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9 Assignment#4

Air Vehicle Design

Designed by: Supervised By:


Amna Ahmed Asst. Professor
140101080 Asst Prof. Izhar Kazmi
Merium Fazal Abbasi Mr. Danial Amin
140101030 Institute of Space technology,
Aero-13B Islamabad

Submission Date: April 16, 2017


Contents
9 CHAPTER 9 - CREW STATION AND PAYLOAD............................................................. 5
9.1 PREAMBLE: ................................................................................................................... 5
9.1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT ....................................................................................... 5
9.1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE ........................................................................................... 5
9.1.3 DELIVERABLES ..................................................................................................... 5
9.2 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 5
9.2.1 LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ................................................. 5
9.2.2 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS ............................................................... 5
9.2.3 CHAPTER SUMMARY........................................................................................... 5
9.2.4 PROCESS FLOW CHART ...................................................................................... 6
9.3 SELECTIONS AND CALCULATIONS ........................................................................ 6
9.3.1 CREW STATION ..................................................................................................... 6
9.3.2 Ejection Seat: ............................................................................................................ 8
9.3.3 WEAPONS CARRIAGE .......................................................................................... 8
9.4 RESULTS....................................................................................................................... 13
9.5 CONCLUSION .............................................................................................................. 13
10 CHAPTER 10 - PROPULSION AND FUEL SYSTEMS INTEGRATION........................ 14
10.1 PREAMBLE: .............................................................................................................. 14
10.1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT ..................................................................................... 14
10.1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE ......................................................................................... 14
10.1.3 DELIVERABLES ................................................................................................... 14
10.2 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 14
10.2.1 LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ............................................... 14
10.2.2 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS ............................................................. 14
10.2.3 CHAPTER SUMMARY......................................................................................... 15
10.2.4 PROCESS FLOW CHART .................................................................................... 16
10.2.5 INPUT PARAMETERS ......................................................................................... 16
1
10.3 SELECTIONS AND CALCULATIONS ................................................................... 17
10.3.1 PROPULSION SYSTEM SELECTION: ............................................................... 17
10.3.2 JET ENGINE INTEGRATION: ............................................................................. 18
10.3.3 FUEL SYSTEM ...................................................................................................... 29
10.4 RESULTS ................................................................................................................... 31
10.5 CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................... 32
11 CHAPTER 11 - LANDING GEAR AND SUBSYSTEMS ................................................. 33
11.1 PREAMBLE ............................................................................................................... 33
11.1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT ..................................................................................... 33
11.1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE ......................................................................................... 33
11.1.3 DELIVERABLES ................................................................................................... 33
11.2 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 33
11.2.1 LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ............................................... 33
11.2.2 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS ............................................................. 34
11.2.3 CHAPTER SUMMARY......................................................................................... 34
11.2.4 PROCESS FLOW CHART .................................................................................... 35
11.2.5 INPUT PARAMETERS ......................................................................................... 35
11.3 SELECTIONS AND CALCULATIONS ................................................................... 36
11.3.1 LANDING GEAR ARRANGEMENT ................................................................... 36
11.3.2 BRAKING .............................................................................................................. 41
11.3.3 SHOCK ABSORBERS ........................................................................................... 41
11.3.4 CASTORING-WHEEL GEOMETRY ................................................................... 47
11.3.5 GEAR RETRACTION GEOMETRY: ................................................................... 48
11.3.6 SUBSYSTEMS ....................................................................................................... 48
11.4 RESULTS ................................................................................................................... 54
11.5 CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................... 54
12 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................... 55

2
List of figures
Figure 9-1 Process Flow chapter for crew station and Payload ...................................................... 6
Figure 9-2 Ground Crew Station Of Avenger................................................................................. 7
Figure 9-3 Ground Control Station ................................................................................................. 7
Figure 9-4 Components of a laser guided bomb [1] ....................................................................... 8
Figure 9-5: Laser guided mutation delivery [4] ............................................................................ 10
Figure 9-6: Carriage mechanisms [5] ........................................................................................... 11
Figure 9-7: Bomb bay dimensions [1] .......................................................................................... 11
Figure 9-8: Internal weapon bay of Neuron [6] ............................................................................ 12
Figure 10-1: Flow chart of Integration of propulsion and fuel system ......................................... 16
Figure 10-2 Types of Engines ....................................................................................................... 17
Figure 10-3 SFC vs Design Mach Number................................................................................... 18
Figure 10-4 Rubber Engine ........................................................................................................... 19
Figure 10-5 Selected Engine ......................................................................................................... 21
Figure 10-6 Inlet duct.................................................................................................................... 24
Figure 10-7 Inlet Geometry .......................................................................................................... 25
Figure 10-8 Inlet shape of Reference Aircraft .............................................................................. 25
Figure 10-9: Capture area [5] ........................................................................................................ 26
Figure 10-10: design Mach no Vs Ac/mass flow rate .................................................................. 26
Figure 10-11: 2-d, V shaped, thrust vectoring nozzle.(a) cross-sectional view.(b)external view.
(c) mechanical view. (d) integrated with engine [9] [10] ............................................................. 29
Figure 10-12 : Aviation fuel specifications [5] ............................................................................. 30
Figure 11-1 FLow Chart of LAnding Gear ................................................................................... 35
Figure 11-2 Tricycle Landing Gear .............................................................................................. 36
Figure 11-3 Tipback Angle ........................................................................................................... 37
Figure 11-4 Over-turn Angle ........................................................................................................ 37
Figure 11-5 Strurt Travel Angle ................................................................................................... 38
Figure 11-6 Shock Absorber Type ................................................................................................ 42
Figure 11-7 Oleo Shock Strut ....................................................................................................... 42
Figure 11-8 Oleo Pneumatic Strut ................................................................................................ 46
Figure 11-9 Castoring wheel geometry [5] ................................................................................... 47
Figure 11-10 Retraction of landing gear of Neuron UCAV [12].................................................. 48
Figure 11-11 Hydraulic system [5] ............................................................................................... 49
Figure 11-12 Soring organ in birds [15] ....................................................................................... 51
Figure 11-13 Avionics weight to Empty weight ratio [5] ............................................................. 52

3
List of tables
Table 9-1: Result of crew station and payload design .................................................................. 13
Table 10-1: Input Parameters table for integration of propulsion and fuel system ...................... 16
Table 10-2 Data of Various Engine .............................................................................................. 20
Table 10-3 Data of Selected Engine ............................................................................................. 20
Table 10-4 Dimensions of the Scaled Engine ............................................................................... 22
Table 10-5 Specifications of Scaled Engine ................................................................................. 23
Table 10-6 Engine Dimensions .................................................................................................... 23
Table 10-7 Results of propulsion and fuel system integration ..................................................... 31
Table 11-1 Input values for Landing Gear Analysis ..................................................................... 35
Table 11-2 Wheel Diameters ........................................................................................................ 38
Table 11-3 Data of Typical Tires .................................................................................................. 39
Table 11-4 Data of Typical Tires - II ............................................................................................ 40
Table 11-5 Tires Pressures ............................................................................................................ 41
Table 11-6 Efficiencies Values ..................................................................................................... 44
Table 11-7 Gear Load Factor ........................................................................................................ 44
Table 11-8 Results of landing gear ............................................................................................... 54

4
10 CHAPTER 9 - CREW STATION AND PAYLOAD

10.1 PREAMBLE:
10.1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
To design ground based crew station and payload compartment for Unmanned combat aerial
vehicle.

10.1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE


To become able to determine the crew station and payload requirement and go thought their
conceptual design process.

10.1.3 DELIVERABLES
Following are the deliverables of this chapter:

1. Analysis of requirement of ground based crew station


2. Selection of weapons
3. Selection of weapon carriage mechanism
4. Selection of weapon release mechanisms

10.2 INTRODUCTION
10.2.1 LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
10.2.2 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS
1. Weapon Bay
The bomb bay or weapons bay on some military aircraft is a compartment to
carry bombs, usually in the aircraft's fuselage, with "bomb bay doors" which open at
the bottom. The bomb bay doors are opened and the bombs are dropped when over
the target or at a specified launching point.
2. Hard point
A hard point is a location on an airframe designed to carry an external or internal
load. This includes a station on the wing or fuselage of a civilian aircraft or military
aircraft where external jet engine, ordnance, countermeasures, gun pods, targeting
pods or drop tanks can be mounted.

10.2.3 CHAPTER SUMMARY


This chapter deals with crew station and payload compartment design. As our aircraft is UCAV,
its crew station is ground based. Due to the small size of the aircraft and its stealth requirement,
no external hard point is present in our aircraft. Weapons used are only bombs, which are carried
on internal weapon bay and released by pneumatic mechanism.

5
10.2.4 PROCESS FLOW CHART

Crew Station Payload

Ground Bombs
Control Station

Bomb carriage Bomb Release


(internal) (pneumatic)

Figure 10-1 Process Flow chapter for crew station and Payload

10.3 SELECTIONS AND CALCULATIONS


10.3.1 CREW STATION
In a UCAV there is no crew station, but there is crew station onboard called Ground control
station. A ground control station (GCS) is a land- or sea-based control center that provides the
facilities for human control of UAVs. The ground station are located in the in or near the
battlefield.

In UCAVs ground control station, the pilot sits in front of a number of screens showing the view
from the UCAV, a map screen and aircraft instruments. With 2 operators connected to Air
Traffic Controllers.

GCS HARDWARE
GCS hardware refers to the complete set of ground-based hardware systems used to control the
UCAV. This typically includes the Human-Machine Interface, computer, telemetry, video
capture card and aerials for the control, video and data links to the UAV.

GCS SOFTWARE
GCS software is runs on a ground-based computer that is used for planning and flying a
mission. It provides a map screen where the user can define waypoints for the flight, and see the

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progress of the mission. It also serves as a virtual cockpit, showing many of the same
instruments as in manned aircraft.

Figure 10-2 Ground Crew Station Of Avenger

Figure 10-3 Ground Control Station

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10.3.2 Ejection Seat:
In UCAVs there is no risk of pilot in case of any damage to UCAV. So no ejection seat
mechanism is needed to define.

10.3.3 WEAPONS CARRIAGE


For a typical fighter aircraft, weapons such as guns, bombs and air to air missiles need to be
carried. Our aircraft is having no missiles and guns, as it is the stealthy bomber. It carries 2
guided bombs. A bomb usually consists of explosive material packed into a sturdy case,
consisting of a fuze mechanism. Fuze is triggered by time delay, impact sensor or target
proximity sensor. When trigger goes off, fuze ignites the explosive and extreme pressure and
flying debris is produced, which cause serious damage. If a bomb simply falls on the ground,
without actively steering itself, it is called dumb bomb, and carpet bombing is used to attack
the target by this type of bomb, which cause immense collateral damage, and still there 95%
chances of missing the target. But if certain modifications are made into the dumb bomb, by
adding:

1. Electronic sensor
2. Control system
3. Power source (battery)
4. Movement controlling mechanisms (fins)

It becomes a smart bomb.

These guided or smart bombs are designed to precisely hit a specific target, to
minimize collateral damage and increase lethality against intended targets. They fall to the target
solely by the force of gravity, but its fins or wings have control surfaces that move in response to
guidance commands, enabling adjustments to be made to the angle of the bombs descent or the
direction of its fall. The bomb glides, rather than falls, to the target.

Figure 10-4 Components of a laser guided bomb [1]


Smart bombs have the following advantages:

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1. They allow the small planes to make successful attacks using fewer explosive. This is in
contrast to the carpet or scatter bombing, which require larger number of bombs and thus
larger aircrafts.
2. They make the launching aircraft less vulnerable to the anti-aircraft systems as they can
be launched from quite high altitude with sufficient accuracy. [2]

The smart bombs are further classified on the basis of their guidance system. The guidance
system consists of sensors to detect the target and some means of adjusting the bombs fins or
wings in order to control its descent. It can be:

1. Electro-optical: In this system there is a television camera placed in the nose of the bomb.
It sends real time picture to its operator, who either lock the bomb on the target or guide
it all the way, until it impacts the target.
2. Laser: In this system, target is illuminated by a laser beam from the releasing aircraft,
another target-control aircraft, or a ground force unit. Sensors in the bombs nose lock
onto the reflections of the laser beam and follow them down to the target.
3. Infrared: this system relies upon the heat generated by the target.
4. GPS: In this system, aircraft uses its GPS to locate target and feed information to the
bomb control system. Once the bomb is released, its own GPS system receive real time
information, from satellite tracking its position. Control system ensures it stays on target.
It does not rely on the visual contact with the target, and work well even in the cloudy
weather.

For our aircraft, a LASER GUIDED BOMB will be used as it is more appropriate for a UCAV,
due to its improved accuracy as compare to the infrared guided bomb and more autonomy as
compare to the electro optical guided bomb. GPS guided bombs are avoided, in spite of the fact
that they are more economical and better for all weather condition, due to the reasons that in
strategic locations there is a chance of GPS jamming and they are also prone to human
intelligence error. [3]

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Figure 10-5: Laser guided mutation delivery [4]

10.3.3.1 CARRIAGE MECHANISM:


There are 4 options for weapon carriage in an aircraft:

1. External carriage
2. Semi-Submerged carriage
3. Internal carriage
4. Conformal carriage

External carriage is lightest and simplest and offer the most flexibility to carry alternate weapons
stores but it increases the parasite drag and radar cross-section. Semi submerged and internal
carriage cause significant reduction in parasite drag, but it reduces flexibility for carrying
different weapons. Lowest drag option for weapon carriage is internal, which also minimize the
radar cross-section, but it has least flexibility for carrying different weapons.

10
Figure 10-6: Carriage mechanisms [5]
As our aircraft is stealthy bomber, an INTERNAL CARRIAGE will be most suitable for it.

The bomb bay is sized to standard military specifications. In addition, the doors are designed
with saw-tooth to reduce edge diffraction for improved stealth characteristics. The dimensions of
the bay are given below:

Figure 10-7: Bomb bay dimensions [1]


In our aircraft, 2 bomb bays are located on the downside of aircraft and are equidistant from the
centerline of fuselage to maintain symmetry and thus stability of aircraft.

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Figure 10-8: Internal weapon bay of Neuron [6]

10.3.3.2 RELEASE MECHANISM


There are two main bomb bay configurations.

1. Conventional bomb rack: A conventional bomb rack has mounted stores in vertical
columns making individual store selection and release impossible without releasing all
stores ahead in the column line. The advantage of a conventional bomb rack is a prompt
release of all stores in short order
2. Rotary launcher: A rotary launcher is a rotating suspension equipment mounted inside the
bomb bay. Rotary launchers have stations of their own and offer the ability to select
certain stores within the bomb bay for release. Advantages include the selection ability
for different weapons and easier loading for the ground crew. The disadvantage of a
rotary launcher is a slow release of stores. [7]

Our aircraft will be having a CONVENTIONAL BOMB RACK, as it is having only one smat
bomb in each bomb bay.

Following are the common bomb release mechanisms:

1. Pneumatic bomb release


2. Hydraulic bomb release

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3. Explosive bomb release

As hydraulic cause weight penalty and explosive is not stealth friendly, our aircraft will be using
a PNEUMATIC RELEASE MECHANISM for safer and faster rearming and greater reliability
in the delivery of the weapon.

10.4 RESULTS
Table 10-1: Result of crew station and payload design

Parameters Selections

Crew station Ground based

Weapon Smart laser guided bombs

Weapon carriage Internal bomb bay

Release mechanism Pneumatic

Bomb bay configuration Conventional bomb rack

10.5 CONCLUSION
In this chapter, we have made selections regarding crew station and payload of our aircraft on the
basis of stealth, aerodynamic and stability considerations. As, our aircraft is UCAV, so crew
station will be ground based. Due to small size and stealth, our aircraft cannot have external
missiles and guns, so it only has smart laser guided bombs, which are carried on internal weapon
bay and have pneumatic release mechanism.

13
11 CHAPTER 10 - PROPULSION AND FUEL SYSTEMS
INTEGRATION
11.1 PREAMBLE:
11.1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
To do the integration and layout of propulsion and fuel system, in the overall vehicle design.

11.1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE


To go through the process of selection and installation of propulsion and fuel system in a
conceptual design of an aircraft.

11.1.3 DELIVERABLES
Following will be the deliverables of this chapter:

1. Dimensions of the engine


2. Value of cruise thrust
3. Value of maximum and cruise SFC
4. Selection and location of inlet
5. Selection and location of nozzle
6. Selection of fuel
7. Selection of fuel storage

11.2 INTRODUCTION
11.2.1 LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
VTOL: Vertical Takeoff and Landing
STO: Short Takeoff and Landing
SFC: Specific Fuel Consumption
BPR: Bypass Ratio
SF: Scale Factor
W: Weight
T: Takeoff Thrust
Ac: Capture Area
CG: Centre of gravity

11.2.2 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS


1. Boat tail drag
It is drag due to separation on the aft side of the fuselage and nozzle.

14
2. Nominal engine
Some existing engine, on the basis of which a new engine is designed.
3. Scale Factor
Ratio between the required thrust and actual thrust of nominal engine
4. Intake
It is the part of an engine that supplies the air to the engine.
5. Nozzle
It is the part of the engine that accelerate the hot gases coming from turbine of the engine.
6. Diffuser
A duct, that is used to decrease the velocity is called diffuser.
7. Capture Area
Capture area is the area at the front of an inlet that is exposed to the directly incoming
free stream air and is a measure of the mass flow rate coming into and engine
compressor.
8. Rubber engine
Design of a new engine for specific aircraft requirements, by scaling of some existing
engine is called a rubber engine.
9. Bypass ratio
It is the ratio of the air that is bypassed to the air that goes to the core of the engine.
10. Afterburning
If fuel is injected into the largely, un-combusted air, it will mix and burn, this will raise
the thrust as much as the factor of two, and is known as afterburning.
11. Parameter deck
It is a computer program, that provides the performance and dimensional data, for an
arbitrary advanced performance engine based upon inputs like bypass ratio, pressure ratio
and turbine inlet temperature.
12. Span loading
The gross weight of an aircraft divided by the square of the span is called span loading.
13. Boundary layer diverter
A device used to control the boundary layer, in front of the inlet, to improve the
performance of engine is called boundary layer diverter.

11.2.3 CHAPTER SUMMARY


This chapter deals with the integration and layout of engine and fuel system. For this purpose, a
rubber engine concept will be used, where dimensions of a new engine are calculated on the
basis of some existing engine to get required specifications. Then, inlet and nozzle geometry and
location will be decided, on the basis of stealth considerations. Finally, fuel system integration is
done by calculating the required fuel volume and then selecting the fuel storage system.

15
11.2.4 PROCESS FLOW CHART

Propulsion
Fuel System
System

Selection of
Fuel
Inlet Engine Nozzle
selection Selection Selection

Calculation Selection of
of Volume Storage

Dimension Thrust SFC


Calculation Calculations calculations

Figure 11-1: Flow chart of Integration of propulsion and fuel system

11.2.5 INPUT PARAMETERS


Table 11-1: Input Parameters table for integration of propulsion and fuel system

Parameters Values

Mach no 0.75

Span efficiency factor 0.8

Fuel weight (lbs.) 1785.1509

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11.3 SELECTIONS AND CALCULATIONS
11.3.1 PROPULSION SYSTEM SELECTION:
A propulsion system is a machine that produces thrust to push an object forward. On airplanes,
thrust is usually generated through some application of Newton's third law of action and reaction.

A figure featured on page 194 (Raymer,1992) illustrates the various types of engines that the
designers can choose from based on the requirements of their aircraft.

Figure 11-2 Types of Engines

Engines that feature a propeller are unable to fly at high Mach numbers due to the propeller tips
reaching a higher speed than that of the aircraft. This can be very dangerous both
aerodynamically (vibratory motion) as well as structurally (aircraft could disintegrate mid air),
hence both the piston and turboprop engines are rendered useless for an aircraft such as ours
which is required to be able to fly at Mach 2.
A turbofan engine is able to produce a larger amount of thrust under the same conditions that a
turbo jet engine can as a result of a fan that bypasses air through specially designed ducts and
increases the mass flow rate going into an engine, which reduces the SFC, cost and increases an
aircrafts T/W ratio.
In order to provide greater thrust momentarily, an afterburner is introduced at the exit of an
aircraft engine that burns the hot gases that are expelled through the engine turbine using a high
amount of fuel using flame-holders. An afterburner is used extensively on modern aircraft and is
used to provide additional thrust during take-off and aerial disengagements.

17
Most of what has been stated above can be justified using the figure on page 195 (Raymer,1992)
which relates engine type with the design mach number.

Figure 11-3 SFC vs Design Mach Number

Considering the reasons stated above and the operational requirements of our aircraft which
requires that the maximum Mach number be equal to 0.75, the most suitable engine has been
selected which is an Afterburning Turbofan Engine.
One engine will be used on our UCAV as it would satisfy the thrust requirements and ensure that
the weight of the UCAV as well as the diameter of the fuselage does not exceed the values that
have been determined.

11.3.2 JET ENGINE INTEGRATION:


11.3.2.1 ENGINE DIMENSIONS:
Dimensions of an aircraft engine can be obtained from a manufacturing firm if it is an existing
(off the shelf) engine, however a scaling factor from some nominal engine has to be used if a
rubber engine is being utilized. This scaling factor is based on thrust requirement.
This is illustrated in the figure below, featured on page 197 (Raymer,1992).

18
Figure 11-4 Rubber Engine

Where the Scaling Factor SF is the ratio of required thrust to actual thrust:

This Scaling Factor can then be used to evaluate the length, diameter and the weight of our
aircraft engine.

= ().

= ().

= ().

11.3.2.2 ENGINE SELECTION:


In order to select the most optimum engine for our aircraft, a list of engines used for UCAV has
been consulted. Although the list featured over 500 different types of engines, they were
shortlisted based on their level of currency (Modern engines were favoured) along with the need
of a high Tmax and T/W ratio and low SFC.

The shortlisted engines are featured below:

19
Table 11-2 Data of Various Engine

Engine Dry Thrust (lbf) Wet Thrust (lbf) SFC lb/(lbf.h)

F-100 PW 200 14,590 23,770 0.73

Adour Mk 106 6,000 8,430 0.81

Snecma M88 11,250 16,860 0.78

Based on the table above Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour has been selected as it would provide
the highest Tmax and T/W ratio as our requirement while providing a reasonable SFC as well.

Specifications of the Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour MK 106 turbofan engine:

Table 11-3 Data of Selected Engine

Type Afterburning Turbofan

Length 114 inches (2.90 cm)

Diameter 22.3 inches

Dry Weight 1,784 lb / 809 kg

Compressor 2-stage LP, 5-stage HP

Bypass Ratio (BPR) 0.75-0.8

Turbine 1-stage LP, 1-stage HP

Maximum Thrust Dry 6000 lb

Maximum Thrust Wet 8,430 lb

Overall Pressure Ratio 10.4

Specific Fuel Consumption SFC 0.81 lb/hr

T/W Ratio 4.725:1

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Figure 11-5 Selected Engine

11.3.2.3 SCALING FACTOR SF:


Scaling Factor SF is the ratio of required thrust to actual thrust. In order to calculate the scaling
factor, both the required and actual thrust needs to be estimated first.


= ( )

Where the chosen values T/W and W0 are as followed:

T/W = 0.1365911

W0 = 15592 lb

Hence,

= .

Actual Thrust = 8430lb

= 0.25263

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Using this SF, the specifications of the engines to be used in our aircraft can be obtained.

= ().

L = 114(0.2526)0.4 = 65.74 in

= ().

D=22.3 (0.2526)0.5 = 11.20 in

= ().

W = 1784 (0.2526)1.1 = 392.70

The parameters of the scaled engine are given in the following table:

Table 11-4 Dimensions of the Scaled Engine

Length L 65.74 Inches

Diameter D 11.20 inches

Weight W 392.709 lb

Another method based on statistical data can be used to evaluate some of the engine parameters.
This method involves using equations for afterburning engines featured on page 198
(Raymer,1992).

= . (). (). ().

= . (). ().

= . (). ().

= . ().

= . (). ().

= . ().

Using our required Mach number (M = 0.75), the BPR and T = 2129.728 lbs (For a single
engine), the values are as followed:

22
Table 11-5 Specifications of Scaled Engine

Weight 145.159 lb

Length 61.95inches

Diameter 13.69 inches

SFCmaxT 1.907

Tcruise 510.33 lb

SFCcruise 0.904

This method however is based on empirical data and is less reliable than the data obtained
earlier. Hence the values to be used for further calculations are:

Table 11-6 Engine Dimensions

Length L 65.74 Inches (5.47 ft)

Diameter D 11.20 inches

Weight W 392.709 lb

11.3.2.4 INLET GEOMETRY AND LOCATION:


The primary objective of the engine inlet duct is to provide the engine compressor with a
uniform supply of air in order to prevent the compressor from stalling. Since the inlet is directly
exposed to the impacting airflow, it must also create as little drag as possible.

The inlet duct used in UCAVs is of fixed geometry and is divergent of shape. Divergent means
that its diameter increases from front to back. As air enters the aerodynamically contoured shape
it starts to diffuse, arriving at the compressor at a slightly higher than ambient pressure. So
velocity at the compressor is less. In general, the inlet ducts' shape allows the air to diffuse in the
front portion of the inlet and to progress at a fairly constant pressure to the compressor section.
This causes a much smoother supply of air at a more constant pressure and consequently better
engine performance.

There are various kinds of intake systems but the ones that are most suitable for UCAV is M
Shape intake as shown in Figure 10.7.

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The internal shape of the inlet is S shaped as shown in figure 10.6. This type of inlet is also
called Funnel or goose shape Inlet.

Figure 11-6 Inlet duct

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Figure 11-7 Inlet Geometry

Figure 11-8 Inlet shape of Reference Aircraft

LOCATION OF INLET

The location of the inlet has a high importance related to the performance of an engine as it
accounts for the quality and quantity of free stream air that enters the through the inlet.

In our UCAV, Top mounted inlet is selected because this increases the stealth capabilities to up
looking radar and preventing foreign objects from ingesting into engines

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11.3.2.5 CAPTURE AREA CALCULATION:
Capture area is the area at the front of an inlet that is exposed to the directly incoming free
stream air and is a measure of the mass flow rate coming into and engine compressor.

Figure 11-9: Capture area [5]


In order to estimate the capture area AC of our aircraft, the method shown on page 190
(Raymer,1992) can be used which uses the graph shown below:

Figure 11-10: design Mach no Vs Ac/mass flow rate

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Since the engine front face flow diameter is 80% of the maximum diameter of the engine (i.e
11.20 inches), it comes out to be 8.98 inches.

Also, m = 0.183Di2

Hence the mass flow rate = 209.562 lb/s

Using the maximum Mach number, M=0.75, the capture area for each inlet comes out to be:

AC = 785.86 inch2

Or

AC = 5.46ft2

11.3.2.6 BOUNDARY LAYER DIVERTER:


As an aircraft flies through the air under varying speeds and flight conditions, it can be faced
with an infinite amount of situations. Some of these, may involve conditions in which a low
energy turbulent layer is formed near the inlet of an engine which would cause and adverse effect
on the performance of the aircraft. In order to get rid of this turbulent layer, a boundary layer
diverter is used to make sure that the turbulent layer is either sufficiently far from the inlet or is
completely gotten rid of. Four different types of boundary layer diverters are commonly used:

1. Step diverter
2. Boundary layer bypass duct
3. Boundary layer suction
4. Channel type boundary layer diverter

All of these are applicable to the conventional aircrafts. Our aircraft is non-conventional stealthy
UCAV, having intake located upon the fuselage, near the nose, so it receives free stream, high
energy flow, without any significant boundary layer or energy loss. So, we are not using
boundary layer diverter.

Moreover, it has been analyzed through CFD and wind tunnel testing (as claimed in the report of
Group for aeronautical research and technology in Europe), boundary layer diverters do not give
any significant advantage in the type inlet of inlet that we are using. [8]

11.3.2.7 NOZZLE INTEGRATION:


Nozzles accelerate the available gas to subsonic, transonic, or supersonic velocities depending on
the power setting of the engine, their internal shape and the pressures at entry to, and exit from,
the nozzle.

Following nozzles are used commonly on typical aircraft:


27
1. Fixed convergent nozzle: It is commonly used in subsonic commercial turbojet and
turbofan engines.
2. Variable convergent nozzle: It is suitable for aircraft; whose fight range vary from high
subsonic to low supersonic.
3. Converging Iris: it is the improved version of variable convergent nozzle.
4. Translating Plug: It uses translating plug to vary the exit area of the nozzle. The plug
slides aft to decrease the exit area.
5. Ejector: It takes engine bypass air, that has been used to cool the afterburner, and eject it
to the exhaust air thus cooling the nozzle as well.
6. Converging-Diverging Ejector: It allows the variation of throat and exit area separately
for maximum engine performance throughout the flight envelop.
7. 2-D vectoring : It manipulate the direction of the thrust from its engine(s) in order
to control the attitude or angular velocity of the vehicle. It enables the aircraft to VTOL
or STOL. Moreover, it also enhances the turning performance of an aircraft during
maneuvers.
8. Single Expansion Ramp (SERN): It is a type of physical linear expansion nozzle where
the gas pressure transfers work only on one side. Traditional nozzles are axially
symmetric, and therefore surround the expanding gas. Linear nozzles are not axially
symmetric, but consist of a 2D configuration of two expansion ramps. It can also produce
a pitching moment depending on the throttling of the engine, thereby requiring more
control authority of the elevator and more complex control systems. It is normally used
on hypersonic aircrafts.

In our aircraft, none of the above nozzle is applicable, as it is a unique design, so it uses a very
different type of exhaust system to maintain its stealth characteristics and improve its stability. It
uses a 2-d V-shape exhaust nozzle that is buried in the fuselage, and produce thrust vectoring as
it is a primary mean of flight control.

In our aircraft, the engine air intake in the front part of the UCAV and the exhaust nozzle at the
rear are strongly curved in order to minimize backscattering and reections from engine parts.
Especially the exhaust air channel is bend in such a way that the high engine temperature at the
engine outlet is barely visible from the rear side of the vehicle in order to reduce the radar
detection.

To minimize infrared signature, hot parts have either to be shielded or to be cooled down. In
particular, the temperature of the exhaust plume of the engine must be lowered by mixing with
colder air. The hot exhaust air is guided by a long internal tubbing which follows the contour of
original curved channel separating the colder air coming from the bypass and the hot exhaust
gases. The mixing of the two flows take place internally. In order to reduce radar backscattering
an integration of a thrust-vectorising device is also preferred within the fuselage. [9]

28
Figure 11-11: 2-d, V shaped, thrust vectoring nozzle.(a) cross-sectional view.(b)external view.
(c) mechanical view. (d) integrated with engine [9] [10]

11.3.3 FUEL SYSTEM


Aircraft fuel system consist of fuel tanks, fuel lines, fuel pumps, vents and fuel management
control. Different types of fuel are available, depending on the type of aircraft and propulsion
system. For gas turbine engine, jet fuel is used. It is colorless to straw-colored in appearance and
is a mixture of a large number of different hydrocarbons. The range of their sizes (molecular
weights or carbon numbers) is defined by the requirements for the product, such as the freezing
or smoke point.
Jet fuels used in commercial aircraft are designated as JA, JA-1 and JB. For military aircrafts,
military jet fuel is used, that is called jet propellant (JP). Military organizations around the world
use a different classification system of JP numbers. Some are almost identical to their civilian
counterparts and differ only by the amounts of a few additives; Jet A-1 is similar to JP-8, Jet B is
similar to JP-4. Other military fuels are highly specialized products and are developed for very
specific applications.
Jet fuels are sometimes classified as kerosene or naphtha-type. Kerosene-type fuels include Jet
A, Jet A-1, JP-5 and JP-8. Naphtha-type jet fuels, sometimes referred to as "wide-cut" jet fuel,
include Jet B and JP-4. Following are the commonly used jet fuel in military aircraft:
o JP-4: it used to be the primary jet fuel for the USAF but was phased out in the 1990s
because of safety problems. A few air forces around the world still use it but there is very
little production.

29
o JP-5: it is a high flash point kerosene meeting the requirements of the U.S. Military
Specification MIL-PRF-5624S Grade JP-5
o JP-8: It is the military equivalent of Jet A-1 with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and
anti-icing additives; it meets the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-T-
83188D. It is the dominant military jet fuel grade for NATO air forces. [11]

Figure 11-12 : Aviation fuel specifications [5]


Our aircraft, will be using JP-8 FUEL, as it has better characteristics as compare to the other
fuels, and it is also projected to be use up till 2025.

Since WFuel = 1785.1509 lbs

The fuel volume can be calculated as:

Hence,

Fuel Volume = 266.4404 gallons = 35.6179 ft3

The storage of fuel is perhaps one of the most vital aspects of aircraft design as it dictates how
safe an aircraft is. Not only does and aircraft have to carry the fuel, it has to carry it in such a
manner that the CG of the aircraft does not change considerably during flight as the fuel gets
consumed. Fuel. There are three type of fuel tanks in aircraft to store the fuel:

1. Discrete tanks: These are separately fabricated and are mounted on aircraft by bolts and
straps.
2. Bladder tanks: They are made by stuffing a shaped rubber bag into a cavity in the
structure, as rubber bag is thick, they cause about 10% loss of available fuel volume.
3. Integral tanks: They are cavities within the airframe structure, that are sealed to form a
fuel tank.

30
Our aircraft, which is flying wing UCAV, will be using INTEGRAL FUEL TANKS, that are
placed within the wings. For safety measures, a rubber surface with a thickness of 2 mm has
been used to cover the inside of the fuel compartment which protects the aircraft in case a bullet
passes nearby surface.

11.4 RESULTS
All the various values evaluated in this section are given in the table below:

Table 11-7 Results of propulsion and fuel system integration

Engine Selected P&W F-100 PW 229A Turbofan

Thrust Required 2129.7282 Lb

Scaling Factor Used 0.2526

Parameters of the Scaled Engine

Weight 392.7091 lbs

Length 65.74 inches

Diameter 11.20 inches

SFCmaxT 1.95

Tcruise 5673.51 lbs

SFCcruise 0.93

Inlet

Intake Selected W shaped

Location Top mounted

Capture Area 5.46 ft2

Fuel Integration

Requirement 266.4404 Gallons

Storage Internal

31
11.5 CONCLUSION
In this chapter, selection and integration of propulsion and fuel system has taken placed. For
propulsion integration, dimensions of engine are calculated, using rubber engine concept and
type and location of inlet and nozzle have been decided. For fuel system, type of fuel has been
selected from different available jet propellant, and then integral tanks within the wings are
chosen for fuel storage.

32
12 CHAPTER 11 - LANDING GEAR AND SUBSYSTEMS

12.1 PREAMBLE
12.1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
To determine the landing gear parameters and to discuss the subsystem of the aircraft.

12.1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE


The aim of this chapter is to determine the type the landing gear used, their struts length, tire
sizing, weight and pressure on each tire, type of shock absorber, braking, wheel geometry and
retraction geometry and Subsystems, which includes hydraulics pneumatics system and avionics.

12.1.3 DELIVERABLES
1. Landing gear arrangement
2. Tire sizing main and nose landing gear
3. Tire pressure
4. Shock absorbers
5. Castoring-wheel geometry
6. Gear retraction geometry
7. Hydraulics
8. Pneumatic system
9. Emergency power system
10. Avionics

12.2 INTRODUCTION
12.2.1 LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

W: Weight

Vstall : Stall velocity

g : Gravitational acceleration

Ww : Weight per wheel

Dm : Diameter of main wheel

Wm : Width of main landing gear

DN: Diameter of nose wheel

WN :Width of nose landing wheel

33
K.E : Kinetic energy

12.2.2 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS

1. Landing Gear
Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either
takeoff or landing.
2. Struts
A rod or bar forming part of a framework and designed to resist compression.
3. Shock absorber
A shock absorber is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb
and damp shock impulses. It does this by converting the kinetic energy of the shock into
another form of energy which is then dissipated.
4. Kinetic energy
Energy that a body possesses by virtue of being in motion.
5. Brakes
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving
system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel to prevent its motion,
most often accomplished by means of friction.
6. Hydraulic system
A hydraulic drive system is a drive or transmission system that uses pressured hydraulics
fluid to power hydraulic machinery.

12.2.3 CHAPTER SUMMARY


This chapter deals with selection subsystems of aircraft. The subsystem landing gear focus on
the selection of the type of landing gear, calculations of the tire size and nose gear and its
positioning which is of critical importance to the landing and takeoff performance of the
aircraft. Then the chapter deals with the selection of shock absorber and its sizing. In the end
other subsystem of aircraft, pneumatic, hydraulics, avionics and auxiliary power system are
described.

34
12.2.4 PROCESS FLOW CHART

Landing
Subsystems Gears

Hydraulics

Shock Braking
Landing Gear
Pneumatic absorber Selection
system selection

Power
System

Castoring Gear
wheel Tire sizing retraction
Avionics
geometry geometry

Figure 12-1 FLow Chart of LAnding Gear

12.2.5 INPUT PARAMETERS

Table 12-1 Input values for Landing Gear Analysis

Parametre Values

Weight 15592 lb

V stall 245.7 ft/s

35
g 32.2 ft.s2

12.3 SELECTIONS AND CALCULATIONS


12.3.1 LANDING GEAR ARRANGEMENT

A landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and is often referred to as such.
For aircraft, the landing gear supports the craft when it is not flying, allowing it to take
off, land and usually to taxi without damage. Faster aircraft, such as ours usually have retractable
undercarriage, which folds away during flight to reduce air resistance or drag.
For our UCAV, a tricycle configuration of the landing has been selected which has two main
wheels aft of the C.G of the aircraft, and equidistantly to the sides of the fuselage while a nose
wheel which is directly in line with the reference line of the fuselage. This configuration ensures
that the aircraft is stable on the ground since the C.G lies ahead of the main landing gear and the
aircraft is able to land at a fairly high crab angle.

Figure 12-2 Tricycle Landing Gear

The general layout of the landing gear is given above, but the length of the landing gear needs to
be carefully estimated to ensure the trailing edges of wing does not come in contact with the
ground upon landing or takeoff at high angles of attack. The tip-back angle, strut travel angle
and overturn angle also needs to be catered for.

The tip-back angle is the maximum aircraft nose up angle at which the tail comes in contact
with the ground and in order to prevent the aircraft the aircraft from tipping back, the angle from
the vertical to the main landing gear must be greater than the tip-back angle. However, since
detailed analysis of the precise lengths of the components is required to estimate this angle, a
general 15 has been selected which is the average angle in modern aircraft and UCAV.

36
Figure 12-3 Tipback Angle

Over-turn angle is a measure of the aircrafts tendency to tip over during a high speed turn on
the ground i.e during taxiing. It is measured as the angle from the C.G to the main landing gear
when the main wheel is aligned with the nose wheel. For UCAV, this angle lies in the range of
65 to 52, hence a general value of 52 has been selected.

Figure 12-4 Over-turn Angle

Strut travel angle is the optimum angle required for the nose wheel to move upward or
downward if a bump is encountered during ground run. A general value of 7 has been selected
as the angle lies between the ranges of 7 to 10. A higher value would require the length of the
gear to be higher which can be an issue since it would increase the weight and space required to
accommodate the landing gear.

37
Figure 12-5 Strurt Travel Angle

12.3.1.1 TIRE SIZING


The size of the tires used on the UCAV for the ground run will be estimated in this section along
with the brakes used to slow the aircraft after landing or in case a takeoff run is abandoned.

12.3.1.2 MAIN LANDING GEAR


Typically the main landing gear accounts for 90% of the weight of the aircraft and since there are
two wheels in the main landing gear, the weight on each wheel WW is calculated as given below:


= . = .

The main wheel diameter and width can be calculated using the table featured on page 233
(Raymer, 1992), given below:

Table 12-2 Wheel Diameters

There is no category for UCAV so, Jet fighter category is selected,

Diameter of Main Wheel:

= ( )

38
A = 1.59

B = 0.302

= .

Width of the Main Wheel:

= ( )

A = 0.0980

B = 0.467

= .

A table featured on page 235 (Raymer,1992) summarizes the data of typical tires, using which
general estimates of tire parameters can be obtained. The data relevant to 24 x 5.5 can be used
for our UCAV since it carries roughly the same load as that required.

Table 12-3 Data of Typical Tires

12.3.1.3 NOSE LANDING GEAR


Generally, the nose landing wheel can be assumed to be 60 to 100% of the main landing wheels
however choosing a low value would result in a lot of weight being carried by the main wheels
which can be stressful if the landing weight is high and can also be dangerous for the nose wheel
in case a landing has to be made when the main landing gear isnt retractable.

Hence the size has been assumed to be 85% of the nose wheel

DN = 0.85 x 23.063
39
= .

WN = 0.85 x 6.128

= .

Similarly the table featured on page 235 (Raymer,1992) summarizes the data of typical tires,
using which general estimates of tire parameters can be obtained. The data relevant to 21x 7.25
can be used for our aircraft taking into account the load requirement.

Table 12-4 Data of Typical Tires - II

12.3.1.4 TIRE PRESSURE


Selecting the right amount of tire pressure is critical as it dictates the speed and ease with which
an aircraft lands.

The recommended tire pressure can be obtained using the table featured on page 237 (Raymer,
1992), given below:

40
Table 12-5 Tires Pressures

Using the table, the optimum tire pressure for our UCAV would be 200 psi.

12.3.2 BRAKING
UCAV brakes are modeled after the disk brakes used commonly in road transport and are located
inside the wheel. The brakes need to be able to absorb the kinetic energy of the UCAV in order
to reduce the amount of the work the aerodynamic brakes need to do to bring the UCAV to rest.
This kinetic energy can be calculated using the analytical expression given below:


. = ( ) ( )

Using the values already obtained earlier,

WLanding = 0.80 x 15592 =12473.6

VStall = 245.755

And g = 32.2 ft/s2. Therefore,

. = . lb ft/ s

12.3.3 SHOCK ABSORBERS


12.3.3.1 SHOCK ABSORBER TYPE
For our UCAV, the oleo pneumatic shock strut has been selected as it absorbs the shock well
during harsh landing and provides a smoothest ride during taxi runs.

41
Figure 12-6 Shock Absorber Type

The oleo shock strut uses a spring effect with the help of compressed air with a damping effect
using a piston that forces braking oil through a small orifice. Many oleos nowadays use a
metered orifice which has a variable size for maximum efficiency, however it has not been used
since this mechanism causes the weight to increase at the nose segment of the aircraft. A detailed
image of a oleo pneumatic shock strut is given below:

Figure 12-7 Oleo Shock Strut

42
12.3.3.2 STROKE DETERMINATION
The deflection of the shock absorbing unit depends on the vertical velocity with which the
aircraft comes in to land, the strength of the shock absorbing material and the lift available on the
wing after the aircraft touches down.


() ( )
. = ( )

For typical Ucav, VVertical = 10 ft/s

With g = 32.2 ft/s2

WLanding = 12473.6 hence,

. = . /

The kinetic energy absorbed by the strut is equal to the product of load and deflection if the
shock absorbers are perfectly efficient. However, normally the absorbed kinetic energy is
calculated using the following expression:

. =

= efficiency of the shock absorbers

L = Average total load during deflection

S = Stroke

The value of can be estimated using the table on page 241 (Raymer, 1992), which is given
below:

43
Table 12-6 Efficiencies Values

Using the table,

= .

The gear load factor can be obtained using the following table:

Table 12-7 Gear Load Factor

For an Air force fighter (UCAV is consider in this catogory),

= .

Using this,

= ( )

= 43657.6

The stroke can then be determined using the expression on page 243 (Raymer,1992):

44
( ) ( )
=

T = 0.47 (As given in the table featured on page 242 (Raymer,1992))

Tire Stroke ST with rolling radius approximately two thirds of the tire radius:

= 2 = 3.9985 inch = 0.3332 ft

Hence, the stroke is:

= . (Main Gear)

(1 inch has been added to the stroke length as a safety measure)



ST nose = = 0.0833ft
2

The nose wheel stroke is kept slightly larger than the main wheels in order to provide a smooth
ride, hence:

= . (Nose Gear)

Hence, the kinetic energy absorbed by the landing gear is:

. = 12541.3266 lb ft/s

Since most of the kinetic energy is absorbed by the main gear, the nose gear has been neglected
in this calculation.

12.3.3.3 OLEO SIZING


Since the size of the stroke has already been determined, the critical details of the oleo strut can
now be estimated. In most UCAV, the static position is approximately 66% of the distance
between the fully extended to fully compressed position this will be assumed for our aircraft as
well. The total length of the oleo, including the fixed portion and stroke is approximately 2.5
times the stroke.

= .

= . ( )

= . ( )

The oleo diameter can be found using the load carried by the oleo or else the weight on each
wheel that is felt by the oleo. This value has been obtained earlier as:

45
= = . ( )

= . ( )

The oleo diameter is then given by:

.
= . ( )

The internal pressure, P, of the oleo is 1800 psi (259,200 lb/ft2).

Hence,

= . = . ( )

= . = . (

A detailed image of the oleo pneumatic shock strut is given below:

Figure 12-8 Oleo Pneumatic Strut

46
12.3.4 CASTORING-WHEEL GEOMETRY
In order to steer an aircraft on the ground a castoring-wheel or a turning wheel must be designed
into the system. For our aircraft the nose wheel has been accompanied with a castoring system
since it provides efficient turning unlike the unusual turning mechanism of the main wheels.

A castoring wheel can however provide instability on the ground in the form of a wheel
shimmy in which the wheel moves rapidly from side to side. In order to prevent this from
happening, a rake angle and trail need to be selected carefully.

Figure 12-9 Castoring wheel geometry [5]

Modern aircraft have a specified optimum range for both the steerable positive rake angle and
the trail. While most western fighter aircraft have a positive rake angle in the ranges of 12 - 14,
Russian designers prefer larger rake angles such as 13 - 17 to account for the snow often
experienced on the tarmac in that region.

Thus,

Nose Wheel:

And as per page 247 (Raymer, 1992):

= % =

Main Wheels:

Rake angle is 0 in order to ensure that no structural difficulties are experienced during landing.
47
12.3.5 GEAR RETRACTION GEOMETRY:
Landing of an aircraft are the components that are employed only during takeoff and landing.
During other flight regimes, they have no useful function, but they have certain disadvantages, as
they increase the parasite drag of aircraft, and hence increase the fuel consumption. They also
increase the Radar signature of an aircraft. So, it will be desirable to retract them in air and
employ them during landing and take-off. The selection of location for retraction of landing
gears, is very critical. Following are the possible options for location of retraction:

1. In wing
2. In fuselage
3. In wing fuselage junction
4. In nacelle
5. Wing podded
6. Fuselage podded

Our aircraft has a unique shape, with lambda wings and trapezoidal fuselage, having more
volume than the conventional fuselage. So, wings are retracted completely INTO THE
FUSELAGE, and after their retraction, aircraft has flat clean bottom.

Figure 12-10 Retraction of landing gear of Neuron UCAV [12]

12.3.6 SUBSYSTEMS
12.3.6.1 HYDRAULIC
In modern aircraft, some of the places that hydraulics come into play include primary flight
controls, flap/slat drives, landing gear, nose wheel steering, thrust reversers, spoilers, rudders,
cargo doors, emergency hydraulic-driven electrical generators, weapons-bay doors, and
hydraulic-motor-driven-fan heat exchangers. Factors that must be addressed on an aircraft
include pressure conditions (both internal and ambient), temperature extremes, weight, speed,

48
materials, reliability, fluid compatibility, leaks, cost, noise, and redundancy. The fluids used in
hydraulic in aerospace industry are:

1. MIL-H-5606: It is Used on business jets as well as military aircraft, it is highly


flammable.
2. MIL-H-8328: It is used by some air force and almost all Naval aircrafts. It is less
flammable than 5606, but much more viscous at low temperature. The lower temperature
limit of MIL-H-83282 is considered 40 F.
3. MIL-H-87257: This newest fluid is used in C135, E3, and U2 aircraft; it is less
flammable than 5606 (similar to 83282) but its viscosity at low temperatures allows use
down to 65 F.
4. Skydrol and Hyjet: These fluids are used on commercial aircraft, and are less flammable
than the military fluids described above. Maximum temperature limit is 160 F. [13]

Hydraulic fluid is held in a holding tank until it is required, when needed, the fluid enters a
piston to provide pressure force in order to move or control a surface.

Figure 12-11 Hydraulic system [5]

12.3.6.2 PNEUMATIC SYSTEM:


Pneumatic systems use compressed air as a working fluid and it acts much like the hydraulic
systems. A pneumatic system uses the bled air from the engine compressors, which is then
cooled through heat exchangers using outside cooled air. This cooled air is taken from flush
inlet, located inside the inlet duct, at fuselage or in front of boundary layer inverter. This cooled
compressor air is then used for pressurization, environmental control and anti-icing, and avionics
cooling.

Pneumatic system has the following significant advantages:

1. It is light in weight, as it does not require any return line, as in the case of hydraulic
system.

49
2. It has no fire hazard associated with it.
3. Their design is comparatively simpler.
4. They have unlimited supply of air, which can be pumped from anywhere around.

But still, pneumatic system cannot replace the hydraulics, due to the following, reasons:

1. Air has less viscosity as compare to the liquids, so it cannot transfer the forces as
effectively as a liquid does. It dampens the forces.
2. It must be compressed to a large degree to have enough energy and this would require
large air tanks and actuators with very high working pressures. This not very practical on
small aircraft. [14]

Apart from the above mentioned applications, UAVS use ambient air in a very interesting way to
increase their endurance (without any increment in power requirement), by soaring like birds
using Flush air data sensing. In this method, aircraft takes advantage of:

1. Thermal Soaring: to utilizes the upward moving sources of air to gain altitude.
2. Static Soaring: to utilize upward moving currents of warm air to maintain altitude.
3. Dynamic Soaring: to exploit the spatial wind gradients occurring either at the surface or
at altitude using carefully controlled climbs into the wind and dives with the tailwind to
gain or maintain energy.

For this purpose, birds have specialized sensory organs that function similar to the pitot tubes.
They have tubular nostrils on the beak to measure total pressure while sensory glands in the
mouth to measure static pressure, and thus fly on the basis of pressure difference. Same
technique is used in UAVs, using air data sensing systems, which consist of pressure ports or
probes to measure dynamic and static pressure. Vanes may also be used to measure angle of
attack and angle of sideslip. These techniques have been successfully used on manned aircraft or
comparatively sized UAVs; however, these are typically expensive and can add signicant
weight and drag penalties, causing a noticeable performance degradation. But, they can be
implemented on UAVs, using readily available pressure sensors and microcontrollers to sense
airspeed, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip and allow soaring to improve performance. [15]

50
Figure 12-12 Soring organ in birds [15]

This technique will also be incorporated in our designed UCAV.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM:

An electrical system of the aircraft is responsible of providing electrical power to all the systems
and subsystems of the aircraft such as the fuel mechanism, hydraulics, communication systems
(amongst pilots and with the ground), cockpit functions etc. Perhaps the most important function
is its operation of transforming rectifiers (TRs) which convert the alternating current (AC)
produced by the aircraft generators to direct current (DC). This process is vital for the operation
of the aircraft as all the instruments require DC to function. [5]

12.3.6.3 AUXILLARY/ EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM


Usually, an aircraft operates by using its control surfaces to steer the aircraft which is operational
due to the hydraulic pumps. In case the pumps stop functioning, a completely separate
emergency system needs to be included to the aircraft that can power it in case the main engines
fail too. Three major sources of emergency power are:

1. Ram Air Turbine (RAT): It is a wind mill extended into the slipstream, or a small duct
can open to admit air into the turbine.
2. Monopropellant Emergency Unit (MEU): It uses monopropellant fuel to drive the
turbine. They use hydrazine as a fuel, which is dangerous, but does not require any inlet
duct.
3. Jet fuel EPU: It is the small jet engine, that drive the turbine to produce emergency
power. It neither requires dangerous fuel nor any inlet duct.

51
Another novel source of emergency power are fuel cells. A fuel cell is a device that transforms
chemical energy from a fuel, such as hydrogen, into electricity through a chemical reaction with
oxygen or another oxidizing agent. By applying such a cold combustion process, the only
waste is water, heat and oxygen-depleted air which would contribute to reductions in emissions
and noise, thus improve the stealth characteristics. Water produced from this process also can be
used by the aircrafts water and waste systems, reducing the amount of water an aircraft would
need on board. This would contribute to reduced weight, which could further decrease fuel
consumption and emissions. The two of the most promising fuel cells that can be used in aviation
are:

1. Proton exchange membrane (PEM)


2. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)

Several technical challenges remain prior to incorporating fuel cells as power sources in
commercial and military aircraft, but they are used as main power source in some of the UAVs.
As our aircraft is a future UCAV, it has potential to use fuel cells as APU. [16] [17]

12.3.6.4 AVIONICS
The avionics system of the aircraft comprises of all the equipment related to the radios, flight
instruments, navigational aids, flight control computers, radars and other gadgetry such as IR
sensors. Since this system is comprised of a number of components, the weight must be carefully
estimated.
This can be done using the table on page 255 (Raymer,1992) featured below:

Figure 12-13 Avionics weight to Empty weight ratio [5]

As our aircraft comes in the category of jet fighters, and is UCAV, so it has major contribution of
avionics in its total weight, we take

52

= .

And as estimated earlier,

= 10807.0522 lbs.

Hence,

= . .

Thus the 8% of empty weight is the avionics. The proportion can be greater as, we are using the
data for conventional fighter for UCAV, which may give rise to the error.

In UCAVS, avionics is more important than the manned aircraft. The major component of
avionics in the airframe of UCAV are:

1. Communication system
2. Navigation system
3. Monitoring system
4. Aircraft flight control system
5. Collision avoidance system
6. Black boxes
7. Weather System
8. Aircraft management system

For a specific mission avionic systems are:

1. Military communication
2. RADAR
3. Electro-optics
4. ESM/DAS
5. Aircraft networks

The major components of avionics of a UCAV are

1. Engine controlling computers


2. Electrical power management and distribution unit
3. Modular inertial navigation system
4. Interface computers
5. Payload management computers. [18]

53
12.4 RESULTS
Table 12-8 Results of landing gear

Parametres Results

Landing gear arrangement Tricycle landing gear

Main Landing Gear = 23.063

= 6.1286

Nose landing gear 19.6035

= 5.

Tire pressure 200psi

. 11.6979 106 lb ft/ s

Shock absorbers Oleo Pneumatic Shock

12.5 CONCLUSION
In this chapter, selection and calculation of landing gear and subsystem has been described. For
landing gear, dimension and geometry, Weight and pressure on each tire are determined. Kinetic
energy absorbed during braking and shocks, Shock absorber type and its dimensions are also
determined. Subsystems which include hydraulic, pneumatic system, auxiliary power system and
avionics are also described for our UCAV.

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