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Escuela Profesional de

Ingeniera Civil

TEMA: NUMEROS REALES Y


GEMETRIA ANALITICA

Curso : CALCULO VECTORIAL


Docente : ING. WILLIAMS CHAMOLI FALCON
Alumno : WALTER MOISES, GOMEZ CHACON
Ao : 2016
Ciclo :I

HUNUCO PER 2016


Nmeros Reales

1-. Si + > 0, 1+
+ 1+ 1+

+ => + + 2 + 0
+ 2 + + + 2 + + + +
( + 2 + )( + 1) ( + 1)( + 1)

( + 1)( + 1)( + 1) ( + 1)( + 1)( + 1)
+ 2 + + + +
=>
( + 1)( + 1) + 1 ( + 1)( + 1) +1
3 2 5 2 > 0 => (3 + 1)( 2) > 0

+
2-. Si > > 0 > 0, +
>

Demostracin
Como > > 0 => . > 0 (1)
> > 0 => . > . . (2)
En (2) sumando . > 0 en ambos lados.
. + . > . + .
+
( + ) > ( + ), >
+

3.- > 0, > 0, 2 3 :


3
>1
3 4

(2 3)2 > 0 => 42 12 + 9 2 > 0 => 4 2 + 9 2 > 12
42 + 9 2 12
12 : >
12 12
3 3
+ > 1 => >1
3 4 3 4

4-. + = 2 4 + 4 2

( )2 0 => 2 + 2 2 ( + )2 = 4 => 2 + 2 = 4 2
4 2 2 => 1
2 + 2 2 => (2 + 2 )2 42 2 => 4 + 4 42 2 22 2
4 + 4 22 2 1 4 + 4 2

5-. . 0 = 0

1. . 0 = . 0 + 0

2. . 0 = . 0 + ( + ())

3. . 0 = (. 0 + ) + ()
4. . 0 = (. 0 + . 1) + ()
5. . 0 = (0 + 1) + ()
6. . 0 = . 1 + ()
7. . 0 = + ()
8. . 0 = 0


1)
3 5 4
+ 5( + 1)4 ( + 2) 2 7 + 12 8
6 0
+ 7( 8)3 ( 3 8)( 2 14 + 48)
:
8 0 + 7 0 > 8 > 7. =< 7; 8]
[ = 7 ]
3 5
+ 5( + 1)4 ( + 2) ( 4)( 3)
0
( 8)4 ( 2 + 2 + 4)( 2)( 6)
( + 5)( + 1)4 ( + 2)( 4)( 3)
<=> 0
( 2)( 8)4 [( + 1)2 + 3]( 6)
( + 5)( + 2)( 4)( 3)
> 0
( 6)( 2)
: 5, 2,2,3,4,6
. = [5; 2] [1] < 2; 3] [4; 6 >

3
2 1 (1)2 ( 3 13+12)
2) (+4)3 ( 3 +8 2 +448)
0

3
2 1 2 1, ( + 4)3
( + 4), :
( 2 1)( 1)2 [( 1)( + 4)( 3)]
0
( + 4)[( 2)( + 6)( + 4)]
( + 1)( 1)4 ( 3)
0, 4
( + 4)( 2)( + 6)
: 6, 4, 1,2,3
< 6; 4 > [1; 2 > [3, > = . .

)
3
4 ( 2)2 ( 2 13 + 12)
0
( + 4)3 ( 3 + 8 2 + 4 + 48)
( 2 4)( 2)2 ( 12)( + 1)
0
( + 4)( + 4)( 2)( + 6)
( + 4)( 4)( 2)( 12)( 1)( + 2)
0
( + 4)( + 4)( 2)( + 6)
( 4)( 12)( 1)( + 2)
0
( + 4)( + 6)
: 6, 4, 2,1,4,12
. = < ; 6] [4; 2] [1; 4] [12; + >

)
( 2 + 3)11 ( + 6)3 ( 4 + 5)5 ( 3)4
0
( 1)2 ( + 3)3 ( 3)3
:
( 2 3)( + 6)[( 2)2 + 1]( 3)4
0
( 1)2 ( + 3)( 3)
[( 2)2 + 1] > 0
( 3)4 > 0 {3} => 3
( 1)2 > 0 {1} => 1
( 2 + 3) > 0 .
( + 6)
0
( + 3)( + 3)
: 1, 3,3

. = < ; 6] < 3; 1 >< 1; 3 >

)
2 2
( 4)
2 + 4

2 2
0
2 + 4

. 2 2: 2 2 0; ( 2)( + 1) 0
=> < ; 1] [2; + > (1)

: + 4 + 4 0; 4
=> [4; + > (2)
(1)(2) [4; 1] [2; + >

2 2 2 0 2 + 4 > 0 2 2 2 0 2 + 4
<0

2 2 2 + 4 < 2 2 2 2 + 4 > 2
2 2 4 +4<4 2 2 4 +4 >4
( 3)( + 2) 0 <0 ( 3)( + 2) 0 >0
< ; 2][3; + > < ; 0 > [2; 3] < 0; + >
[4; 2] [2; 3]
4 2 23
8 4 6 2 4 1

. = { [4; 2] [2; 3]}

1) .

. : (2,1), (4,7) (6, 3)



1
= 1, = , = 5
2
:
1
= 1, = 2, =
5
, (1), :


+ 3 = 1( 6) <=> + 3 = 0


7 = 2( + 2) <=> 2 1 = 0
1

1 = ( + 2) <=> 5 + 7 = 0
5
4 5
( + 3 = 0) (2 1 = 0) = ( , ).
3 3
2) .

. : (2; 1), (4; 7)(6; 3)


: (1; 4), (2; 1)(5; 2)
(3), :
21
1 =
7 + 9 = 0
( + 2) <=>
5+2
7+1

7 = ( 4) <=> 4 9 = 0
42
4+3
+ 3 =
7 + 5 27 = 0
( 6) <=>
16
8 5
: ( 7 + 9 = 0) (4 9 = 0) = ( ; )
3 3

1 + 2 + 3 1 + 2 + 3
( , )
3 3
2 + 4 + 6 1 + 7 3 8 5
( , ) > ( , ).
3 3 3 3

3) 3.

(2, 5), .



. .

5 2
=3, = = =
3 3

,
2 5
: 3 + 3=0
3
4) (4,2), (1,5) (2, 1).
.


52

= 1+4 = 1




+1 =0
+ 1 = ( 2) <=>

= 1 < 0 = 1 + 1 = 2
1 1 1
+ =0
2 2 2

1 5
=
= 2
2+1

1
2 + 8 = 0
: 2 = ( + 4) <=>
2

= 8 > 0 = 2 + 2 = 1 + 4 = 5
1 2 8
+ =0
5 5 5
1 2 1

: = =
2+4 2
: 5 = 2( + 1) <=>
2 + 7 = 0

= 7 > 0 = 2 + 2 = 4 + 1 = 5
2 1 7
: + =0
5 5 5

5) (9,5)

(1, 5) = 210.
.

5 = ( 9) > : + 5 9 = 0 (1)

| + 5 + 5 9|
= (, ) 210 =
2 + 1

=> 22 + 1 = 10| 1| 32 10 + 3 = 0

<=> 1 = 3 2 = 2

(1)

1 : 3 22 = 0 2 : 3 + 6 = 0


1) (3,3) (1,4)
: 3 2 23 = 0. .
. (, ) 3 2 23 = 0 ( 1)
,
| = |
, : | |

( + 3)2 + ( 3)2 = ( 1)2 + ( 4)2


: 8 + 2 + 1 = 0 (2)
(1) (2), , : = 2
17
=
2

2
| = (2 + 3)2 + (172 3) = 6294
= |

( 2)2 + ( + 172)2 = 6294


2) 1 : 9 + 2 + 13 = 0, 2 : 3
+8 47 = 0 3 : = 0. .
. :
1 2 = (3,7), 2 3 = (5,4)

1 3 = (1, 2). (, )
, :
| = |
| | ( + 3)2 + ( 7)2
= ( 5)2 + ( 4)2
: 16 16 + 17 = 0
| = |
| | ( + 5)2 + ( 4)2
= ( + 1)2 + ( + 2)2
: +3=0
(1) (2) : = 122 ,
= 6522
| = (122 + 1)2 + (6522 + 2)2 = 620242
= |
, :
2
( 122)2 + ( 6522) = 6205242

3) ( 2)2 + ( 3)2 = 5.
(3,3)
. : (2,3)
(3,3)

3 = ( 3) : + 3 3 = 0
|2 3 + 3 3|
= |(, 1)| 5 =
2 + 1
: 5(2 + 1) = |5| 42 =1<=> 12

:
1 : 2 + 3 = 0 2 : + 2 9 = 0
4) : 6 + 7
16 = 0 1 : 8 + 15 + 7
= 0 2 : 3 4 18 = 0.
. (, ) => 6 + 7 16 = 0
= |(, 1 )| = |(, 2 )|
|8+15+7| |3418|
=> =
64+225 9+16

: 5|8 + 15 + 7| = 17|3 4 18|


=> (40 + 75 + 35 = 51 + 68 306)
(40 + 75 + 35 = 51 + 68 + 306)

<=> 13 31 = 0 91 + 7 271 = 0
: (6 + 7 16 = 0) ( 13 31 = 0)
= 1 , (5: 2)
(6 + 7 16 = 0) (91 + 7 271 = 0)
2
= 2 (3; )
7
|3(5) 4(2) 18|
: 1 = |(1 ; 1 )| = =1
5
2
|3(3)4( )18| 11
7
2 = |(2 ; 2 )| = 5
= 7

, :

2 2
2 2 1212
1 = ( 5) + ( + 2) = 1 2 = ( 3) + ( + ) =
7 49

5) (7, 5) :
4 = 0 (3, 1)
=> = 1, (, )
. :
+1
<=> 3
= 1 <=> + 2 = 0 (1)

= |
= || | => ( 3)2 + ( + 1)2 = ( 7)2 + ( + 5)2
: 8
=0 (2)

(1)(2): = 5 = 3

| = (5 3)2 + (3 + 1)2 = 8
= |

, :

: ( 5)2 + ( + 3)2 = 8

1) (4, 1)
: 2 + 16 = 0 .

. = (, ),

, 2 = 16 => 4 = 16 > = 4
6.1, (0, 4)
, : 4 = 0

: = ||

=> = (4 0)2 + (1 + 4)2 = 5

(, ) = |1 4| = 5

= (, ),
.

: 1 = 0 : 2 + 2 = 9
. (, )
:

= =>
+ = 3 + |(, )|

2 + 2 = 3 + | 1|

:
) > 1 => | 1| = 1 =
> 2 + 2 = + 2

, : 2 4
4=0
) < 1 => | 1| = ( 1) =
> 2 + 2 = 4
, 1 : 2 + 8 16 = 0
.
)
.
.

. en efecto, sea la parbola : 2 = 4


,

, (1 , 1 ) , : 1 = 2( + 1 ) (1)
2
: =
1

(, 0)
1
1 : = ( )
2

(1) :
(1 )2
( ) = 2( + 1 ) > (1 2 + 42 )
2
= (1 2 41 )

1 (1 , 1 ) => 1 2 = 41 ; , (1 2 + 42 ) = (0) = 0
1 2 + 42 0 => = 0,
. , ( 1 )
.

) , ,
,
, .

. ,
(1 , 1 )
1 = 2( + 1 ) ()

= 0 => 2( + 1 ) = 0 > = 1
(1 , 0) (1 , 0),

=
=>
=
+
= 2 (1)

: = | 1 |
2
, = = 2
=> (2)
1
(1) (2) :
+
= 2(
+ ) =>
= 2(
+ ) =


, || = ||
|| = || = ||

5)
.
. , : 2 = 4
(, 0)
= = 2,
: (, 2) (1 2)
,
:
2 = 2( + ) > 1 : = + => 1 = 1
2 = 2( + ) > 2 : = => 2 = 1
1 . 2 = 1,
.

1) : 2 + 2 + 4 + 4 8 = 0,
.
.
.

. : ( + 2)2 + ( + 2)2 = 16 (2, 2)


1. (1 , 1 ) (1 , 2) .
(, )
| = |
| |

2. :
12
1 = , = 1 = 2 + 2
2

3. (1 , 1 ) (1 + 2)2 + (1 + 2)2 = 6

( + 2)2 + (2 + 2 + 2)2 = 16 ( + 2)2 + 4( + 2)2 = 16

(2, 2)
.

2) 2 2 + 2 2 = 2 2
1 2 . ;
1
2 .

. , ,
.
1 :
1 = 1
2 : 2 = 2


1 +
2 = 2 (1 + 2 ) (1)
,
1 = 2 , , (1), :
1 +
2
= 2

3) , (0,0)
90 .
8
2 2
Solucin. Forma de la ecuacin de la elipse, : + 2 = 1 (1)
2

( ) = 45
2
,
= 2 = (2)

+ 5
2 = 2 2 2 + 2 = 0 =
2
2
2
(2): = (5 1)
2
2
= 4 16 = (5 1) 2 = 8(5 + 1)
2
, (1), :
2 2
: + =1
8(5 + 1) 16

4) Que ngulo debe formar la cuerda focal de una elipse, con el eje de esta, para
que su longitud sea igual a n veces la del lado recto?
. : 2 2 + 2 2 = 2 2 , (, 0).
: = ( ) =
:
2 2 + 2 ( ) = 2 2
(2 2 + 2 ) 2 22 2 + 2 2 2 2 2 = 0
:
22 2
1 + 2 =
2 2 + 2
1 =
1 = 1 1 =
2 = + 2
1 + 2 =
1 2 = 2 (1 + 2 )
22 2 2 2
, 2 (
1 2 = ) = ( )
2 2 + 2

2 2
= = 2
( 1)

5) : 4 2 + 9 2 = 72 (3,6)
(0,8).

. ( )

2 2
. : + = 1 => 2 = 18 2 = 8
18 8


1 2 :

86 2
= = =
03 3

, .
2 4
= 2 2 + 2 => = 18 ( ) + 8
3 9
: 1 : 2 + 3 12 = 0 2 : 2 + 3 + 12 = 0
: 1 = 1 (3,2) 2 = 2 (3,2)

(1 ) = 6 2 (2 ) = 18 2

) ,
, ,
. .

. 36
2 2
= 1 (1)
4 9
: = 2 = 3, 2 = 2 + 2 = 13 => = 13
) (, 0) => 1 (2,0) 2 (2,0)
) : (, 0) => 1 (13, ) 2 (13, 0)
) :
2 = 4, 2 = 6
13
) : = => = ( > 1)
2
2 2
) : = => = 9

) ,
, ,
. .
=
2 2
. : = 1 => = 3 = 2
9 4
2 = 2 + 2 = 13 => = 13
): (, 0) => 1 (3,0) 2 (3,0)
): (, 0) => 1 (0, 13) 2 (13, 0)
) : 2 = 6
: 2 = 4
13
): = => =
3
2 2 8
) : = =
3
) ,
, ,
. .
=
2 2
. : = 1 => = 2 = 3
4 9

2 = 2 + 2 = 13 => = 13

a)Vrtices: V(0, c) => V1 (0,2) y V2 (0, 2)

b)Focos: F(0, a) => F1 (0, 13) 2 (0, 13)

) : 2 = 4

: 2 = 6

13
): = => =
2

2b2
e)Longitud de cada lado recto: LR = =9
a

) =

.
=
< 0,
ll lV .
,

. ,
=
=> ( = ) ( = 8) =
1 (22, 22) 2 (22, 22)

2 2
= => 8 = , : = 4
2 2

2 = 2 + 2 = 22 = 31 => = 42

+ =
= ;

( 2 + 2 = 32) ( = ) = 1 (4,4) 2 (4, 4)

)

.

. : 2 2 = 2
1 |2 = (1 )(2 )
: |

1 | = 1 2 + 1 2 => |
| 1 |2 = 1 2 + 1 2 (1)

2
1 (1 , 1 ) => 1 2 1 2 = 2 => 1 2 = 1 2

1 |2 = 21 2 2
, (1): | (2)
1

1 = |1 | 2 = |1 + | => 1 2 = 2 1 2 2

, = 2 ()

(1 )(2 ) = 21 2 1 (3)
1 |2 = (1 )(2 )
(2) (3) : |