.ni.st:rati.ve and main,te,nanc,e, f'unc,tion:s would be hcuaed eith,er in this com.plex o,r in o'ther le,a.sed. 'or pur-chaaed structures, with p,riority qivento h,ist,oricbuildings in Dut.ch Harbor orUn.alaska.,.,

,RESOURCE BA,SE

Th,e f,o,l,lowi,ng p,rop,er'ties exemp,li,fy the sig:nificance and int,egrity of stru,ctures and lands within the NH:LI.

- I

* Fort, Scbwatka battery I :se,ar,ch,lig'h,t ,station and garriso,n (UlaktaHea,d" Amaknaklisland)

45

'*' Hill ,4,00 (,Amaknak, 'Isla,nd,)

* Fort L!e,arnard bat,tery" s,earc,h,l,i,qht station and, qarriso,n (E'i,de,r' P'oi,nt, Unal,a,s,kaIsland), *' Aerology Building, B,ldg. 4,17; ITlorpe,do B,ombs,ight, Shop , Bld,g. 4.2,3" and Naval, Ai,r' st,at,ion,

Car'go t,ermina,l , Bldg., 421 Ie A,i'rport,Am,21Jcnak ,I,'slan,d) and/o'r other W'or,l'd Warrr ,s,tructu.r,es Ln the vi1cinity as av,a,ilable and appr'oprLat;e fOlr pa,rk use.

srrs 'V-"I:'VE'I'O-I,D'IIE' I-',PJ"A AT", lrA.1"'T"'E; ·'·'DD'D,.r:::"'T'ATFO'IAT . .1..1. £,,' L I,L £llVI J'>,I ¥,I.~ 1 'Y_JJ 'lV.~ J' I\.r I\,.Lj ~./"II.. .1.1 IV

Detail,e1d, :p,lann,ing :for the tr,e,a'tment and 'u;se,s of the airport co,mpl,Qx or ot,her bui,l,diog:s sh"ould, be: dlevelo1ped thro:ugh a master p Ian, The follow'ing' scenario ,is, ,off',er,ed, to :su:9grest, po,ssibilit~ies 'forre,alizi,ng t'he obj'ect.iv,es of the proposed park th'rolugh use ,of' the cOI~plle'x o"f hi;s,"toric structur'es r,emaininq at; th,e airport.

PDrk YuiIoT Cemer

- . - - -

Th,e main p,avilion eoutd house the visitor informatio"n. de'sk and exhibits, providing or i,entat Lon t,o 'thepl,a,rk. Hist,ori,ca.l1y' this was the N,ava,l Ai,r T1ransp,ort 'T1ermina.l l.obby.

Th,e tow'er" w.hich olrigin,al,ly' serveda~s work apaoe and airport.obs,er'vatio1n deck; wo'u,ld be, well, su,i,te,d t,oi,n.te:rp:r,e'ta'tion ofa,ir opera'tio,ns, a,t Dutch Harbor and thr,ough:out 'th,e chaLn,

One oft'h,e ,tw'o wi'ng:s e,xte,ndi:nq from,the lobby couldprovid·e i!l,dmini,str,ati ve apaoe for the undt; or a ;sales area and theat,er.

Aleut ~,II'.4:-:"~~,' "'~." .• rI> .• - ....•. , _.-_-~UI~

'Tlhe s,ec'ond wing of' t,he building cou Ld provide wor'k and demonst,r'ation sp,ac,e,f',or A.le,u,t h,er'it,8ge a,ctivi,t,ies " exhibi,t,:s, craft di;spl,ay and :sal,es a,rea I libr,ary, e,tc.

'Exhib,i"ts 'wIQu,'ld focu.s, on '1:,radit,i,o'nal a,sp,ec't,s of the Aleut cu,ltur'e and on con'temp;orary ,Ale,ut l,if'e, rath,e:r t.han Ion Wo,rldWar II-related the'mes.

46

T',o:rpedoBo'mbsight Shop

coul.d be e'ffecti'vely adaptied t;o uae as a th,e,a,ter and sales area,; as mu,seum storag,e, cura,tor,ial work apace , and librarYi'or as a m:ai,'nt,ena,nce 'facility.

Tlhe s,tru1c'tu're 'would be rehabi,l,it,ated to pro,vide exhibit s'pacef'or interpret.ation of World War II in the Aleutians, including: dis,p,l,ays of larg,e ,obj ect,:s I' :su,ch as arti,llery and air'c,raft,.,

Cargo, Te:rm,ina'l

IT,he f',oll,owin'g themes would b,e ap'p,rop,riatefor .interp,retation in the airpor'tcio;mplex, ,Q,ither in 'th,e visitor c,enter' or' exhibi,t h,all. In,terp:r,etat,io,n o:f Aleut cu,ltu:ra, 1, h,erit,age w,ould be deve Loped by the Al,eut C~ultur'a,l cerrcer , F,or a fu,ller 1"is,'t of t,hemes re,lated tOI the pzopoaed park, see outline of Interpretive Themes.

* Natural and cultural history of the Aleutian Islands

- - - _ _- -. _ -

* Th,e Aleut and the1,r cul t,u,re

.. Th,e .imp,o.rt,an'ce of the Aleutian, campa i.qn * The war build-up in. Alaska

* Aleut evacuation and relocation

* M,aj,o'r ev,e,n,ts ,of the war' in t,he, ,Aleuti,ans * Th,e ,bomb,ing of D'u.tch.Harb,o,r

* Th,erole o,f air ope,rat.ions at Dut.ch Harbo,r' and, out 'the chain * IT'he Lend+Leaae pr,o'gram

* The daily lives of military personnel stationed in the Aleutians * Japanese war technology

* 'T,he effects of 'the war on t'he Aleu't and their cul.tur,e

* Wo,rld, War' II, resources remainin:g' at 'ot,her Ale'utia,n sit,es,,; t,heir' silgnificanc,e" management, and protection.

47·'

I _ ";_""

Ulakta Hea.,d.

R,lo.ad acceas would .be mai.ntai.ne,d to an appr'opr.i.a.te entr,anc'e p,oi,nt to thleuni.1:.,is,elle'ctled. hi,s,toric r,o&ld.wa.ys could ,b,e m.ar:k.e,d ,as foot - trail,s. Access by :s,buttl.e v·ehicl.e on hi.torilC r'oadwa.yswi.l.1 be consi.dler,ed in th,e :f'uture duri.nq d.etailedpla.nning,. Tlbis determina.tion will be ll1,ald,e fo,llo'winlq' an e'valuation ,of existi.ng road condi.tionsl, the type ·of vehicl.es, ,av,ailabl,e I and olp,e.rat.ion,al co,st.;s '.

Th'e "'fo,o,tpri.n·t'·' ·of the g,arrislon and oommand cen·ter at FOlrt,Schwatka cou'Ld be 'Bst,abl.i,.sh,ed. and int,erp:rlet,edthrouigh wa·ysi.d.e e.xhibits or a t·wal.k.ing tour·'1 .br'olchure.

Th D' ~.. •

. _ emes .,or',nte11l.re,tatlon

a

* 'T'he st.r,ate·gic: r'ole: of Dutlch Harbor in the .Aleutian ·c'a.mpaign

* .Ha.r'bordefensles str,at,egy and positions on Ama.knak Is,land and U'nala,s,ka I:s.l~nd * 'The rlo.l,e and funlcti,o'n of Fort ,S,chw,atka

* F'o,r't.ifi'cat.i.on,s", ,armamlent, muniti'on:s

'Ro,ad access 'wo'uld be mainta,ined to a:n ap.propriat:e en·trance point/parking area., Hi:s,tori.'c r'lo,adw,a.y:s, w,oul,d be:m!arked as foot trai.ls. A,cc,es:s by shuttl.e vehicle on. hi.stori.c rloadw'lays w,il.l. ble cons i.dez-ed in th,e :f'ut'ure d'uring de·tailedpllanninq. Th.is determinat.ioln will be m.ade follo'wing an evaluat.ion ,of exist.i:n:9 roa·d 'Clondl.'ti.ons" . the t.yp·_ 'of ve,bicle.sava.il,a:bl.le, a:nd operational costs.

Th.le c:o,tnman:dp,ol:S,t and gun em.p1 acenerrc r·ema.ins (with their support.ing s,tructur'e,s,:) wo:u.ldb'e :s,tabilized ,a:n,dpr,es,·e:rveld.

W'a.ys.id,e ,e.xhibi t:s woul,d. pr'ov ide interpreta ti.o.n.

Themes for Intemre,tatipn

.' Th[s learly history and userS ofth,is deep water port (Unalaska visible, below),

.' ,Al1\a'knak, I,slan,d i,nstallations, les,pe,cially ,Port, Mear[s and the su,b,m,ari,ne base, (,si,t,'es[

v,is,ible below:)

.. This use o[f submari.nes in ,harbor ,defenses i[ Ja,pane[se subm,arine a,cti vi t,y * Th,Q defen:se 'f'unction of the command poat; and artillery

* U'Iron r'ing,n anti'-aircra:f't defens,es

* Army in:stallation:s in Una,las'ka and Pyramid valleys

Access t,IOlthi,s, unit w,ould be b,yboat. An oppor-cun i, ty woul[d e,xist for d'ev,elo[p,ment of a tour/charter concession by a local entrepreneur.

Dev'elopm,ent w[ould be minimal to provide a ·'discov,ery'[" exper Lence ,

and Landaoape f'eatur'es wo,uld, ,be s[t,abilized and p1r'e,served to, the

Primitive campsites could be provided.

EICONVMIC ,IMPACTS,

* E,x:pan:de[d to'u.r.ism: opportunities, to pr'ovide goods and

deveLopmerrc of addLt.Lcna L 't,ou:ris,t activi'~i[es and attractions[.

I[

s[lerV'ices,

t- __ " - It _-- - ,QIV1S1-ors;

local

* Park oonceae Lens r boat; [a,ndlo:r van t'Qu,r,s of 'World W[ar II s,ite,s.[

* Emplo'yment by paxk I(mai,nt[e,'na.nce, ra.,nge,rs, resources managemen1:, mus[eum,lcurat,orial',1

a,dm,in,is,t.r[at,iv[e)' ,or cultural center.

'* ,Benaf,i.t to ,l,olc[al resi[dents or ,Nativeas[sociations through the a.ctivities of th'B ,cul'tu:ral,

cen:ter and the sal,e of [art and craft i,tems.

.[

49

-.~- .--~

E,IDER POI.NT

II'

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ALTERNATIVE D

WORLD' WJ\JR II ,IN TH1,EALE,UllANi I,SLAN ID,S, NATIONAL, HIISTORIIC~L PARK

CONCEPT SIUMMARY

I - - .

Nati,on,al Hi:storical ,Pa,rk" as in Altern,ati,ve Ie, bu't wi,th'ou,t an ,af'f'iliat.ed, Aleu,t Cultur,a,l, Cle,nter .. Inte'r,pret,i ve themes:wo,ul,d eorrt.Inue tlO LncIude the :story of 'th,e Aleut, relocation and the ef'f'lect:s o:f the war on the ,A,l,eut land th,eir culture.

Same as Alternative C

SITED'EVELOPMENT,AND INTERPRE'TATION'

As, Ln Alternative C,b'ut w'ithoutAle,ut, Cult,ural Cen'ter.

As in Alternative C, but without Aleut Cultural Center.

51

I I

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Military Reserve

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OPTION FOR AI.L, AL'TERNA'TJVES'

~ " _. p::ggggg . ~

NATIONAL HISTORIC MTU1;4R'Y RESERVE

~- ~"-- . . - ~.

C'ONCEPT S,UMMARY

'T',he hi.,stor'ie ,reso,ur'ces at Attu" K'isk,a, a,ndF,ort, Gl,enn N,atiolnal Historic Landmar'ks, pose a preservlati,onprobl,em related to", bu,t :sep'arate f:r,om the ,ch,a,llenges ,at ,0 ut; oh Harbor NHL,. 'T'he:se: ,la,n,drn,ark:s, cons Ldez ed too remo,t,le f'o'r U'.,S,., Ar'my 'C,orp;s ,of E,ngin,e,ersDERA c Leanup , correa i.n undisturbed,Worl,d War I,I r'eS,Qur',c,es, , LncLudLnq - u. ,S '. and IJapanese invas Lon landing site,s "

t " 1-' 1- . ')...... 'f d . . ·1· .. . . f' ·b'· II! 1- d· I! .. . . ··d~ t· 'h· . . ···t ·U' s-·· • .. f··· .. 11 d··' .. ~ F·· - . ·t·, GIC-

ar ,1-:: :eery, J,J'r,l.': 'ges, comp~exeso' .U,~-Il~~ng:s, ann vt.ne once+seor-et .. 1.-. al..r l.e~--,_ a,-L~lor~ c.renn

on trnnak I sLand , Today, K,iska and Attu a ttra,lc~t Jap,anesetour groups, and the Aleut,ia,n,s, are D,ecom,i"n'g les,s and less obscu.re. Co,mmerc,ial f.is,h,erm.an and ,oth,e,rs f'reely tII'collectU' at; these sites,; in f,act, sub·stantial collectio',ns ofWorl,d Na,r II a.rtifacts from th.e Aleutia.ns ar,e known to exi"st, across the country'.

Pre:slently t,h,e, U,SF&W,S manages, Attu and K,i.s,ka" while F'or't G,lenn is primarily owne:d by th,e stat.e; of Alas,k,a. An option, to affo,rd, these s,it'e:s, a level of pr'o,tection above that Ic~olnfe:rred by nat.Lona I l,andmark status istc d,esignate t,hem a .Nati,ona,l H,istoric Hili t.ary Re·s.r'v. ,or a similar designation that would provide increased recognition for these sites as nationally si'gnifica·nt hi"storic resour-cea as we,ll as a me,ch,anismfo,r obtaining federal funds, f,o:r protec,tion, preservation ,t and interpretati,on. T'h,is ldes,i.gn,a,tion w,ould pr'Qvide a stru.ctu.r'e f,or ,c"oope'rati,on b,e·tw,e·en, th,e o'wners arIa,n,d manaqez-s wit.h,in the R,es"erv'e and NP,Sor any f'olnua.lly c'o'nst.ituted 'org,an,ization res,ponsib,le for pre:se,r'vat,ion and int"erplretation. of·Wolrld War II resour,c"e:s ,at Dutch Harb'or NHL. It may prolvid,e, an o,pp,ortuni ty forcooperat.ion wi thJ',ap,an gin pr,es"ervation o.r interpre'ta'ti,on projec'ts,.

D'e;sign,ati,on as a Res,ervle wo,u,ld pro'vid,e a positive ol,p',port'un,i ty' forpre"sarvat,ioln and interpretation of historic r'Qso,urc:e,s, 'witho,ut,co'ntr',8ven,in'g 'th,e ,oriqina,l mandates of federal agencies on these lands or prevent, full and fa.i,r 'use IOlf priv,at,ely owned lands by their owners. Purcha,se or exehanqe of priva't'e 1,a,n'd:sw,Quld not; be pr,eclu.ded in the case olf willing o'wners.

ITh.is opt.Lon cou Ld ,be imp,leme'nt,ed Ln comb,in,atio'n, wit:h, any of 'th,e precQ,ding al'ternative's, ,inc,lu.ldi.,ng 'II n,o ,action. If

,53

,~~.--. - -

Conn " st,e,t,soln", R,Qs,e C,. E'n:qelman, and ,B,yro:n Fai,r'child. liu,a~r,d,inlg t:he __ U:ni,t,ed Slt,Bte:§ ,and, It,s

,Orq_tg_g:st:§;".Was,h,in'qt,on, D'.C'.:' of'£'iICIQ of the C'hi,ef of ,Mi,litaryHisto;ry', Depar'tmento,f the Army"

U. IS, •• Governm!ent Pri'ntin.g Olf'fice;, 1'964. -

Cra,ven " 'W'es,l,e,y' F .a,nd Jam,e:s L. Cia tie "edi t,ors, .. Th,e Arml!Air Forces, in _W'olrlld War 1'1. Off i,e. of Air Force H"is,tory" Wa:s,hingt,on" D.C.: G,ov,e,rnme,nt 'printing Off Lee ,I 19,8,3, '.

De:nfle:,ld" Dr., core. -The . Defe;n:s"e c,f Du~tch Harbor I ... Alaska. Fro,m Military c,o~stru,c:t.ion t,IQ Bas,e Clle~anu,·R. A'nc,hora'ge::U,. IS". Army IClo:rps of E,n'qi,nQler':s, II' 1987.

Faulkn,er, ;Sandra M'c'Dermo,tt, and Robe:rt IS,. spude , N,l),val oper,a'ti:ng_ B,as!i 'D,u,'tch ,Harb,o'r. and Fort ~Iears,. ~_U,na~as,kaLs~la:sk,a.N,ati,'onal Park service Ala"sk,a Regr.io,n", Ancho,ra'g'e'l 1981.

'IIIFortM,e,a,rs--A Hi.s,t'ory, U,na,l,aska. iii WNRC RG ,3,38 ADIC:, Hi:st,o'r'icRep,o,rt,Allaslk,aDepa,rtment,v'lol. 2.

K:arig, ICapt. Walter and .purdo,n'F commander- Elric.E)attl,e 'ReJ2ort,t Pacifi,c War;: Middle ~hase. N,ew Yor,k: Rinehart and company, Inc. " 1947.

Mi,n,era,lsM:anagem,ent :S"e:rv.i'c,e. 'Un .. ala,:s,ka, ': Ethno'gra'p'Qic _ S,tudx_ an~d, .I_m'pa.ct 7 Ana,l'~s.is • 'Tec,:h:n,ica,l ,Re,po'rt '9,2: "Au'qust 19,8, J '.

'u.s. A'rmy' C:olr'ps, of 'Engi'n,ee'rs., Building t,h,e:N,aX}!'s ... 8S's,es, in. 'W,o~rl,d Wi}rI'I:: H,is'to'rX .. 'Qf t,b,a, B:ureau o:f' Vard:s .andD~,c,k~s_~an.d 'the Civil ,En~inelex 'C,orps" 191410-191,'6., V,o,l. XI .• Wa:shingrt.oln, D. ,e. : 'U '.' S '.' IG,o,v'e'rnm!ent Pr Lrre in:gf ,Off iC:Q: II 194 7 •

u '. ,S'. Army co~p,sof'En9'ineers, .W'or1 Id_ W'a,h II ill A,l,ask,a: A. Hi:st,o,r'i c,ond Be,:so,u,rces Man,~,gemle'n't

,P.··l'· a .n ,'.... A·n-r,c· .• ho r·· ·'a-q·.··e~ I., A,l·. a .... 's·····k·-a· .'1 .C.··.;;is···t:-r· ";:'C-·t'- '1> 9···.····'8~··7··:·

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CITY OF UNALASKA 1" N· A' "L' "'S· "'- .. '"'AS···· K-:-A-'

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AR,'ESIOLUTIO'~J It'BG,AR'D,ING TillE ,L[OCATI~0110l:'\ A 'ilORLD ~IIA.~ I,I INTERPRET IVE CE1J'l'EI{

tiBE,RE:AS~:: 'Oolalas'ka w,a:& t.1J,e :sit.e of tll,e la,J:'ge'5It c,onc:e:nt."il ti'oni,n Alask,a af,u,.S. ,r.],i,li,t,a,ry ,Par'ces QU! 1ng' iiorld Wilt' I,l, altO

l:l'HE,REAS!: Unalas·ka was the s,ite, of attacks b,Y Ja,pallese l~I,a,val :Fo'I"Cee ,in IS CtlUCi,ll pb,5se of that w'~r intt.le Pac:if Lc 'Theatet:" and

'tlHERE,AS: a ,num,ble~%: ,of bu"i ldings w'h ic,h pla.yed k,ey lol es due' i.ng ~l,o.£' l,ti

W'ar I,Ia,rre still in UIUI in the community, anc '

W'flERE,AS: the l~a'tionalP,ark se,r;vice is in,ve:sti,g,a tin'9 t,h,@ poss.ib'illt,y ,of locati"Drg a ~~o;rld war II ,Interpretive center ,in Al,a,5,k8.

NOW I' 'l'llE'R£P09.£, D'E IT RIS'CLVED by tbe Unal &,ska C1 ty COUI\Ci, 1 th a,t, it h,ereby 9uPP,orts 'the lo'cat,ion 0,£ a l"o£l,Q ,qat' II Interp,'et,lv'e center ,in ,A,lataka" a,nd, ,be it 'f1Jr~herres,olve'd that t.he councd I rreqIUlliS,t,s, tb.,at t,~,e' N8,tio,na,1 ',ar<k .Se:tv,i,c,e aevot,. ilt.ten,tion, to tll'a i?,lacenl1ent of

'th,e i"otlld 'W,.e 1'1 Interprc EI,tive Center a tUn,a.laska in, a. ,I;)u,ilding const,i4'c,t,ed ,and u8,ed ,d,u,r in9 Wor,l,dPI'llt II.,

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February 9, 1990

Reg.ional Director N,ati'Q,nal Pi ark. Serv·i.ce 2525 ,G,am'ble St.'1 Ro,om 107 A.nchora,ge, ,AK 99503

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Dear· Regional Di.rect'or:

We" t'h,e und,ers.i.gned. res,i.d.ent,s o,f Un,al,Cl:s'ka/Dut.ch, Har·b,or'" Ala,ska, heartil.y SUPlport t'heNation,al Park ,S,ervic'8 proposa.l to' locate a World War I.Ivisitor/interpr,etiv8: c:.,nta.r in our cO'Dlmun.ity.

,Such, a cent:er w·ou.l.db'G of 'great ,educational valu,et,o our reside,n.t, c:hil,d.re.n, and vi.sitors ·to ,Clurcom·mu.nit.y who seekabet,ter" under-sta.nd.ing o,fwhat, act·u.al.ly haplp,.:ned her,a during W WII,., It is beyond. ou"r ,imagination when w'. hear th,at 30'-50,011010 p'Qc'ple were stationed her,a at one tilDe, wh.s:n many of the buildings are sin.cev8,n.i.shed due to the, el.ements of time.

·Ma:ny vet,er·ans who were stations,dhere. durinlg WW·II have retu.rned t,c r'elive th.e years and fi,nld little bui:a fewbro,k,sn down build.ing's, and ;sh,adow:s ofth,eir'ye.ars of Labor-,

a WWII centler w,Q,uld. also be a rem .. i·n,d.e.r ,of painfulmemori.es to so •.• of theAleutres·ids'nts,wh.o wer'e evacuated from the A.leutianvillage:s, losin'g their homes, pe:rsonal p,r9perty and family h'Q,irl,o"om.:s. We 'will support; the cen.ter if an ,accnrat.est,o-u ofth,eAl'8uteva,cuation . .is told.,

Please pursue the placem.en.t of a WHIr v·is.i.tor center Ln Unalaska/ Dutlch. Harb,o,r with o·ur en.ld'Qlr;sement •

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Alaska Regional Office N'at,i'o,n"al ,P'ark :Se:rvic,e 2,5,2'5. G,amb"ell, Street

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I, ,am writing to, expze s s my auppor+ for th,e ,cre:at,io,n, of a, W'o,rld Wa,r' II 'visi,tor cerrcez at D'ut:c,h ,H,arbo,r by the 'N',ati'Q,nal P'ark, ,Ser'v i c'e • An in,'terpre:t i vie, center th,at,w"Quld eommemoca te:

World t4"ar II and tell a more compLece story olf t.he hexod,c and unfortunate aspects of the war in the Aleutians W9u1d make an important, lasting contribution to our understanding

- .

of Alaskals past. with the 50-year anniversary of the

bombing of Dtrt.ch 'Harbor' Ln IJun'e 199,2" the plrloj act is: t.i:m,ely.

S:uch ,a cerrce.r wou.Ld compLimerrt present; hi,s:,to,ricpre,s;erv',a1:,io,n efforts to protect sites in Alaska associated with World War II. Eleven defense posts and battle sites have been listed in the Na~ional Register of Historic Places, but there are o,therasp,ect.,s of t.he~ 'w'ar -t:hat~ need ·t,o ·h,e ,r,e:m'e:m'bered., In

particular, the story of the relocation of the Aleut people from. t.,h,e Aleu.tian I,slands to oamps .in Sou,th,east. Ala,ska during the war should be collected and interpreted as well.

Ple:a,se:keep' me advd . .sed. r'eg'a,r,din'g th,ee:,s:tablishment of auch a. World War II interpretive center. I strongly endorse the idea and hope you concur.

.'

'e e e Itl tit e til Regi,onal Directo.r Nation,a.l Park Service 25:25 IGamble se., R·olom 107 Anchorage, AK 99503

We., the undersigned residl8,nts of U·na.l,as,ka/Dutlch Harbor, A.llask.a" heartil'Y auppozt; the N·at.ion.al Park Serv.ic:e proposal to Locat.e a. Worl,d War I.Ivi,sitor/inte.rp,r,e'ti,ve ,center i:n ouz ,e,ommu,n,ity.

such a center wo,u.lc1' be of q:r,e,at ed'u'cat,i,o,nal 'value to our resid.e,nt., ,c,h,ildr,en" and visito:r's to Du,rco'lU:mun,ity who ,s,e,e,k a better· u.nder;sta.nd"ing ,of what act~~ally' happle,ned he:re dur,ing WWII,. It i:s bey,on"d our ima.ginat,ion when we; hear t,h.la,t 301-50,0010 people wer'e stati,o,ne,d, here ,at one time, wh,en nt,any of'the buildings a,re since vanish,ad due tlolthe el,ements of t,im"e.

Many v,ete,rans who war'. :station,e,d her,. Id'uring WW'IIhave zetruzried t:o r'el"ive the years and finldl,ittl,ebut a few ,b:r,oken d:ownbu,illdin.gs and snadovs ot: their years olf la,b'or.

a WW,II cent.ez wDuld. ,a,lso :be, a, ,r,em . .i'nd,er of pain:ful memories, to same o,:f the Aleut ,res,iaents wh10 were evacuaced ,fr1oll.th,e Aleutian villages, llo':sin'g their' hom.e'S'I' pler,Bonal pr,operty' and f'8'mily heirlo'o,ms,. We will support the c,enter' ;if . a.n ac,cur,at,e stolry. c,f the Aleut e.vac:qat.ion i.:s told.

"

Ple,asepursu,e 't,h,e,p,lacement Olf a WWI:I, v i:s ito,r centiez In Unal,aska/ 'D:utch .Harbo,r with our end"crsleme~nt,.

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R~p'on'al ,Dir~ctc>r .a, ,N atl'o:n,al Park Service

25125 iGamble St." Room 10,7 Anchorage, AI< 99503

Dear Regi!onal Directon

'We, the undersigned residents of Unalaska/Dutch Harbor, Alaska he,ar'tily support the N,ational.Park5erviloe proposal to locate a Wo,rld War n visitor,/inte!preti¥ecenter' in our community.

'.

Such a center would be of great educational value to' our resident children, and visitors to our community who seek abetter understanding of what actually happenedhere during WWU. It is beyond our' ima,~n,ationwhen we hearthat 130-50,000 people were stationed here ,at one

time, when many of the buildings are since 'vanished due to the' elements ,of time, _

¥an.,.·· .. ',~v.,eterans[ !l. h0lVere stationed ~er~ during wwn.",:. i',~- I have r .. ~e.·__-It.'1:'rned.,_·.-,-, to, re._:.-liv.,--,e.'· the ,ye,ars[ and find little but a few' broken down, buildmgs and shadows of their years of labor.

Awwrr center would also be a reminder of painful memories to some [of the Aleut residents who were evacuated to Southeast Alaska", losing their homes, personal property and family

heirlooms, We hope the, visitor' center will deal sensitively with this matter. -

Please pursue the placement of a wwn visitor center in, Unalaska/Dutch Harbor with our' endorcement,

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Regional Director NationalPark Service

'25:25 Gamble St., Room 1107 Anchorage, AI< '99510,3

Dear Regional Director:

W'e, the undersigned residents lofUnalaska/_:DutchHarbor,Alas,k"" heartily support the National Park Service proposalto locate' IR World War II visitor /Interpretivecenter in, our

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Such a, center would, be of great educational value to' our resident, children, andvisirors '~Ol o1!f ~mmunity who seek a. ~ understanding ofw_hat acctually happened.here ~uring wwn. It 'IS, beyond our tmagmanon when we hear that 3IO-,SO,P"OO peoplewere stationed here at one

time, when many of the buildings are since vanished due to the elements of time.

¥ .... '~'~., ~Ie.ter,ans. ' i:: ..... ~. 'h., c.' were.'·_., s. tatio~ed ~er~ durin._!"g wwn. ~~_'.lli h.- "~avo e r~t1:l. rned to reo .. ~Uve. ,~theyears and find little but a fe'w' broken down buildings and, shadows of theiryears of labor.

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A 'WWll center would. also be a reminder of painfulmemories to some' of the Aleut residents

hw.')h..01; we.:re I~W-'vacuh,a.,tedtht:o.' .• , S'!t~th. ~,ea.sltAlaswil··k~/l.··ld!~.,salmg th.:_·· .. e ... i'r.~ ho.·1"mes. '.' .. pe-'-"thi~onal property and family elr!Q,Oms. "e ·1 ope 'I··.e' visitor center -"'_1 _' . I. I,e· •. __ . sensitive Y WIth t- . ',s matter,

Please pursue the placement of aWWTI visitor center in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor with our

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Dear' Regional Director.

·,!Ie/._'theunde~s_igned residents of Unalaska/Dutch Harbor, Alaska, heartily support the NationalPark Service proposal to locate a World War n visitor'/intezpretive center in our community.

Such a center would be of great educational value to our resident, children, and visitorsto our community who seek a,better understanding of what actually happenedhere during,wwn. It .IS beyond our tmagtnanon when 'we hear that' 30-50~OOO people were' stationed hel~e ,at one time, when many lof the buildings are slnce vanished due to the' elements of time.

, M.,.;an.·.-.,.-'-y.·v ... ,·.ete.-.ran.-.'S .. - .•.. '.w.·· .• rho .. w .. ·· •. er.·.le :s.tan .• :o._ .••• · .. n.I_,e. d.he.r.,e,- .. d.··.,.urm._.I ... ' ... · .. • ... · •...... g .•.•. wwn.· •.•..•... · •• ·• _ .. t •. h.· •. av.· .. ere .. turn. _ .•. '· •. ,ed ..... '.·.· ... I.to._-_·.· .. ~.,e._~.li.ve.= .•... theyears and

find ll·ttle' but a few broken down buildings and shadows of their ye',ars, of labor.

A. 'WWU center would also be la reminder of painful memories to some of the Aleut residents w~.,t? .w._.·ere ,ev.iacuated. to Southeast Alask~, losing th~n: hom._es.-!~. ,~~~nal p!roperty and family heirlooms, We hopethe visitor center WIll deal sensitivelywith this, matter.

Please pursuethe placement of a 'WWllvisitor center' in Unalaska/Dutch Harborwi.th our endorcement,

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e' e e Ie e Ie el e February 5" 19910

RegilonalD,irector National Park Service

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Anchorag e, AI< 9950,3

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Dear :Regional Director:,

We" the undersigned residents of Unalas,kl~/_Du.tch Harbor, Alaska, heartily support the National Park Serviceproposal to' locate a Worlld W,ar'IT visitor /interpretive center in our

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community.

Such a center would be of greateducanonal value to' our resident, children, and visitors to our community who seek a better understanding of.what actually happened hereduring WWll. It Is beyond our Imagination when we' hear' that 3,0-_50/'OO'0 people were stationed here at one time, when many of the, buildings are since' vanished due to the elements of time.

¥an ... ·-.·i~_y .... ~ .. ve.t.r.e~.I·rans ... ~.'.':_ '\w._.~n.· .. -. ';o,w. er.:e.·· •• statio ... n.ed.1 ~.er~ d.ur.1ingwwn.,:,· .. :.,._ l .• have.< r.et';1rned ... ". to.·._'re.:l.iv.e.:-.~ th .. ie ye'ats and find little but a, few' broken down buildmgs and shadows of 'their years lof labor,

A WWD center would also be a reminder of painful memories to some ,of the Aleut residents w~.'or.w.'~e._,re ev.'a.cua .. ted.:. to .•. S'!1l:th~a.st Al.llask~, l,?sin. _g the.:.i.~ h,o. m.'_1 es, ,p~r.s~o. in, al ..•... property and family heirlooms. We hope the' visitor centerwill deal sensitivelywith this matter.

Pleasepursue the' placementof ,aWWll visitor center in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor with our endorcement,

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Reponal Director A Natianal Par!~ Service

2525 Gamble St., Roam 107 Anchorag .• -.e ... AK 99503

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Dear Re,gionalDirector:

'Wei. the und~ersi,gn~ 'residents ,of UnaI~skl~/_Dut~ flubol~/~Alas~,hea~ly support the' National Park Servt,Q!IProposaIto locate, a Wo.,rld. WarDvts,ttor Im.terp~et1ve ceneer in our'

community, -

Such a centerwould be ofgreat educational value to our resident, children, and visit-o'.rs to our community who s~ka: better understanding o(~l\at ~ctually- happened .here _duringwwn. It Is beyond our imagination when we hear that 3i()-50iOO_O people were stationed here at O'D.e' time/when, many of the buildings are since vanished due to the elements of time,

=fiJt:~:: fu~Ob,::~~::~eg.:ndfn::a =~;~ ~:~:r~ort~b~~e years and

AWWll center wo,uld.,a1_so~' a.reminder ~f ~ainfUl ~,emo'ries to some ofthe Aleutre_sid,~nts

~~~~i:.ew~~:;:\~e~~:~:n~:~ih Id:l':e~ti~~~={J~~~aC~erty and fanllly

Please pursue the placement of a wwn visitor center' in Unalaska I Dutch Harbor with our' endorcement.

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Re',gionlal Director

N ational Park Service

25251 Gamble St." Room 1107 Anchorage, AI< 9:9[503

De'lar'Regiolnal Dlrecton

W'e"tbe undersigned residents 0.£ Unalaska/Dutch Harbor.Alaska heartily support the National Park Service proposal tolocate a World Warn vlsitor/Interpretive center in our

community 10 _

Such a center would be of [great educationalvalue to our resident, children, and visitorsto our ~mmunity whoseek a.better understanding of what actually happened .here during wwn.lt is beyond [our imagination when 'we hear that 30-,50,1000 people were stationedhere at one time, when many ,of the buildings are since vanished due to the elements 101£ time'.

=tiw~te;:: fu~Ob~~~~~e:~~~~~ =!:~f =r;~~o ;:Pa~:~e years and

A.wwn center would also 'be a, reminder of painful memories to some of theAleutresidents ~ .• ~\Vere e~a.CUla.ted to.- .•.• S.'o,~~h. :[~a.stAlas~, lO~ingth.e.!r. hO.llle.c~!~r._s.o~ property and family heirlooms. Weho'pe the visitor center willdeal sensitively with this matter.

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February 5, 199:0

~gi,onal, p,irector National Park Servi.ce

25251 G,8trtble 'S!'." Room 1[07 Anchorage; ,AI< 1995[06

Dear Re,gi,onal Director:

We" theundersigned residents of Unalas~/_Dut,* Harbor.Alaska, heartily support the' National ParkService proposal to locate a World Warn visitor /Interpretive center in our

community. -

Such a center would 'be' of great educational valueto our resident, children, and visitorsi toour ,com'munity' 'who seek abefier understanding of whatactuaIly happened here ~uring wwn It ~ beyond our imag!n,ation ~h.~ we hear that ~50/OOO people were station~ here at one time, 'when many' of the buildings are since vanished due 'to the' elements of time II

- t!dlitd~~:: ;::br'o~:=~!t~fn:Su:a ==~f ili~:r;o oTf!:~e years and

A wwn centerwould also be a reminder of painful memories to some, of the Aleut residents w.' ~.' .. ~I .. \V':.'~.' .. e.~.·~' ~v." ·~cuated to .s~u. ~th. = .•... -.Ie. as. t_ Alask .• ~, los.m.2~g. th.· •.. _1· ,::i. ~ h. o~.·· •. ,~ es."., ,per .....••.•.... , ,.~s.,.Onal.~_.1i _ p.!~'r. rOperty and family heirlooms, Wlehopeth:e V1:S1tor center will deal sensitively WIth, this matter'.

Please' pursue the placement of a wwn visitor' center in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor' with, our endorcement,

'Signed,

t.,

.,

..

el e e tit e e el 'e e e e, 'e' Ie, e e RegionalDirector

N,atio'nal P'arkService· 2525 G,anlble Sit." Room, 107 Aneh o,··.·'r····I:·g·.e·-· AK·· ·, .. ·i' ·9~'9'~5,rO·-;··3-,

__ ',' . ,_., '~.':~ :' ._" , c,' .' '_' ,~. ,_.- _', .

Dear' Regional Director:

We,.theundersi,gne,d residents ofUnalaska/Dutch Harbor.Alaska heartily suppo,rt the National Park Service proposal to locate' laWo,rId 'War Il visitor /Interpretive center in our

community, -

Such a center 'would_'be,of great educational 'value, to our resident, children" and visitors to our community who seek abetter understanding of_wh,a~ actually happenedhere during 'WWU. It. is beyond our inla.~natj.on~hen we hear th,at 310-510,0010 people were stationedhere ,at one' time, when many' of the buildings are since vanished due to the elements ,of' time,

=litd~b~ =b,::~~:~eg~d~:~!a =;:~f ili~:r~OoT:!h~~e years and

A, wwn centerwould also be, areminder of painful memories to' SO'ID,e of the' Aleut residents

~~ ~~~~~~y

Please pursue th,e placement of a 'WWll visitor' center in Unalaska/ Dutch Harbor with our' end or cement,

Print: Name'

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Reglionall Director National. Pa.rk Service

25,25 'Gamblle Street Boom 1 01'7 Ancho ra,lgl'e II Alaska ,995,031

Dear Sir:

lit has come to OIUIr' attentlon that the Park Service is considerinq II ocatinq a, WOlrldlWalr III Interpretive Center in Un"alask,a/ID'ut,chl Harbor. We str'Q,nglly support this proposal,

Dutch Harbor, and aU of the Aleutians, played a unique rOII,e ln W"orld W,ar III and as this are,a now' hosts visitors :nullmI1ber-inlg over ,3'0,000 annually (from several countries. in,clludiing thousands from Japan and the Soviet unlon) it seems like the natural site' tor such 8, center.

In additicn to the broad ranqe a nidi larqe number of visltors already cornlnq tOI the area, such a, center would be useful to

res lid ents of the area and especially to students in meetinq their need to understand the local history.

We appreciate your consideratlon of our comments ln dle'vellolpilngl the W,o'lrld Wa,r III II nterpre tli v lei Oe Inter .

•• ".,.~' ~'!I .. "

,

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T'HE ,ALASKA A,880ICIATION FOR HII'8'Y:ORIC PiR:ESEAVATION:

OLD :ClTYHALl, 524 WE:ST :FOURTH AYiENUE .. ME 203, .ANOHORAG:E', PJ..ASKA 9850'1'

F-bru-, ~- .. : ... '9- 1990

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_i8glon_ .•. ,_ .... ect.

NalonialPart S:nce 2525 G •• b8IStreet Anch.a!ga.AK 99503

'The Aasocia1iIOll far 'Historic Preserv:atilon (AAHP) i:slheonl, Statewi. non;-profit organilzation cledcaled tiD thepr •• rvatioR' of Alast.ll:s lIii,stori,cal andculbnl: r....... lbe, ,AA!H'p Board of D:irec:tars,

lat ., me.ing: 'OIl Feblu_' 3", 1'990 cliacu:_dlh:e D!ulcb H.:ba.r Pfopo.8'1 and voted 10 I.ndarae 'ow NPS _deaven , ....... bl:ishilng ., 'visit« cent. IRd hiSlGrie: in_pretetilon aite., Tbi,.,1 _beli1eve is fbi. auitaJbI. IOcatilGn teee ••• lDarat. AI_kals involv.'mlent in 'World War 1,1. ~.

W'. woul!d do well to re.e.i_ tb:1I Iii was on the cold "1, .iountains of' ~ .. ,own Ali.d,. III.nd.,. .. :.iliitary priedlh., .,n, •• ,.. s.wiP 'froim' Ulnit'.,d

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Stat_; T·.,·. I ...,. lin bI:oody\.. fl."".' -',_! -,·ng •......••

I' .. , .:1 •. ,

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II aimend08iing I., .. inl •• aUon; 111,. current ('1 '990) liist of aurBoard !of

Direct •• as well ,.the I and ,CO.lllitt .. ;Chairpersons,.

AAHP wiahles, ,eu 'weill in: 1hi8f.8si~bility aU.Rlpl,.

-

B- .1-: ; I IG·'-.=-.H:~. '1.-.:'-1 I .

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Preaid_t 7005 Fr.*i-cc'8 Dr .. ,Anch •• ga"1 M 99504--11i27

'Copr: Rep,. David :Fin,telliein

Chair.h., SiP.c COOlHl OIl, Tow1a_

Enci! __ 'e _

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